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THE ROYAL VISIT TO INDIA 
191 1-1912 



MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited 

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA 
MELBOURNE 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO 
DALLAS • SAN FRANCISCO 

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd. 

TORONTO 




THE KING-EMPEROR AND THE OUEEN-EMPRESS. 



Frontispiece. 



NARRATIVE 



OF THE 



VISIT TO INDIA 

OF 

THEIR MAJESTIES 
KING GEORGE V. and QUEEN MARY 

AND OF 

THE CORONATION DURBAR HELD AT DELHI 
12th DECEMBER lyil 



BY 

The Hon. JOHN FORTESCUE 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON 

1912 



COPYRIGHT 



DEDICATED 

(by gracious permission) 
TO 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS 
THE PRINCE OF WALES 



ye f-'^-^i '^ i^A 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



FACE I'AOE 



I. The King-Emperor and the Queen-Empress Frontispiece 



2. The Oueen and her Ladies .... 

3. Watching a Spar-and-Pillow Fight 

4. A Spar-and-Pillow Fight .... 

5. Watching the Sports on H.M.S. Medina 

6. The Reception at Bombay .... 

7. The King-Emperor's Camp, Delhi 

8. The Arrival at Selimgarh Bastion 

9. The Durbar — The Arena and Spectators' Mound 

from the Top of the Stand . 

10. The Durbar — Distant View of the Royal Pavilion 

and the Spectators' Mound . 

11. The Maharaja of Bikaner and Their Imperial 

Majesties' Pages ..... 

12. The Shamiana — Delhi Durbar ... 

13. The King-Emperor's Chobdars ... 

14. H.H. The Begum of Bhopal leaving the Roya 

Reception Tent ..... 

15. The Durbar — The Royal Pavilion 



85 
104 
105 
106 
108 
116 
117 

H3 

147 
151 

152 

155 
158 



ILLUSTRATIONS 









FACE PAGE 


1 6. 


Their Majesties at the National Festival 




• 174 


17- 


Their Majesties at the National Festival 




^75 


i8. 


The Review at Delhi .... 




I'jb 


19. 


An Indian Camel Corps 




177 


20. 


The Maharaja of Bikaner, and Sir Pratap 


Singh 


185 


21. 


The Royal Party in Nipal . 




189 


22. 


A close Shot by the King . 




193 


23- 


The King, and the Spoil of his Rifle . 




197 


24. 


A good Bag in Nipal .... 




198 


25. 


In the Palace of Bundi 




220 


26. 


In the Palace of Bundi 




222 


27. 


The Procession into Calcutta — The 


Queen - 






Empress in her Carriage 




231 


28. 


An Indian Greeting to Their Majesties 




240 


29. 


Arabs alongside at Port Sudan 




246 


30- 


Arab Tribes at Sinkat .... 




248 


31- 


The Return to London 

PLAN 




261 


Du 


rbar, Delhi, 12th December 191 1 . 


At end oj 


" Volume 



vni 



/I 



I 

India. What does this name signify to ninety- 
nine out of a hundred of us beyond a triangle, 
coloured red, upon the map of Asia ? We are 
told that the said triangle measures nineteen 
hundred miles in length from north to south, and 
about the same in breadth, at its widest point, 
from east to west ; and that it contains an area 
rather larger than that of Europe west of the 
Vistula. The statement conveys little to us. 
We accept it as undoubtedly true, and, if we 
look at a map of India superimposed upon one 
of Europe on the same scale, we are perhaps a 
little staggered. But we in our little island are 
accustomed to reckon by acres, not by thousands 
of square miles ; and, strive as we may against 
the tendency, we find ourselves always attempt- 
ing to apply our own puny standards to things 
Asiatic. We hear of great rivers, and instinctively 
recall the Thames at London Bridge, forgetting 
that a great Indian river in flood would fill the 
space from Westminster Abbey to the Crystal 
Palace. We are told of mighty mountains, and 
commit to memory the bald fact that some of 

I B 



THE VASTNESS OF INDIA 

them soar to twice the height of Mont Blanc ; 
we are aware, perhaps, that they form a barrier 
practically impassable by man along the immense 
northern frontier of India ; possibly we may 
even realise with awe that they make the vast 
reservoir of water, in the form of snow, which 
feeds the gigantic rivers already mentioned. So 
much we may gather, with moderate intelligence, 
from our maps. But there is one thing more, 
the most important thing of all, and of all the 
most impossible to grasp. This red-coloured 
triangle contains three hundred and twenty 
million people, six times the population ot 
France, thrice the population of the United 
States, one-fifth, as it is reckoned, of the men, 
women and children living upon this planet. 

No one man has ever seen, nor will ever see, 
the hundredth part of them. No one man has 
ever seen, nor will ever see, in spite of motor 
cars and aeroplanes and railways, one hundredth 
of the eighteen hundred thousand square miles 
over which they are spread. No one man has 
ever visited, nor will ever visit, all the cities, 
living and dead, which they have builded. No 
one man has ever mastered, nor will ever master, 
all the languages which they speak. More than 
this, though for centuries men of mighty and 
commanding genius strove from time to time to 
bring the whole of India under their sole sway 
and sovereignty, not one of them succeeded ; 
and it was only in the nineteenth century that 
the task was at last accomplished by the agents 



THE GREATNESS OF INDIA 

of an alien Queen, the first ruler in Indian 
history who looked upon all races in India as 
her children, the great and good Queen Victoria. 
We English take this thoughtlessly as a 
matter of course ; yet surely it is one of the 
strangest circumstances recorded in history. 
Here is a country which, while we were sunk 
in barbarism, had worked out a great civilisation 
and a very remarkable scheme of social organisa- 
tion for itself; had produced great engineers, 
great astronomers, great thinkers, great artists, 
great poets, great soldiers and great adminis- 
trators ; and has always abounded, as it still 
abounds, in men of signal ability and exceptional 
valour. Could we teach her anything in the 
matter of commerce ? On the contrary, bills ot 
exchange have been in use in India for countless 
centuries ; and her credit, based on the thrift of 
the peasantry, is stabler than that of any Western 
race, even than that of the French. Could we, 
except by keeping the peace — a very important 
exception — better the social relations of man 
with man ? We may think so ; and yet let us 
take the most insoluble of the problems that for 
centuries has confronted ourselves, the question 
of the relief of the poor. India has solved it. 
There is not, nor has ever been, a poor law 
in India, for there is no need of one. The 
difficulties which demand a complicated, yet 
always imperfect and unsatisfactory mechanism 
of State in the West, are not so much vanquished 
as quietly and imperceptibly suppressed by the 

3 



THE PEOPLE OF INDIA 

organisation of the village and the caste in the 
East. Could we offer higher ideals of citizenship, 
or stronger bonds of civil obligation ? The 
native of India fulfils far more readily than 
ourselves the duty v^hich w^e have laid down as 
owing to a neighbour. He is imperfect, as are 
all other men, yet he loves, honours and succours 
his father and mother ; he honours and obeys the 
King and those that are set in authority under 
him ; he orders himself lowly and reverently to 
all his betters ; he learns and labours truly to 
get his own living ; and he has mastered, better 
than the Western races, the crowning lesson — 
whatsoever his station is, therewith to be content. 
It is useless to broach to him in his natural state 
the theory, with the conclusions which follow 
upon it, that all men are equal. He knows that 
they are not, and is content to accept the con- 
sequences. In time of famine he will lie dying 
slowly, hard by the bountiful table spread for 
the British Commissioner, without envy and 
without complaint. It is not that he knows or 
cares that the said Commissioner, for all that he 
eats so well, is killing himself in the effort to 
save starving men from death. To the Indian it 
is the order of a higher power that a few shall 
be full while many shall fast, and he bows him- 
self before it without a murmur. We call such 
resignation fatalism. It makes us impatient 
that men should submit tamely to eternal in- 
justice. As a younger nation, we — or at any 
rate some of us — are still confident that we can 



THE ROMANCE OF INDIA 

set the whole world right ; and we have accepted 
the phrase divine discontent to dignify our aspira- 
tions. But the native of India, untainted by 
European thought, sees nothing divine in dashing 
himself against the decree of the Most High. 
He has the courage to face inexorable fact, and 
sets little store by this transitory life. Not the 
more, however, on that account, does he hold 
himself released from his duty towards his neigh- 
bour. Every Hindu from the moment of his 
birth is bound over to good behaviour by his 
caste, under the terrible penalty of being cut off 
from communion with it, and thrown upon the 
world alone, without a friend, without a hearth, 
without a hope, until he joins the great company 
of the dead. 

Lastly, could we offer India any romance of 
leadership or sovereignty which she enjoyed not 
before ? On the contrary, she has for centuries 
possessed, natural leaders and a nobility whose 
social pre-eminence is recognised throughout the 
length and breadth of the land, a nobility prouder 
and with longer and sublimer traditions of 
chivalry and heroism than any that is to be 
found between the Atlantic and the Ural 
Mountains. The pedigree of the Guelphs is 
one of the grandest among all European families, 
yet it pales before that of the oldest of the 
Rajputs. None the less, India has passed under 
the sway of a nation which is, comparatively 
speaking, of yesterday, which hails from an 
insignificant island six thousand miles away in 

5 



HINDOSTAN AND THE DEKHAN 

the most distant corner of Europe, and which is 
as remote from the Asiatic in character, training 
and environment as can be one race of men from 
another. The great position which was denied 
to the Mogul Emperors has been attained by 
English kings ; and, so far as they are conscious 
of a ruler at all, the three hundred millions of 
India acknowledge one ruler only. King George, 
the grandson of Queen Victoria. 

How did this come about ? It is worth 
while to look back very briefly over the history 
of the past, for only thus can we realise the true 
significance of His Majesty's visit to India. It 
will give us at least an opportunity to unite with 
our Indian fellow-subjects in praising famous 
men and the fathers that begat us. 



II 

India, as every one knows, is divided into 
a northern portion named Hindostan, which 
extends from the Himalayas south-west to the 
Vindhya Mountains and the Narbada River, 
and a southern portion, named the Dekhan, which 
includes the remainder of the Peninsula south- 
ward from those boundaries to Cape Comorin. 
This division at first sight seems arbitrary, until 
we realise that India is, in fact, nearly cut in two 
by a belt of rugged, broken and mountainous 
country, through which for all practical purposes 
there was, before the days of railways, but one 

6 



THE BEGINNINGS OF INDIA 

principal passage, famous in military history as 
the Ajanta Pass. Within this belt have taken 
refuge the remnants of the aboriginal tribes, 
which in remote times were driven from the 
more favoured districts by an invading host of 
Dravidians. Whence these Dravidians were 
derived and what they were is unknown. 
Possibly they came from over the sea, as did the 
Maoris in New Zealand, for they were a sea- 
faring folk ; but they were at any rate a fighting 
race which founded kingdoms. In later times 
— apparently about the seventh century before 
Christ — they in turn were subdued by a fresh 
horde of invaders, the Aryans, who entered 
India from the north-west ; but, though they 
took from their conquerors some veneer of the 
Hindu religion, the Dravidians remained distinct 
and apart from them, preserving their own 
languages, of which the most important are 
Telugu, Kanarese, Malayalam and Tamil, the 
last named a speech of many dialects. Besides 
these there is one Aryan language, Marathi, 
spoken by the Aryan invaders who now occupy 
the north-west of the Dekhan, and several more 
tongues confined to small tracts. Hindostani 
is alien to Southern India, and is used only 
as a kind of lingua franca for purposes of 
convenience. 

But though, as shall be seen, the English, 
owing to peculiar circumstances, were concerned 
at the outset mainly with the Dekhan, the India 
alike of history and romance is the vast tract, 

7 



THE FOUR FIRST CASTES 

for the most part alluvial plain, which bears the 
name of Hindostan. For not only is it the 
richest, and therefore the most attractive to 
invaders, but it was, until men dared the naviga- 
tion of the high seas in the fifteenth century, 
the only portion of the huge peninsula which 
was accessible from without, through the well- 
known passes of the north-west. By those passes 
the Aryan conquerors swarmed into the plain, 
where in due time they developed the institution 
of the four original castes, now swelled to over 
two thousand. These four were the priests 
or Brahmans, the warriors or Rajputs, the agri- 
cultural class, and the Sadras, which last are 
presumed to have been the original conquered 
races. Of the early history of the Aryans little 
authentic is known ; but it must be noted that 
in the sixth century before Christ the sage, 
Gautama Buddha, was born in a kingdom on the 
Ganges, and became the founder of a religion 
which, though practically extinct in India, still 
reigns in Ceylon, Burma, Tibet, China and Siam. 
It may help us in our chronology to bear in 
mind that the death of Buddha occurred prob- 
ably in 487 B.C., three years after the battle of 
Marathon. 

A century and a half later, in 327 B.C., came 
the first European invasion of India by Alexander 
the Great. He penetrated no farther than to 
the Satlaj, the most easterly of the five rivers of 
the Panjab ; and after his death in 324 his work 
was utterly undone by a powerful native Govern- 

8 



THE TWO CHANDRAGUPTAS 

ment under one of the first of the great native 
rulers, Chandragupta. A century passed away, 
and there came a second Greek invasion 
from Bactria ; but after two generations these 
strangers gave place to Indo- Parthian kings, 
who, about a hundred years later, were in 
turn swept away by nomad hordes from Central 
Asia. Then for three hundred years all is 
obscure, until there arose a second Chandragupta 
and a new native dynasty at the beginning of 
the fourth century of our era. The second of 
this line, Samudragupta, an enlightened monarch 
and a great administrator, formed the design of 
conquering all India, and did indeed penetrate 
almost to Cape Comorin, but was unable to hold 
the Dekhan, though he subdued Hindostan. 
Then about 450 a.d. arrived a fresh invasion 
from Central Asia ; the native dynasty fell, and 
there followed a century of confusion, from 
which emerged in 606 another great native 
sovereign, Harsha, who after much hard fighting 
subdued Northern India, and essayed, but in 
vain, the conquest of the South. He died in 
648, and India relapsed for three centuries into 
intestine confusion and anarchy. 

Meanwhile a new power had arisen in 
Arabia. Mohammed had died in 632, be- 
queathing to the world a religion which, by its 
blending of devotional and military enthusiasm, 
was fated to affect the destinies of many lands, 
and above all of India. The aggressive Arabs, 
after a futile attempt to reach India by sea, 

9 



MOHAMMEDAN INVASIONS 

finally invaded it at the beginning of the eighth 
century from Persia, and established themselves 
in Scinde. Two hundred years later a Turkish 
slave founded a separate kingdom in Afghanistan ; 
and one of his descendants, the great Mahmoud, 
began in 999 a series of incursions, which took 
him farther and farther into Hindostan. His 
successors were supplanted by the rulers of a 
petty kingdom between Ghazni and Herat, 
one ot whom, Mohammed Ghori, in 1176 
entered upon a new course of raids, which 
ended finally in the establishment of a per- 
manent Mohammedan kingdom, extending from 
Peshawar eastward to the sea. 

The conquest, however, occupied nearly 
thirty years, and was not accomplished without 
hard fighting, not indeed at first without serious 
reverses. For out of the chaos which followed 
upon the death of Harsha had arisen the great 
Hindu power of the Rajput clans, whose 
territory stretched from the Rann of Cutch to 
Rohilkand, including, above all, the kingdoms of 
Kanauj and Gujarat. The days of their fame, dis- 
tinguished by high pre-eminence in art, learning, 
and science, lasted for two centuries ; but above 
all things the Rajputs were soldiers. These 
were the proud warriors, divided by countless 
jealousies, yet united always by religion and 
their code of honour, insubordinate in temper, 
yet obedient ever to the chief of the clan, 
who were the champions of Hinduism against 
Mohammedanism. 



FALL OF THE RAJPUTS 

The greatest of these champions, Prithwi 
Raj, the hero of countless legends, had already 
made himself famous by the capture of Delhi in 
1 1 53, and by other exploits in love and war, 
when he was called upon to repel the Mussul- 
man invaders. Brilliantly successful against 
them at first, he was presently deserted by 
fortune, and slain, together with his son, in a 
great battle in 1192. Delhi was captured in 
the following year ; and before the close of the 
first decade of the thirteenth century the ascend- 
ancy of the Rajputs in India was overthrown, 
and that of the Mohammedans erected in its 
place. But the Hindu warrior clans maintained 
and still maintain their position about Ajmer ; 
and the memory of that great struggle has never 
perished from among them. 

The Mohammedans now established their 
headquarters at Delhi ; but their kingdoms 
were not one but many, and, although the Kings 
of Delhi claimed suzerainty over all others of 
their faith, they were not always able to enforce 
it. Nevertheless, by the mere fact that they 
held Delhi itself, they were potential when not 
actual masters of India. For it was not mere 
chance which made that famous city the capital 
of Hindostan. Broad though the entrance to 
the plains of India may appear on the map 
when once the passes of Afghanistan are 
traversed, it is none the less narrowed at one 
point to a breadth of little more than one 
hundred miles between the mountains on the 



THE KINGS OF DELHI 

north and the desert on the south. Almost in 
the centre of that hundred miles stands Delhi ; 
and it is there or within a radius of some 
fifty miles to north and south of it — between 
Panipat and Aligarh — that countless battles 
have been fought for the supremacy of India. 
It is in fact the key of the country ; and it can 
hardly be taken in rear but by a nation which 
has command of the sea. 

During the course of three centuries — 1206 
to 1526 — from the reign of our King John to 
midway through the reign of King Henry the 
Eighth, thirty-four kings of five different houses 
held sway at Delhi, of whom no fewer than 
twelve were dethroned, assassinated or killed in 
action. They fought among themselves, they 
fought against other Mohammedan kings, they 
fought against revolting Hindus, and they 
fought against invading Tartars under Zinghis 
Khan. At the beginning of the fourteenth 
century the Tartars were finally driven back by 
King Ala-ud-din, who then conceived the pro- 
ject of conquering all India, and actually carried 
his raids almost to Cape Comorin. This great and 
famous sovereign died in 1316, when our King 
Edward the Second was on the throne ; and 
then, as has too often happened in India, he was 
followed by a feeble successor, who brought the 
realm into confusion, and his own life to an 
ignominious end. The new dynasty lasted for 
less than eighty years, producing one great ruler, 
Firoz Shah, after whose death in 1388 the 

12 



TIMUR AND BABAR 

kingdom of Delhi fell to pieces. Thereupon a 
new invader appeared, Timur the Turki, who 
in a campaign of two years penetrated to Delhi 
and beyond it, and then withdrew, leaving the 
unhappy country in greater confusion than 
before. It would be wearisome even to give 
the number of the Mohammedan states, and the 
names of the men who ruled, or aspired to rule 
them ; much more to dwell on the endless 
struggles between sovereigns, usurpers, rebels and 
adventurers, which signified desolation to the 
land and misery to the inhabitants. But all 
things come to an end ; and in 1526 the Turkis, 
after many raids, finally invaded India in force 
under Timur's descendant Babar. The de- 
cisive battle was fought at Panipat ; and with it 
began the age of the giants, when for nearly two 
hundred years strong man succeeded strong 
man upon the throne of Delhi, and made and 
consolidated the Mogul Empire. 

Even so, however, that dynasty was not 
without its vicissitudes. Babar, a very great 
man, died in 1 540. His successor, Humayun, 
while engaged in the conquest of the south, 
was recalled by a rebellion in the north, and 
being defeated in battle wandered in exile for 
fifteen years before he could recover his capital. 
But upon his death in 1556 he left a son, 
Akbar, who was one of the great rulers not 
of India only, but of the world. Akbar was 
confronted everywhere with rebellion, both of 
his co-religionists and of the Hindus, but after 

13 



THE REIGN OF AKBAR 

eleven years of hard fighting he crushed all his 
internal adversaries. Then turning from the 
work of restoring order to that of conquest 
he dealt out blows impartially upon Rajputs, 
revolting generals and fanatic Afghans, until 
by 1594. he had gathered all India north of 
the Narbada, from Kandahar to the Bay of 
Bengal, into a single Empire. He was pro- 
ceeding with the conquest of the south, and 
had already reached Ahmednagar, when death 
overtook him in 1605, after a strenuous reign 
of just upon forty years. Akbar was not only 
a great conqueror but a great statesman. Bred 
in the most bigoted of all faiths he saw that 
India could be permanently unified only by the 
reconciliation of Hindus and Mohammedans ; 
and to this end he spared no pains to favour 
the first, and to repress the stern and uncom- 
promising spirit of the second. Finally, he 
essayed the bold experiment of piecing together 
the best elements of both religions, and launch- 
ing the compound upon India as a new faith 
which should command the allegiance of all. 
To us who conceive of religious, political and 
social life as three things distinct and apart, 
such a policy may appear ridiculous ; but in 
the East, where the three are one and in- 
separable, this heroic measure presents a 
different aspect. It is, however, manifest that, 
even under an autocrat of broad mind, imperious 
will, resolute character and the highest adminis- 
trative genius, such a new creed must demand 

14 



JAHANGIR AND SHAH JAHAN 

constant and careful nurture for a period 
exceeding the life of one man. The intellectual 
satisfaction of feeling that oneself is right, and 
that one's neighbour is wrong, appeals so 
strongly to poor mankind that militant intoler- 
ance, such as that of Islam, must always find 
readier welcome with the majority than a 
gospel of forbearance. Toleration has been 
the distinguishing mark of all the greatest 
rulers of India ; and the greatest of them, 
because the most earnest striver to heal human 
differences, was Akbar. 

His death was followed, as is the rule in the 
East, by a dispute over the succession, which 
after the usual war was decided in favour of 
his younger son Jahangir (1605— 27), who was fol- 
lowed in turn by his eldest son Shah Jahan (1627— 
1658). Both were strong and capable sovereigns, 
but both were much troubled by rebellious sub- 
jects ; and Shah Jahan, after a desperate struggle 
between his four sons, was finally deposed by 
the third of them, Aurangzeb. Neither Jahan- 
gir nor Shah Jahan made great progress in the 
Dekhan ; and in the north-west, after bitter 
fighting, the Persians finally in 1653 established 
themselves in Kandahar, and severed it from 
the Empire. This was the beginning of the 
end. Shah Jahan's court was the most magnifi- 
cent ever seen in India, and the buildings which 
he erected have made his name immortal ; yet 
he died a prisoner in the fort of Agra, looking 
to the last at the Taj Mahal, the lovely tomb 

15 



REIGN OF AURANGZEB 

which he had raised over the body of the wife 
whom he had adored. This was in the year of 
the great fire of London, 1666. His successor, 
after three years' fighting, disposed of his three 
brothers ; and then, reviving Mohammedan 
bigotry in its extremest form, he set himself 
to crush down alike the infidel Hindus and 
the two heretical Mohammedan kingdoms, 
Golconda and Bijapur, in the Dekhan. Oppres- 
sive persecution of the Hindus soon raised them 
up in fury. The Rajputs fought against him 
with desperate valour, and only after a most 
heroic resistance were at last brought down to 
sullen impotence. But both in the north and 
in the south Aurangzcb's mad intolerance called 
into being new champions of the old faith, who, 
from the lasting eminence which they attained 
in India, must receive more than passing 
attention. 

The first of these were the Sikhs, a religious 
sect which traced its origin to Nanak, a pious 
Hindu born in the fifteenth century, who may 
be called the Calvin of Hinduism, inasmuch 
as he held that religion was a matter of the 
intellect rather than of the feelings. He 
preached the abolition of caste, the unity of 
the Godhead, and the need for holier and purer 
life ; and he was followed by ten Gurus or 
apostles, whose succession ended in 1708 
with Govind Singh. To the persecution of 
Aurangzeb the Sikhs could oppose only un- 
fearing martyrdom ; for the great leader who 

16 



SIKHS AND MARATHAS 

was to turn them into a powerful military state 
had not yet been born ; but the heart of such 
movements is of greater significance than the 
head ; and the heart of the Sikhs was already 
beating true and strong in the seventeenth 
century, against the time when the advent of 
a head should convert them into one of the 
great powers of India. 

Meanwhile the task of resisting Aurangzeb 
called less for a saint than for a man of action ; 
and such a man appeared in the person of Sivaji 
Bonsla, the son of a chief of no great property 
in the neighbourhood of the Western Ghauts 
to the east of Bombay. Born in 1627 — the 
year when George Villiers, Duke of Bucking- 
ham, led his abortive expedition to Rochelle 
— he was brought up at Puna, and early 
conceived the ambition of dispossessing the 
Mohammedans of the south, and setting up a 
Hindu kingdom in their stead. His men were 
hardy peasants from the mountains ; his horses, 
not less important than his men, were drawn 
from the valleys ; and with these he sallied 
forth to capture hill-fortresses, and to use them 
as bases for raids upon the surrounding country. 
Being a great military genius he rapidly 
achieved success ; and by 1664 had carried his 
incursions so far as to seize and sack the 
imperial city of Gujarat. This was a direct 
defiance to Aurangzeb, who sent an army to 
crush him, and succeeded in forcing him to 
surrender upon terms ; but the wily chief soon 

17 c 



RISE OF THE MARATHAS 

contrived to escape, and returning to the 
Dekhan quickly re - established and widened 
his ascendancy. He died in 1680, but he had 
already done his work in founding the power 
of the Marathas. 

What the Marathas exactly were or are no 
one seems able accurately to define. They were 
not a caste, they were not a sect, they were not 
a nation ; and, though some of them claim to 
be of Rajput origin, this pretension seems to 
be disposed of by anthropometric tests. Their 
name is taken from the territory of Maharashtra, 
and their language is called Marathi ; but they 
are not the only inhabitants of that territory 
nor the only speakers of that tongue. In 1901 
they numbered only five millions ; and yet in the 
seventeenth century they ruined the armies of 
Aurangzeb, shattered the might of the Moguls 
and bade fair to become the masters of India. 
It is difficult therefore to predicate anything 
certain of them except that they were and are 
emphatically a power, and that they rose to that 
eminence wholly by the sword. Yet, though 
they were valiant warriors, their military organ- 
isation was loose enough ; while their military 
tactics, if one may coin an expression, were of 
the ofi^ensive-elusive order. They swarmed out 
as great disorderly bodies of horse, devouring 
the country like locusts, carefully avoiding any- 
thing like a pitched battle, but hovering always 
about their enemy's flanks and communications, 
swift to see and to make profit of the slightest 

18 



THEIR POWER AND WEAKNESS 

advantage, equally swift to perceive and to avoid 
any danger. Thus they w^ore out the Mogul 
armies, and broke the hearts of their generals 
by remaining alw^ays near enough to inflict 
much mischief, but alw^ays remote enough to 
suffer no harm. If they were suddenly com- 
pelled to assume the defensive, they had a 
perfect genius for choosing and occupying a 
position where they could resist attack ; and 
woe to the army that retreated before them. 
Their leaders have always included some of the 
deepest and subtlest intellects in India ; and yet 
their genius, so long as their ascendancy lasted, 
revealed itself as mainly destructive, and their 
instincts as wholly predatory. They levied 
tribute remorselessly, under pain of pillage, 
upon vast districts, and on condition of payment 
suffered them to escape famine and desolation. 
They showed, indeed, remarkable administrative 
talent in the collection of that tribute ; but 
there their constructive work came to an end. 
It is therefore hard to see how India could have 
improved — how indeed it could have failed to 
deteriorate — under their mastery. The history 
of the country, so far as we have traced it, has 
been a continuous record of wars, revolts and 
intestine divisions ; in the midst of which, at 
rare intervals of precarious repose, there had 
sprung up noble monuments of art and litera- 
ture. There was nothing creative about the 
Marathas. Their reign, it is true, was short ; 
but, even had it been prolonged, we can hardly 

19 



COMING OF THE PORTUGUESE 

conceive of the association of poetry or archi- 
tecture with their name. For all their valiance 
and subtlety their rule was a blight rather 
than an influence. Once indeed, and in one 
particular, they imitated a foreign model in 
their own domain of war ; and we must now 
examine where they found this model, and how 
it was turned to their own ruin. 



Ill 

From the conquest of Persia and Egypt by 
the followers of Mohammed until the sixteenth 
century, the sole line of communication between 
India and Europe had been by land through the 
passes of Afghanistan and Central Asia to the 
Black Sea and to Constantinople ; but in 1492 
Christopher Columbus, seeking the Indies by 
way of the Atlantic westward, discovered 
America; and in 1497 ^^sco da Gama doubled 
the Cape of Good Hope, and cast anchor oiF 
Calicut in May 1498. Then came the Papal 
Bull of 1502 which divided the New World 
between Spain and Portugal, assigning the west 
to the former, and the east to the latter. Two 
great men, Almeida by valour against the fleets 
of the Sultan of Egypt, and Albuquerque 
by wise policy towards the Hindu natives, 
strengthened the hold of Portugal upon her 
new empire ; and for a century, until annexation 
to Spain in 1580 gradually killed all enterprise 



THE EAST INDIA COMPANY 

in them, the Portuguese enjoyed a monopoly 
of Oriental commerce. But meantime the two 
great maritime powers of the future, the English 
and the Dutch, had arisen to contest with Spain 
her empire at every point ; and their pioneers, 
busy since the beginning of the sixteenth 
century in attempting to find north-west and 
north-east passages to Asia, at last made their 
way round the Cape, the Englishman John 
Lancaster in 1591, and the Hollander Cornelius 
Houtman four years later. Companies to trade 
with the East Indies were speedily formed, that 
in England receiving its charter in 1600, and 
that in the Low Countries in 1602. 

There was, however, a wide difference 
between the two companies. In Holland 
politics were commerce, and commerce was 
politics ; and the States-General, though nomin- 
ally distinguishing the Company from the State, 
virtually backed the adventure with all the 
weight and resources of the Republic. In 
England the Company was left severely to look 
after itself, the State being quite ready to take 
a share in the profits, but by no means disposed 
to partake in the risks. In truth it is hardly 
recognised that our East India Company was 
but the first of a long series of adventures of the 
same kind. The first half of the seventeenth 
century was more prolific in chartered companies 
than any period of our history. There was a 
regular mania for speculation in the New 
World ; and King James the First granted away 



DUTCH AND ENGLISH 

many hundreds of thousands of square miles, not 
only above the sea but under it, to a com- 
paratively small number of " Undertakers,'* as 
they were called. Naturally there were many 
failures and even more quarrels among these 
companies ; but their solid and visible results 
are the United States of America and the British 
Empire in India. 

It need hardly be said that the Portuguese 
bitterly resented the intrusion of the Dutch and 
English upon their chosen field ; and hard blows 
were exchanged between the rival parties, invari- 
ably to the disadvantage of the Portuguese. But 
though the two northern powers were always 
ready to combine against their common enemy, 
they were none the less furiously jealous of each 
other, and they pursued their commercial com- 
petition with the weapons not of trade but of 
war. Few ships went to sea unarmed in those 
days, so that a trading company was almost of 
necessity a militant association ; and from fight- 
ing at sea to the attack of a factory by the sea- 
shore the step was very short. The Dutch, 
most practical and cold-blooded of nations, 
proved this in 1623 by seizing ten Englishmen 
and their native assistants at Amboyna in the 
Moluccas, and murdering every one of them 
after a mockery of a trial. This massacre, as 
it was called, caused furious indignation in 
England ; but it was not until thirty years later 
that Cromwell took vengeance for it in the 
seven furious naval actions which marked the 



COMING OF THE FRENCH 

beginning of Dutch decay and of English pre- 
dominance upon the seas. Meanwhile the East 
India Company had established factories at Surat 
in 1612, at Masulipatam in 16 16, at Madras in 
1640, and at Hoogly in 1651. Finally, in 1661 
Bombay passed to the British Crown as part of 
the dowry of Charles the Second's queen, 
Catharine of Bragan9a, and was leased to the 
Company by the King for ten pounds. 

Just three years later a new European com- 
petitor came upon the scene in the shape of 
the French Compagnie des Indes, founded by 
Colbert in 1664;^ and in 1674 Fran9ois Martin 
founded Pondicherry on the eastern coast and 
established the first French factory in Bengal at 
Chandernagore. It was just at this time that 
our countrymen were first brought into conflict 
with native enemies. In 1664 and 1670 the 
British only with difficulty held their own at 
Surat against the incursions of Sivaji ; while in 
Bengal they suffered from the reaction of the 
wars of Aurangzeb and from the active oppres- 
sion of his viceroy. In 1686 the Company 
initiated a new policy of reprisals against both 
Moguls and Marathas, and declared its intention 
to found " a large, well-grounded, sure English 

* There are in the gardens of Government House, Calcutta, some brass 
cannon which bear the mark of the French East India Company in its 
early days. From constant cleaning with sand, however, the marks are 
in some cases almost obliterated, and in every case are in process of obli- 
teration. Similar treatment has irretrievably damaged other beautifully 
ornamented guns, taken from Tipu Sahib and others, which are preserved 
in the same spot. Not a single Viceroy, apparently, has intervened to 
arrest the process of destruction, which for more than half a century has 
been going forward, and is still going forward, under their eyes. 

23 



THE MOGUL EMPIRE'S DECAY 

dominion for all time to come." Their first 
operations ended in ignominious failure ; and 
they were forced to fly from Bengal and to 
purchase their rights to return thither by an 
abject surrender and payment of a heavy fine to 
Aurangzeb. Nevertheless, in that same year, 
1690, was witnessed the founding of Calcutta; 
while the nucleus of an European army had 
already been formed in Madras in 1644, and in 
Bombay in 1668. The first native troops of 
the Company's army had been enlisted, likewise 
in Bombay, in 1683-84. 

Such was the position when in 1707 
Aurangzeb died, a beaten and heart - broken 
man, at the age of ninety -one, leaving the 
Mogul Empire in ruins. Between that date and 
1759 five Emperors ascended the throne of the 
Moguls with the empty title only of their great 
ancestors, while the Empire itself crumbled 
rapidly away. The viceroy of the Dekhan, the 
Nizam - ul - Mulk, established the independent 
dynasty which still reigns at Hyderabad ; but 
even within his realm, the Carnatic, which 
bordered on the English and French settle- 
ments on the east coast, had become a semi- 
independent principality. Farther south a 
Hindu dynasty had established itself in Tan- 
jore ; and soldiers of fortune of various de- 
scriptions were setting themselves up as petty 
chieftains in hill-fortresses. In the north affairs 
were no better. Bengal had passed to one 
adventurer, Rohilkand to another, and Oudh 

24 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH 

was usurped by an official. Rajputs rebelled in 
one quarter, Sikhs in another. Every succession 
was disputed with arms ; and amid all the 
vicissitudes of the various combatants the 
devastating flood of the Marathas rose higher 
and higher, till it threatened to overwhelm the 
whole of India. Moreover, as if these mis- 
fortunes were not sufficient, the fall of 
Aurangzeb's garrisons in Afghanistan allowed 
a Persian invader to penetrate the passes and to 
sack Delhi in 1737. Two years later an officer 
of his army, Ahmad Shah of the Abdali tribe 
of Afghans, seized Afghanistan, and from thence 
invaded and conquered the whole of the 
Western Panjab between 1748 and 1751. 
Never had India been in a more appalling 
welter of confusion, nor in more crying need 
of a master. 

The struggle between the two aspirants to 
mastery had already begun. Its issue depended 
upon the command of the sea, for victory was 
bound to favour the side that could pour reinforce- 
ments into India regularly from Europe ; but the 
fact seems to have been but dimly apprehended 
at the outset. On the scene of action everything 
appeared favourable to the French. A very 
able naval officer of that nation, Bertrand de la 
Bourdonnais, had in 1735 founded a naval base 
and arsenal at Mauritius ; while in India itself 
two Governors of Pondicherry, Dumas and 
Dupleix, had instituted a policy of active inter- 
ference with the internal affairs of the neigh- 

25 



THE FRENCH CAPTURE MADRAS 

bouring native states ; and Dumas had made such 
diplomatic intervention the more efficacious by 
creating an army of some seven thousand trained 
sepoys. These Frenchmen intended to play the 
part of statesmen in controlling the future of 
India, and they had an autocratic government at 
their back. The British, on the other hand, 
were still a trading company, independent of the 
Government ; and their Governor at Madras was 
a man of mere ledgers and invoices, with, 
however, a quiet young clerk in his office 
named Robert Clive. France and England had 
come to blows over the Spanish Succession, and 
had opened the war which is remembered by 
the names of Dettingen, Fontenoy, Culloden, 
Roucoux and Lauffeldt. The news of the 
outbreak of hostilities reached India in 1744, at 
a time when no French fleet was on the coast ; 
but the Nawab of the Carnatic informed the 
British at Madras that he intended to enforce 
neutrality within his province, and the English 
Governor meekly gave way. In July 1746 the 
fleets of the two nations met ; and after an 
indecisive action the British Commodore sailed 
away with discreditable readiness, leaving the 
French free to land as many soldiers as they 
would. They accordingly laid siege to Madras, 
and in September forced it to capitulate. The 
Nawab attempted to intervene to enforce 
neutrality ; but the French troops, readily 
facing odds of ten to one, swept his raw levies 
from the field without an eflfort. More than 

26 



LAWRENCE AND CLIVE 

one writer of the seventeenth century had 
predicted that a small body of disciplined 
European troops would suffice to rout the most 
formidable of native armies ; and now that 
prediction was verified. This incident assured 
supremacy in India to an European power. 

The British settlements seemed now to be at 
the mercy of Dupleix, who had three thousand 
European troops at his disposal ; but the tide 
was turned by the arrival of a British squadron 
with reinforcements ; and instead of a British 
fort it was Pondicherry itself that was besieged, 
though most clumsily and unsuccessfully, by 
Admiral Boscawen. The operations, however, 
revealed the rise of a great British leader, 
Major Stringer Lawrence, who was not only a 
master of military manoeuvre but a trainer of 
commanders. Simple and uneducated, for he 
could hardly write more than his name, he had 
none the less great insight into the characters ot 
men, and finding a promising pupil in the 
gloomy and discontented clerk, Robert Clive, he 
took the latter's military education in hand and 
practically adopted him as a son. 

The peace of Aix-la- Chapelle in 1748 
brought the war of the Austrian Succession to 
an end, seemingly with no great advantage 
anywhere to either party, but really with the 
very solid result that France was left almost 
powerless at sea. Madras was restored to 
England in exchange for the French fort of 
Louisburg, to the huge indignation of the British 

27 



LAWRENCE AGAINST DUPLEIX 

colonists in North America, who had captured 
Louisburg with no assistance from British 
troops. Nevertheless, the British Government 
was right to make the exchange, for, as Admiral 
Saunders pointed out at the time, Louisburg was 
a source of weakness rather than strength to 
the French, being always at the mercy of the 
power that was superior at sea. 

The rival companies in India meanwhile 
found it easy to continue the struggle, nominally 
as allies of native states but in reality as 
principals. Dupleix was anxious to make 
French influence supreme at the court not only 
of the Nawab of the Carnatic at Arcot, but also 
of the Viceroy of the Dekhan at Hyderabad ; 
and the death of both potentates, with the 
inevitable result of a disputed succession, gave 
him the opportunity that he desired. The British 
naturally supported the candidates who were 
opposed to the French ; but their best com- 
mander. Stringer Lawrence, had gone to England, 
and in his absence British military operations 
went sadly wrong. The contest centred around 
Trichinopoly ; and in 1751 the situation was so 
desperate that it was only saved by a diversion 
made against Arcot by the young volunteer, 
Robert Clive. But at the end of that year 
Stringer Lawrence returned, and in action after 
action during 1752 and 1753 worsted the French 
before Trichinopoly. In 1754 Dupleix was 
recalled for gross misconduct in his office ; and 
in January 1755 the contest in the Carnatic was 

28 



THE BLACK HOLE 

brought to a close by a suspension of arms. 
The French should have had the better of the 
British, for, France and England being at peace, 
their fleets could not intervene ; and in India 
itself Dupleix had enjoyed superiority of 
numbers, though his commanders were inferior 
to those of the British. Yet a step had been 
taken which ultimately assured the victory of 
the red-coats, for the British Government had 
initiated a new policy of sending the King's 
troops to assist those of the Company ; and in 
September 1754 the first battalion arrived, the 
Thirty-ninth Foot, now the Dorsetshire Regi- 
ment — Primus in Indis — under the command of 
Colonel Eyre Coote. 

But suddenly the centre of British interest 
was shifted to Bengal. That province in 
1756 passed upon the death of Alivardi Khan 
to his adopted son Suraj- ud-Daula (Surajah 
Dowlah), a potentate of the most contemptible 
type. The Seven Years' War was on the point 
of breaking out in Europe ; and the Governor at 
Calcutta, being warned of the fact, was setting 
his fort in order, when the Nawab chose to take 
offence at the action and marched upon the town. 
The tragedy of the Black Hole followed ; and 
troops were hastily sent up from Madras under 
Clive, escorted by three ships of Admiral Watson's 
squadron, to recover Calcutta. This was done 
with little difficulty ; but a French fleet and army 
were expected at Pondicherry ; and it was 
essential to place Calcutta speedily beyond reach 

29 



PLASSEY AND CONDORE 

of danger from Suraj-ud-Daula, so that the ships 
and forces might return to Madras. Finding a 
disaffected party in the Nawab's own camp, CHve 
negotiated with the chief of them, Mir Jaffir, 
and with his help routed Suraj-ud-Daula's army 
at Plassey (June 23, 1757). He then set Mir 
Jaffir upon the Nawab's throne, appointing as 
Resident at his court a young man of twenty-five, 
named Warren Hastings, and himself became 
Resident at Calcutta, while the troops returned 
to Madras. 

It was not, however, until April 1758 that 
the expected French armament arrived at Pondi- 
cherry under command of Count Lally de 
Tollendal. For a time superiority of numbers 
gave Lally some measure of success ; but towards 
the end of the year Clive made a diversion by 
sending an expedition under Colonel Forde of 
the Thirty-ninth against the French settlements 
in the Northern Sirkars. Forde, whose name 
is far too little known, fulfilled his mission 
brilliantly by defeating the Marquis de Conflans 
at Chundoor (Condore), and by the storm of 
Masulipatam — the latter a most daring feat of 
arms. Meanwhile the French fleet was driven 
off the coast by the British ; and the arrival of 
reinforcements from England reduced the in- 
equality of numbers. For a moment there arose 
unexpected peril, owing to a wanton and un- 
provoked attempt of the Dutch from Java and 
Chinsura upon Calcutta ; but Clive faced the 
danger boldly, and at Badra on the 25th of 

30 



BADRA AND WANDEWASH 

November 1759 Forde, with a force of inferior 
numbers, practically annihilated the Dutch troops 
in half an hour, and decided for ever the down- 
fall of that nation in India. A few weeks later 
(Jan. 8, 1760) Coote, once again with inferior 
numbers, by brilliant manoeuvring defeated Lally 
decisively at Wandcwash ; and a year later he 
received the surrender of Pondicherry. The 
first stage of the great struggle was over. It 
was now certain that if India was to pass under 
the rule of Europeans, those Europeans would 
be the British. 

IV 

Meanwhile internal confusion had increased, 
and the Mogul Empire was crumbling away 
more rapidly than ever. The Marathas had by 
this time organised themselves into their con- 
federacy of five coequal parts under five principal 
chiefs. The degenerate descendants of Sivaji 
had long since been displaced, except in form, 
by an hereditary dynasty of mayors of the palace, 
who bore the title of Peshwa, with headquarters 
at Puna. The four remaining members were 
Sindia of Gwalior, Holkar of Indore, the Gaekwar 
of Baroda, and Bonsla of Nagpur ; and although 
the five were constantly quarrelling among them- 
selves, the confederacy at this moment was under 
the direction of Balaji Baji Rao, the ablest of all 
the Peshwas. After the capture of Delhi, Ahmad 
Shah Abdali had appointed a viceroy to administer 

31 



MARATHAS AT THEIR ZENITH 

his conquests, and had himself returned to 
Afghanistan. The Marathas in 1758 seized the 
moment to lay hold on Delhi, expel Ahmad 
Shah's garrison from Lahore, and establish 
Maratha domination in the Panjab. The action 
shows the high - water mark of the flood of 
Maratha conquest ; but the intrepid horsemen 
had gone too far. The Mohammedans were not 
disposed to stand quietly by while a Hindu power 
of yesterday overthrew their rule in Northern 
India. In the winter of 1759-60 Ahmad 
Shah descended in his wrath from Afghanistan, 
recovered Lahore at a blow, fell upon Holkar and 
Sindia, who were ravaging the southern districts, 
and, smiting them heavily, one after the other, 
drove them away with great loss. He then 
occupied Delhi, and never paused upon his march 
south-eastward until he had pitched his camp 
upon the Ganges. The Peshwa, undismayed by 
these misfortunes, sent up a powerful army to 
retrieve them; and in January 1761 the two hosts 
met at Panipat. On each side the fighting men 
numbered over one hundred thousand, and the 
combat was long and stubborn ; but the Marathas 
were at last defeated ; and defeat in the cir- 
cumstances almost signified annihilation, for the 
villagers turned savagely upon the plundering 
horsemen* who for two years had ridden rough- 
shod over them. The disaster was the death of 
the great Peshwa ; and the Marathas, though 
they recovered with singular rapidity, never 
again reached such a height of power as they had 

32 



THE COMPANY'S EVIL DAYS 

attained from 1758 until 1760. But the victor 
took no advantage of his triumph. The Afghans 
were anxious to carry home their booty, for the 
Persians were menacing their western frontiers ; 
and thus it was that Ahmad Shah retired again 
to his own place, closing with a worthy majesty 
the long series of invasions of India from the 
north-west. In reality the Afghans and the 
Marathas were but rival vultures fighting over 
the carcase of the Mogul Empire ; but the only 
result of their struggle was to exhaust them- 
selves, and to leave Northern India as masterless 
as ever. So momentous were the events that 
occurred in the twelve months from the 22nd of 
January 1760 to the 29th of January 1761. 

Unfortunately at this critical time the guid- 
ing hand of the master was withdrawn, for 
Clive went home in February 1760, leaving the 
supreme power in Bengal in the hands ot the 
Company's clerks. These saw their opportunity 
for enriching themselves, and, being miserably 
paid and under no restraint of law or of honour, 
did not fail to seize it. The government and 
all responsibility for the expenses of administra- 
tion lay nominally with Mir Jaffir, but his rule 
was wholly dependent upon British troops, 
which therefore held him at their mercy. He 
quickly chafed against the necessity of paying 
his masters ; whereupon the Company's servants 
matured a plan tor deposing him and setting up 
his finance-minister, Mir Kassim, in his place, in 
the hope that more willing submission would 

33 D 



CAILLAUD, KNOX AND ADAMS 

be found in a new puppet. At this juncture, 
however, there intervened a complication from 
without. The titular Emperor, Shah Alam, 
being an exile from Delhi, took refuge with 
the Nawab of Oudh, and with the latter's 
help threatened to enforce his claim to 
the sovereignty of Bengal. Major Caillaud 
marched forward with a small force to meet 
him ; but the Emperor contrived to out- 
manoeuvre the British and to appear before 
Patna, which was only saved by a wonderful 
march and a most daring action conducted under 
the command of Captain Knox. The danger 
being over the Company's servants duly deposed 
Mir Jaffir, and installed Mir Kassim, insisting, 
however, on commercial privileges for their own 
advantage, which were so exorbitant as to 
exhaust Mir Kassim's patience very speedily. 
Therefore they displaced him in favour of their 
former puppet Mir Jaffir ; and Mir Kassim very 
justifiably sought redress with arms. 

He was a dangerous enemy, for he possessed 
a certain number of regular troops trained after 
European fashion and commanded by an Alsatian, 
whose nickname, Sombre, had been corrupted by 
the natives into Sumroo. Moreover, the Com- 
pany's servants had nothing ready, neither men nor 
arms nor supplies, nothing indeed excepting one 
marvellous commander. Major Thomas Adams. 
In July 1763 Adams began his campaign, fought 
one sharp action near Katwa on the 19th ; a 
second at Suti on the 2nd of August ; and a 

34 



THE ADVANCE BEYOND BENGAL 

third, a crowning victory against odds of twenty 
to one, at Undwa Nala on the 5th of September. 
In despairing rage Mir Kassim ordered the 
massacre of all the British in Patna, an order 
which was faithfully executed by Sumroo, and fled 
to the camp of the Emperor Shah Alam and of 
his vizier the Nawab of Oudh. On the 6th of 
November Adams took Patna by storm, and then, 
worn out by hard work, he sickened, and died 
a few months later. A feeble and incompetent 
successor. Major Carnac, played for a while un- 
successfully with the united forces of the Allies ; 
but was soon displaced by a stronger man. Major 
Hector Munro. After first quelling a mutiny 
in his own army, Munro utterly overthrew 
the Emperor and his confederates on the 23rd 
of February 1764 at Buxar. The victory con- 
verted Shah Alam from an enemy into an ally ; 
and the army penetrating into Oudh captured in 
succession the commanding cities of Lucknow 
and Allahabad. Thus for the first time the 
British advanced beyond Bengal, and found 
themselves in contact with the new principalities 
created by sundry adventurers since the death of 
Aurangzeb — Mohammedan Pathans in Rohil- 
kand, Mohammedan officers of the fallen Empire 
in Agra and Delhi, Hindu Jats in Bhurtpore. 
There was no stability in any of them. Any 
one of these states, rising under some leader of 
genius, might encroach upon the others, or, 
falling under some incompetent successor to an 
able man, might be swallowed up by the bold 

35 



THE RETURN OF CLIVE 

and ambitious owner of a few villages. In other 
words, they were dangerous neighbours which, 
as all experience of conquering nations has 
taught, can only be made safe by absorption into 
the system of the conquerors. 

Fortunately at this moment Clive returned 
to India, and laid down clearly the policy of 
the Company. The first step was to take over 
the administration of Bengal, paying a definite 
tribute to the Emperor as his viceroy, and so to 
put an end to puppet Nawabs and to corrupt 
practices among the Company's servants. The 
second was to resist the temptation to annex 
Oudh, to reinstate the former ruler in it as a 
friend and ally, and so to establish what is called 
a buffer-state between the British in Bengal and 
the confusion in the north-west. Whatever was 
to come in the future, there was to be for the 
present an end of territorial expansion. 

But in the south there were more dangerous 
neighbours than in the north. In addition to 
the presence of the Marathas, Madras was 
threatened by the rise of a Mohammedan soldier, 
Haidar Ali, who through sheer military genius 
had acquired the sovereignty of the Hindu prin- 
cipality of Mysore, and from that base was lay- 
ing violent hands upon Southern India generally. 
His chief adversaries were the Nizam of Hyder- 
abad, from whom he was constantly taking 
territory, and the Marathas, with whom he 
had fought many sharp actions. The Madras 
Government, in consideration of recovering from 

36 



WAR WITH HAIDAR ALI 

the Nizam the Northern Sirkars, from which 
the British had driven the French, had engaged 
themselves vaguely to support him in case of 
war ; and Haidar by entering the territory ot 
Hyderabad in 1767 obliged them to fulfil their 
pledges to the Nizam, which they did by sending 
an army towards Mysore. Very soon, however, 
both Nizam and Haidar turned against the British. 
The former enemy was quickly disposed of; but 
Haidar was not so easily beaten, and the Madras 
Council did their best by extreme imbecility 
to second him. There was indeed one British 
officer. Colonel Joseph Smith, whose very name 
sufficed to make Haidar tremble, and who, in 
spite of a thousand embarrassments put in his 
way by his masters, contrived always to beat 
the Indian chief in the field. But the Madras 
Council deliberately displaced him to make room 
for an incompetent nominee of their own ; and 
the result was that in 1769 Haidar advanced to 
within five miles of Madras itself, and forced 
the Council to conclude an humiliating peace. 
Worse than this, Haidar had established friendly 
relations with the French, who were burning 
to recover their lost ground in India ; and the 
British had hampered themselves not only by 
taking the Marathas into their pay, but by 
binding themselves to a defensive alliance with 
the Nizam, with Haidar Ali, and with the 
Marathas against any one or more of the three 
parties who should aggressively attack the other. 
The Marathas shortly afterwards did attack 



WARREN HASTINGS 

Haidar, who appealed to the Madras Govern- 
ment for assistance and was refused it. From 
that moment he became the irreconcilable enemy 
of the British in India. 

Meanwhile Parliament, after enquiring into 
Indian affairs, had passed in 1773 an act to 
reconstitute the Government of India, which, 
though it contained some wise provisions, was 
vitiated by one fatal blunder. Hitherto the 
three Presidencies had been coequal ; but now 
a Governor-General and Council were set up in 
Bengal with general authority over Bombay and 
Madras also, which change in itself was eminently 
sensible. But unfortunately it was ordained not 
that the Governor- General should be supreme, 
but that he should be ruled by a majority of the 
Council, having himself no more than a casting 
vote in case the Council were equally divided. 
Nothing could have been worse devised for 
purposes of Asiatic government. The Governor- 
General, happily, was Warren Hastings, but his 
Council contained men who from personal spite 
laid themselves out to thwart him at every turn. 
Yet the times were most critical. England was 
entering upon the fatal quarrel with the American 
colonies, which was destined to turn the swords 
of half of Europe against her. In India the 
Maratha chiefs, without forsaking their original 
confederacy under the Peshwa, were just begin- 
ning to carve out for themselves independent 
sovereignties, and every year descended in pre- 
datory raids upon Oudh and Rohilkand. In 

38 



THE ROHILLA WAR 

1773 the Nawab called upon the Rohillas and 
the British to aid him against the invaders ; and 
the armies of all three in combination drove the 
Marathas back. When, however, the question 
of the cost of the war was raised, the Rohillas 
refused to pay to the Nawab the contribution 
which they had engaged themselves to discharge ; 
and the Nawab therefore asked Hastings to join 
him in compelling them. Hastings consented ; 
and thereupon followed the first Rohilla War, in 
which the Rohillas were utterly defeated by the 
British, and their territory annexed to Oudh for 
the consolidation of the buffer-state. 

This was the only war initiated by Hastings, 
but in Bombay the President and Council, 
anxious as their peers to annex territory, en- 
tangled themselves in hostilities with the Mara- 
thas ; and Hastings, while utterly condemning 
their folly, felt bound to support them. The 
war, for the most part miserably conducted, 
dragged on and on, the only redeeming feature 
being the storming of Gwalior, an almost in- 
accessible fortress, by Captain Popham. Then 
came bad news of disasters in America, of war 
with France, and of a coming effort of the 
French to recover what they had lost in India. 
Finally Haidar AH, the Nizam and the Marathas 
formed a confederacy for the total expulsion of 
the British from India. The campaign against 
Haidar, directed by Hector Munro of Buxar, 
opened disastrously in 1780 with the complete 
destruction of a strong detachment of the British 

39 



THE YEARS OF DISASTER 

Army. Sir Eyre Coote was then called to the 
command, and saved the situation by the victory 
of Porto Novo in 1781, and by further successes 
at Sholingur and Arni. The diplomacy of 
Warren Hastings broke up the confederacy, and 
Haidar Ali died at the end of 1782 ; but mean- 
while French troops and a French fleet had 
arrived, and the war was carried on by Haidar's 
son, Tipu Sahib. Another British detachment 
was annihilated at Bednore. The French fleet 
under Suifren had the advantage of the British, 
and affairs were coming to an utterly disastrous 
issue after an obstinate action between the 
British and French armies at Gadalur, when 
the news of peace with France fortunately saved 
the British dominions in India. Humiliating 
treaties with the Marathas in 1782 and with 
Tipu Sahib in 1784 brought the struggle at last 
to an end. Hastings had been obliged to extort 
money from the Rajah of Benares and the Begums 
of Oudh in order to carry on the war at all ; and 
but for his indomitable courage all would have 
been lost. The twenty years from 1764 to 1784 
are the most dismal and discreditable of all 
Anglo-Indian history. Of the three Presidencies 
it is difficult to say which Council was the 
worst, Bombay and Madras for crookedness and 
folly, or Bengal from malignity of faction and 
personal spite. 

Happily the fools have been forgotten, and 
the great man, Warren Hastings, is remembered. 
His enemies, as is well known, pursued him on 

40 



GROWTH OF THE SIKHS 

his return to England, and contrived to work 
up against him the attack which is dignified 
by the name of his impeachment. A more 
infamous proceeding is not to be found in our 
history ; infamous, not because there was no 
ground for enquiry into the administration of 
Hastings, but because, though it was conducted 
partly by honest but mistaken men, it was helped 
forward by politicians, who had not an atom 
of principle, and stooped to be the instruments 
of personal rancour not from any zeal for the 
right, but from sheer conceit of their own 
oratory. 



It may be gathered that the position of the 
British in India at the close of the war 
of American Independence was none of the 
strongest ; but fortunately a new power had 
arisen in the north to deliver them from their 
most pressing dangers. This was the Sikhs, 
whose organisation and enthusiasm had been 
so far quickened by persecution that they had 
by 1785 mastered the whole of the Panjab 
between the Jhelum and the Satlaj ; where 
they formed at once a barrier against any new 
invasion from the north-western passes, and a 
dam against the flood, which was once again 
rising, of the Marathas. It was pretty certain 
that before long there must be a struggle 

4^ 



PITT'S EAST INDIA BILLS 

between British and Marathas for the final 
mastery of India ; for Sindia had not only 
reoccupied Delhi and Agra, but had actually 
called upon the East India Company to pay 
tribute for the tenure of Bengal. For the 
present, however, a policy of aggression was 
the last thing that was favoured either in 
England or at Calcutta. The British Parlia- 
ment had been very busy with enquiry into 
Indian affairs, with the result that in 1784 and 
1786 new India Bills had been passed by Pitt. 
Thereby the immediate Government in Calcutta 
was placed in the hands of a Governor-General, 
who was no longer merely a member of his 
Council with a casting vote, but was authorised 
upon extraordinary occasions to act upon his 
own responsibility, no matter what the opinions 
of his councillors. Simultaneously, superin- 
tendence of the civil, military and financial 
business of the Company in England was 
committed to six commissioners, nominated by 
the Crown, and known as the Board of Control. 
Thus the chief officials in India ceased to be 
answerable to the Company, and became 
answerable to Parliament, with the result that 
the standards of integrity and efficiency were 
rapidly raised, and many of the old abuses 
banished. 

Lord Cornwallis was the first Governor- 
General appointed under the new system. He 
was a good soldier and an inflexibly upright 
man, but otherwise of little distinction ; and 

42 



FIRST WAR WITH TIPU SAHIB 

he was hampered by a clause in the new India 
Act which forbade him to declare war except 
for the defence of British territory or of that 
of their allies. So fatuous an enactment practi- 
cally bade the Governor-General sit still while 
his enemies completed their preparations for 
war ; and Tipu Sahib, puffed up by his recent 
successes, did not fail to take advantage of 
the fact. Ultimately, in 1791, Cornwallis was 
obliged to take the field against him in person ; 
and after two arduous campaigns Tipu was 
forced to sign a treaty which deprived him of 
half his territory and resources. 

In 1793 began the long war with revolu- 
tionary France ; and the last act of Cornwallis 
before he left India in that year was to seize 
the French settlements. He was succeeded 
by Sir John Shore, a cautious and feeble man, 
who allowed both the Marathas and Tipu to 
increase their strength at the expense of the 
Nizam, and by his weakness encouraged Tipu 
to court the alliance of the French. Mean- 
while the Hindu power of the Marathas was 
gaining upon the Mohammedans in all 
quarters ; and the five chiefs of the confedera- 
tion had by this time practically established 
themselves as independent rulers ; the most 
powerful of them, Sindia of Gwalior, being 
master of the old capital of the Mogul Empire. 
The control of the Peshwa over his sub- 
ordinates had ceased ; and these combative 
leaders were indiscriminately fighting each 

43 



THE AGE OF ADVENTURERS 

other, or any one else who might tempt their 
cupidity. The whole country was overrun by 
mercenary bands, ready to sell themselves to 
the highest bidder ; and, in fact, those were 
the golden days of adventurers in India. 
Accordingly they swarmed thither not only 
from all parts of the Peninsula, but also from 
Europe. From the seventeenth century onward 
Europeans had resorted to the courts of Indian 
potentates as soldiers of fortune. Now they 
came in numbers, French, Italian and British, 
perhaps the most remarkable of them being 
George Thomas, an Irish sailor, who by rare 
courage and undoubted military skill became 
for a time a reigning prince with an army of 
ten thousand men. Indirectly these adventurers 
exerted an influence which was highly favour- 
able to the British, for they persuaded the 
Indian chiefs to train their troops after the 
European model, or, in other words, to fight 
the British with their own weapons. Tipu 
Sahib succumbed to this temptation, as Haidar 
his father had succumbed before him ; so like- 
wise did Sindia, and the error was fatal to 
both of them. 

At last, in 1798, came a new Governor- 
General, who from the first made it the 
foundation of his policy that Britain must be 
the paramount power in India, and reduce the 
prevailing anarchy to order. This was Richard, 
Lord Mornington, better known by his later 
title of Marquess Wellesley ; and he was 

44 



FALL OF TIPU SAHIB 

accompanied by his brother Arthur, a rather 
sheepish young man of twenty-nine, whom the 
Indian cUmate in a few months suddenly 
ripened to the full measure of an unsuspected 
genius. Tipu of Mysore, as the open ally 
of the French, was the first enemy with whom 
iVLornington grappled; and in 1799 Seringa- 
patam was stormed by General Harris, and 
Tipu was slain. It is noteworthy that in this 
campaign Arthur Wcllesley held his first high 
command, and suffered his greatest failure, 
which might have wrecked any officer who 
had not the Governor- General for a brother. 
It is noteworthy also that, if Tipu had stuck 
to the old principle of reliance upon light 
cavalry only, instead of trusting to trained 
infantry after the European fashion, he might 
have evaded any decisive issue, and wearied out 
the British with an endless and unprofitable 
war. As things fell out he was destroyed, and 
his dynasty swept away ; a menace which had 
hung over Southern India for a whole genera- 
tion was removed ; and the Carnatic and 
Tanjore were annexed by Lord Mornington 
to the British dominions. 

The Governor-General's next step was to 
endeavour to restore the authority of the Peshwa 
over the confederate chiefs, and so to keep them 
not only from aggression against their neighbours 
but at peace with each other. The Peshwa 
readily signed a treaty of offensive and defensive 
alliance, but Sindia and Holkar refused to join 

45 



THE FIRST MARATHA WAR 

in it, and it was soon discovered that Sindia was 
endeavouring to form a Maratha combination 
against the British. General Arthur Wellesley 
was accordingly set in motion against Sindia's 
dominions in the south, and General Lake against 
those in the north-west. Then followed the 
series of desperate actions which have immortal- 
ised the year 1803. Wellesley won the battles 
of Assaye and Argaum ; Lake stormed Aligarh, 
captured Agra and gained the two signal victories 
of Delhi and Laswari. But the Marathas fought 
most nobly. Both at Assaye and Laswari their 
troops displayed a power of manoeuvre which 
disconcerted the British commanders, while the 
Maratha gunners stood by their guns with heroic 
tenacity until they were slain by the bayonet. 
On the evening of Assaye the iron Wellesley, 
who had been miraculously calm all day, sat down 
and dropped asleep among the dead and dying, 
with his head on his knees, worn out with the 
exertions and anxiety of the day. Lake, when 
the battle of Laswari had at last been gained, 
wrote to Lord Wellesley that he had never been 
in so critical a position before, and hoped that 
he never would be again. 

These victories shattered the strength and 
influence of Sindia ; but Holkar, who had never 
abandoned the traditional tactics of the Marathas, 
was far more difficult to deal with. He nearly 
destroyed one of Lake's detachments under 
Colonel Monson, and, though subsequently de- 
feated by this same Monson at Deig, led Lake 

46 



THE WORK OF MORNINGTON 

a long chase almost to Attock before he was 
finally brought to terms. 

Thus after three years of bitter fighting the 
great Maratha war came to an end in 1806; 
having gained for the British the imperial cities 
of Delhi and Agra with the contiguous tracts on 
both banks of the Jumna, and the entire country 
between the Jumna and the Ganges, together 
with the province of Cuttack. Thereby British 
territory was carried forward continuously from 
Bengal to the upper Jumna in the north, and 
from the presidency of Bengal to that of Madras 
in the south. Mornington also instituted the 
principle of subsidiary treaties, which provided 
that the native states which accepted them should 
keep no troops except those hired from the 
Anglo-Indian government ; should not take up 
arms against each other but refer all disputes to 
British arbitration ; should remain within the 
territorial limits imposed upon them ; and should 
enter into no negotiations with foreign powers. 
Incidentally he earned the eternal gratitude of 
the Rajputs, the great fighting clans of India, in 
delivering them from extinction by the Marathas. 
Above all, as we have seen, he took possession of 
Delhi, the key of Northern India ; and the 
object of all these vast designs and enterprises 
was to give the country, what it had never yet 
enjoyed, the blessing of peace. 

Mornington's policy was in the highest sense 
imperial, but it had cost much money ; and by 
1805 both the Directors of the Company and 

47 



CORNWALLIS AND MINTO 

the Board of Control were of opinion that he 
would be better at home. He returned, 
therefore, to be honoured with the title of 
Marquess Wellesley, but not with that to which, 
in his sublime conceit, he aspired, of Duke of 
India. He was succeeded by Lord Cornwallis, 
too commonplace a man to sympathise with 
Wellesley's masterful views of political supre- 
macy and of keeping the peace in India. He 
thought that England should remain strictly 
within her own boundaries and not interfere with 
her neighbours ; but before he could carry his 
opinions into action he died, bequeathing them 
first to a temporary successor, Sir George 
Barlow, who is remembered chiefly by the fact 
that he goaded the officers of the Madras Army 
into open mutiny. Lord Minto, who presently 
superseded Barlow, endeavoured likewise to 
follow the precepts of Cornwallis and to avoid 
all foreign complications ; but being confronted 
with the schemes of Napoleon and Alexander 
for invasion of India, he was fain to send missions 
to Persia, Afghanistan and the Sikhs to secure 
his north-west frontier ; and to despatch expedi- 
tions to Mauritius and Java, which extinguished 
every French and Dutch settlement in the East. 
The quarrel between the two European poten- 
tates, and the invasion of Russia by Napoleon, 
released him from any further apprehension from 
the west ; and meanwhile he had the good sense 
to make a firm stand in another direction. A 
man of genius, Ranjit Singh, having reorganised 

48 



RANJIT SINGH AND THE SIKHS 

the Sikhs as a military power, had united all the 
petty chieftainships of the Panjab into a great 
military despotism. In 1808 he was inclined to 
extend his frontier to south of the Satlaj ; but 
desisted in consequence of representations from 
Lord Minto that England would not permit it. 
Checked thus on the south-eastern side, Ranjit 
Singh came to a friendly agreement with the 
British as to his south-eastern border, and took 
advantage of civil dissensions in Afghanistan to 
carry his sovereignty beyond the Indus and to 
annex Kashmir. 

But though severely bitten with the doctrines 
of Cornwallis, Lord Minto found himself obliged 
once again to interfere beyond the British 
frontiers. True to his principle he had allowed 
Central India to take care of itself; and there 
had arisen in it bands of freebooters, some of 
which under a celebrated leader. Amir Khan, 
were finally united into a compact force of thirty 
thousand men. These bands were known as the 
Pindaris, but were mere brigands who overran 
all territories impartially, plundering and devas- 
tating not only with ruthlessness but with 
barbarous cruelty. This Amir Khan fastened 
himself upon Rajputana, which from internal 
strife and general weakness was powerless against 
him ; and, in spite of Wellesley's effort for their 
salvation, the Rajputs were once more in danger 
of being eaten up. Minto was obliged to send 
an army to check Amir Khan's entry into the 
territory of England's allies, but he made no effort 

49 E 



THE EXPEDITION TO NIPAL 

to extinguish the evil of these predatory bands 
altogether. The danger was the greater, for the 
Maratha leaders Sindia, Holkar and Bonsla 
were still chafing over their lost predominance, 
and might well look to the Pindaris as useful 
auxiliaries. 

Happily, upon the departure of Lord Minto 
his place was taken by a true disciple of Wellesley 
and a very able soldier. General, Lord Hastings. 
Soon after his arrival, in 1814, his attention was 
claimed by the encroachments of the Gurkhas in 
Nipal who, having trained and equipped their 
men after the European fashion, conquered easily 
the local chiefs in the hills and descended upon 
the English territory in the plain. An expedi- 
tion was sent to punish them under Sir RoUo 
Gillespie, a man who, if it were safe to fasten 
such a title upon a single individual, might be 
described as the bravest soldier that ever wore 
the red coat. He failed, however, at the outset, 
and was himself among the killed ; nor was it 
until 1815 that Sir David Ochterlony reduced 
the Gurkhas to sue for peace, in return for which 
they ceded a long tract of the lower Himalayas, 
thus carrying the British frontier up to that of 
the Chinese Empire. This was the first of our 
many expeditions into the mountains in the north 
and north-west, and our first and last war with 
the Gurkhas, whose regiments have made so 
famous a name for themselves under the British 

Meanwhile the situation in Central India 

so 



HASTINGS AND CENTRAL INDIA 

grew worse and worse ; and the Pindaris, secretly 
abetted by the Maratha chiefs, made raids upon 
the presidencies both of Bengal and of Madras. 
The Rajput Raja of Jaipur, groaning under the 
oppressions of these robbers, appealed to the 
Governor-General for help ; and Lord Hastings 
decided that Central India must be reduced to 
order once for all. Sindia with some difficulty 
was overawed into co-operation with the British ; 
but the Peshwa, Bonsla and Holkar openly 
sided against them, only to meet with decisive 
repulses after hard fighting near Puna, in 
Nagpur and at Mehidpur. The Pindaris were 
hunted down by the British cavalry ; and their 
leader, Chitu, was driven into the jungle and 
there killed by a tiger. The Peshwa was deposed, 
his office extinguished, and most of his territory 
annexed. 

The boundaries of the dominions of Sindia, 
Holkar and Bonsla were carefully laid down, and 
the predatory system of the Marathas was brought 
to an end. Furthermore, it was ordained that 
in every state in Central India the British Govern- 
ment should in future control all foreign relations, 
arbitrate in all disputes with neighbours, super- 
vise generally through a Resident the domestic 
administration, and hold superior command of all 
subsidiary forces and contingents. Thus the 
peace of Central India was not only enforced for 
the present, but assured for the future ; and the 
policy of Lord Wellesley was carried to its 
appointed end. Few remember the merit of 

51 



THE FIRST BURMESE WAR 

Lord Hastings, either by that name, by his earlier 
title of Lord Moira, or by his earliest as Lord 
Rawdon, which he bore when he first won fame 
as a commander at the action of Hobkirk's Hill 
in the American War. As a politician at home 
he was a failure ; as a military commander he 
lacked opportunity of distinction in his mature 
age ; but he was none the less a great soldier 
and a great administrator, whose hand impressed 
itself permanently upon the future of India. 

There were now but two points at which the 
frontier of India was threatened with disturbance, 
in the north-west by the Sikhs and in the north- 
east by the ruler of Burma. This last had 
been welded into a single kingdom by conquest 
while England was still busy over the subdual 
of Bengal; and the Burmese armies in 1823 
carried their aggression so far to the south 
and west as to invade border-states which were 
under British protection. Lord Amherst, the 
Governor-General, therefore, sent an expedition 
to Rangoon, which, after a campaign of two 
years, dictated at Ava terms of peace, under 
which the British gained a safe frontier by the 
cession of Assam, Arakan and Tenasserim, and 
by the recognition of their protectorate over 
sundry minor states. But while the army was 
engaged in Burma, the throne of Bharatpur 
(Bhurtpore), a protected state, fell vacant, and 
was usurped by a pretender. Such usurpation 
was a direct menace to the peace of India, and 
Sir David Ochterlony, who was then Resident 

52 



LORD WILLIAM BENTINCK 

at Delhi, promptly assembled a considerable 
force to march against Bharatpur, and to vindi- 
cate the principles laid down by Hastings. So 
little, however, did Amherst understand his duty 
that he countermanded Ochterlony's prepara- 
tions in terms of preposterous harshness. The 
veteran general, a man worth twenty Amhersts, 
thereupon resigned ; but he was so much cha- 
grined alike by his chief's departure from sound 
policy, and by the slight put upon himself, that 
he died shortly afterwards. However, Amherst 
after all was obliged to do himself what he had 
forbidden to Sir David ; and the fortress of Bharat- 
pur, which had foiled four successive assaults of 
the fiery Lake, fell before a systematic siege by 
Lord Combermere in 1826. 

Then in 1828 came a new Governor-General, 
Lord William Bentinck, who combined with the 
office that of Commander-in-Chief also. As a 
soldier he had served with no great distinction in 
Spain and in Italy, and as an administrator he had 
been recalled from Madras in 1807 on account 
of his responsibility for the mutiny at Vellore ; 
wherefore it is upon his later work in India that 
his reputation, unduly exalted by the fact that 
Macaulay wrote his epitaph, must be taken to 
rest. He is remembered chiefly for his aboli- 
tion of the rite of sati, or widow-burning, and 
because he was the first Governor-General who 
made the material progress of the country his 
special care ; and in virtue of these peculiar 
services he holds a just title to fame. On the 

53 



MIXED VIRTUES AND FAILINGS 

other hand, his name is associated with certain 
acts of economy and false humanity which leave 
a terrible blot upon his memory. He blew up 
the celebrated great gun of Agra to make money 
out of the metal ; he tried to sell the Taj Mahal ; 
and, in order to save twenty thousand pounds, 
he nearly caused a mutiny among the British 
officers of the Bengal army, by cutting off, in 
direct breach of faith, one of their allowances. 
The Directors of the East India Company had 
pressed this last measure upon previous Governors- 
General, but every one had refused to take it ; 
and its most mischievous result was that it 
lowered their officers in the eyes of the Sepoys, 
contributing not a little to create the spirit 
which brought about the Mutiny in 1857. 
Not content with this, Bentinck injured the 
discipline of the Sepoys still more by abolishing 
the punishment of the lash in native regiments, 
in the face of unanimous advice to the contrary 
both from Europeans and Indian officers.^ 
Further, he threw to the winds the policy of 
Wellesley and Hastings, by abstaining, so far as 
possible, from intervention in the internal strife 
of protected states. In other words, he tried 
to abjure his responsibilities as constable for the 
maintenance of peace in India ; allowing in the 
name of humanity full scope to disorder, which 
is only another name for human misery, until 
more than once even he at last found himself 
obliged to interfere. Lastly, it was Bentinck 

1 This measure was in fact revoked by his successors. 
54 



AUCKLAND AND AFGHANISTAN 

who was answerable at the very end of his term 
of office for the decree that made English the 
official language of India, and thereby held up 
the acquisition of a little superficial Western 
culture as the ideal to be attained by young 
Indians of talent. On the whole, excuse could 
be found for a Governor-General if he prayed 
that the record of his rule might be better than 
that of Bentinck. 

Still during Lord William's term there was 
no war ; very far otherwise was it with his 
successor Lord Auckland. After the fall of 
Napoleon Russia had resumed her march east- 
ward, and very soon was pressing upon Persia. 
Though bound by a treaty of alliance to defend 
the Shah against aggression, England, in dismay 
at finding herself in contact with an European 
power, decided in 1828 to ask release from 
her obligations, and drew back her defensive 
frontier to Afghanistan. She thereupon became 
supremely interested in that country, where the 
sceptre, by a transition common in the East, 
had passed from Shah Shuja, the legitimate de- 
scendant of Ahmad Shah Abdali, to the prime 
minister. Dost Mohammed. Matters were 
brought to a crisis in 1837 ^7 ^^^ advance of 
a Persian army on Herat ; the Shah, who had 
ceded territory to Russia in the west, being 
anxious to compensate himself by encroach- 
ments to the east. Russia promptly offered 
assistance to Dost Mohammed, who, however, 
was much more inclined to throw himself upon 

55 



THE YEAR OF DISASTER 

British protection. But Auckland received his 
overtures coldly ; and, though a British expedi- 
tion to the Persian Gulf sufficed to raise the 
siege of Herat, yet the Governor-General deter- 
mined to settle the Afghan question in another 
way by entering into a treaty with the Sikhs 
and with Shah Shuja to replace the latter on 
the throne. Accordingly, in 1838 a British 
force advanced to Kandahar, and Shah Shuja 
was restored with little difficulty. 

The only means of maintaining his rule, 
however, was through a military occupation of 
Afghanistan by the British, and this, not less 
than the original invasion, was an undertaking 
of extreme danger. The base for the expedi- 
tion was Scinde, a foreign country whose rulers, 
the Baluchi Amirs, were not too friendly to the 
British ; while on the flank of our communica- 
tions was the Panjab, now organised into a great 
military power by the genius of Ranjit Singh, 
and exceedingly suspicious of our movements. 
The occupation was much resented by the free 
Afghan tribes, whose discontent in 1841 ripened 
into a general insurrection. The supplies of the 
British were cut off, and the troops were harassed 
by eternal petty fighting before the evacuation 
of Kabul, unwisely deferred until the winter, 
was finally carried out. The result, as is well 
known, was disastrous, for out of a total force 
of sixteen thousand men but one escaped. Lord 
Auckland, absolutely unnerved by a catastrophe 
unparalleled in the history of the British in 

56 



NAPIER IN SCINDE 

India, made no effort to retrieve their fallen 
fortunes ; Lord Ellenborough, who succeeded 
him in February 1842, shrank equally from a 
task so formidable ; and it was left to two 
British generals, Nott and Pollock, to advance 
upon their own responsibility from Kandahar 
and Jelalabad to Kabul, and to restore the 
reputation of the British arms by a final 
triumphant campaign. 

Even so, however, the capital of Afghanistan 
was recaptured only to be speedily abandoned, 
together with every political object which 
Auckland's aggression had sought to attain. 
Moreover, the destruction of the British force 
at Kabul had dangerously shattered the prestige 
of the East India Company, and raised up a 
large crop of enemies. First the Amirs of 
Scinde, for violation of an unwelcome treaty 
which had been thrust upon them, were 
attacked by Sir Charles Napier, defeated in two 
great battles at Miani and Hyderabad, and com- 
pelled to cede to us Karachi and the estuary of 
the Indus. This was on the whole the most 
brilliant campaign ever fought by the British 
in India. Next the Sikh army, released from 
the iron discipline of Ranjit Singh in 1839, had 
become uncontrollable, while at the same time 
the army of Sindia had been augmented to 
dangerous dimensions and, owing to a contest 
over the guardianship of an infant ruler, might 
easily become an element of danger. Rightly 
perceiving the menace to the peace of India 

57 



THE FIRST SIKH WAR 

involved in the existence of these two master- 
less hordes, Ellenborough dealt first with the 
Marathas, who in two battles, Maharajpore and 
Panniar, fought on the same day (December 
29, 1843), were reduced to powerlessness for 
mischief. But these masterful methods of 
anticipating and averting peril did not commend 
themselves to the Directors of the East India 
Company, and in 1844 Ellenborough was 
unceremoniously recalled. 

His successor. Sir Henry Hardinge, a soldier 
of deserved reputation, found that Ellenborough's 
forebodings were well justified ; for within less 
than six months after his arrival the Sikhs 
crossed the Satlaj into British territory (Dec. 
1844). Then followed the severest fighting 
ever experienced by the British in India, for 
their General-in-Chief was unskilful and their 
enemy most gallant and steadfast. Four well- 
contested actions, Mudki, Ferozeshah, Aliwal 
and Sobraon, were necessary to bring the army 
of the Sikhs to reason. Hardinge thereupon 
confiscated all Sikh territory on the left bank 
of the Satlaj and the tract between that river 
and the Beas, exacted an indemnity of a million 
and a half, enforced the disbandment of many 
Sikh regiments, and, limiting the full number of 
their army to thirty-two thousand men, fondly 
imagined that he had given India permanent 
peace. In vain men of deeper insight urged the 
annexation of the Panjab, and the Government 
of Lahore predicted a second rising of the army 

58 



THE SECOND SIKH WAR 

against itself: Hardinge, not without reason, 
thought his armed force insufficient to execute a 
more thorough policy ; so he did what he could 
and hoped for the best. All was still quiet 
when at the end of 1847 he made over the 
viceroyalty to his successor Lord Dalhousie. 

Within three months after Hardinge's 
departure the peace was broken. Upon a 
trifling pretext the Sikhs again rose in insurrec- 
tion, and, after a very bloody and indecisive 
action at Chilianwala, they were finally crushed 
by the victory of Gujrat. They had fought 
nobly, but had been ruined by their own 
indiscipline. Dalhousie, refusing to risk further 
trouble in the Panjab, annexed it ; and its 
administration was refounded from the very base 
under the inspiration of Henry Lawrence, but 
under the actual rule of his brother John, aided 
by such young officers as John Nicholson and 
Herbert Edwardes. The like work is now in 
hand in the Soudan, where British officers are 
proving themselves worthy successors of their 
forerunners in the Panjab. The annexation 
brought the British frontier up to the foot of 
the Afghan hills, and made the conquerors re- 
sponsible for checking any further invasions of 
India from the north-west. This was and is no 
trifling burden, even though recent events have 
tended somewhat to lighten it ; for the task of 
punishing the raids of the predatory tribes in 
the mountains has been continuous and endless. 
The second Sikh campaign, however, was the 

59 



POLICY OF DALHOUSIE 

last campaign of conquest to be fought within 
the bounds of India, for it assured the British 
their supremacy in the country. 

Hardly had this most important object been 
accomplished in the north-west, when Dalhousie's 
attention was called to the south-east by the 
impracticable conduct of the government of 
Burma. A short campaign in 1852 sufficed to 
defeat the Burman armies ; and the province of 
Pegu in Lower Burma, with the estuary of the 
Irawadi, was likewise annexed by the British, 
completing their hold on the entire coast-line of 
the Bay of Bengal. But Dalhousie did not stop 
at annexations by conquest. He was not only a 
Governor-General of Wellesley's type, who took 
it to be England's highest duty to maintain the 
peace of India, but he was also a typical Whig 
of the early nineteenth century, firmly convinced 
that British institutions were the last word in 
political wisdom, and quite satisfied that British 
rule was not only the best but the most 
acceptable that could be offered to every part of 
India, Hence, when the sovereignty of a native 
state lapsed through want of natural heirs to 
the reigning dynasty, he thought it not only 
expedient but morally binding upon him to 
disallow the adoption of an heir, and to take the 
state permanently into British possession. For 
this reason he annexed Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur, 
and some less important states. Finally, in 1856 
he annexed Oudh upon the perfectly sufficient 
ground that the misgovernment of its rulers was 

60 



RESULTS OF THAT POLICY 

insufferable, and in fact kept the entire state in a 
condition bordering upon anarchy. 

There can be no question of the honesty of 
Dalhousie's plans and intentions for the good of 
India ; but he had not sufficiently pondered 
Burke's saying, that most of the evils of this 
world arise from the efforts of one set of men to 
determine concerning the happiness of others. 
The failing was, and is, by no means confined 
to him ; indeed there are signs that England 
herself is entering upon an era of compulsory 
happiness, which is without a precedent in her 
history. In India, however, Dalhousie's feverish 
haste and boundless self-confidence in the 
substitution of British for native ideas and 
prejudices begat suspicion and unrest. His 
eagerness to do away with misrule was construed 
as rapacity of power ; and his zeal to abolish 
usages, which shocked his Western sensibility, 
was misinterpreted as a deep design to over- 
throw ancient custom and tradition. He 
brought, in fact, to a head all the discontent 
which had been bred by the mistakes, mis- 
conceptions and offences of every Englishman 
who had lived in India from the beginning of 
British rule. But it is due to him to add that 
he foresaw that trouble might come of some of 
his measures, until their good intent had been 
proved by experience, and that he asked, though 
in vain, for an increase of the British garrison to 
avert all peril meanwhile. 

Now, however, the establishment of peace 

6i 



THE MUTINY OF 1857 

through the length and breadth of India left the 
native army idle. In the course of a century 
the Sepoys, joined to the British, had met and 
vanquished every armed force in the land, and 
seeing their British officers steadily belittled both 
by the East India Company and by successive 
Commanders-in-Chief, the native soldiers thought 
that they themselves had accomplished every- 
thing and were invincible. An insult to their 
religious prejudices, which seems to have been 
fancied, though by them believed to be real, 
sufficed to make them break out in May 1857 
into open mutiny and murder ; and they were 
joined, as was natural, by all the bad characters 
and very many of the dissatisfied in India at 
large. The insurrection was, as has been well 
said, a wild fanatic outbreak ; yet, viewed soberly 
at a distance of more than fifty years, its weak- 
ness and helplessness are the facts that show 
themselves in strongest relief. Though in more 
than one quarter British officials and officers 
blundered seriously, yet it can hardly be said 
that the issue was doubtful after the first two 
months, though the final restoration of peace and 
order was delayed, owing not a little to military 
mismanagement, until 1859. 

Some months earlier, on the ist of November 
1858, it was announced by proclamation that the 
East India Company was abolished, and that the 
Government of India had been taken over by the 
Queen, with Lord Canning, the reigning Governor- 
General, for her first Viceroy. Incidentally the 

62 



INDIA UNDER THE CROWN 

suppression of the mutiny had laid the uneasy 
ghosts of certain great names and offices which 
had long perished in substance from India. "The 
phantom of a Mogul Emperor and his Court 
vanished from Delhi ; the last pretender to the 
honours of the Maratha Peshwa disappeared 
from Cawnpore." The East India Company, 
whose authority had been long threatened and 
continually weakened by successive Acts of 
Parliament, was finally extinguished. The 
British Crown assumed the unquestioned sove- 
reignty of India ; the new ruler. Queen Victoria, 
announced that she would always labour for the 
prosperity of her newly acquired dominions ; 
and she faithfully kept her word. 



VI 

Since that time there has been unbroken 
internal peace in India. Dalhousie's policy of 
annexation was definitely repudiated in i860, 
and all ruling chiefs received the Queen's assur- 
ance that, in default of natural heirs, successors 
chosen by adoption according to the law and 
custom of their families would be recognised 
and upheld by the British Government. Twice 
indeed the Government has intervened to depose 
rulers convicted of culpable misconduct or mal- 
administration, but in each case the vacancy has 
been filled by another representative of the 
reigning family. So far indeed is the Crown 

63 



NORTH-WEST FRONTIER WARS 

from desiring to absorb native states that in 1881 
it actually restored Mysore to the ancient Hindu 
family from which Haidar Ali had taken it in 
the eighteenth century, though the burden of 
reconquest had fallen wholly upon the British. 

On the other hand, on the frontiers, and 
particularly in the north-west, there has been 
constant trouble with predatory tribes, and a long 
succession of expeditions. In 1863 the moun- 
taineers about the Peshawar valley needed to be 
taught a stern lesson by what is known as the 
Umbeyla campaign. In 1864 it was necessary 
to send troops into Bhutan, a small state lying 
to east of Nipal, which, however, soon saw the 
advisability of submission, and has since given 
no trouble. In 1876 Baluchistan, whose unruly 
clans were constantly troubling the British 
border, was by successful diplomacy turned into 
a British protectorate ; and two years later a 
similar result was brought about, principally by 
force of arms, in Afghanistan. In 1878 as a 
consequence of European complications, Russia 
sent an envoy to Kabul, who drew up a treaty 
of alliance with the Amir, Sher Ali, on the 
strength of which that potentate, in defiance of 
all warning, refused to receive a British mission. 
His territory was therefore invaded. The 
Amir fled ; and after his death in 1879 his son 
Yakub Khan, in return for certain concessions, 
was set up by us as Amir, agreeing at the same 
time to admit the British envoy whom his father 
had excluded. Within three months that un- 

64 



THE AMIR ABDUR RAHMAN 

fortunate gentleman was assassinated, and the 
whole country rose up in arms against Yakub Khan 
and his British allies. Not without difficulty 
and danger Kabul and Kandahar were held, but 
the outbreak seemed to be hopeless, for the 
Government of India had never contemplated 
the subdual of the whole country, and yet there 
appeared to be no prospect of an end to anarchy if 
the British garrisons were withdrawn. Happily 
at this moment came forward Abdur Rahman, 
nephew of a still earlier Amir, whom the Viceroy 
offered to accept as Yakub Khan's successor and 
to protect against foreign aggression. In 1880 
the matter was finally settled, and the British 
troops were about to withdraw, when a younger 
son of Sher Ali, Ayub Khan, marched with 
an army from Herat, routed a British force 
which attempted to check him, and invested the 
British garrison at Kandahar. He was, however, 
presently attacked and defeated by Sir Frederick 
Roberts, who had marched from Kabul to the 
relief of Kandahar ; and Abdur Rahman was left 
in charge of the country. Being a man of 
remarkable ability and indomitable will he soon 
established his authority on all sides, and put an 
end to the internal disorder which had distracted 
Afghanistan for generations. There was a criti- 
cal moment in 1885 when a dispute about the 
frontier brought the Russians and Afghans into 
actual collision, and Russia and England to the 
verge of war ; but hostilities were averted, and 
the border was demarcated by international 

65 F 



CHITRAL; BURMA; TIBET 

agreement. Since then the convention of 1907 
has still further improved relations betw^een 
England and Russia, and, thanks to the removal 
of this long-standing cause of quarrel and to the 
firm rule of Abdur Rahman, Afghanistan for 
more than twenty years has been unusually quiet 
and prosperous. Upon the death of Abdur 
Rahman in 1901 his place w^as taken by his 
son, the present Amir, without a sign of any 
revolt or contest for the succession. 

There was no further disturbance in the 
north-west until 1896, when the British pro- 
tectorate was extended to the tribes on the 
western border of Kashmir. These rose and 
besieged the British garrison in Chitral, which 
was not rescued without hard fighting and a 
dangerous and difficult expedition. This pro- 
tectorate brought the British frontier up to that 
of the Chinese Empire in Kashgar. 

The next quarter in which there was trouble 
was Burma, where the King had not only mal- 
treated British subjects, but was secretly favour- 
ing French interests in his country to the 
prejudice of the British. As he seemed deaf 
to all warnings, a British force marched to 
Mandalay in November 1885. Upper Burma 
was annexed, and after two years of hard work 
order was restored in the land. The tribes 
on the extreme east in due time became our 
tributaries ; and on this side again we have 
come into contact with China. 

Lastly, the expedition to Lhasa in 1903—4, 

66 



ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRESS 

put an end, as was thought, to the encroach- 
ments of the last of our northern neighbours. 
But the situation was presently complicated 
by the expulsion of the Grand Lama from 
Tibet by Chinese troops, and has since been 
still further confounded by the return of the 
Grand Lama to his capital in consequence 
of the domestic troubles of China. Recent 
occurrences, indeed, have revived in great 
measure our anxieties not only in the north, 
but in the north-west ; for with complete 
anarchy in Persia, and vast changes which may 
signify anarchy, or at least long intestine dis- 
turbance, in China, it is not easy to forecast 
where troubles may begin or end upon the 
Indian frontier. 

So much for external affairs since i860 ; 
let us now glance for a moment at internal 
progress within the same period. The first 
great administrative measures were the recon- 
stitution of the Governor-General's Council for 
purposes of legislation in 1861 ; the enactment 
of the Penal Code and the Code of Criminal 
Procedure in the same year, and the passing of 
a succession of Acts to serve, as well as could 
be designed, in lieu of codification of the Civil 
Law. This great and essential preliminary 
work having been done for the foundation of 
a stable order, it remained to carry administra- 
tive reforms gradually into every department, 
and to endeavour by patience, tact, and under- 
standing, to train the people of India to 

67 



MATERIAL PROGRESS 

sympathy with the, to them, new idea of 
government by fixed law. Concurrently, educa- 
tion was promoted according to the ideas laid 
down by Lord William Bentinck, and conse- 
crated by the approval of Lord Macaulay. 
Latterly Indians have been admitted more and 
more freely to high administrative and judicial 
offices ; and a first step has been made towards 
representative institutions by the introduction 
of municipalities into all considerable towns, 
and of Legislative Councils first into the 
provinces and recently into the seat of supreme 
government. 

Material enterprise has kept pace with 
administrative progress. Great public works 
have been undertaken ; the country has been 
covered with a network of railways ; and 
gigantic schemes of irrigation have made huge 
areas productive which were formerly sterile, 
already disarming the spectre of famine of some 
of its terrors, and bidding fair, with further 
development, to weaken it still more. With 
peace and order assured, with fertility enhanced, 
with improved means of transport from the 
interior to the sea, the wealth of the country 
has been augmented, the population has in- 
creased, and the habits of the people have been 
sensibly affected. Finally, the assumption by 
Queen Victoria of the title of Empress of India 
emphasised the incorporation of the great 
Peninsula into the British Empire, while her 
deep personal interest in Indian affairs brought 

68 



THE MEANING OF EDUCATION 

home to all her Indian subjects that they were 
indeed the children of the Great White Queen. 

Yet the administrative policy and actions of 
England, honestly and unselfishly designed for 
the good of India, have not borne the fruit 
which was hoped for. The results of higher 
education, in the Western sense, have not always 
fulfilled the hopes and aims of its advocates. 
It is true that this experience is by no means 
confined to India among British possessions, nor 
to British possessions in the world at large ; 
but nevertheless the real end of education seems 
to be more dangerously misconceived in India 
than elsewhere, or at any rate the consequences 
of such misconception are peculiarly disturbing 
to Indian students. The truth perhaps is that 
there is much confusion of thought as to the 
meaning of the word education, for the term 
is used to cover two descriptions of training — 
that of the intellect and character for making 
a good citizen, and that of the hand, eye and 
brain for the making of a good craftsman. The 
latter is a means to an end, the former is an end 
in itself; but modern enthusiasts for so-called 
education have confounded these two things. 
They have breezily assumed that if a man be 
taught in theory to conduct himself fittingly as 
a social unit, all other things shall be added 
unto him ; that, if he be trained in theory to 
exercise the suffrage, he will thereby be qualified 
to earn an honest living. In brief, they have 
forgotten that a full belly, and not a full 

69 



THE TWO CIVIC VIRTUES 

brain is the vital condition of individual human 
life. 

In former days in England the distinction 
between the two kinds of education was care- 
fully observed ; and indeed it may be said that as 
a rule both kinds were rarely given to one man. 
The English gentleman, having higher civic 
duties imposed upon him than, as a rule, had the 
craftsman, trained himself to fulfil them by study 
of the laws of his country. The craftsman 
learned his craft through apprenticeship to a 
guild, and, having mastered it, could claim 
that he too had done his part as a good 
citizen ; even though private bounty had estab- 
lished many schools where the poorer children 
might learn at any rate to read, write and 
cipher. But the children of both rich and 
poor were brought up on perhaps the noblest 
brief code of citizenship ever drawn up by 
human hand — the exposition of one's duty 
towards one's neighbour in the Church Cate- 
chism. Hereby they were taught that the 
two great civic virtues are self-respect and self- 
sacrifice ; and this is a lesson which cannot be 
improved upon. Since then times have changed 
greatly. The right of voting at parliamentary 
elections has been given practically to every 
adult male ; and the obligation to learn how 
to read, write and cipher has been forced without 
cost to parents upon every child. Knowledge 
of the law has, for quite sufficient reasons, 
perished from among the gentry ; and know- 

70 



RIGHTS AND DUTIES 

ledge of their duty towards their neighbour is 
perishing from among all classes. It seems to 
have been hoped that what is called a literary 
education would make good and more than make 
good all that has hereby been lost, for train- 
ing the young to self-respect and self-sacrifice. 

Now it must be observed that self-sacrifice 
has always been exacted in the form of taxation 
by every state, as well as in other forms, such 
as service on juries, in the militia, and so forth. 
With the more elaborate organisation of society, 
however, the tendency in England has been to 
make fewer and fewer claims upon the citizen ; 
to encourage him, in fact, to think much of his 
rights and little of his duties. Other nations 
exact from all adult males a period of military 
training ; England not only makes no such 
demand, but has swept away the old militia 
through which it was — perhaps still is — the law 
that every man must pass. British state educa- 
tion in the matter of self-sacrifice must therefore 
be set down as imperfect : let us now examine 
it in the matter of self-respect. The first step 
to self-respect is undoubtedly self-dependence ; 
and it is probable that the old system which 
made the power to earn a livelihood the first 
point in the education of the mass of the people, 
was at least as good as the new. On the other 
hand, since the franchise has now been extended 
to all men, it is arguable that they should be 
trained to exercise that privilege aright ; and 
that therefore the key to all knowledge should 

71 



LITERARY EDUCATION 

be placed impartially in the hands of all. 
Hence more and more time is given to deliver- 
ing the rudiments of a literary education to 
children ; and 2i still higher literary education 
is taken to be the ideal for those whom fortune 
has not compelled to work with their hands. 

Yet literary education, the advantage of 
which I am not concerned to deny, is after all 
a luxury and hardly a necessity. At its highest 
it aims at imparting " the knowledge of the 
best that has been thought and said in the 
world," or what is often called culture ; and, 
if such culture were more widely diffused, it 
would undoubtedly be the better for all of us. 
But much time, much labour and peculiar 
gifts are needed for its acquisition, and still 
more peculiar gifts for its rightful employ- 
ment. It may perhaps be called the highest 
of all luxuries, too much despised by the rich, 
who can best afford to gain it ; never perhaps 
so truly prized as by the honourable poor, who 
sometimes starve themselves to win it ; but in 
any case a luxury of luxuries, enjoyable only by 
the few. Shepherds on different sides of the 
world are perhaps the most remarkable of its 
votaries. In Scotland there is the born 
shepherd, unmatched in his own business of 
tending sheep, but happy in the industry and 
devotion which has made him learn Shakespcre 
by heart, and master thoroughly the history of 
ancient Greece and Rome. In Australia there 
is the young graduate of Oxford or Cambridge, 

72 



AN END IN ITSELF 

an intelligent student and no mean scholar 
who, finding no work to do, has become a 
shepherd — and probably an indifferent shepherd 
— in Australia upon " five bob a day and his 
tucker," and consoles himself for a dreary out- 
look in life with his Homer and his Aeschylus. 

These are men who use their literary educa- 
tion aright as an end in itself; but they are 
the exception. It is hard to see how they 
should be otherwise. In the first place, the 
State gives facilities for technical education to 
follow upon the earlier literary education ; and 
technical education is simply a means to a 
commercial end. In the second place, parents, 
schoolmasters and tutors never cease to hold 
up to students the commercial as well as the 
intellectual value of a good degree at the 
University ; while the State itself has made 
competitive examinations in literary subjects 
the means of ingress to the Civil Service. 
The truth is, that a great many students, unless 
they had a vague idea that culture would 
ultimately in some way provide them with a 
livelihood, would not pursue it at all ; they 
would abandon it for more practical work, 
perhaps, though not certainly, to return to it 
later with joy. But few teachers have the 
heart to damp the ardour of an eager lad by 
telling him that his desperate struggles with two 
dead languages must be their own reward, and 
cannot stand between him and starvation. 
Hence when the time comes for the youth's 

73 



EDUCATION IN INDIA 

entry in earnest upon the battlefield of life 
there is bitter disillusion and disappointment. 
There is not room for more than a very few 
in the ranks, already overcrowded, of the public 
service or of the learned professions ; and he must 
seek his bread elsewhere. The English- 
speaking world is wide ; he crosses the ocean 
to seek his fortune ; and after many humiliations 
he settles down to be a shepherd or a boundary- 
rider, happy or embittered according to his 
temperament, but sometimes broken-hearted, and 
always a little astonished. 

In India the case of the student is still worse. 
It is difficult enough even for an European to 
assimilate with discrimination the best that has 
been thought and said in his world ; for in the 
first place there is considerable difference of 
opinion as to what is the best, and in the 
second, the best, unless rightly understood, may 
easily become the worst. The true value of 
education is to teach people to realise their own 
ignorance ; but no common knowledge is 
necessary to master this lesson, and no ordinary 
courage in the young to accept it as worth 
learning. Youth always craves for certainty, 
and finds it easiest to treat the knowledge, which 
flatters its own crude prejudices, as the best. In 
India the danger of haste and misunderstanding 
is multiplied an hundredfold. There public 
instruction is a new thing, and in its higher 
branches is based on foreign thought embodied 
in a foreign literature, while the intellects to 

74 



ENGLISH HISTORY AT FAULT 

which it is offered are singularly quick, subtle 
and voracious. What is its object ? To train 
young men to good citizenship ? But citizen- 
ship in the East is a very different thing to 
citizenship in the West. The most eloquent 
passages in English history and oratory are 
those devoted to conflict with Royal authority, 
the dethronement of Kings, and the conquest 
of what is called civil and religious liberty. 
The most famous of English legal enactments 
are those which strike at the power of the 
Crown and curb the domination of the priest- 
hood. Pontiffs and autocrats have undoubtedly 
been responsible for much of the evil that has 
plagued the world, but they have also been re- 
sponsible for much,— perhaps most— of the good 
that has improved it ; and it may be questioned 
whether the Anglo-Saxon is not over prone to 
exalt resistance to authority as something m 
itself meritorious. In any case the classical 
incidents of English history do not furnish sound 
models for good citizenship in India. ^ How 
should an intelligent Indian see any profit in such 
literary training if it is not to yield him a liveli- 
hood ? But outside the public service and the 
legal and medical professions there is no demand 
for Indians of European education ; and the 
number of candidates far exceeds the places that 
can possibly be found for them. The Indian 
cannot, like the Englishman, smother his dis- 
appointment and bury himself in the Colonies. 
The natural result is that the unsuccessful are 

75 



THE PAX BRITANNICA 

bitterly discontented, that they cry out for the 
vote which they have been educated in theory 
to employ, and that they agitate for Society to 
be altered in order to fit their needs, because 
they find that Society in its present state offers 
no outlet for their accomplishments. 

Again, the bare enforcement of the pax 
Britannica^ though of infinite relief and benefit 
to the peasant, that is to say, to perhaps three 
hundred out of the three hundred and twenty 
millions, is galling to more ambitious spirits. 
The old medium of competition in India 
was the sword, and the country was the 
Paradise of adventurers. A soldier of genius at 
the head of a handful of villagers might carve 
out a kingdom and found a dynasty, enlisting 
the unhappy peasants, whose homesteads he had 
ruined, as his mercenaries. Then in due time 
the Court gathered about itself artists and crafts- 
men to build temples and palaces, to compose 
poems and histories, and to preserve those 
compositions in a beautiful script embellished 
with even more beautiful illuminations. The 
prosaic work of peace is not yet found to be 
equally inspiring ; the railway and the canal, 
even though the canal may mean the difference 
between life and death to tens of thousands, 
awake no lyrics. All is quiet, but all is 
uninteresting. As a French critic said, the 
British Government is just, but it is not lovable. 

To many of us at home this fact will seem 
strange and even mortifying. The British 

76 



AN AUSTERE GOVERNMENT 

civilian's ideal of duty towards India is very 
high, and he labours honestly and conscientiously 
to fulfil it. The British military officer, being 
thrown daily and hourly with his Indian officers 
and men, is even more closely in touch with 
Indian thought and feeling than the civilian, and 
frequently makes the more successful adminis- 
trator of the two. We know the names of men 
in both services whose deep interest in the 
Indians and sympathy with them has found 
expression in what may be termed the classic 
literature of British India, in the writings of 
Orme and Grant Duff, Henry Maine and Alfred 
Lyall among civilians, and of Mark Wilks and 
Meadows Taylor among soldiers. One soldier, 
John Nicholson, as is well known, is still 
worshipped by some Indians as a god. More- 
over, we may confidently believe that there are 
men of this stamp always to be found among 
the British servants of the Indian Government. 
And yet that Government as a whole is to the in- 
habitants something distant and aloof; respected, 
indeed, as is the austere father of a family by his 
children, but not loved. It is often accused of 
trampling ruthlessly upon native custom ; but 
one, who knew its excellences and its failings 
well, long ago vindicated it from this slander. 
"The interference of the British Government," 
he wrote, " has rarely taken the form of high- 
handed repression or contemptuous discourage- 
ment." On the contrary, he urged that since 
1857 British administrators had been too nervous 

77 



THE BENEVOLENT ELEMENT 

about altering native custom, alleging that the 
Indians are not so closely wedded to their usages 
as to be unwilling to surrender them for any- 
tangible advantage. And this complaint is 
echoed by educated Indians at the present day, 
who appeal to the Government to come down 
from its high place and give the people a lead in 
certain social reforms ; for if, say these writers, 
Government will not take the matter in hand, 
no one else will or can. There are, of course, 
two sides to such a question as this ; and a man 
who is not intimately acquainted with India is 
wise to hesitate before he takes either the one 
or the other. Nevertheless, the defect of our 
administration seems to be that its functions are 
identified in the native mind chiefly with those 
of the constable and the engineer. The 
Government is just, but it is insufficiently human. 
Its benevolent element exists indeed, but has its 
dwelling-place in the heart of a White Queen or 
a White King many thousands of miles away 
across the sea. 



VII 

In 1906 His present Majesty, then Prince of 
Wales, visited India, together with his Princess, 
and was profoundly touched by the cordial 
welcome which he received in every quarter. 
On his return he was publicly entertained by 
the Lord Mayor of London at the Guildhall, 

78 



'A LITTLE MORE SYMPATHY' 

and took occasion to appeal for a " little more 
sympathy " in the relations of the Indian 
Government with the Indian people. The 
native press caught up the phrase with joy and 
gratitude, and repeats it constantly to this day. 
But sympathy is a personal and not an official 
matter, a quality of the heart and not of the 
head, and therefore an attribute of a ruler and 
not of a Government. Hence the words of the 
Prince of Wales seemed after analysis to be 
rather a counsel of perfection. Within four 
years, however, the Prince, through the lamented 
death of his father. King Edward the Seventh, 
was suddenly called to the throne and to the 
headship of the British Empire. He then 
bethought himself of the words that he had 
spoken, and conceived at once an earnest desire 
to revisit India as King-Emperor. The idea, 
wholly his own, commended itself to his 
Ministers, and in his first speech to Parliament 
on the 6th of February 191 1 His Majesty 
announced that he purposed to journey to India 
during the ensuing winter. The declaration 
caused the greatest surprise in England, and 
there was much difference of opinion as to the 
wisdom of this unprecedented step. Upon the 
whole, perhaps, the croakers were in the majority, 
partly no doubt because such a novelty as the 
King's visit to India had never occurred to 
more than ten in half a million of them ; partly 
because prognostication of evil is generally rated 
a higher form of sagacity than anticipation 

79 



THE DEPARTURE FROM LONDON 

of good. This was no more than was to be 
expected from human nature ; but underlying 
these predictions of failure was a very sincere, 
though generally silent, apprehension for the 
King's safety. His Majesty, however, had no 
misgivings ; and many gentlemen with great 
experience of India declined even to listen to 
gloomy forebodings of any kind. 

Their Majesties were crowned in Westminster 
Abbey on the 22nd of June 191 1, the anniversary 
of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee ; and long 
before that date the details of the ceremonies at 
Delhi were under incessant discussion, while 
the plan of the amphitheatre for the Durbar had 
been marked out on its full scale with flags in 
Windsor Home Park. After the Coronation 
followed the Royal progresses to Wales, Ireland 
and Scotland, and these had not long been over 
before the preparations for the voyage to India 
required attention. Their Majesties were able 
to enjoy a few weeks of well-earned rest at 
Balmoral ; but the state of public affairs in the 
autumn, owing to the tension between France 
and Germany, the Railway Strike, and the war 
between Italy and Turkey, gave rise to constant 
rumours that the visit must be deferred. Never- 
theless the date of departure was but very little 
later than that which had been first appointed. 

At ten o'clock on the morning of the i ith of 
November, 191 1, Their Majesties left Bucking- 
ham Palace with the Prince of Wales and 
Princess Mary, and drove by a circuitous route 

80 



DEPARTURE FROM PORTSMOUTH 

amid great crowds of people to Victoria Station. Nov. i 
There Queen Alexandra, Queen Maud, Princess 
Victoria and Prince Arthur of Connaught were 
waiting to accompany the King to Portsmouth ; 
and many other members of the Royal Family, 
besides several of the Ministers, and of their 
Majesties' friends were assembled to bid them 
farewell. At 10.30 the Royal train left Victoria, 
and punctually at 12.30 ran alongside the jetty at 
Portsmouth. There the King, after inspecting 
the Guard of Honour, came aboard the Medina^ 
together with the Queen, Queen Alexandra, the 
Queen of Norway, the Prince of Wales, Princess 
Mary, Princess Victoria, and Prince Arthur of 
Connaught. The captains of the escorting ships 
were then presented to the King by Sir Colin 
Keppel, after which they returned immediately 
to their commands. His Majesty's guests at 
luncheon, including the suite that was accompany- 
ing him to India, numbered in all fifty-three. 

At a little after half-past two these guests 
took leave of Their Majesties and returned to the 
shore, Queen Mary supporting Queen Alexandra 
to the gangway. Three tugs came alongside to 
haul the Medina off from the jetty, and the great 
ship slowly got under way. By this time the 
weather had grown more threatening, the wind 
was blowing fairly hard from the south-west 
with every symptom of freshening, and the 
rain had begun to fall in angry stinging drops. 
Still, all adverse circumstances notwithstanding, 
the scene was a remarkable one. The bunting, 

81 G 



THE SCENE AT SPITHEAD 

Nov. II. with which every ship in the harbour was 
dressed, could hardly find time to be gay in 
its desperate striving against wind and rain ; 
but the salute from the guns of the Victory 
could not but, from old association, be stately 
and solemn. Ashore, the strand on the side of 
Portsmouth was thronged by crowds of people, 
with and without umbrellas, all watching to 
see the last of the King, who was conspicuous 
upon the upper bridge. I read afterwards in 
the newspapers that they cheered loudly ; but 
not a sound of it was to be heard on board. 
The last persons distinguishable on land were 
two military officers in full uniform who, with 
cloaks fluttering madly to leeward, brought their 
heels together, not without difficulty, and came 
to the salute. 

The Admiralty yacht, Irene, with the First 
Lord on board, led the Medina to Spithead, 
where her escorting squadron of four cruisers 
was awaiting her, namely the Cochrane, Defence, 
Argyll and Natal, which took their places in 
the order named astern of her, in single line 
ahead. Presently the yacht drew away, having 
signalled a respectful message of farewell to 
Their Majesties ; and an hour or so later eleven 
great ships appeared on the starboard bow, all, 
to the landsman's eye, in utter confusion. But 
presently the Medina altered course nearly a 
quarter of a circle, when as if by magic the 
seeming disorder disappeared, and the Home 
Fleet was discovered steaming in two parallel 

82 



THE HOME FLEET 

lines ahead ; the starboard division consisting Nc 
of the Neptune (flagship of Admiral Sir Francis 
Bridgeman), Vanguard^ Superb^ St. Vincent and 
Collingwood ; the port division of the Indomitable^ 
Indefatigable, Invincible, Temeraire and Dread- 
nought, v^^ith the Gloucester cruiser (to use a 
military phrase) on the flank. Into the gap 
between the two divisions entered the Medina 
and her escort, and the fifteen great ships, some 
of the most powerful war-vessels afloat, steamed 
away into the teeth of the increasing gale in 
three parallel lines, with the Medina leading, 
one and all in such perfect order that the 
whole seemed to be driven by a single engine. 
Darkness fell rapidly, the more rapidly as the 
weather grew steadily worse ; and the ships of 
the Home Fleet could hardly be distinguished 
except by the signal -lights that flickered in- 
cessantly at their foremast-heads, showing that 
the perfection of orderly movement was no 
mechanical matter, but the fruit of practised 
skill and unintermittent vigilance. There are 
few things more striking to a landsman than 
the silent garrulity of a fleet at sea. To him, 
a mere passenger, everything seems to go on 
with monotonous smoothness ; and only if 
admitted to a sight of the signal-logbook does 
he realise how incessant is the interchange of 
messages between ship and ship. 

Soon after night fell Sir Francis Bridgeman, 
having permission from the King to take his 
ships back to their anchorage, signalled to Their 

83 



H.M.S. MEDINA 

Nov. II. Majesties the Home Fleet's farewell ; and at 
this point, when the Medina and her escort 
were for the first time left alone, it becomes 
time to say something of this vessel, and of 
those that sailed in her. 

The Medina herself was in November 1 9 1 1 
the latest addition to the fleet of the Peninsular 
and Oriental Company, built of steel, with 
reciprocating engines and twin screws ; and her 
burden, measured by the standard of the mercan- 
tile marine, is thirteen thousand tons.^ Hired 
by the Admiralty to convey the King and Queen 
to India, she was commissioned, together with 
the four escorting cruisers, for particular service, 
and, when Their Majesties were not on board, 
carried the flag of Rear-Admiral Sir Colin 
Keppel, who commanded the whole squadron. 
Sir Colin's flag-captain was Captain Chatfield ; 
and the ship's full complement was thirty-two 
officers and three hundred and sixty petty officers 
and men of the Royal Navy, over and above 
four officers and two hundred and six non-com- 
missioned officers and men of the Royal Marines, 
including the band of the Royal Marine Artillery. 
The total number of souls of all classes and 
denominations on board the ship was seven 
hundred and thirty-three. 

Built to accommodate about six hundred and 
fifty passengers of all classes, it may be guessed 
that the Medina aflForded ample space for the 
King and Queen and their suite of twenty-two 

^ Eighteen thousand, Admiralty measurement. 
84 



I 




MISS BARING. DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. COUNTESS OF SHAFTESBURY. 

THE QUEEN AND HER LADIES. 



To /ace J>agc 85. 



H.M.S. MEDINA 

persons. She possesses a great many decks, Nov. n 
called by sundry arbitrary names, of which it must 
suffice to say that the uppermost was occupied 
by the officers of the ship, the next by the 
junior members, and the third by the senior 
members of the suite ; Their Majesties' cabins 
being forward on the same deck with the 
senior members, but separated from most of 
them by the entire length of an immense saloon. 
This proved to be a bad arrangement. The 
cabins of Their Majesties and of the ladies and 
gentlemen who were near them were so far 
forward as to be very trying in a seaway, though 
in other respects they were luxurious. No 
pains, however, had been spared to ensure the 
comfort of all ; and, to speak only for myself, I 
can say that I have in other voyages in distant 
seas shared with seven other persons a smaller 
space than was in the Medina assigned to me 
alone. Being old enough to remember that 
thirty years ago subaltern officers were forced to 
be content with a hammock in the lower troop- 
deck of the old Indian troop-ships, and having 
seen " the pandemonium " (as it was called) with 
the troops actually in it, I am glad to think that 
the enormous increase in the size of ships has 
brought augmented comfort to many thousands. 
The suite consisted of the Duchess of Devon- 
shire, Mistress of the Robes ; Lady Shaftesbury, 
Lady of the Bedchamber ; Miss Venetia Baring, 
Maid of Honour ; and Lord Shaftesbury, Lord 
Chamberlain, in attendance upon the Queen. 

85 



THE KING'S SUITE 

Nov. II. In attendance upon the King were H.S.H. the 
Duke of Teck, personal Aide-de-Camp ; Lord 
Crewe, Secretary of State for India ; Lord 
Durham, Lord High Steward ; Lord Annaly, 
Lord-in-Waiting ; Lord Stamfordham, Private 
Secretary ; Lieutenant-general Sir Horace Smith- 
Dorrien, Aide-de-Camp General ; Sir Derek 
Keppel, Master of the Household ; Captain 
Godfrey Faussett and Commander Sir Charles 
Cust, Majors Lord Charles Fitzmaurice and 
Wigram, Equerries ; Major-general Sir Stuart 
Beatson, Extra Equerry ; Lieutenant-colonel Sir 
Havelock Charles, late of the Indian Medical 
Service, Serjeant Surgeon ; Sir Edward Henry, 
Chief of the Metropolitan Police, and Extra 
Equerry ; Sir James Dunlop Smith, Political 
Officer ; Mr. Frank Lucas of the India Office, 
private secretary to Lord Crewe ; Mr. Jacomb 
Hood, the official artist ; and the present writer. 
Of the above-named gentlemen all but three 
had visited India before, as travellers or on duty ; 
and five had spent a good part of their lives there. 
No fewer than thirteen had begun life in the 
Army or Navy, or are still serving in one or the 
other, of whom eight had seen active service in 
the field ; and strangely enough there were among 
them representatives of the Household Cavalry, 
Cavalry of the Line, Indian Cavalry, Artillery, 
Foot Guards, and Infantry of the Line. Taking 
the whole body together there were few portions 
of the British Empire, to say nothing of foreign 
countries, which were not known to one or other 

86 



A GALE IN THE BAY 

of them at first hand, and few campaigns of the Nov. 12. 
past thirty years in which one or other of them 
had not taken a share. There were only two 
who had travelled less than thirty thousand 
miles, and only three who had travelled less 
than fifty thousand miles by sea ; while one, not 
a naval officer, had traversed over two hundred 
thousand miles. 

The wind continued to freshen ; and after 
rounding Ushant, early in the morning of the 
1 2th, the Medina encountered a full gale from 
the south-west. In order to reach Gibraltar at 
the appointed time the Admiral increased speed 
to seventeen knots ; and thereupon matters 
became uncomfortable. The huge bulk of the 
Medina seemed to promise that she would be 
comparatively still in any sea ; but driven 
against the long rollers of the Atlantic she was 
sufficiently lively, and pitched heavily. At 
every plunge she took in green seas over her 
bows, while the flying spray drenched her from 
stem to stern. Considering that most of the 
people in her were old travellers or sea-faring 
men, the amount of sea-sickness was astonishing. 
Officers, men and passengers, all suffered alike, 
the men perhaps most severely of all. Doubtless 
this was due in part to the fact that their 
quarters were very far forward, where the 
motion of the ship was felt at its worst ; but the 
truth is that the British sailor of these days so 
rarely leaves home-waters that he has little 
experience of long heavy seas. Thirty years 

87 



CRUISERS IN A GALE 

Nov. 12. ago a naval officer twenty-one years of age had 
probably served in at least three different foreign 
stations ; now it is a common thing to find 
officers of still longer standing who have never 
travelled so far even as Gibraltar. Be that as it 
may, the number of seamen prostrate was extra- 
ordinary ; and the attendance of the passengers 
at meals was very scanty. The cruisers astern 
thought that the Medina was making bad weather 
of it, and we certainly thought the same of them. 
Low in freeboard and weighed down forward 
by huge guns, the cruisers took the water over 
their bows in tons ; and at every plunge they 
were hidden to their topmast-heads by clouds 
of spray — a very grand sight. Nevertheless 
they suffered little harm. In the morning 
the Argyll's torpedo-netting broke loose, and she 
dropped out of the line to secure it, the Natal 
standing by her to give assistance. All day the 
gale continued, and in the course of the night a 
heavy sea struck the Medina amidships, broke 
the window of a cabin on the second deck, tore 
down all the fittings of the electric light, and 
flooded the cabin itself. Had any one been 
sleeping there he would have been unpleasantly 
awakened, but, as it happened, there was no one, 
the place having been set apart as a writing- 
room for myself. I am bound to say that the 
first aspect of the cabin after the mishap filled 
me with dismay ; but fortunately little of my 
stuff had been unpacked, the trunks were water- 
proof, and the damage done was trifling. 



OFF CAPE ST. VINCENT 

By daylight of the 13th the gale had Nov. 13. 
greatly moderated, the sea had gone down, it 
was brighter and warmer, the passengers were 
reappearing one after another, and altogether 
it was pleasant cruising. Another twenty-four 
hours brought still greater improvement ; and 
at a little past eight in the morning of the 
14th we were off Cape St. Vincent, steaming over 
the waters where Sir John Jervis fought his 
memorable action of the 14th of February 
1797. Even now, when Captain Mahan's books 
have been in our hands for nearly twenty years, 
we have hardly done full justice to the great 
commander, who in the sixth year of a war of 
almost uninterrupted failure boldly attacked 
twenty-one ships with twelve, because " England 
had great need of a victory at that moment." 
Meanwhile, however, the wind continued always 
dead in our teeth, checking our way, and 
making it impossible to reach Gibraltar at half- 
past four, which was the appointed time. It 
was therefore necessary to cancel all previous 
arrangements ; and in the forenoon the Admiral 
sent the four cruisers forward at a speed of 
nineteen knots, so that they might have the 
more time to coal, and thus save delay in the 
departure on the morrow. They left us accord- 
ingly ; and after one of the most glorious 
sunsets that I ever beheld we steamed into 
Gibraltar, guided by the search-lights of the 
Atlantic fleet, which was anchored in two lines 
outside the mole. 

89 



GIBRALTAR; KING'S BASTION 

Nov. 15. The town was a blaze of illumination, which 
forbade all sight of the Rock itself; and hardly 
was the Medi?jas anchor down at a little before 
nine o'clock than a flotilla of steam-launches 
swarmed out all round her, playing their little 
search-lights in all directions, and sparkling like 
fireflies. The fleet knows how to keep watch 
over the Sailor King. 

Dawn of the 15th revealed the Rock in all 
its majesty, with the curious zigzag walls which 
mark the remains of the old fortifications, and 
the modern guns stark against the sky-line. 
Over against us lay the King's Bastion, its glory 
departed, if indeed the glory can ever depart 
from such a relic. For here it was that stout 
old Eliott strode up and down in the thick of 
the French and Spanish shot during the long 
night of the 13th and 14th of September 1782, 
until day dawned at last and showed the enemy 
discomfited. Within it, too, there is the 
grave of General Robert Boyd, the engineer 
who designed the bastion ; who was Eliott's 
second in command during the famous siege ; 
who urged upon him the use of red-hot 
shot against the French floating batteries ; and 
who finally begged that he might be buried 
on the spot which he had defended so well. 
In the King's Bastion, accordingly, he lies, 
too much forgotten by the thousands of English- 
men who week after week pass and repass 
Gibraltar, without a thought for those who 
kept the flag flying on the summit through 

90 



THE ATLANTIC FLEET 

some of the darkest years of recent English Nov. 15. 
history. 

At eight o'clock the ten ships of the Atlantic 
fleet fired a salute ; and two hours later the 
chief officers of the garrison and the fleet came 
on board to pay their duty to the King, — the 
Governor, Sir Archibald Hunter and his staflf; 
Vice-Admiral Sir John Jellicoe ; Rear-Admirals 
Cradock and Burney ; Captains Hopwood, 
Sinclair, Ward, Prendergast, Sheppard, Chapman, 
Kemp, Hodges, Grant and Heaton Ellis, all of 
the Atlantic fleet ; and Rear-Admiral Pelham, 
Admiral Superintendent of the Dockyard. The 
Spanish Governors of Cadiz and Alge^iras, the 
captain of His Spanish Majesty's ship, Principe 
Regente, the captain of the Portuguese w^arship, 
Adamaster^ and the foreign consuls were also 
received by His Majesty. 

The escorting cruisers, having completed 
their coaling, steamed out shortly afterwards ; 
and at a little past eleven the Medina followed 
them, every ship of the Atlantic fleet saluting, 
with her seamen lining the decks and her 
marines on the superstructures. The King, 
always in his uniform as Admiral of the Fleet, 
was on the bridge of the Medina^ and as she 
steamed past the fleet the men gave him three 
cheers, ship after ship, the marines holding their 
white helmets high aloft in their left hands. It 
was a fine sight, for disciplined men are always 
a fine sight ; and when they cheer from their 
hearts it is an inspiriting sound. Within an 

91 



THE MEDITERRANEAN 

Nov. hour the Medina had overhauled the cruisers 
^5-20- and taken her place at the head of the line ; and 
thus ended the King's outward visit to Gibraltar, 
so far abridged, owing to the inevitable delay 
caused by foul winds, as to be practically 
deferred until the return journey. 

Beautiful weather followed Their Majesties 
on their passage through the Mediterranean ; 
and the whole party, being recovered from sea- 
sickness, settled down to the regular routine of 
life at sea — breakfast at 8.30, luncheon at i.o, 
dinner at 7.30, and the band at all hours. The 
prayers, which are read daily (except on 
Saturdays) in the King's ships, were regularly 
attended by Their Majesties ; and on Sunday 
mornings (excepting during the gale in the Bay 
of Biscay) Divine Service was held on deck by 
the chaplain. Early in the voyage the King 
expressed his desire, though he did not make it 
his command, that such members of the suite 
and their servants as required it, should be 
revaccinated. To so wise a measure there were 
no conscientious objectors ; and for a day or two 
Sir Havelock Charles and the naval surgeons 
were besieged by a crowd of patients.^ On the 
night of the 19th the Admiral reduced speed 
to thirteen knots, so as to avoid too early an 
arrival at Port Said. About four in the after- 
noon of the 20th, the two rearmost of the cruisers 
came up on the Medina s port quarter, and in 

^ It may be mentioned that at least one visitor at the Durbar — an 
American gentleman — caught small-pox and died at Delhi on the very 
day when the camp was broken up. 

92 



PORT SAID 

this new formation the squadron steamed up to Nov. 20. 
the anchorage. 

It was now ascertained that one of the 
colliers appointed to bring coal to the squadron 
had gone ashore some eighty miles from Port 
Said, and that in consequence fresh arrangements 
for coaling must be made. It was therefore 
decided that three of the cruisers should be 
sent forward to Aden to coal there, and that 
the Argyll^ after coaling at Port Said, should 
form the Medina's sole escort to Aden. The sun 
went down in gorgeous colours behind the low 
land and palm trees before us ; and at about six in 
the evening the Medina picked up her moorings 
opposite to the Custom House and about a 
hundred yards from it. The entire town was 
illuminated, making a very pretty effect, which 
was heightened by the reflection of the lamps 
in the water. Shortly afterwards Lord Kitchener 
came on board with his staff, followed by the 
Sirdar and by General Maxwell ; all of whom 
having been received by the King went ashore, 
returning later to dine with Their Majesties. 

In the midst of all the hubbub by land and 
water the Argyll came up into the narrow 
passage, all crowded with shipping, where the 
Medina lay, her vast bulk creeping on silently and 
very slowly like a huge grey ghost. It seemed 
almost incredible that so powerful an engine of 
destruction should be so noiseless, and her appear- 
ance suggested astonishing possibilities of surprise 
against an unwary enemy, if there should arise 

93 



THE KHEDIVE'S VISIT 

Nov. 21. such another master of that difficult art as the 
famous Dundonald. 

All night the process of coaling the Medina 
went forward, with extraordinarily little sound 
and disturbance considering the circumstances ; 
and dawn revealed great activity in the camp of 
a British battalion which lay a few hundred 
yards distant from the ship. That activity was 
presently explained by the appearance of a guard 
of honour of the Scots Guards, and of a second 
guard of the Seventh Egyptian battalion, before 
the Custom House. The Egyptians were fine 
men, well set-up ; and in their uniform of dark 
grey-blue, red tarboosh and white Zouave gaiters, 
they looked uncommonly smart. At half-past 
ten His Highness the Khedive, wearing Egyptian 
uniform and the star and ribbon of the Bath, 
came on board, attended by his brother. Prince 
Mehemet Ali, his Prime Minister, and the two 
British Ministers of Finance and the Interior. 
H.I.H. Prince Zia-ed-Din, son of the Sultan of 
Turkey, attended by the Turkish Grand Master 
of the Ceremonies, arrived at the same time. 
Lord Kitchener, the Sirdar, and General Maxwell 
had already preceded them ; and the Governor 
of Suez, Kiamil Pasha, and the principal officials 
of the Suez Canal Company also came on board. 
The King, who wore the uniform of an Admiral 
of the Fleet, and the ribbon and star of the 
Medjidieh Order, received their Highnesses in 
the drawing - room above the dining saloon, 
where Kiamil Pasha read aloud a letter of 

94 



NEW AND OLD EGYPT 

welcome to His Majesty from the Sultan in Nov. 21. 
Turkish, of which the Master of the Ceremonies 
read a translation in French. The King then 
replied in English. Shortly afterwards the King 
returned the Khedive's visit on board His 
Highness's yacht, which was lying close by, and 
the King and Khedive then inspected the two 
guards of honour. At one o'clock His Highness, 
Kiamil Pasha and the whole of the visitors of 
the morning returned to the Medina for luncheon, 
and at a little before three His Highness took 
leave. No one could fail to remark the very 
cordial bearing of the Khedive towards Lord 
Kitchener, bearing witness to the good relations 
which evidently reigned between the head of the 
Egyptian State and the British Consul-General. 

Late in the afternoon the Queen went ashore 
privately, and most of the suite also went ashore 
upon their own account. To the present writer, 
who had not visited Egypt since 1878, the 
change in the appearance of the natives was 
startling. Their bearing was independent and 
self- respectful, and their physical condition 
greatly improved ; while the number of the 
blind, of the one-eyed, and of those marked with 
small-pox was reduced beyond belief. It was 
difficult to credit that these were the same people 
which one had seen sometimes working in chains 
in the fields, sometimes trussed like fowls and 
carried away to Cairo as refractory conscripts, 
nearly always abject and cowering. One must 
not draw hasty conclusions from superficial 

95 



THE SUEZ CANAL 

Nov. 22. observation, but, even after all that one has heard 
and read of the benefits thatEgypt has derived from 
British direction of her Government, I confess 
that I was amazed at the transformation which 
had been accomplished within thirty years. One 
change, however, though doubtless welcome to a 
section of Englishmen, seemed to me deplorable, 
namely the substitution of vulgar Manchester 
goods for the older cotton garments, woven and 
dyed at home, which formerly clothed the 
Egyptian peasant. 

The Royal dinner-party in the evening 
included Lord Kitchener, the Sirdar, Admiral 
Gamble, and Captains Culme Seymour, Tothill, 
Moubray, and Tyrrwhitt of His Majesty's ships 
Argyll y Lancaster^ Suffolk and Bacchante^ of which 
ships the three last were lying at Port Said when 
the Medina came in. After dinner there was a 
display of fireworks given by the Suez Canal 
Company ; and as water was not lacking to 
reflect the blaze, which is of the essence of a 
successful show of fireworks, the effect was 
extremely beautiful. 

The Medina weighed anchor at 6 a.m. on the 
22nd November, and shortly afterwards entered 
the Suez Canal. The Khedive had taken every 
precaution for the safety and honour of his 
Royal guest during the passage. At every 
kilometre-post stood a sentry ; and patrols of the 
Egyptian camel-corps or of Bedaween followed 
the ship throughout on both banks, relieving 
each other from time to time. Sometimes a 

96 



THE KING'S EGYPTIAN ESCORT 

group of fifteen or twenty Bedaween would Nov. 
assemble together in their picturesque robes of 
black and white, fire their muskets in salute, and 
trot alongside for a few hundred yards. Hardly 
less picturesque were the men of the Egyptian 
camel-corps in khaki coat, tarboosh and putties, 
mauve-grey breeches, brown bandoliers and 
brown goat-skin saddles ; a beautiful combina- 
tion of greys and browns which admirably sets 
off their jet-black faces for purposes of parade, 
and yet makes for the extreme of invisibility on 
active service. Curiously enough the actual 
speed of one of the camels was just that of 
the ship ; and this animal kept his station exactly 
off a certain point of the starboard quarter for 
fully six miles. But the most remarkable feat 
of all was that of an Austrian officer of the 
Egyptian gendarmerie, who followed the ship 
from Port Said to the lakes without a moment's 
halt. He was well mounted, changing horses 
about every ten miles, and moved generally at 
a trot with an occasional break into a canter, but 
sat always bolt upright without rising in his 
stirrups. He crossed Lake Timsah in a steam- 
launch, and on reaching the other side mounted a 
camel which was waiting for him, when he con- 
tinued his trot until he reached the Bitter Lakes, 
forty-seven miles from his starting-point, and 
could go no farther. I watched him constantly, 
and I could not see that he displayed the 
slightest symptom of fatigue, for he sat erect 
and soldierlike from beginning to end. 

97 H 



SUEZ AND THE RED SEA 

Nov. At Ismailia, where Sir Garnet Wolseley 

23-27- landed in 1882, the whole population was on 
the banks ; and when the Medina reached Suez 
at seven in the evening the entire front of the 
canal was lined with people, bands were play- 
ing, and the town was ablaze with rockets 
and illuminations. One party of Englishmen, 
apparently at the Club, gave three tremendous 
cheers ; and when Their Majesties showed 
themselves on deck, a stentorian voice cried out 
" One cheer more for their coming up," which 
evoked a final prodigious roar. We did not stop 
at Suez, however, but only slowed down to take 
on board some telegrams, and proceeded onwards 
down the Red Sea. 



VIII 

And now for the first time the three flags 
borne by a royal yacht — Admiralty flag at the 
fore. Royal standard at the main, and the Union 
Jack of an Admiral of the Fleet at the mizzen 
— were seen east of the Mediterranean ; and it 
seemed a pity that there was but one escorting 
cruiser to do honour to the occasion. In the 
Red Sea we were lucky in encountering calm 
weather and no oppressive heat. Indeed at 
sunset on the 25th we ran into heavy squalls of 
rain, lit up by an incessant flicker of blue sheet- 
lightning, which not only was better than any 
display of fireworks, but also considerably 



ARRIVAL AT ADEN 

reduced the temperature. At one in the Nov. 27. 
morning of the 27th we passed Perim, and at a 
little after nine the Argyll went ahead to join 
the remaining cruisers at Aden. An hour and a 
half later the Medina dropped her anchor in 
Aden harbour, amid a thunder of salutes from 
the four cruisers of the escort and from the 
Royal Arthur^ which, together with three 
destroyers, was awaiting Their Majesties' arrival. 
Each of the large ships fired one hundred and 
one guns, for we were now within the territory 
of the Indian Empire, where salutes of twenty- 
one guns are given to native princes, and are no 
longer sufficient for the King-Emperor and the 
Queen-Empress. 

Aden is generally known in England as the 
abomination of desolation, and it is not difficult 
to believe that it is a dreary quarter for a 
garrison. Nevertheless, for all their aridity, its 
cinder -coloured peaks and mountains are 
singularly wild and grand ; while the ancient 
lines of fortifications, wall within wall, invest it 
with some halo of romance. Probably, how- 
ever, Aden has never in the whole of its history 
presented such an aspect as it did on the 27th 
of November 191 1. The five men-of-war in 
the harbour were all dressed with bunting ; the 
entire foreshore was hung with festoons of gay 
colours ; the houses were brightly decorated, 
and the native population in a hundred gaudy 
hues were clustered like bees upon the lower 
slopes. Towering above them the cold grey- 

99 



THE LANDING AT ADEN 

Nov. 27. purple mountains looked down with a cer- 
tain kindly condescension upon the swarming 
humanity below. The weather was for Aden 
decidedly cool ; the sunshine was frequently 
broken by clouds ; and heavy showers during 
the past forty-eight hours had imparted to the 
place generally an unwonted savour of freshness. 
Soon after the Medina s arrival the Resident, 
Major-general John Bell, came on board with 
his staff and was received by His Majesty, who 
conferred on him the second class of the Victorian 
Order, and knighted him there and then. At 
half-past three Their Majesties went ashore, 
whither the bulk of their suite had already 
preceded them, the King in the white uniform 
of an Admiral of the Fleet with the ribbon and 
star of the Order of the Star of India and the 
star of the Bath ; and the Queen in pale-blue silk. 
A pavilion had been erected by the landing-stage, 
where the Resident and Lady Bell, with the 
members of the staff and the leading officials, 
were waiting to receive them. On the left of 
Their Majesties, as they landed, was drawn up 
the Aden troop of Native Cavalry, principally 
Sikhs, in khaki uniform with red girdles and 
turbans of khaki, blue and yellow ; a very smart 
body of men and in one respect unique, inasmuch 
as the front rank was composed of lancers mounted 
on Arab horses, and the rear-rank of riflemen 
mounted on camels. In front stood a guard of 
honour of the Lincolnshire Regiment, a fine 
body of men in white, with the King's colour — 



THE PEOPLE OF ADEN 

evidently a very old one — still showing the Nov. 27. 
former regimental number Ten. The Resident 
having presented the leading officials and their 
ladies to the King and Queen, Their Majesties 
drove off, followed by their suite, in five more 
carriages, to the bronze statue of Queen Victoria, 
which is the most conspicuous object on the 
small area of flat ground that faces the harbour. 

On its own limited scale this short progress 
was probably one of the strangest ever made by 
a British sovereign. In the first place the van 
of the escort was composed of horsemen and 
the rear of camel-men ; and in the second it 
is probably for once a literal truth to say that the 
entire population was out to see the procession. 
The entire population of Aden, to be sure, is not 
very large, though far larger than I, for one, had 
imagined ; but it is very decidedly mixed. 
Within the course of half a mile it was easy to 
distinguish at a glance Sikhs, Pathans, Bengalis, 
Parsis, Somalis, Arabs, Negroes, Jews, Greeks, 
Levantines — what not ; and, since the principal 
street has for the most part houses upon one side 
only, there was plenty of room for all the men 
and children by the roadside and for the maturer 
ladies on the house-tops. The variety of colour 
was not so great as, say, in Rajputana, but two 
or three very young ladies in gorgeous gowns of 
magenta silk made a bright touch here and there, 
contrasting strongly with the white which was 
worn by most of the spectators and with the 
copper skins of a certain number who had little 



RECEPTION AT ADEN 

Nov. 27. clothing of any kind. The route was lined by 
a body of Sikh infantry, and here for the first 
time we heard the English words of command 
delivered by native officers and non-commissioned 
officers, curiously combining the foreign accent 
with the traditional vigour and intonation of the 
British drill-sergeant — " Sacund Sekshan, slo-p-e 
arms." The procession trotted briskly on, the 
camels keeping their distance in rear of the Royal 
carriage with admirable accuracy, and producing 
a most imposing effect ; and finally, when the 
Victoria Memorial was reached, they formed line 
to the left with a precision that the Life Guards 
themselves might have envied. These may seem 
to be small things, but they make all the 
difference to the success or failure of a pageant. 

Adjoining the Victoria Memorial a pavilion, 
which was really a large tent, had been erected ; 
and with excellent judgment Indian stuffs and 
Indian dyes had been selected for the decoration 
of the roof. The native taste, while not shrink- 
ing from strong colours upon occasion, delights 
especially in pale and tender tints, than which 
none look more beautiful under the Eastern sun. 
The roof of the tent at Aden was in broad stripes 
of pale yellow and rose-madder, which gave 
sufficient dignity to the interior and yet was cool 
and restful to the eye. The carpet was of 
the commonplace red which the official mind 
— quite unnecessarily in the East at any rate — 
appears to regard as inseparable from any royal 
function, and at the far end were two carved 



RECEPTION AT ADEN 

thrones heavily gilt and upholstered in crimson Nov. 27. 
velvet. To these thrones Their Majesties then 
walked in procession between a great throng 
of the more distinguished inhabitants. A Parsi 
gentleman, Mr. Cowasji Dinshaw, read an 
address of welcome, to which His Majesty 
read a reply, not failing among other things 
to commend the happy choice of the place of 
his reception at the foot of Queen Victoria's 
statue. The Resident then presented the fore- 
most of the native gentlemen to the King, and, 
the ceremony being over. Their Majesties drove 
to the Residency, some two or three miles 
distant, on an eminence overlooking the sea. It 
is noteworthy that the latter part of the route 
was lined by the Fifty -second company of 
Garrison Artillery, which had saluted His 
Majesty when Prince of Wales from Colombo 
in 1 90 1 and from Madras in 1906, and had on 
this same morning fired the first salute ever paid 
on East Indian Territory to the King-Emperor 
in person. 

At the Residency Their Majesties drank tea, 
and after conversation with the guests who had 
been honoured with an invitation to meet them, 
took their leave soon after five and returned to 
the Medina. As their launch moved off from 
the quay the foreshore and all the principal 
buildings burst suddenly into a blaze of illumina- 
tion, making an extremely pretty and striking 
end to a very successful day. The rain, though 
often threatening, happily held off; but, as the 

103 



FIRST MESSAGE FROM DELHI 

Nov. 28- sun fell low, the wind became positively cold. 

Dec. I. jt ^as something to have felt the want of a 
great-coat at Aden. 

On the 28th the Medina entered the Indian 
Ocean, which was pleasantly cooler than the 
Red Sea ; and, as we were now drawing near 
our destination. Sir Havelock Charles took 
occasion to give a short lecture both to the 
suite and to the servants, laying down a few 
simple rules for the preservation of health in 
India. Knowing India, as a medical man, by 
heart, he succeeded so well in impressing his 
lessons upon them that none but trifling cases of 
sickness occurred among them throughout the 
whole of the visit to the East. It was, however, 
difficult to realise that a few days more would 
find us at Delhi, until on the night of the 29th 
the Defence transmitted the following wireless 
telegram, which had just been received direct 
from the Mogul capital over a distance of sixteen 
hundred miles : " Marconi Wireless Telegraph 
Company, Fort, Delhi, beg to offer their most 
loyal greetings on His Majesty's approach to 
India." If all wireless telegrams received during 
the voyage had been of the like innocent tenour, 
the King would have enjoyed more repose in the 
course of it than he did. 

For the rest, the last three days at sea, the 
29th of November to the ist of December, were 
in part taken up by sports among the ship's 
company. There was not — indeed there could 
hardly be — much variety from the usual pro- 

104 




^ 



SPORTS ON THE MEDINA 

gramme of obstacle-races, three-legged races, Nov. 28- 
potato-races and so on ; but there was one form ^^^- '• 
of contest which possessed an irresistible fascina- 
tion both for combatants and onlookers, that 
namely in which two men sit astride of a greased 
spar, which they are forbidden to touch with 
their hands, and strike at each other with pillows 
until one or other falls off the spar into a sail 
suspended below. The number of aspirants to 
fame in this particular field was extraordinary. 
Marines, bluejackets, officers, even to the Captain 
himself, members of the King's suite, their 
servants, the photographer and the barber, all 
came down to try their fortune amid breathless 
excitement and shouts of laughter from every 
soul in the ship who was not on duty. Lord 
Annaly after a strenuous conflict was defeated 
but not disgraced by Lord Shaftesbury ; Captain 
Godfrey Faussett vanquished a bluejacket, but 
was overthrown by the Fleet-Surgeon, a most 
dangerous opponent. Soon it became apparent 
that Major Phillips of the Marine Artillery, a 
gentleman of herculean strength, and not less 
skilled in parrying with his left hand than in 
striking with his right, was superior to all rivals ; 
and after three battles, which can only be 
described as Homeric, he finally swept the 
Fleet-Surgeon's legs from under him, and was 
hailed as victor among the officers. A private 
of his corps won the same distinction among the 
men. 

In the evening the Queen presented prizes to 

105 



THE ROYAL MARINES 

Dec. I. the winners ; but the passengers secured very 
few of these trophies ; and indeed their credit 
was only saved by one of the King's footmen, an 
old Coldstreamer and the most powerful man on 
the ship, who vanquished all rivals in the gentle 
art of cock-fighting. Nearly every prize fell to 
the marines ; and in truth the marine is a wonder- 
ful person. The press is fond of holding up the 
bluejacket as a handy man ; but in these days 
the epithet should be transferred to the marine. 
On the ist of December, the last day of the 
voyage out, there was a concert on board. The 
suite could produce in Lord Shaftesbury a trained 
singer who naturally eclipsed all other performers; 
but setting him aside, the marines had matters 
all their own way. One of them was a sufficiently 
accomplished vocalist to be accompanied by the 
band, while several others played an astonishing 
number of instruments and played them in tune. 
The credit of the bluejackets was mainly saved 
by the proficiency, in a sister art, of Mr. Staples 
the boatswain, who danced a hornpipe quite 
admirably. Their Majesties were of course 
present ; and so passed away the last evening of 
real freedom which they were to enjoy for some 
weeks. 

Early in the morning of the 2nd of December 
the low land and palms of Bombay were seen ; 
and at about ten o'clock the Medina and her 
escort anchored about two miles from the 
shore in a dead calm and rather oppressive 
heat. Three-quarters of an hour later the 

io6 



THE LANDING AT BOMBAY 

Viceroy ^ came on board to wait upon the King ; Dec. 
presently followed by the Governor of Bombay, 
Sir George Clarke. The Commander-in-Chief 
of the East India Squadron, whose flagship 
the Highflyer was lying in the harbour, and 
other officials followed ; and the Viceroy with 
his staff remained to luncheon. At half- past 
three the greater number of the suite went 
ashore to be ready to receive Their Majesties, 
who shortly afterwards left the ship and 
steamed, amid a salute of one hundred and 
one guns, to the landing-place at the Apollo 
Bandar. The King-Emperor wore the white 
uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet, with the 
ribbon and star of the Star of India, and the 
Queen-Empress wore on her dress the star and 
the ribbon of the Garter, the latter fastened on 
the shoulder by a brooch of a single row of 
diamonds and clasped below by a diamond 
George. The Viceroy and the whole of the 
Imperial suite were in full-dress white uniform. 
At the pavilion the principal officials of the 
Bombay Government and Corporation and the 
foreign consuls, in all about forty gentlemen, were 
presented by Sir George Clarke to His Majesty ; 
after which a procession was formed, and Their 
Majesties advanced a distance of about one hundred 
yards to a second and smaller pavilion, where two 
thrones upon a dais had been prepared for them. 

1 singularly enough, among the King's suite there were no fewer than 
three gentlemen who had been school-fellows of Lord Hardinge at Harrow, 
two of whom had also been his fellow-undergraduates at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 

107 



THE RECEPTION AT BOMBAY 

Dec. 2. Over against the pavilion an amphitheatre 
had been made ready for the accommodation of 
several hundred spectators w^ho, it is to be feared, 
must have suffered not a little from the fierce 
and unusual heat of the day. All, however, 
rose and cheered enthusiastically as Their 
Majesties took their places ; and then Sir 
Pherozsha Mehta, President of the Bombay 
Municipal Corporation, stepped forward and 
read an address welcoming Their Majesties to 
India, vindicating the right of Bombay, as part 
of the dowry of Queen Katharine of Bragan^a, 
to be the first to welcome them, and recalling 
the fact that this was not the first time that 
Bombay had had the honour of entertaining 
them. His Majesty having received the address 
in the silver casket which had been given to 
him with it. Sir Pherozsha presented to him the 
members of the Corporation. 

Then to the great surprise, as was afterwards 
discovered, of the majority of the spectators, 
the King-Emperor delivered his reply in a loud 
clear voice, which could be heard by every one 
of them. Catching up at once the note which 
had been struck by the Corporation, " I can 
heartily respond," said His Majesty, " that I 
feel myself no stranger in your beautiful city " ; 
and proceeded next to speak of his earnest desire, 
as soon as he found himself called to the Throne, 
to revisit his good subjects in India. Ignoring 
all accepted traditions of etiquette, the audience 
broke in again and again with loud applause, 

io8 




•n 



DRIVE THROUGH BOMBAY 

which culminated in a great outburst of cheering Dec. 2. 
at the close. Their Majesties then entered the 
carriage prepared for them, and started forth, 
the suite following in six more carriages, to 
drive in procession round the city. 

The troops that took part in the procession 
were the Seventh Dragoon Guards and Y Battery 
of the Royal Horse Artillery in advance ; the 
Governor's bodyguard of Lancers in scarlet 
and gold forming the immediate escort of the 
Imperial carriage, and King George's own regi- 
ment of the Twenty-sixth Lancers, in French 
grey with dark -blue turbans, the rearguard. 
But in India it is not, as in England, the troops 
that supply the bulk of the colour in the 
pageant. Much care had been devoted to the 
decoration of the streets of the European quarter 
with arches, masts and festoons, and the effect 
was decidedly better than I have ever seen in 
London. The Indian sun may have been partly 
responsible for this, but not wholly. On one or 
two buildings there was a bold and successful 
scheme of colour ; but in adorning their houses 
the Europeans too often bound themselves to 
the slavery of English decoration — trophies of 
European flags and even worse displays of crude 
and tasteless colour. It is strange that the 
British in India cannot make better use of the 
native materials and dyes, which can hardly be 
dearer, and are certainly much more beautiful, 
than those of the West. Fortunately the eye 
was distracted by the far more lovely decoration 

109 



THE BEAUTIES OF BOMBAY 

Dec. 2. presented by the people themselves. The crowd 
was immense, and the variety of shades inde- 
scribable — here a group of men in rich dark- 
red turbans, with perhaps one of vivid grass 
green flaming among them ; there a group of 
children, wide-eyed and open-mouthed, with 
one or two little maids in blazing crimson 
silk huddled into their midst ; there again a 
body of Parsi ladies in simple gowns of the 
palest pink, blue or dove-colour, draped on 
one side with light transparent muslin in 
graceful folds, which made the delicate hues 
more dainty still. There was no rest for the eye 
in the ever-changing feast of colour. 

But most striking of all was the scene in the 
quaint irregular buildings and narrow streets of 
the native town. There is no appearance of 
wealth in the houses, the stucco being often 
decayed and fortunately rarely repainted ; but 
there are quaint wooden stairways, balconies 
and loggias, which the wealthy owners had 
beautified with the best and simplest of all 
street-decorations by simply throwing over them 
rugs and carpets, or occasionally a great sheet 
of rich dark silk shot with gold. The houses 
were crammed with spectators. The housetops 
and the highest stories were occupied chiefly by 
peeping women, nearly all of whom displayed at 
least a scrap of costly red material ; the lower 
windows were simply packed with tier upon 
tier of heads — I counted over thirty in one of 
no extraordinary size — and even the steep narrow 



A SULTRY EVENING 

scraps of verandah over the native shops were Dec. 2. 
swarming w^ith men and boys. In the East it 
is not considered respectful to make even a 
joyful noise in the presence of the great ; yet 
the native inhabitants of Bombay upon this 
occasion cheered loudly and continuously, and 
in fact gave Their Majesties an enthusiastic 
reception. 

The entire route measured about six miles, 
which was traversed at a slow trot, the procession 
returning through the suburbs and round Mala- 
bar Point to the Apollo Bandar. Here the King 
inspected the guard of honour of the Norfolk 
Regiment, and then returned to the ship, which 
was reached at a little before six o'clock. The 
sun went down in a gorgeous blaze of orange 
and scarlet, against which the palms on the low 
spit of Malabar Point showed black as ink. 
For a short time the temperature fell slightly, 
but soon rose again, and the thermometer, even 
in the King's cabin, stood at eighty-five degrees. 
In the evening Their Majesties gave a state 
dinner on board the Medina, at which fifty-four 
guests, including the suite, were present ; but, 
though the dinner was held on deck, the heat 
was such as to make full-dress European uniform 
very trying to wear. None the less the Queen, 
who was wearing a white dress embroidered 
with gold, never looked better than on that 
evening ; and the guests soon discovered that the 
temperature made no difference to the welcome 
accorded to them by their Royal hosts. 



SUNDAY AT BOMBAY 

Dec. 3. On the morning of Sunday the 3rd Their 
Majesties attended Divine Service as usual on 
board ; but the day was no idle one for the 
King or for his Secretaries, for over six hundred 
telegrams of welcome had been received from 
different persons and societies in India since the 
Medina had dropped anchor in Bombay, and all 
required an answer. In the afternoon Their 
Majesties honoured the Governor of Bombay 
with their presence at luncheon at Government 
House, and in the evening attended Divine 
Service in the Cathedral. The weather was 
hotter than ever, and the Bishop of Bombay 
who preached the sermon, wisely ascended the 
pulpit in his rochet only, though the building 
was kept fairly cool by electric fans. Later on 
Their Majesties gave a second official dinner 
on board the Medina, under even more trying 
conditions than on the previous day, the heat 
being more intense and the air perfectly still. 
This was a misfortune which could not have 
been anticipated at the time of year. Perhaps 
the only one of the guests on either evening 
who felt himself not only in comfort but in 
luxury was the Captain of H.M.S. Fox, who, 
after months of service in prevention of " gun- 
running " in the Persian Gulf at a temperature 
of one hundred and ten degrees, found the 
eighty -five degrees of Bombay very pleasantly 
cool. It was a good lesson for any of us who 
were inclined to complain, for the work in 
the Fox signified not merely existence, in itself 



CHILDREN'S FETE, BOMBAY 

sufficiently trying, in the Persian Gulf, but Dec. 4. 
incessant watchfulness and hard labour for all 
on board, with many a difficult diplomatic 
problem for the commander in addition. For 
the rest, Bombay, being illuminated on both of 
these nights, presented a most beautiful appear- 
ance when looked on from the sea. 

On the 4th of December Their Majesties 
left the Medina soon after nine o'clock, landed at 
the Apollo Bandar at half-past nine and drove, 
with their suite in attendance, to a children's 
fete in the grounds adjoining the Bombay Gym- 
khana Building. Here in an open space some 
twenty-six thousand children had been drawn 
up in a large semicircle, over against the centre 
of which was a dais for the King and Queen. 
As Their Majesties drove up at a quarter to ten, 
four selected groups of children, belonging to 
European, Urdu, Gujarati and Marathi schools, 
sang each two verses of the National Anthem 
in their own tongue. The bare fact is a lesson 
to those who talk glibly about the " Indian 
people." Twenty-six thousand children is not 
a very great many ; yet to gather that number 
together as representatives of the Presidency of 
Bombay it was necessary to include the speakers 
of three diffisrent tongues (or four if we include 
the Europeans), each of them with its own 
literature and its own written character, and 
one of them — Marathi — with three principal 
dialects, and sub-dialects innumerable. How- 
ever, to return to our main narrative, it was 

113 i 



A BEAUTIFUL CEREMONY 

Dec. 4. curious to note the difficulty which the Indian 
children evidently found in singing a western 
melody in the major mode. To them it was 
obviously a noise, compounded of strange in- 
tervals, with an over-monotonous rhythm ; and 
the cause was soon sufficiently apparent. 

Immediately after the children had fallen 
silent at the close of their singing, some fifty to 
a hundred Gujarati girls performed a Gurbi or 
rhythmic dance and song — one might rather 
call it a prayer, for the ceremony is of a religious 
character — for behoof of Their Majesties. They 
formed two concentric circles, the older girls 
wearing simple, loose-flowing gowns, mostly of 
very pale pink, blue or orange, varied occasionally 
by the mixture of two pale colours or by vivid 
magenta or still more vivid green, and relieved 
in nearly every case by a scarf of transparent 
white muslin. Many of the younger children 
unfortunately wore European clothes, which, 
being white, were comparatively harmless, but 
were too frequently marred by atrocious Euro- 
pean button- boots reaching to mid-calf. The 
dance consisted of rhythmic waving of raised 
arms, rhythmic clapping of hands, and curious 
interlacing movements of the performers in the 
two circles. The language of the song was 
Gujarati ; and the music, of course in the minor 
mode, was not only curious but effective. The 
rhythm, however, was very difficult to seize ; 
duple, triple and quintuple time being each of 
them easily perceptible by the ear, but no one 

114 



THE JOURNEY TO DELHI 

of them continued for long consecutively. The Dec. 3-5. 
dance was extremely graceful and impressive, 
being carried out in a religious spirit without 
a trace of self-consciousness on the part of the 
performers. At its close Their Majesties drove 
through the heart of the semicircle, where a 
way had been left clear, so that all the children 
might see them, and the young people, both 
white and brown, shouted themselves hoarse 
with delight. Their Majesties then inspected 
some historic exhibits in the old Bombay 
exhibition hard by, and returned to the Medina 
soon after eleven o'clock- 
Owing to the number of the King's suite, an 
advanced party of nine gentlemen ^ was sent 
forward to Delhi on the evening of the 3rd. 
The total length of the journey was nine hundred 
and eighty-two miles, and, thanks to those who 
were charged with the care of us, we made the 
journey of thirty- six hours with all possible 
comfort. But India is the land of dust, and it 
is impossible to travel there by rail in the dry 
season without realising that fact to the full. 
The route lay by Baroda, which took us through 
a dreary and monotonous country, but incident- 
ally through the famous Mokandara pass, the scene 
of the military blunder which led to the de- 
struction of Monson's detachment in 1804. The 
most singular point about railway travel in India 

' Prince George of Battenberg (midshipman on H.M.S. Cochrane), 
Lord Annaly, Lord C. Fitzmaurice, Lt. - Gen. Sir H. Smith Dorrien, 
Maj.-Gen. Sir Stuart Beatson, Sir J. Dunlop Smith, Mr. Jacomb Hood, 
Major Ashburner, Mr. Fortescue. 



THE CAMP AT DELHI 

Dec. 5. is that one rarely, if ever, sees a town. There are 
not, relatively speaking, many towns in India ; and 
stations are, for good reasons, as a rule situated 
two or three miles from them. Hence one seems 
to traverse an interminable land of jungle and 
villages. The changes of temperature also were 
trying, varying in our carriage from eighty 
degrees by day to forty-eight or lower by night. 
However, this was a matter concerning which 
we had been amply warned ; and soon after eight 
o'clock on the morning of the 5th of December 
we arrived at the Kingsway station at Delhi, 
whence motors conveyed us to our camp. 

Certainly the first sight of the great canvas 
city, covering in all twenty-five square miles, 
was very wonderful, and all the more so when 
we saw the trim grass lawns which marked the 
camps of the greater officials, and remembered that 
a year ago this was a mere brown waste. The 
King-Emperor's camp lay at the extreme edge, 
being in the form of a huge semicircle, with 
the arc facing towards the remaining camps, and 
the base formed by the road to Delhi city. 
Opposite the central point of this arc was a large 
open space with a tall flag-staff, and over against 
this staff lay three huge reception-tents, facing 
almost west, with the Viceroy's camp to the left 
or north, and the King- Emperor's, with the 
circuit-house behind it, on the right or south. 
A circuit- house, it must be explained, is a 
residence kept up, somewhat like the judges' 
lodges in England, for the reception of the 

116 




'<^ 



ROYAL ARRIVAL AT DELHI 

Viceroy or of minor great officials when on tour. Dec. 7. 
The Viceroy's staff was encamped round the 
curve of the semicircle to the north, and Their 
Majesties' round the corresponding curve to the 
south. 

At ten o'clock on the morning of the 7th 
Their Majesties arrived at the Selimgarh station 
upon a detached bastion of the great fort of 
Delhi, where the Viceroy, Lady Hardinge, the 
leading officials of India and several Indian 
princes were assembled to receive them. Among 
these last was the Maharaja of Udaipur, the 
Ruling Chief in Waiting and the representative 
of the bluest blood in India, an elderly prince 
dressed in a flowing gown of white satin 
edged with gold ; Sir Pratap Singh and the 
Maharaja of Bikaner, the former in the white 
frock and sky-blue turban of the Imperial Cadet 
Corps, and the latter in the beautiful uniform of 
his own Camel Corps. As Their Majesties 
alighted, the guns of the fort opened a salute of 
one hundred and one guns, twice broken and 
finally concluded by a feu de joie from the troops 
in the plain without. Within the bastion, ringed 
about by the pink sandstone of the walls, was 
drawn up a guard of honour of the second battalion 
of the Berkshire Regiment, with the remainder of 
the battalion in rear ; the rest of the space being 
filled by selected men from every corps in the 
Native Army and representative sections from 
every corps present at Delhi, with three squadrons 
of the Thirtieth Native Lancers, part mounted 

117 



IN THE FORT, DELHI 

Dec. 7. and part dismounted, in rear of all. The great 
space was thus worthily filled, and presented a 
fine mass of colour, topped by the bright points 
and waving pennons of the lances. After the 
presentation of several high officials in a pavilion 
which had been erected on the platform, the King 
inspected the guard of honour, and observing 
four representative veterans, one English and 
three Indian, just outside the right of the line, 
stepped aside to shake hands with each and ask 
them as to the campaigns where they had won 
their medals. The old fellows drew themselves 
up and saluted after the fashion of their youth, 
with the hand parallel to the horizon, remem- 
bering bygone times. They will not readily 
forget this day. 

A procession was then formed with the heralds 
at its head, followed by the staffs of the Viceroy 
and the King- Emperor ; and Their Majesties 
advanced over the crenellated bridge that spans 
the moat, between a line of men drawn from 
each of the King's own regiments ; then entering 
the inner courtyard they turned sharp to the 
right, where a large tent had been set up for 
the formal reception of the native princes by the 
King. It was perhaps a pity that the Dewan- 
i-am, or public hall of audience of Shah Jahan, 
which was likewise within the fort, had not been 
selected for this ceremony. It is true that the 
original tent designed for the purpose, the Baha- 
walpur State " Shamiana," was so superb that it 
might well have been worthy of the occasion ; 

118 



THE HOMAGE IN THE FORT 

but this had perished by fire on the 5th, and the Dec. 7. 
new tent hastily improvised to take its place, 
though in no degree mean, appeared small and 
low, strait and dark. The great open space of 
the courtyard, with a splendid regiment of native 
lancers drawn up in hollow square, and four 
companies of British and native infantry, seemed 
to dwarf it still more ; but there was no help for 
it. The staff parted to right and left at the 
entrance. Their Majesties, advancing up the 
centre, took their seats upon the thrones erected 
for them ; and the ceremony of presentation 
began. 

First came the Nizam of Hyderabad in plain 
black with yellow mitre-like head-dress, then 
the Gaekwar of Baroda, the Maharajas of 
Mysore and Kashmir, and the rest of the Ruling 
Chiefs in succession according to territorial 
arrangement ; but it will be more convenient to 
speak in detail of this homage when we come 
to the repetition of it on a greater scale at the 
Durbar. The presentations ended, His Majesty 
mounted his horse, and a procession, or rather 
three processions, were formed, first that of the 
principal British officials in carriages with their 
escorts and bodyguards ; then that of the King- 
Emperor ; and lastly that of the Ruling Indian 
Chiefs. In the King's procession twenty-eight 
officers of the King's staff led the way ; then 
came the Viceroy's bodyguard, gigantic lancers 
in scarlet and gold ; then three non-commissioned 
officers of the First and Second Life Guards and 

119 



THE STATE ENTRY, DELHI 

Dec. 7. Blues, in cuirasses and brazen helmets, the Duke 
of Teck, two equerries, and finally the King- 
Emperor, with the Viceroy and Lord Crewe 
immediately behind him. The Queen followed in 
a carriage drawn by six horses, conspicuous by the 
huge golden fan and crimson and gold umbrella 
held over her by the Indian attendants ; then 
came the Imperial Cadet Corps ; and lastly the 
remainder of the suite in five carriages, with a 
rearguard of native lancers. A salute of one 
hundred and one salvos announced the departure 
of the procession for what was described as the 
State entry into Delhi. 

Every yard of the route was crammed with 
spectators ; and where, as in the progress round 
the Jama Masjid, there was an architectural 
setting to the crowd, the scene was most striking. 
The sky overhead was cloudless, and the white 
marble domes of the great mosque fairly flamed 
above the dull pink sandstone of the walls. 
Below it the turbans of the people made a 
nodding flower-bed of every shade of blue and 
green and every variety of brown, tawny, yellow 
and orange. In more than one place members 
of some school or college had been grouped 
together, making a sheet of blue or pink or 
yellow ; but such colours are better scattered 
than massed. In the main street, the once 
famous Chandni Chauk, the diversity of colour 
in the dress of the spectators was even more 
pleasing against the background of rather un- 
kempt white houses ; but it was painful to 



THE STATE ENTRY, DELHI 

notice that a few occupants had decorated their Dec. 7. 
balconies with some of the vilest colours pro- 
duced by Manchester. The whole body of the 
spectators, Europeans only excepted, was silent 
after the Oriental fashion ; but the truth must 
be told outright that the King-Emperor was not 
recognised as he passed. He alone wore the 
uniform of a Field-Marshal, but this does not to 
a native eye differ materially from that of a 
general or staff-officer ; while the ribbon of the 
Star of India, which he wore over his tunic, was 
also to be seen over the shoulders of every great 
official present. Again, our military head-dresses, 
from the helmet to the bear-skin, entirely conceal 
the face when the lip-chain is down, and this is 
doubly true of the white helmet, necessarily wide 
and overshadowing, of the British Army in India. 
His Majesty's equerries could hear the spectators 
murmuring as they passed that the King was not 
there ; and when the Queen followed, marked 
out conspicuously by the gorgeous fan and 
umbrella, the natives noticed that she was alone, 
and decided that His Majesty was not present. 

There was a certain irony in the situation ; 
for the King had deliberately chosen to ride 
a horse instead of an elephant, as had been done 
by Lord Curzon in 1902, so that he might 
more easily be seen of the people. Critics were 
ready immediately after the event with a score 
of recommendations as to what should have 
been preferred. The King ought to have worn 
a special dress ; he ought to have ridden an 



THE STATE ENTRY, DELHI 

Dec. 7. elephant ; he ought to have driven with the 
Queen ; he ought to have ridden a horse w^ith a 
Royal Standard before him ; he ought to have 
had four, eight, a dozen standards all round him. 
" Malignant officialism," such was the phrase, 
had deliberately destroyed the pageant. In con- 
sideration of all this it must be remembered that 
the troops formed the most essential part of the 
pageant ; that indeed there can be no true pageant 
without disciplined men ; that in the last resort 
everything in India depends upon the British 
soldier — a fact which the Indian civil officials 
nowadays appear not always to remember — and 
that in such a huge concourse of soldiers, British 
and native, lining the route and taking part in the 
procession, it was fitting and right that the King 
should appear in the uniform which distinguished 
him at once as their chief and as one of them- 
selves. From an Oriental point of view probably 
the ideal arrangement would have been that the 
King-Emperor should have ridden a horse, and 
that the Governors and Lieutenant-Governors, 
instead of riding in carriages, each with his own 
petty escort to indicate his comparative insig- 
nificance, should have walked afoot in a body 
surrounding him ; and it was perhaps unfortunate 
that the climate makes such a thing impossible. 
Nothing could have exalted both His Majesty 
and those high officers so truly in the Indian 
mind ; and the latter would have gained rather 
than lost honour by such an act of voluntary 
self-abasement. The Indian takes no account 



ADDRESS AT THE RIDGE 

in the Sovereign's presence of his deputies, Dcc.17. 
much less of Ministers of State, Parliaments and 
the like appendages. His attention fastens itself 
for better or worse wholly upon the person of the 
Sovereign ; and in comparison with him all other 
officials are as nothing. Plainly, therefore, on any 
future occasion the person of the King should be 
notably distinguished. Should he ride — and a 
chief who is a man, a soldier, and a horseman is 
very dear to the greatest of the Indian Princes — 
a standard should be borne before him, and a 
host of native attendants with Imperial insignia 
should be about him. Should His Majesty drive 
in the same carriage with the Queen, they 
should be surrounded with the like pomp and 
circumstance. 

After leaving the city the procession halted 
at a pavilion on the summit of the historic ridge 
on the way to the camp, where were assembled 
representatives of British India, that is to say. 
Members of the Imperial and Provincial Legisla- 
tive Councils, the Judges and other high officers. 
Here the Hon. Mr. Jenkins, the Vice-President 
of the Governor-General's Legislative Council, 
read a short address of welcome and loyalty to the 
King- Emperor, which was then handed to His 
Majesty on a silver tray. His Majesty read his 
reply as usual in a loud tone, which could be 
heard by all present. At about half-past twelve 
the Imperial camp was reached, and here was 
drawn up a quadruple guard of honour, one of 
bluejackets, one of Marine Artillery, one of the 

123 



A GUARD OF HONOUR 

Dec. 7. Royal Fusiliers and one of the 130th Baluchis, 
this last the King's own regiment, picturesquely 
dressed in green coats and loose cherry-coloured 
knickerbockers. The whole formed a magni- 
ficent body of men ; and the contrast was great 
from the broad sturdy bluejackets on the right 
of the line to the lean slender Pathans, long- 
haired, hawk-eyed and hawk-nosed, on the left. 
There was little to choose between the four 
companies when they saluted, but the Marines 
showed just the slight superiority over the rest 
which made perfection. Presently the guards 
filed away, and revealed the person of Sergeant 
Trotter of the King's company of the Grenadier 
Guards, standing solitary in his bearskin at 
attention by the flag-staff, an unrehearsed effect 
which, owing to the huge stature and disciplined 
bearing of the Sergeant, was sufficiently im- 
pressive. 

In the afternoon the King held his first 
reception of the Ruling Chiefs individually, 
giving to each one of them an audience of at 
least ten minutes, and welcoming them as his 
friends. The Queen, whose interest in historic 
buildings is inexhaustible, with the Viceroy, her 
ladies, and a few gentlemen in attendance, paid 
a visit to Shah Jahan's palace, built in 1638-48, 
within the fort of Delhi. This volume is not a 
guide-book and no place for a description of the 
famous building, which in extent, and many 
would contend in beauty also, far outdoes any 
palace in Europe. But Her Majesty, and 

124 



THE OLDER DELHIS 

others who had visited the place before, were Dec. 
amazed at the improvements which, under the 
impulse of Lord Curzon, had been effected 
through the sweeping away of modern excres- 
cences, the restoration of gardens, fountains, 
watercourses and grass-plats, — in a word, the 
general rehabilitation of order, amenity and 
good taste. The British are by no means solely 
responsible for the debasement of some of the 
noblest buildings in India ; but it is incontest- 
able that it was a British Governor-General, a 
sentimental Whig and an arch-Philistine, who 
proposed to sell the Taj Mahal ; so that it is not 
surprising if officers boldly erected coarse 
partition-walls and carved out spaces from the 
(j-ems of Oriental architecture in order to make 
an orderly-room or an ordnance-store. 

On the morning of the 8th the King 
continued his reception of the Ruling Chiefs ; 
and the Queen, attended by a small party of 
the suite, visited the Kutab Minar, the Mosque 
of Kutab-ud-din, and the tomb of Ala-ud-din, 
buildings which date from the twelfth to the 
fourteenth centuries of the Christian era, and 
preserve the memories of far older Delhis than 
the present. In the afternoon, soon after three 
o'clock, Their Majesties drove, under escort of a 
squadron of the Tenth Hussars and a squadron 
of native cavalry, to lay the first stone of the 
memorial to the late King Edward the Seventh. 
The site of this memorial, which will ultimately 
take the form of a bronze equestrian statue, is 

125 



KING EDWARD MEMORIAL 

Dec. 8. well chosen, being in a garden which stands on 
a sHght eminence in the open space between the 
Jama Masjid and the fort ; and a huge crowd of 
Indians filled a series of stands running down 
from the Jama Masjid to the scene of the 
ceremony. Here a pavilion had been erected ; 
and the way from the entrance of the garden to 
this pavilion was lined by guards of honour of 
the Gordon Highlanders and the Second Gurkha 
Rifles, both of them King Edward's own 
regiments. The ceremony itself was brief 
enough. The Viceroy read an address setting 
forth that the cost of the memorial was to be 
defrayed by subscription, which had been 
contributed by " thousands and thousands " of 
loyal subjects of all ranks and conditions in 
India, testifying to their love and reverence for 
the ruler whom they had lost. His Majesty 
replied in a few feeling words, and with due 
ceremony laid the first stone. A salute of one 
hundred and one guns was then fired ; Their 
Majesties drove off, and all was over. But for 
the vast throng of Indians present one would 
have thought that the function was one that 
would hardly have appealed to them. There 
were no masonic rites, in which many might 
have joined, yet they watched the brief spectacle 
by tens of thousands. 

In the evening Their Majesties gave a state 
dinner to one hundred and six guests, including 
the Viceroy and Lady Hardinge, six Indian 
Princes and several members of the Vicerov's 

126 



PRESENTATION TO THE QUEEN 

Council. The banqueting tent offended against Dec. 9. 
the elements of sanitary science in the matter 
of ventilation ; and it must here be added, as a 
warning for future occasions, that being very 
long, very narrow and low, it presented neither 
a dignified nor an inviting appearance. The 
reception - tent beside it, to which Their 
Majesties and their guests withdrew after dinner, 
was less open to such reproach, except in respect 
of ventilation, being both lofty and spacious ; 
while the roof, in broad stripes of pale blue and 
white, was, though somewhat paltry, at least 
pleasing and restful to the eye. 

On the morning of the 9th the King held 
his third reception of Ruling Chiefs ; and the 
Queen likewise received a number of Indian 
ladies who came to present an address of wel- 
come and a historic jewel and necklace to Her 
Majesty. The address, having been read by 
Lady Hardinge, and the presentation having 
been made by H.H. the Maharani of Patiala, 
the Queen read her reply of thanks, which was 
then interpreted in Urdu, after which the whole 
of the ladies were presented to Her Majesty. In 
the afternoon Their Majesties drove to the polo- 
ground, arriving there at half-past three, just at 
half time, in the middle of two matches between 
the King's Dragoon Guards and Bhopal upon 
one ground, and between the Inniskilling 
Dragoons and Kishengarh upon another. These 
matches were semi-final ties, for the final 
decision of which, as the day's work proved, the 

127 



THE KING AND HIS SOLDIERS 

Dec. 9. Inniskillings and the King's Dragoon Guards, 
both of them fine teams, were destined to meet 
again. The ground was thronged with private 
soldiers, both British and native ; and it was 
pleasant to see a tall British red-coat take up an 
excited little Gurkha on his back to enable him 
to witness a thrilling moment in the game. 
But beyond the polo-ground was another field, 
where a football- match was going forward 
between the Lancashire Fusiliers and the Border 
Regiment, with an even greater crowd, composed 
chiefly of private soldiers. To this the King 
presently made his way, walking across the polo- 
ground attended by the Viceroy and by his staff- 
in -waiting. The visit to the polo being 
informal. His Majesty wore a simple grey suit 
with a grey topee and broad gold puggaree ; the 
Viceroy was as simply dressed ; and the whole 
proceeding came upon the soldiers, as indeed 
upon every one else, as a surprise. However, on 
recognising their visitor they made a rush to see 
His Majesty enter the stand with roars of de- 
lighted cheering. The sound naturally increased 
the crowd, and when, after watching the 
match for half an hour, the King went back to 
rejoin the Queen, it was only with the greatest 
difficulty that he was able to pass through the 
masses of enthusiastic, shouting men. 

In the evening Their Majesties attended a 
torchlight tattoo on the polo-ground, of which 
it is unnecessary to say more than that, owing to 
the extremely heavy work thrown upon the 

128 



THE CHURCH PARADE 

troops at Delhi, it was impossible for them to Dec. lo. 
find time to prepare a really effective display of 
that kind. At Calcutta, as we shall see, the case 
was different, and the spectacle was very fine. 
But at Delhi the men were on duty every day 
lining the streets ; they were turned out very 
early, some ventured to think unnecessarily early ; 
they had long marches to make from their own 
camps ; they were out in the sun during the 
fiercest heat of the day ; and, though the 
oiling of most of the roads about the camp 
delivered them from a certain amount of dust, 
yet it did not deliver them from all ; while finally, 
owing to the long distances to be traversed, they 
frequently did not get back to their tents until 
late. In such circumstances the preparation of 
the elaborate manoeuvres which go to make an 
effective tattoo was out of the question. The 
parade, therefore, was necessarily too simple to 
be really striking. 

On Sunday the loth of December Divine 
Service was held at Jagatpur Island, on the far 
side of the Military Camp, eight thousand 
British troops being present. Although the 
King and Queen attended, all arrangements were 
of the simplest, three small shelters for Their 
Majesties and for the clergy alone testifying to 
the fact that some ceremony was going forward. 
The clergy and the massed bands with a body of 
singers selected from the troops were placed 
upon a slight eminence at the edge of the con- 
gregation, with the natural result that both 

129 K 



THE CHURCH PARADE 

Dec. lo. voices and music reached the mass of the troops 
indistinctly, and after an interval. It seemed a 
pity that the men had not been grouped around 
the clergy and bands as a centre. The service 
was admirably intoned in unison by Archdeacon 
Nicholas and the Rev. W. Foster. The Bishop 
of Lahore read the prayers slowly and earnestly, 
in a voice that could be heard by all ; and the 
Bishop of Madras likewise made his sermon 
reach the ears of at least the majority of those 
present. But the soldiers would not sing. In 
fact the British soldier at best will rarely sing 
more than two or three hymns, and those 
unfortunately not of the highest quality ; while 
unless he is brought into a proper frame of 
mind (which is difficult when he considers 
himself to be more or less on duty) and unless 
he is well supported by a band close to him, he 
will not sing at all. The element of a great 
body of sound was therefore wanting to this 
huge congregation ; and its absence was a dis- 
appointment to many. On the other hand, the 
approach to the site of the ceremony through 
the military camp had a grandeur that was all 
its own — a huge brown dead flat plain, covered 
with little humble tents and streaked with bodies 
of troops, moving, both mounted and on foot, in 
all directions. It presented a fine contrast to our 
own luxurious camp with its great marquees, 
fringed with palms, its broad drives and refresh- 
ing grass -plats, its bustling orderlies and 
chuprassies gorgeous in scarlet and gold. At 

130 



PRESENTATION OF COLOURS 

one point could be seen a swarm of little Dec. u. 
Gurkhas climbing about the decayed walls of a 
ruined building from mere schoolboys' love of 
adventure, and grinning over the pleasure of it. 
One could hardly believe that they were ready 
to march, fully equipped for service in the field, 
within twenty-four hours, and to give a good 
account of themselves against any enemy. 

The morning of Monday the iith witnessed 
what was perhaps the prettiest and most perfect 
of all the pageants that were crowded into the 
eventful eight days at Delhi, namely the presenta- 
tion of colours to seven battalions of British 
infantry on the polo-ground. The ground was, 
of course, perfectly flat, though reasonably green 
for India in the dry season ; and the seven 
battalions, each of them in quarter-column with 
fixed bayonets, were drawn up in a hollow 
square. On the left, as one faced the interior of 
the square, stood the Northumberland Fusiliers 
and the Durham Light Infantry ; in the centre 
the Black Watch, Seaforth Highlanders and 
Gordon Highlanders ; and on the right the High- 
land Light Infantry and the Connaught Rangers.^ 
The Scottish Borderers were to have received 
new colours at the same time, but could not be 
brought to Delhi owing to an outbreak of 
cholera.^ Thus two English battalions formed 

^ To give them their old numbers in succession the battalions were the 
i/5th, 68th, 73rd, 72nd, 93rd, 71st and 88th. 

2 Here it must be remarked that it was only by unremitting vigilance 
and care that the awful spectre of cholera was kept at a distance. 
At Bombay the King's suite was to have been provided with Indian 
servants. Half of these servants could not come, owing to an outbreak of 



PRESENTATION OF COLOURS 

Dec. II. one side of the square ; three kilted battalions the 
second side ; and a Scots battalion in trews and 
an Irish battalion the third side, with the massed 
pipes in rear of the Black Watch, and the massed 
drums and bugles in rear of the Gordons. 

Before the King's arrival parties marched out 
from each battalion and built up a small pyramid 
of drums, those of the Connaught Rangers 
solitary in front, those of the two English 
battalions next behind them, and those of the 
four Scottish battalions in rear of all, the drums 
thus arranged being in the form of a triangle 
with the apex towards the saluting point. The 
new colours were laid crosswise upon the drums, 
and a guard of two sergeants and a colour-sergeant 
was left over each. The clergy then advanced 
and grouped themselves near the drums, the 
Bishop of Lahore and the chaplains of the 
English Church in front of the English battalions : 
Father Gentilli, the Roman Catholic Archbishop 
of Agra and his chaplains over against them ; 
and the six Presbyterian ministers in their black 
gowns in front of the kilted battalions and at 
right angles to their brethren of England and of 
Rome ; each one of the clerical parties moving 
with as stately precision as if they had been 
themselves soldiers. Presently the King at the 

cholera in their district, and I was told that two of them had actually died 
in Bombay that morning. At Delhi other servants were provided, but 
some of them were again withdrawn from the same cause. All this was 
rightly kept very quiet ; but from these circumstances the reader may 
judge of the anxiety and trouble which was thrown upon those who 
were responsible for such matters. 

132 



PRESENTATION OF COLOURS 

head of a very large staff rode on to the parade- Dec. u. 
ground and into the hollow square ; and the five 
thousand men, acting under an admirable v^ord 
of command, presented arms as one man. Then 
with the same perfect unity the five thousand 
bayonets flew up together and came down to the 
" slope," and the King rode round the hollow 
square to inspect the troops. The inspection 
over. His Majesty rode to the saluting point and 
dismounted ; and the sergeants guarding the new 
colours marched back to join their battalions. 

Then Bishop Lefroy came forward to the 
English drums and read the prayers of consecra- 
tion, slowly and impressively in a penetrating 
voice which must have been audible not only to 
the troops but to most of the spectators. After 
him the six Presbyterian ministers came forward 
to do the like for the Scottish colours ; and 
lastly the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Agra, 
vested with cope and mitre, read the prayers of 
his church and sprinkled the colours of the 
Connaught Rangers with holy water. Each 
group of the clergy retired in rear of His 
Majesty when its work was done, and then the 
commanding officer, the two senior Majors, and 
the two senior subalterns of each battalion 
advanced to the drums ; the Majors took up the 
new colours, and the parties advanced in three 
columns towards the King and halted. The 
massed bands played a slow march, and each 
party in succession marched in slow time to 
the King, who took the colours from the 



PRESENTATION OF COLOURS 

Dec. II. Majors and handed them to the kneehng 
subalterns. Each party having received its 
colours moved back in slow time to its drums, 
and the commanding officers again advancing 
took each of them in succession a written address 
from the hand of the King. 

It is usual in presenting colours for the 
Sovereign to address the battalion that receives 
them by word of mouth, but, this being 
impossible on so large a parade. His Majesty 
substituted a written address signed with his 
own hand — no unwelcome novelty, for the docu- 
ment can be framed and hung up in the mess- 
room as a perpetual memorial of the occasion. 
The opening exhortation was the same for all ; 
but at the close were a few special words for 
each corps. The Northumberland Fusiliers 
were reminded specially of St. Lucia in 1778 ; 
the Durham Light Infantry of their latest feat 
at Vaal Krantz more than a century later ; the 
Black Watch of their share in the old campaigns 
of India ; the Seaforths of a yet longer list of 
Indian honours ; the Gordons of the great name 
which they have made greater during every 
successive campaign during the past century ; 
the Highland Light Infantry of the defence of 
Gibraltar and the action of Porto Novo ; and 
the Connaught Rangers of their superb behaviour 
at Bussaco. It is true that the very names of 
these great feats of arms are absolutely unknown 
to an overwhelming majority of the British 
nation, who make money out of East Indian and 

134 



PRESENTATION OF COLOURS 

colonial trade without remembering who gained Dec. n, 
that trade for them ; but regiments happily 
never forget such deeds and rejoice to find that 
others too have kept them in mind. 

Having received their addresses, the com- 
manding officers, always moving at slow march, 
rejoined the colour-parties, and amid a great roll 
of drums the colour -parties advanced each 
towards its own battalion ; upon which the seven 
battalions as one man presented arms to their 
new colours. Then came the singularly pathetic 
incident which is inevitable at this ceremony — 
" Old colours, march off." The bands struck 
up " Auld Lang Syne," and the subalterns 
bearing the old colours marched slowly from 
their places in the centre of battalions across the 
front and round the flank to the rear, where the 
old colours, some of them mere ragged ends of 
silk at the end of a staff, were veiled in their 
cases, to be seen no more on parade. Finally 
the troops again presented arms, and the new 
colours were borne to the place of the old and 
let fly, while the band played " God Save the 
King." His Majesty then remounted his horse, 
the seven battalions, removing their helmets, 
gave him three cheers, and the ceremony was 
over. 

All who witnessed the parade — and there were 
officers present of very many years' service — 
agreed that it was the most perfect thing of the 
kind that they had ever seen. An inspection of 
a brigade of Guards in Hyde Park by the Duke 

135 



AN EFFICIENT SENTRY 

Dec. II. of Cambridge thirty years ago was a sight not 
easily to be forgotten ; but in these days, when 
parade movements are rightly held to be of little 
account, such a display is very rare. But it 
must not be thought that such perfection in 
mere manual movement of arms is valuable for 
spectacular purposes only ; for, as every military 
man knows, it is indicative of the greater unity 
that is produced by good discipline. A rather 
curious example of discipline in another form 
came under my immediate notice on (I think) 
this same day. The pavilion of the polo-ground 
was reserved for such spectators only as had been 
provided with a ticket ; and two sentries of the 
Gordon Highlanders were posted at the entrance 
to see that none but ticket-holders were admitted. 
Among others the Adjutant-General of the army 
in India presented himself, advancing in full uni- 
form with many decorations, so that there could 
be no mistake as to his rank or as to his claim 
to be present. He was stopped by the sentry and 
required to produce his ticket. By accident or 
mishap he had none, and was proceeding to 
explain, when the sentry cut him short with 
" Beg pardon, sir, but my orders are to admit no 
one without a ticket," to which unanswerable 
statement the Adjutant-General, being responsible 
for the discipline of the army, cheerfully bowed 
his head, and fetched a wide compass to seek 
legitimate entrance elsewhere. 

From the British regiments the King- 
Emperor rode next to two Indian battalions, the 

136 



INSPECTION OF VETERANS 

Eighteenth Infantry and the Ninetieth Panjabis, Dec. n. 
to which he presented colours with the same 
formaHties, omitting the consecration. His 
Majesty then proceeded to the veterans and 
holders of the Order of British India, who were 
present to the number of eight hundred and 
eighty, thirty of them being Europeans. As he 
passed down the line he said a few words to each 
of the Europeans, giving particular attention to 
Major Allum of the old Bengal Horse Artillery, 
who is eighty-four years of age, and was wearing 
two medals of earlier date than the Mutiny. 
Two more veterans — Mr. Thitton and Mr. James 
Roots, the latter of whom wears the Victoria 
Cross — also received special notice, both from the 
King and the Queen. Among the Indian soldiers 
were many grand old fellows, notably a father 
and a son, the one seventy-eight, the other fifty- 
eight years old, both of them late of the Twenty- 
third Sikhs, and both wearing five or six medals. 
One younger man explained to the King that 
he had received twenty -two wounds in Chitral, 
showing some of them as he spoke, but added 
proudly that he had killed two of the enemy. 
Altogether the King devoted a full hour to these 
gallant old men, the Queen following him 
closely in her carriage ; and never was an hour 
better spent. Even from an ordinary European 
the Indian officer or soldier rates no compliment 
so highly as a glance at his medals and a salute 
paid to them, from which it may be guessed that 
the appreciation of the King-Emperor and the 

137 



THE GREAT DAY COME 

Dec. 12. Queen -Empress was received as the highest of 
honours and gratifications. 

In the afternoon Their Majesties again visited 
the polo-ground to witness the final contest for 
the championship of the Delhi Durbar Polo 
Tournament, between the King's Dragoon 
Guards and the Inniskillings. After a very fine 
and hard-fought game the Inniskillings were 
victorious ; whereupon both teams were sum- 
moned to the pavilion and presented to Their 
Majesties, the Inniskillings also receiving the 
cup from the hand of the Queen. 



IX 

And now Tuesday the 1 2th day of December 
was come, the great day around which all other 
events of the Imperial visit were centred, and for 
which preparations had been going forward for 
many months. The general arrangements were 
entrusted to a Committee, of which Sir John 
Hewett was the chief and the leading spirit ; 
and it may be well first to take account of these 
and of the many difficulties which confronted 
the Committee in getting ready for the 
ceremony. 

It was early decided by the King that the 
Durbar must not be held in any building, no 
matter how superb its intrinsic magnificence or 
how interesting its historic associations, but in 
the open air, so that it might be witnessed by 

138 




s 



SCENE OF THE DURBAR 

the greatest possible number of spectators of all Dec. 12. 
races and conditions. The ground does not 
naturally lend itself to the convenience of 
spectators, Delhi being situated on a level plain 
with no eminence near it except the famous ridge, 
which is only sixty feet high and ill-suited for 
any such purpose. His Majesty therefore urged 
that a semicircle should be marked out in the 
plain ; that the outer circumference should be 
raised into a mound, so as to afford room for 
fifty or seventy thousand spectators ; that at the 
centre of the semicircle there should be erected 
a pavilion, high enough to enable Their 
Majesties to be seen from all points of the 
amphitheatre ; and that the stands for the Indian 
Princes and for privileged spectators should like- 
wise be curved about the Royal pavilion for the 
same object. 

Upon this plan the ground was laid out. 
From the Royal pavilion as a centre a semicircle 
with a radius of about two hundred and forty yards 
was marked out to the north, and a mound was 
erected round the circumference for spectators. 
All round the base of the mound ran a 
processional road, so that Their Majesties could 
drive under the very eyes of the onlookers. A 
broad road also led from the pavilion due north, 
called the central road, and two more due east 
and west, called the east and west vistas 
respectively, all of them designed to open a clear 
view of Their Majesties from every quarter. 

From the same centre of the Royal pavilion, 
139 



THE DURBAR; PREPARATIONS 

Dec. 12. but on the opposite side to the mound, a 
circular road was marked out on a radius of 
about one hundred and twenty yards ; and round 
the southern margin of this road was erected a 
huge stand with seating accommodation for some 
ten thousand spectators, and with closed apart- 
ments up above for the great Indian ladies. 
Southward from the Royal pavilion ran a paved 
way leading to a second royal canopy called 
by the native name (which I shall retain for 
convenience) of the Shamiana, which abutted 
immediately upon the stand above mentioned. 

The general plan having been decided, the 
formation of the mound and the sowing of the 
arena with grass became a question of labour, 
severe and trying enough no doubt in itself, 
but still comparatively speaking simple ; and the 
problem now was to work out the remaining 
details. It was here that the Committee's 
difficulties began, and they were very many and 
great. It was plain that the body of the spectacle 
at the Durbar must be furnished by soldiers ; and 
it was therefore rightly decided that the main 
space of the arena must be filled with troops. 
But the great mass of the King's soldiers are 
dressed in scarlet, and though I should be the 
last to say a word against the historic red coat, 
which is now approaching the age of three 
centuries, it must be confessed that it does not 
look its best under the Indian sun. It is hard, 
crude and glaring, and there is no escape 
from the fact. The Indian army, of course, 

140 



THE DURBAR ; AMPHITHEATRE 

affords a greater variety of colour than the British. Dec. 12. 
There is plenty of khaki, which looks far better 
in India than in England, often blended with 
turbans of blue, green or orange ; and there are 
regiments of cavalry in light blue, yellow, and 
other less difficult colours. Still the prevailing 
tone, even with twenty thousand troops massed 
within the arena, was bound to be scarlet, and 
the only thing that could be done was to blend 
the scarlet well with other less glaring colours. 

To accomplish this, as well as to make the 
troops within the amphitheatre visible, it was 
necessary that the arena should be terraced, for 
it is obvious that, if it were left at its original 
unbroken level, not one tenth part of the soldiers 
could be seen. This terracing could be accom- 
plished in two ways. The first was to raise the 
earth from the circumference towards the centre, 
so that the Royal pavilion would have risen as 
the highest point, above tier upon tier of troops, 
and above successive waves of colour. This 
would have been highly effective ; and though 
no doubt there would have been some difficulty 
in adjusting this arrangement to the smaller space 
to south of the greater semicircle, yet this need 
not have proved insuperable. On the other 
hand, it would have been possible to terrace 
the arena from the centre outwards, so that it 
should rise in continuous tiers up to the extreme 
circumference at the spectators' mound. This 
would have been both less effective and more 
costly than the other, for it would have involved 

141 



THE DURBAR; BUILDINGS 

Dec. 12. the raising both of the spectators' mound, and 
therefore of the Royal pavilion also, to much 
greater height. However, whether these diffi- 
culties of terracing were invincible or not, no 
attempt was made to overcome them. The body 
of the arena was left at its original dead level, 
and hence for the vast majority of the beholders 
three-quarters of the troops contributed in no 
degree whatever to the spectacle. 

Another point must also be noticed. With 
excellent judgment the Committee left a gap 
in the north centre of the spectators' mound, so 
that there should be a vista of Their Majesties 
upon their thrones from north, east and west ; 
but none the less the effect of the mound was 
such as to make a hard unbroken straight line 
against the horizon. By unhappy mischance 
no trees grew anywhere near the amphitheatre 
to break this line, and it was of course impossible 
to plant trees of sufficient size for the purpose. 
It must be added that no attempt was made to 
break it by artificial decoration. If the experi- 
ence of the past is to be used for the profit of 
the future, this hard line should be noted with 
a view to possible amendment. 

As regards the minor details, the architecture 
selected for the stand and for the pavilion was 
rightly Oriental in its general character. The 
stand, however, presented a compromise between 
East and West, for it had a steep sloping roof, 
a thing so rarely seen in the East that the tiny 
Oriental cupolas with which it was liberally 

142 



THE DURBAR; PAVILION 

sprinkled could not disguise its foreign character. Dec. 12. 
Moreover, this sloping roof, being abruptly cut 
off at the ends, presented an appearance so far 
from Oriental as to recall painful visions of a 
grand stand at Ascot. As the roof was not 
occupied by spectators, this unhappy effect might 
have been avoided, and should be avoided at any 
future durbar. 

The Royal pavilion rose from a broad base 
in three tiers, ascended by broad stairways, to 
a central structure supported by four slender 
columns and surmounted by a huge gilt bulbous 
dome. This dome rose out of a kind of balu- 
strade of gilt fretted work with four small domes 
at the four corners, beneath which extended a 
kind of gilt verandah, and beyond this a canopy 
of crimson velvet with a broad straight fringe of 
crimson and gold. The canopy was carried out 
as far as to the second tier of the pavilion, upon 
which it was supported by a number of thin 
gilded iron poles. These very slight supports 
were necessary, lest the view of the interior of 
the pavilion should be obstructed ; but at a short 
distance they gave the impression that the heavy 
dome and canopy were resting upon nothing, 
and the more so inasmuch as the bulbous dome, 
which is typical of late Mohammedan architec- 
ture, seems even in the finest buildings to weigh 
very heavily on the substructure and to threaten 
to crush it. It may therefore be doubted whether 
the dome and its adjuncts would not have been 
better of white, picked out with gold ; the 



THE DURBAR ; A BLEMISH 

Dec. 12. canopy itself of white, or of some pale colour, 
embroidered in gold ; and the straight fringe 
(which was not beautiful) made lighter by being 
broken up. 

Indeed it may be questioned whether too 
slavish an adherence to crimson as the Royal 
colour, even though it was in some sort the 
Imperial colour of the Moghuls, be not a 
mistake. The canopy over the Shamiana and 
the embroidered mat at its foot might well 
have been, as they were, of crimson and gold ; 
but the carpet round the foot of the stand and 
that leading from the Shamiana to the pavilion 
were of the commonplace red baize which 
is, perhaps, most generally associated with 
weddings at churches in the west end of London. 
The colour is not a good red, and at the 
foot of the stand made a very poor background 
for the rich dresses of the Indian Princes. But 
it was still worse on the paved way which led 
to the pavilion. There were officers in one 
shade of scarlet to walk on it ; soldiers in a 
slightly different shade of scarlet all round it ; 
Their Majesties' Indian attendants in a deeper 
and nobler shade of scarlet to stand by it ; the 
Imperial trains of rich purple to be held up 
against it ; and the deep crimson of the pavilion's 
canopy to overhang it ; and the miserable baize 
swore vigorously and irreconcilably with one 
and all of them. Moreover, its appearance was 
lamentably mean and paltry. A decent border 
would have done something to redeem it, but 

144 



DAWN OF THE TWELFTH 

even this was wanting. Indeed to me it seemed Dec. 12. 
that the circumstances positively demanded a 
pale tint both in this carpet and in the canopy 
of the pavilion. The Shamiana lay in shade, 
screened by the grand stand. The paved way 
and the pavilion lay out in the full glare of the 
Indian sun. Their Majesties were to march 
from the first, where they could hardly be seen 
by the spectators on the mound, to the second, 
where they were in full view. The transition 
from the homage of the Princes, which was practi- 
cally hidden, to the homage of the whole people, 
which was in the full light of day, should have 
been marked by a change of hue ; and it must 
be repeated that the Indian dyers excel in the 
production of pale and tender colours.^ 

So much must be said for the preparations, in 
order that the reader may imagine the setting of 
the scene in which the King-Emperor and the 
Queen-Empress were to play their most difficult 
part of the central figures. The morning of the 
1 2th, to the general relief, broke fine and cloud- 
less. On the two previous days the sky had 
become overcast, and the evening temperature 

^ Objections may of course be raised to the foregoing criticisms on the 
ground of expense ; but a glance at the distribution of the funds would 
seem sufficient refutation. According to figures supplied to me, the cost 
of the Government of India's camp — 60 people — for the week was 500,000 
rupees ; the expenditure on four persons alone out of those 60 was 22,000 
rupees ; the grant for the whole of the head-quarter camp of the army, 
160 people, was 25,000 rupees. From this it would seem to be a legitimate 
conclusion that if the leading civilians of India had meted out to themselves 
the allowance which they thought sufficient for the leading soldiers, there 
would have been more money to spare for the proper decoration of the 
amphitheatre on the great occasion, perhaps the greatest in the history of 
India, of the 12th of December 191 1. 

14s L 



THE SPECTATORS' MOUND 

Dec. 12. had risen, both of them signs of coming rain 
which were accentuated by gloomy forecasts 
from the Meteorological Office at Simla. All 
misgivings were happily set at rest at dawn of 
the 1 2th. Long before that, the air had been 
alive with the song of bugles and trumpets, with 
the braying of bands, the roll of drums and the 
tramp of marching troops. By nine o'clock the 
royal escort was beginning to form ; a battery of 
Horse Artillery was halted in the avenue of the 
King-Emperor's camp, with its guns and harness 
looking fit to be placed on a lady's dressing-table ; 
and the three huge non-commissioned officers of 
the Household Cavalry, with cuirasses flaming in 
the sun, were seeking their horses. At half-past 
ten such of the suite as were not in personal 
attendance began to leave camp in motors for 
the amphitheatre, which, owing to the excellent 
arrangements of the police, was reached within a 
quarter of an hour. By that time the spectators' 
mound was already more than three parts full, 
and presented generally a huge dark mass of 
black and white, dotted with the red tunics of 
British soldiers who, with inexhaustible patience 
and good temper, mingled with a certain per- 
emptoriness of manner, were guiding people into 
their seats. On one side of the central gap 
broad bands of yellow, white, green and blue 
showed the presence of some college or similar 
institution. On the other, a still happier mixture 
of turbans of every imaginable hue gave the 
appearance of a giant bed of flowers. Round 

146 



THEIR MAJESTIES' PAGES 

the base of the stand most of the principal Dec. 12. 
officials and of the Ruling Chiefs were already 
assembled ; and grouped on the steps of the 
Shamiana were Their Majesties' pages, ten in 
number, all of them either themselves Princes 
or the descendants of Princes.^ They were 
charmingly dressed, no two of them alike, in 
the usual long-skirted cassock of white or pale- 
coloured silk, buttoned to the waist, with turbans 
of another pale shade or of orange, shot with 
gold, jewelled swords, priceless necklaces and 
armlets of precious stones, and a brooch of the 
King - Emperor's initials in diamonds — the gift 
of His Majesty — fastened in their turbans. They 
varied in age from fourteen to six ; but the 
centre of all their attention at the moment was 
the Lord High Steward, gorgeous in gold lace 
and the collar of the Garter, who was blandly 
explaining, amid shouts of laughter, that the true 
use of his long wand of office was to whip little 
boys at durbars. 

The arena was already full of troops, beauti- 
fully turned out, but a little too monotonously 
scarlet. There was abundance of variety if it 

' The King-Emperor's pages : — 

(1) His Highness The Maharaja of Jodhpur. 

(2) His Highness The Maharaja of Bharatpur. 

(3) The Maharaj Kunvvar of Bikaner. 

(4) Maharaj Kumar Himmat Singh of Idar. 

(5) Bhanwar Vir Singh of Orchha. 

(6) Sahibzada Muhammad Wahid-uz-Zafar Khan of Bhopal. 

Queen-Empress's pages : — 

The Thalcur of Palitana. 
Maharaj Kumar Gulab Singh of Rewa. 
Kumar Mandhata Singh of Sailana. 
Kumar Ramchandra Singh of Sailana. 



THE VICEROY'S ARRIVAL 

Dec. 12. could have been seen ; but only the waving 
pennons of the lancers, green, blue and white 
above their heads, softened the glare of the red, 
though the prominent place assigned to the 
Hundred and Thirtieth Baluchis in their green 
and crimson also gave a little relief. The guards 
of honour were furnished by bluejackets, Royal 
Marines, the Black Watch, and by the Fifty- 
third regiment of Native Infantry, this last being 
specially chosen for the honour, because it is 
recruited from every part of India. Dressed in 
khaki with touches of bright orange in their 
turbans, they made a remarkable foil to the 
scarlet doublets and dark kilts of the Black 
Watch. 

The first episode was the entry of the 
Veterans, who were loudly cheered, though a 
repetition of the pathetic scene at Lord Curzon's 
durbar was not to be expected. On that occa- 
sion their entry was new and a surprise ; now it 
was looked for, and people were prepared. The 
massed bands played " See the conquering hero 
comes " ; and then one realised how nobly 
Handel's music, no matter how much hackneyed, 
can sound on a great occasion. At half-past 
eleven the Viceroy and Lady Hardinge arrived 
with their escort, and the massed bands played the 
march which he had selected for himself during 
the King's visit, most fortunately that from 
Scipio, again by Handel. Thus, so far as music 
was concerned, the day was opened with dignity. 
His Majesty meanwhile had begun the day 
148 



THEIR MAJESTIES' ESCORT 

characteristically with holding a Council ; for, Dec, 12. 
no matter what may be going forward, the King 
is never free from the routine of business. At 
half-past eleven Their Majesties left the camp in 
an open landau drawn by four horses, with two 
Indian attendants behind them, carrying the 
crimson umbrella embroidered in gold and the 
huge gold fan-like sunshade which belong to 
their Imperial rank. Both were arrayed in Royal 
attire ; the King in the raiment of white satin 
which he wore at the Coronation in Westminster 
Abbey, with robes of purple velvet bound with 
gold, and wearing further his Imperial crown, 
which was one great sheet of diamonds, the collar 
of the Garter, and the star of the Order of the Star 
of India in diamonds. The Queen was dressed in 
white embroidered with gold, with a robe of 
purple, a circlet of emeralds and diamonds on her 
head, and the Orders of the Garter and of the 
Crown of India. For their escort the Tenth 
Hussars, V Battery of Horse Artillery, and the 
Bodyguard rode in front of the carriage ; General 
Rimington, Sir Pratap Singh, and two equerries 
alongside it ; and the Imperial Cadet Corps and 
Eighteenth Indian Lancers in rear. Over and 
above these the Third battalion of the King's 
Royal Rifle Corps, and the First Ghurkha Rifles, 
awaited them, also as part of the escort, at the 
south-eastern corner of the amphitheatre. 

Just before noon Their Majesties reached this 
entrance, their arrival being heralded by a salute 
of one hundred and one guns. The whole of 

149 



THEIR MAJESTIES' ARRIVAL 

Dec. 12. the vast assemblage rose to its feet ; and the 
procession, reducing its pace to a walk, passed 
amid the salaams of the Indians and the cheers 
of the Europeans, round the eastern half of the 
spectators' mound and thence down the central 
road. Here the Tenth Hussars and the battery- 
turned out of the route, while the Bodyguard, 
the Royal carriage and the Imperial Cadet Corps — 
let me call it the Noble Guard for brevity — pro- 
ceeded down the eastern side of the circular road 
to the Shamiana. The steady array of the blue- 
clad hussars ; the less compact but not less perfect 
order of the Horse Artillery, in their bright 
yellow-embroidered jackets ; the tall stature and 
dignified bearing of the Bodyguard, all scarlet 
and gold ; the gleaming helmets and cuirasses of 
the three Lifeguardsmen ; the huge crimson 
umbrella and golden fan which marked the 
Royal carriage ; the scarlet tunic of General 
Rimington and the spotless white of the veteran 
Sir Pratap Singh, followed by the gleaming white 
frocks, sky-blue turbans and glittering aigrettes of 
the Noble Guard — all this long parti-coloured 
procession winding its devious way half seen 
above the immovable forest of turbans, helmets, 
bayonets and lance-pennons, presented a spectacle 
of amazing majesty and grandeur. Nothing 
could have been better conceived or more 
admirably executed. 

Arrived at the Shamiana the King and Queen 
alighted, the Viceroy coming forward to receive 
them ; the pages gathered up the long purple 

150 



SCENES AT THE SHAMIANA 

trains ; and Their Majesties, standing for a Dec 12. 
moment before their thrones on the dais, bowed 
right and left to the huge ring of spectators in 
the stand, and then took their seats with their 
pages grouped on the steps before them. The 
Viceroy then seated himself with Lady Hardinge, 
Lord Crewe and the Lord High Steward on the 
lower stages of the dais to the right of the King ; 
the Duke of Teck, the Duchess of Devonshire, 
Lord Shaftesbury and Miss Baring occupying the 
corresponding place to the left of the Queen. 
The remainder of Their Majesties' suite and the 
Viceroy's staff were behind them on both sides ; 
and the Noble Guard, which had dismounted, 
was seated in rear of all. It must be added that 
for the first time in British history members 
of the corps of Gentlemen-at-arms and of the 
Scottish Archers were in waiting simultaneously 
upon the King upon this unique occasion ; and 
that among all the thousands of soldiers of the 
King's own regiments, the Royal bodyguard of 
England, represented by four men, held its place 
of honour ; a mounted Lifeguardsman being 
stationed at the northern, eastern and western faces 
of the Royal pavilion, and the solitary sergeant 
of the Grenadier Guards half-way up the steps 
on the southern face. But perhaps the most 
striking figures of all were Their Majesties' Indian 
attendants, fourteen of them carrying maces, and 
the remaining four the fans of yaks' tails and of 
peacocks' feathers, which are the eastern emblems 
of royalty. All were dressed in long scarlet 

151 



THE DURBAR OPENED 

Dec. 12. gowns covered with gold embroidery, and wore 
white turbans striped with gold about their 
heads ; but there was no mistaking these grand 
grey warriors for anything but old soldiers, even 
if the row of medals upon their breasts had not 
proclaimed the fact aloud. Immensely proud of 
their office, they never for a moment took their 
eyes off their sacred charge, while from time to 
time a whisk of the yak's tail or a sudden lunge 
of the peacock's feathers, aimed at imaginary 
insects, proclaimed alike their readiness and their 
vigilance. They were grey, as I have said, and 
their natural force was abated with age, but any 
one approaching the King-Emperor with evil 
intent would have reached him only over their 
dead bodies. 

All being ready, Sir Henry McMahon, as 
Master of the Ceremonies, asked His Majesty's 
permission to open the Durbar, which being 
granted, the massed bands by the pavilion 
sounded a noble flourish of trumpets culminating 
in a mighty roll of drums. Then His Majesty 
rose, the whole assembly, of course, rising with 
him, and read slowly and clearly a short speech 
expressive of his desire to announce the ceremony 
of his Coronation in person to his subjects in 
India. " To all present," His Majesty ended, 
raising his voice and glancing round the sea of 
upturned faces, " feudatories and subjects, I 
tender my loving greetings." A purely Oriental 
audience would have received such an allocution 
with a silent obeisance ; but the leaven of Euro- 

152 



HOMAGE OF THE PRINCES 

peans in the stands was large, and the English, Dec. 12. 
being too self-conscious to express satisfaction by 
mute gesture, broke into loud cheers. Oriental 
taste showed at this moment to advantage. 

Then the Viceroy came forward to do 
homage, bowing low thrice as he approached the 
throne, and finally kneeling to kiss His Majesty's 
hand, a distinction confined to him alone. To 
Lord Hardinge succeeded the members of his 
Executive Council ; and then followed the 
Ruling Chiefs of Hyderabad, Baroda, Mysore, 
Kashmir, Rajputana, Central India, Baluchistan, 
Sikkim and Bhutan, led by the Nizam, who was 
dressed entirely in black but for his yellow 
mitre-like head-dress, his simple dignity en- 
hancing the respect of his obeisance. After them 
came the Chief-Justice and Judges of the High 
Court, and the Viceroy's Legislative Council ; 
and then in succession the Governors and Lieu- 
tenant-Governors of Madras, Bombay, Bengal, 
the Panjab, Burma and Eastern Bengal and Assam, 
and the Chief Commissioners of the Central and 
North-West Frontier Provinces ; followed in 
each case, first by their Executive Councils, next 
by the Ruling Chiefs in relation with their 
Governments, and lastly by the representatives 
of their provinces. 

The entire ceremony occupied a full hour, 
and was not only often extremely picturesque, 
but, to those who know anything of the history 
of India, of surpassing interest. The British 
officials, for the most part in staid blue uniforms 

153 



HOMAGE OF THE PRINCES 

Dec. 12. with little adornment, quietly and unpretendingly- 
made the military salute and passed almost un- 
noticed ; though now and again attention was 
arrested by a giant such as Sir Charles Bayley, 
the Governor of Eastern Bengal and Assam, or 
by a Hercules, such as Sir George Roos-Keppel, 
who, for all his civil uniform, bore the unmistak- 
able brand of the soldier and the fighting man, 
ready to wring the life out of an opponent at any 
moment, and able by sheer personal prowess to 
overawe an angry mob of the wildest tribes on 
the marches. No one would have suspected that 
the quiet, low-voiced Master of the Ceremonies 
himself is most at home on the Baluchi Frontier, 
where he has made his reputation as a patient, 
* tenacious and successful diplomatist. But all 
eyes were naturally reserved for the Indian 
Princes, resplendent in gorgeous robes, hung with 
priceless jewels, and employing every variety 
of salutation. Very many used the gesture of 
throwing earth on the head once or oftener ; 
others simply bowed, sometimes over their hands 
placed palm to palm, sometimes over their 
tendered swords. The Rajput chiefs almost 
without exception laid their swords first at the 
feet of the King -Emperor, and then of the 
Queen- Empress, with deep obeisance ; and not 
the least striking of these was the young 
Maharaja of Jodhpur, who, together with 
another of the Imperial pages, left his place by 
the throne for a moment to do homage. The 
Begum of Bhopal, veiled from crown to heel in 

154 



HOMAGE OF THE PRINCES 

cloth of gold, made her reverence with a stately Dec. 12. 
gravity which impressed the beholders not a 
little. The little Maharaja of Bharatpur, quite a 
child, bore himself with childish naturalness and 
grace. Then occasionally the ordinary course 
would be broken by the homage of one of the 
Noble Guard, who, with moustache curling up 
to his eyes, and sky-blue turban low over his 
forehead, marched upright as a dart to his place, 
halted with heels together, pressed the scabbard 
of his curved sword to his side, and saluted with 
the conscious pride of a soldier of the King- 
Emperor. Most reverential of all were the 
chiefs of Bhutan and of Sikkim, who, after 
bowing profoundly and throwing earth by gesture 
seven times on their heads, drew from their 
breasts two white shawls, such as they use 
only to drape the most sacred images of their 
gods, spread them before the King and Queen, 
and finally raising their quaint caps from their 
heads, passed on. Their homage was a solemn 
religious ceremony. One chief only marred the 
proceedings for a moment by a laboured un- 
gainliness of bearing which lent itself to mis- 
interpretation. It was a pity, for Indian Princes 
do not generally need lessons in deportment ; 
and it may be hoped that after this occurrence 
no further lessons will be necessary. 

Incidentally the Durbar afforded curious 
illustrations of the past history of India. The 
greatest of the chiefs were the latest, the Nizam 
and the Marathas having no more lengthy pedi- 

155 



RAJPUTS AND BENGALIS 

Dec. 12. grees of sovereignty to show than have the 
English themselves in India. There w^as, how- 
ever, a goodly company of the old proud families 
and of the heads of the fighting clans which, 
even after repeated defeats, had defied the Moguls 
in the plenitude of their power, and with un- 
quenchable pride and independence even rejected 
alliances with them by marriage. These were 
they who laid their swords at the feet of Their 
Majesties, remembering that Lord Mornington 
and Lord Hastings had saved them from utter 
extinction at the hands of the Marathas. They 
had ruled India once and, if their brains had 
been commensurate with their bravery, would 
have ruled it for longer. Very noticeable, on 
the other hand, were the absence of any Bengali 
chiefs enjoying independent relations with the 
central Government, and the very small number, 
no more than two, of those who stood in the like 
relation to the Government of Bengal. For the 
Bengali is the converse of the Rajput, a thinking 
man rather than a fighting man, who surrenders 
his outward independence with little ado, trust- 
ing, not without justification from past history, 
that his intellect will give him the greater 
sovereignty which belongs to those who govern 
the Governors. 

For the rest it would be impossible to 
describe the richness and variety of colour 
displayed by the dresses of the native princes. 
The head-dresses alone would require several 
pages, from the voluminous turban of Kashmir 

156 



THE HOMAGE ENDED 

to the small golden jewelled cap (I know not Dec. 12. 
how else to describe it) of Travancore, and 
the pagoda -like structures of Burma. In the 
surroundings and against the infelicitous back- 
ground selected by the Committee, one costume 
of white shot with gold, with a broad girdle 
and turban of bright green silk, was perhaps the 
most effective ; but taken as a body nothing 
could exceed the group of the Imperial pages. 

At length the homage was over. Few if any 
of those who saw it could have found it tedious, 
and, if they did, the monotony was broken by 
the applause with which the different personages 
were greeted as they advanced to the throne. 
Such applause perhaps suggested rather prize- 
giving than reverence, but the instincts of the 
public meeting are strong in Englishmen ; and, 
if cheers were out of place, it may at least be 
pleaded that they were more freely bestowed upon 
the Indian Princes than upon the European gentle- 
men. The last outburst died away. The fourteen 
mace-bearers faced about and formed in column, 
two and two, on the paved way ; and the Lord 
High Steward and the Queen-Empress's Lord 
Chamberlain presently took their places behind 
them. The King and Queen rose ; the pages 
gathered up the purple trains ; the massed bands 
blared out a march ; and the whole assemblage 
sprang to its feet. Then with joined hands and 
measured step Their Majesties moved slowly up 
the paved way towards the Royal pavilion. 
Immediately before them and facing towards 

157 



THE ROYAL PAVILION 

Dec. 1 2. them walked Lord Durham and Lord Shaftesbury, 
with the mace-bearers in front of all. Imme- 
diately behind them marched the four remain- 
ing Indian attendants ; then after an interval the 
Viceroy, Lady Hardinge, the Duke of Teck, 
Lord Crewe and the Duchess of Devonshire ; 
and after a second interval the remainder of the 
suite and the Viceroy's staff, four abreast, in all 
nearly fifty persons. At the foot of the pavilion 
the mace-bearers halted, and turning right and 
left lined the way on each side ; and Their 
Majesties, slowly ascending the steps to the 
highest stage, took their seats on two gorgeous 
thrones, with their four Indian attendants behind, 
and the pages grouped before them. On the 
stage next below them the Viceroy, Lady 
Hardinge, Lord Crewe and Lord Durham stood 
upon the King's (or eastern) side ; the Duke 
of Teck, the Duchess of Devonshire, Lady 
Shaftesbury and Miss Baring upon the Queen's 
side ; while the remainder of the suite divided 
themselves between the two sides of the lowest 
stage. 

The scene at this moment was extremely fine. 
As a matter of spectacular effect the lower tiers 
of the pavilion might perhaps with advantage 
have been more thickly covered, while some 
Oriental dresses would have brought a welcome 
relief of soft colour to the hard blue and scarlet 
of the uniforms. Still the presence of the 
Maharaja of Bikaner and of Sir Pratap Singh 
gave at any rate a touch of white and sky blue ; 

158 



THE ROYAL TRUMPETERS 

and on the Queen's side the three ladies — the Dec. 12. 
Duchess of Devonshire in creamy white, Lady 
Shaftesbury in buff with a pale-pink sunshade, 
and Miss Baring, tall and graceful, in pale 
blue — provided just what was needed. But 
this was merely a question of the setting, for 
all eyes were rightly fixed on the topmost 
stage, where Their Majesties sat, all white and 
gold against the rich purple and creamy ermine 
of their trains, with the soft-coloured robes of 
the pages grouped about their feet. And this 
was beautiful as well as imposing. 

The massed bands again sounded a superb 
flourish of trumpets, with a thundering roll of 
drums : a shrill fanfare answered them from 
without the amphitheatre, and the trumpeters 
advanced on horseback to the north entrance of 
the central road, with the two heralds, Brigadier- 
General Peyton and the Hon. Malik Umar 
Hyat Khan, in tabards, at their head. The 
trumpeters numbered twenty -four, drawn in 
equal numbers from British and Indian cavalry 
regiments, with one drummer from the 
Thirteenth Hussars. They were dressed in the 
crimson and gold worn by the State trumpeters 
at home, the British wearing white helmets, 
and the natives white and gold turbans ; and all 
were of course mounted on white horses. 
Arrived before the entrance to the central road 
at the cut through the spectators' mound, they 
halted and blew a second fanfare. Then 
advancing up the central road to the Royal 

159 



THE ROYAL PROCLAMATION 

Dec. 12. pavilion the drummer again spread his arms 
wide, and at his signal the flourish was repeated 
a third time. 

Then the chief herald rode up before the 
pavilion and read the King-Emperor's proclama- 
tion, announcing, in efl^ect, that the solemnity of 
his Coronation had been celebrated in Westminster 
Abbey on the 22nd of June, and that it was his 
wish and desire to make this known in person to 
all his loving subjects in India. " Now" (ran 
the closing words), "We do by this Our Royal 
Proclamation make announcement thereof, and 
extend to all Our officers and to all Princes, 
Chiefs and Peoples now at Delhi Our Royal and 
Imperial Greeting, and assure them of the deep 
affection with which We regard Our Indian 
Empire, the welfare and prosperity of which are, 
and ever will be. Our constant concern." The 
Indian herald then repeated the Proclamation in 
Urdu, in tones which, though less deep and 
powerful than General Peyton's, were more 
penetrating and carried much farther. " God 
Save the King-Emperor," cried the shrill voice 
in Urdu ; and the drummer once more opened 
his arms wide for a last flourish ot trumpets. 
The supreme moment was come. The bugler 
of the commanding General sounded a note ; the 
troops presented arms ; and with a crash the 
massed bands burst into the National Anthem. 
The last note was hardly silent when a battery 
of artillery at the north end of the amphitheatre 
fired the first salvo of six guns, which was repeated 

160 



THE SUPREME MOMENT 

by a second battery to west, and a third to east, Dec. 
the salute passing round and round in the same 
order until thirty-four salvos had been fired. 
Then came a faint sound as of rending paper, 
which died away into a faint mutter and swelled 
again into an angry snarl, as the Jeu de joie of the 
troops that lined the roads sped away for three 
miles from the amphitheatre to the King's Camp, 
and rushed back from thence to the amphitheatre 
again. The bands once more played the opening 
bars of the National Anthem ; the batteries fired 
three more salvos ; and the same procedure was 
followed until one hundred and one salvos and 
three y^'WAT de joie had been completed. 

Throughout this time, full fifteen minutes, the 
whole of the great congregation remained silent 
and motionless. The sun, high in the heavens, 
beat down fiercely upon all within the amphi- 
theatre — upon all except the King-Emperor and 
the Queen-Empress, who stood, even as the rest, 
erect and still in all the pomp and glitter of robes 
and crown, under the shadow of the canopy. 
They alone, being seen of all men, could command 
at a glance of the eye the huge concourse of men 
that encircled them. At their feet in long 
curved concentric lines stood great ranks of dis- 
ciplined soldiers, standing patiently, in contempt 
of all muscular strain, with presented arms — 
light little English townsmen from London, 
Birmingham, Sheffield, Durham and fifty other 
cities ; heavier country lads from Berkshire, from 
the Midlands and from Northumberland ; solemn 

l6l M 



THE SUPREME MOMENT 

Dec. 12. Highlanders from Banff and Aberdeen ; sturdy 
bluejackets from Hants and Devon ; lean, eager- 
eyed Pathans from the north-west ; bearded 
Sikhs with the steel quoits glittering round their 
turbans ; tall Rajputs with traditions of centuries 
of fighting behind them ; Dogras, Panjabis, 
Marathas, and last, and least in stature though by 
no means least in fighting power, battalion on 
battalion of short Mongolian Gurkhas. At the 
head of them all an officer in high command sat 
on his horse before the pavilion, through salvo 
after salvo, with his hand glued to his helmet ; 
a little to his rear stood the solitary gigantic 
Guardsman, equally with hand held fast to 
his bearskin. For this mingled host of many 
ranks and many races and many tongues was 
united into one by the bond of discipline as 
soldiers of the King. Let men revile as they 
will the noble profession of arms ; it will always 
form the strongest of human brotherhoods, for 
military discipline is the organised abnegation 
of self. 

And beyond these ranks of scarlet and blue and 
yellow and khaki lay the vast ring of the peoples, 
no mere claque of the populace of Delhi, but a 
great assembly gathered together from every 
part of India. It would be difficult to say how 
many languages and dialects were used as mother- 
tongues within the small compass of those two 
semicircles that day, certainly not fewer than 
twelve, and quite possibly more than twenty ; 
but not a voice was heard among them. The 

162 



UNDER THE GOLDEN DOME 

huge mass of spectators stood silent and awe- Dec. 12. 
struck, gazing at the two resplendent figures 
beneath the golden dome, with thoughts that 
were presently to be revealed in a manner for 
which no one had looked. And through boom 
after boom of the cannon Their Majesties gazed 
upon the great throng before them, with simple, 
tranquil dignity and, though deeply moved, with 
perfect outward calm. One would have said, and 
said truly, that they were present as earnest and 
devout leaders and partakers in a great religious 
celebration. It was indeed the reverential spirit 
in which they regarded the ceremony that 
brought them into sympathy with the feelings of 
the large majority of the spectators about them.^ 
None who saw them during that long salute 
will speedily forget the sight ; and those, I 
think, who were privileged to stand near the 
Queen will never quite lose the vision of her 
noble bearing as, with head slightly thrown back, 
she stood out in majestic gentleness against 
the radiant grey-blue of the Indian sky. 

The tension had become almost unbearable 
when the last sound of the salute died away, and 
the bugle sang out three quiet notes : " Slope 
arms " ; " Order arms." The supreme moment 
was over ; and after another preliminary blast 
from the trumpeters the Viceroy, by the King- 

* A Madras Brahman, a very successful pleader both in British and 
Hyderabad courts and in sympathy with the India Congress, turned with 
tears in his eyes to an English friend at the close of the Durbar, and said, 
" This is what I have always dreamed the procession of a God must be. 
If the Bengalis give any more trouble, they will get no support from any 
other province in India." 

163 



THE ROYAL ANNOUNCEMENT 

Dec. 12. Emperor's order, stepped forward and read a 
proclamation of boons to be conferred in honour 
of the occasion. These may be summarised 
shortly as increased expenditure on education ; 
grant of half a month's pay to all non-com- 
missioned officers and soldiers and to minor civil 
officials ; concession of additional privileges in the 
matter of honours and rewards to native officers, 
and release of certain criminals and of poor 
persons imprisoned for debt. Then after yet 
another preliminary flourish of trumpets the 
chief herald stood up to his full height in his 
stirrups and, doffing his helmet, called for three 
cheers for the King-Emperor, and three more 
for the Queen-Empress ; and with this final roar 
of sound the ceremony at the pavilion came to 
an end. The trumpeters galloped away to a 
new station, and Their Majesties descending, 
returned hand in hand to the Shamiana to the 
worthy music of German's Coronation March, in 
like procession as they had advanced from it. 

There the trumpeters sounded another fanfare, 
and then to the general surprise, for the official 
programme gave no hint of such a thing. His 
Majesty rose, holding a paper in his hand. 
With clear voice and just emphasis he announced 
that the capital of India would be transferred 
from Calcutta to Delhi, and that a Governorship 
would be created for the Presidency of Bengal, a 
new Lieutenant-Governorship for Behar, Chota- 
Nagpur and Orissa, and a Commissionership, as 
before, for Assam, with a general redistribution 

164 



THE PEOPLE'S HOMAGE 

of boundaries. In other words, Lord Curzon's Dec. 12. 
partition of Bengal, which had caused so much 
agitation, was revised, and a new and different 
partition projected. Admirably delivered though 
this announcement was, no human voice could 
have reached more than a small portion of the 
spectators in the stand ; and the news flew from 
the centre to both flanks with a buzz as of 
passing bees. But the trumpeters now blew 
their last fanfare, and galloped out of the arena. 
The Master of the Ceremonies received per- 
mission to close the Durbar, the massed bands 
again played the National Anthem, all present 
rising to their feet and singing with the bands ; 
and Their Majesties, re-entering their carriage, 
drove off amid loud cheers and a last salute of 
one hundred and one guns in the same order as 
that of their arrival, only taking this time the 
road along the western corner of the amphi- 
theatre. The Viceroy followed next, and after 
him the members of the Imperial suite. And 
then, when all seemed to be over, came the most 
impressive scene of all. The people rushed 
down by thousands from the mound to the 
Royal pavilion on which Their Majesties had 
sat, and prostrating themselves, pressed their 
foreheads against the marble steps. Soon, as 
the crush became too great, they were fain to 
touch the pavilion with their hands and press 
their fingers to their foreheads, content with this, 
so only they could pay their homage to the one 
supreme ruler of all India. For the East has 

165 



THE DURBAR CLOSED 

Dec. 12. not yet lost the ancient habit of exalting their 
Emperor above all human kind, a habit which 
the West, with its Divus Julius and Sanctus 
Carolus, formerly shared, and perhaps may yet 
again share, with them. So strong is the im- 
pulse in men to deify the power which keeps 
them in discipline and order, and thus brings 
to them the divine blessing of peace. 

In the evening Their Majesties gave a State 
dinner in the banqueting tent to one hundred 
and seventy-three guests, no light addition to a 
heavy day's work ; but every one was cheerful 
and of good heart on that evening after the 
brilliant success of the Durbar. It may fairly 
be said that everything passed off without the 
slightest hitch or mishap. That the preliminary 
arrangements might possibly have been some- 
what improved, many were disposed to agree ; 
but as regards the actual transaction of the 
ceremony in every detail from beginning to end 
there were not two opinions. The filling and 
emptying of the huge amphitheatre was accom- 
plished without the slightest difficulty, and the 
patience and gentleness of the police, both 
British and native, were beyond praise. The 
appearance of the troops was faultless ; the 
massed bands played their part admirably, alike 
in whiling away for the spectators the tedious 
hours of waiting, and also in accompanying the 
most solemn moments of the ceremony. The 
selection of music was, on the whole, good, and 
the flourish of trumpets and drums magnificent. 

i66 



A BRILLIANT SUCCESS 

The trumpeters likewise did themselves credit. Dec. 12. 
The fanfare composed for them was stately and 
stirring ; they played it exceedingly well ; and 
their appearance, with its alternation of white 
faces and brown, of white helmets and gorgeous 
turbans, was well fitted to the spectacle at large. 
There were, it is true, critics who objected to 
the headlong speed at which they galloped 
round the circular road, half of them on the east 
side and half on the west, when the time came 
for them to change stations. But though there 
was certainly high speed, there was no disorder ; 
the men kept their distances admirably ; they 
had their horses perfectly in hand ; and they 
rode particularly well. Further, it must be 
acknowledged that their movements filled up 
very suitably the short pauses that necessarily 
intervened between different stages of the 
ceremonial. But by general consent the success 
of the Durbar was ascribed, above all, to the 
sympathetic bearing and perfect dignity of Their 
Majesties. 



X 

On the morning of the 13th the King- 
Emperor was on horseback before eight o'clock, 
riding through the camps of the naval contingent 
and of the Infantry brigades which had worked 
so hard for him on every day of his stay. At 
eleven o'clock he presented the Albert medal 

167 



A GREAT RELIGIOUS SERVICE 

Dec. 13. to ten officers and sergeants of the Indian 
Ordnance Corps, who had distinguished them- 
selves by conspicuous gallantry in saving life 
after the explosion of cordite at Hyderabad and 
Ferozpur in 1906. He then held a levee of 
the officers of the Volunteers, of the Indian 
officers of the Imperial Army, and of the Imperial 
service troops of the native princes, touching the 
swords which they tendered to him according to 
the graceful custom of India. He then accepted 
addresses from deputations from the Presidency 
of Madras and the municipality of Delhi, while 
the Queen-Empress received one hundred and 
twenty ladies of the families of the Ruling Chiefs. 
In the King-Emperor's camp that morning all 
functions seemed to be of minor importance after 
the Durbar, and yet in those very hours there 
was taking place at Delhi the most remarkable 
ceremony of all. 

It had been arranged that three separate pro- 
cessions of Hindus, Jains, Mohammedans and 
Sikhs should start early in the morning by three 
different routes, and, after offering prayer for the 
King-Emperor each in their own congregations, 
should proceed, the chiefs to the fort of Delhi 
and the remainder to the plain beneath it, where 
all should meet and together make their common 
supplication to the Most High. The earliest 
of these processions started at half-past six in 
the morning, and before nine o'clock a vast 
crowd was assembled at the fort. I personally 
was unable to see more than the Sikhs, and 

168 



THE PRAYER OF THE SIKHS 

among them chiefly the followers of the Maha- Dec. 13. 
raja of Patiala. These included wild horsemen, 
some clad in orange, with breastplate, matchlock, 
lance and shield ; others similarly armed, but 
dressed in blue, with ring upon ring of steel 
encircling their high caps ; foot-soldiers similarly 
attired ; gorgeously caparisoned horses, and two 
elephants, upon one of which was seated the 
High Priest. Every Sikh soldier of the British 
Army who could be spared was present ; and 
the aspect of the Maharaja and his suite, all with 
yellow garlands about their necks, showed that 
this was no common occasion. They had already 
visited the shrine in the Chandni Chauk of Guru 
Teg Bahadur, who in 1675, when dying in 
torment at the hands of Aurangzeb, had flung 
at the fanatical Emperor this prophecy — "I 
behold coming from across the ocean a race of 
men, who will spread peace and justice, and root 
out tyranny and oppression." Before this shrine 
they had uttered the following thanksgiving : 
" By Thy Mercy, O God, his words have proved 
true ; for the British Government, which confers 
happiness on its subjects, has been established in 
India. We Sikhs of the Gurus in the midst 
of our happiness and rejoicing to-day specially 
render Thee our humble thanks that our beloved 
Emperor has come to the City where our holy 
Guru, the Bestower of Salvation, uttered this 
fateful prophecy, in order to place the crown of 
many realms upon his head. O Eternal God, 
may this peaceful and just Sovereignty ever 

169 



THE MOHAMMEDANS' PRAYER 

Dec. 13. endure, and may the Emperor George, and his 
gracious Consort, Queen Mary, abide in happi- 
ness, and may the Empire extend and prosper." 
At the shrine Sir Louis Dane, Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Panjab, had met them, a 
welcome guest, and joined in their wishes for 
the welfare of the King- Emperor and of the 
Khalsa. Presently these gaily dressed warriors 
began to move down from the fort to the plain 
below, following the High Priest on the elephant. 
There hundreds of the King's Sikh soldiers 
joined them and, massing themselves together, 
watched at a little distance, while some scores 
of yellow turbans swarmed round the High 
Priest's elephant, repeating with endless iteration 
a plaintive chant ^ to the accompaniment of 
drums and tambourines. 

Meanwhile the Mohammedans had met in 
vast numbers in the Jama Masjid, and since early 
morning the most famous preachers of their faith 
in Upper India had discoursed to them of the 
value and virtue of loyalty. From the Sikhs 
Sir Louis Dane passed to this mosque, where, 
after listening for some time to the address of a 
learned Maulvi from Lucknow, he was begged 
by the leading men to say a few words, which 
request was confirmed by the entire assembly. 
He therefore spoke briefly, thanking them and 
joining in their prayers for the prosperity of the 
King-Emperor who on the preceding day had 

1 Curiously enough this chant was identical with the first six notes of 
Sullivan's air " Prithee, pretty maiden " in Patience. 

170 



THE HINDUS' PRAYER 

restored the glories of Delhi by making it again Dec. 13. 
the capital of India. That a Christian should 
deliver an address, which was itself in the nature 
of a sermon, to thirty thousand Mohammedans 
in a mosque by their own invitation, is a fact 
which sounds almost incredible ; yet so it was ; 
and the vast congregation not only heard him 
with eager respect, but greeted the conclusion of 
the exhortation with fervent shouts of " Amin." 

The Hindus likewise were holding their 
religious service — an oblation with sacrifice — 
under the auspices of the Maharaja of Darbhanga 
and the Sanatam Dharm Mahamandal upon the 
traditional site by the Jumna where Yudisthira 
(as related in the Mahabharata) performed his 
oblation and horse-sacrifice when he was crowned 
Emperor of all India. 

Finally the whole of the processions met 
under the walls of the fort, immediately facing 
the historic balcony where the Mogul Emperors 
were wont to show themselves to the people. 
The British Governors and Lieutenant-Governors, 
and the Ruling Chiefs thereupon descended from 
the fort where they had met together, and took 
their appointed places, the British officials in the 
centre of all, and the Ruling Chiefs at the head 
of the groups formed by the leaders of their 
religions. A gun was then fired as a signal from 
the Selimgarh bastion, and all present offered up 
united thanksgivings for the success of the great 
solemnity of the Coronation, and prayers for the 
King- Emperor and the Royal Family. The 

171 



THE PRAYER OF ALL CREEDS 

Dec. 13. Imam of the Jama Masjid led the Mohammedan 
prayers, two Pandits those of the Hindus ; two 
Granthis those of the Sikhs ; and the Archbishop 
of Simla read a prayer to the little body of 
British officials. To any one who knows aught 
of the history of India the spectacle was almost 
staggering in its impressiveness. In that country 
religious differences are accentuated by the fact 
that religious observance governs the minutest 
details of daily social life ; yet Christian English- 
men — descendants of the men who had fought 
savagely to rescue the Holy Sepulchre from the 
followers of Islam — Hindus, Jains, Sikhs and 
Mohammedans by a common impulse laid aside 
all prejudice and crushed down all intolerance in 
order to unite in one heartfelt prayer for the 
King -Emperor. For the first time they felt 
that they were possessed by a sentiment common 
to them all, and so paramount as to dominate all 
the impulses bred by divergence of creed, 
dissimilarity of custom and rivalry of race — the 
sentiment of loyalty to one sovereign. That 
Sovereign was no longer a mere legend to them. 
He had come over the sea many thousand miles 
to visit them ; they had seen him with their 
eyes ; he was even then near them, and in a few 
hours would be in the fort actually moving in 
their midst. The white men from overseas 
bowed down to him even as they themselves ; 
under his rule, as past years had shown, all 
might live, if they would, in peace — in peace 
after endless centuries of war and devastation. 

172 



THE PARTY IN DELHI FORT 

Therefore were they met together to give God Dec. 13. 
thanks. 

In the afternoon Their Majesties drove to the 
fort and there held a garden-party — a name too 
paltry for the reception of many hundreds of 
guests in such surroundings as the beautiful 
buildings of Shah Jahan's palace and the stately 
and peaceful gardens which connect them to- 
gether. Even these, however, formed not the 
most remarkable feature of the occasion. A 
great national festival had been organised by 
Sir Louis Dane for this day, and the plain 
between the eastern wall of the fort and the 
Jumna was thronged by a vast assembly of 
half a million people, all waiting to defile past 
the King-Emperor. The spectacle was one that 
bewildered the oldest inhabitants, whether native 
or English, of India. Scattered about in open 
spaces were to be seen groups of entertainers ; in 
one place a handful of jugglers ; in another a 
musical ride of green - clad lancers from some 
Indian Prince's contingent; in another a war-dance 
of wild warriors with sword and shield ; in a 
fourth a group of lightly-clad sowars, leaping to 
and from their steeds at full gallop and perform- 
ing other feats of horsemanship. But these were 
mere islands in a vast sea of brown faces and 
many-coloured turbans. To prevent dangerous 
crushing, barriers had been erected at intervals 
leading on to two broad ways, like racecourses, 
which met below Shah Jahan's balcony already 
mentioned, and there parted right and left 

173 



THE NATIONAL FESTIVAL 

Dec. 13. parallel to the wall of the fort. Within these 
barriers the people had been assembled in parties 
according to the several districts from which 
they came ; and, as many of them had taken a 
distinguishing colour, one could see looking 
down upon them fringe after fringe of white, 
backed by great blocks of yellow and red and 
green and blue in every imaginable shade. At 
the outermost edge of each lay a thin line of 
khaki topped with the turbans of red and blue 
which distinguish the Panjab police. 

In due time Their Majesties appeared at the 
historic balcony. The King had come to the 
garden-party in the undress uniform of a field- 
marshal and the Queen in a plain mauve 
morning dress ; but they had determined not to 
disappoint the expectations of the people, and, 
before they showed themselves, they had put on 
their robes of purple and ermine, the Imperial 
crown and the tiara worn at the Durbar. They 
stepped into the balcony without sound of 
trumpets to herald their coming, and their 
appearance was therefore not recognised by all 
of the onlookers simultaneously. The buzz of 
voices suddenly died down, giving place for a 
few seconds to a low hum ; and then tens of 
thousands of arms leapt into the air and the hum 
swelled from front to rear and from flank to 
flank into one mighty shout of wonder and 
acclaim. The balcony, however, being small. 
Their Majesties left it and took their seats upon 
two thrones on the ramparts where, with their 

174 




THEIR MAJESTIES AT THE NATIONAL FESTIVAL. 



To /ace page 174. 




<: 
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THE NATIONAL FESTIVAL 

pages grouped around them, they remained in Dec. 13. 
full view of all for nearly an hour. Presently 
the foremost string of khaki police shrivelled up 
quietly into a knot, and the first great masses of 
colour moved forward to defile past the King- 
Emperor. The effect was indescribably beautiful. 
The hard blocks of yellow dissolved into a soft 
confusion of yellow and white, and streamed away 
on one hand with the varied hues of a flight of 
canaries. The rigid masses of blue and green 
and red melted into a wave of mingled colour, and 
flowed away to the other hand as though they had 
been floating feathers from a parrot's wing. Com- 
pany after company was released in due time by 
the patient police to add their volume to the flood, 
until for a full mile in length and half a mile in 
depth the plain was inundated with one great 
sea of colour, which moved and halted, eddied 
and swayed, deepened and lightened with ever 
new combinations, until the eye turned from it 
in sheer bewilderment and amaze. And so the 
defile continued with increasing shouts of 
acclaim, until at last there arose a kind of wail, 
and the one or two hundred thousand who were 
still crowded before the thrones stretched out 
their hands in appeal. The King and Queen 
had risen and were withdrawing themselves 
from sight. Their Majesties did not reach the 
camp until nearly six o'clock, concluding the 
day as usual with a dinner-party to ninety-seven 
guests. 

On the morning of the 14th Their Majesties 

T7S 



THE MILITARY REVIEW 

Dec. 14. motored to the village of Dahirpur, where the 
King-Emperor mounted his charger to review 
the troops, which were drawn up in two lines to 
receive him under the command of General Sir 
O'Moore Creagh. The total strength of the 
force was close upon forty-nine thousand men, 
of which rather more than sixteen thousand, 
including officers of native regiments, were 
British, and the remainder Indian officers and 
soldiers of the King's army and of the Imperial 
Service Corps, After the usual Royal salutes 
the troops marched past, the Horse Artillery in 
line of batteries, and the cavalry by brigades 
in brigade-mass, at the walk ; and the infantry 
by brigades in line of quarter-columns. The 
infantry being for the most part brigaded as 
if for active service, that is to say with one 
British to every three Indian battalions, the march 
past was not so perfect to the eye as it might 
have been had the brigades been composed 
of homogeneous units, such as Gurkhas or 
Highlanders ; but on the other hand its interest 
was enormously increased by the mingling of 
the soldiers of both nations, and by the 
knowledge that it was in this order that they 
would take the field. Perhaps, however, the 
most gratifying sight of all was the Imperial 
Service troops, which made an astonishingly fine 
display. Of the cavalry the Bhopal Lancers 
had perhaps rather the best appearance in the 
walk past : but it was difficult to choose between 
the diiferent contingents, whether in cavalry or 

176 



TWO PROMISING OFFICERS 

infantry. A word must be said, too, in praise of Dec. 14. 
the European Volunteers, and in particular of 
a composite battalion of infantry, over eight 
hundred men strong, which had been raked 
together from all quarters, many of the men 
paying their own travelling expenses. They 
marched past with a steadiness and a swing 
which did them much credit. 

The Indian chiefs generally led their cavalry 
past in person, and by no means always as 
amateurs. Few men can handle a brigade of 
cavalry or of infantry better than the Maharaja 
of Gwalior, who was conspicuous in his uniform 
of a British Major-general. The Maharaja of 
Bikaner, again, is at home both with his infantry 
and his camel-corps. But the leaders that 
attracted the most attention were naturally the 
young Princes. The Maharaja of Jodhpur, one 
of the Queen's pages, rode at the head of his 
lancers. As he reached the saluting point his 
horse swerved away from the waving plumes of 
the King and his staff; and it was pretty to 
see how this young soldier, without taking his 
eyes for a moment off the King, and without 
apparent movement of a muscle, brought the 
animal square to the front again and completed 
his salute. A still younger officer, the child 
Maharaja of Bahawalpur, led his camel-corps 
past, himself riding a camel in front of a grave 
and trusty trooper. Dressed in full uniform of 
khaki with gold-embroidered skirts the little 
fellow boldly faced the King-Emperor at the 

177 N 



IMPERIAL SERVICE TROOPS 

Dec. 14. saluting point, threw out a baby's right arm to 
its full length, and with perfect correctness and 
time in every motion brought down his tiny 
sword to the salute. Seventy or eighty years 
hence, it may be, he will be conspicuous as the 
only survivor of the many gallant gentlemen 
who rode past King George on that day. 

The Horse Artillery then galloped past by 
batteries and the cavalry by regiments, in line ; 
and, as is so common in the British Army, the 
effect was too often spoiled by excessive speed. 
In both batteries one gun was at least a length 
in rear of the rest ; and its drivers could be seen 
punishing their horses, not because the animals 
were sluggish, but because the highest speed of a 
slow team is not so rapid as that of a fast team. 
All of the British regiments, except the King's 
Dragoon Guards, galloped too fast, and con- 
sequently were in very ragged order ; and their 
example led most of the Indian cavalry astray, 
though the Ninth and Tenth Indian Lancers 
were an exception. The Imperial Service 
Cavalry mostly followed the lead of the British, 
though the Patiala Lancers held their horses 
well in hand until close upon the saluting point, 
when a shrill whistle from a veteran Indian 
officer sent them flying past like a whirlwind. 
Considering that British Generals first en- 
deavoured to check this tendency to headlong 
speed one hundred and fifty years ago, it seems 
a pity that they should not have succeeded yet. 
The parade ended with an advance in review 

178 



THE INVESTITURE 

order, which was exceptionally magnificent and Dec. 14.. 
impressive ; and altogether the military display 
was extremely successful. 

In the evening at half-past nine the King 
held an investiture in the largest of his reception- 
tents. It must, I fear, be remarked that the 
decorations of the tent were not worthy of such 
an occasion, which indeed demanded something 
more magnificent than stripes of light blue and 
white in cheap materials. However, nothing 
better had been provided ; and the tent, just 
as it was, was packed with from three to 
four thousand ladies and gentlemen. The first 
candidate for investiture was the Queen-Empress 
who, dressed in pale blue, made a graceful obei- 
sance, knelt before the King, and was invested 
with the Order of the Star of India. Her 
Majesty then kissed His Majesty's hand, received 
his kiss on her cheek, and took her seat on the 
throne by his side robed, with the happiest and 
most becoming effect, in the light-blue mantle of 
the Order. The remaining candidates, of whom 
there were a very large number, then came for- 
ward one after another, and the ceremony was 
about half- completed, when suddenly the fire- 
alarm was heard without, and a strong smell 
of burning became evident to every one. The 
electric light at the same time flickered up and 
down, threatening to go out at every moment, 
and continued to do so for two or three minutes. 
Presently some one cried out " Fire^' and two or 
three hundred people rose to their feet. The 

179 



A DANGEROUS MOMENT 

Dec. 14. officials who were taking part in the Investiture 
pursued their functions with perfect calmness 
and indifference ; the Queen, who has a peculiar 
horror of fire, sat motionless and apparently 
unconcerned ; and His Majesty continued to 
throw ribbons over heads and to pin stars to 
breasts as if he had been at St. James's. Never- 
theless, the assembly was within a hair's-breadth 
of a panic, and might have succumbed to it, 
had not some gentleman in the body of the 
tent sternly growled out " Sit down," where- 
upon the timid reluctantly resumed their seats. 
Presently the light became steady ; and confidence 
being restored, the ceremony came success- 
fully to an end. 

The danger, however, had been real and 
great. The tent of Lord Crewe's private 
secretary, not above one hundred yards away, 
had caught fire, and from thence to the recep- 
tion-tent there was one continuous spread of 
canvas. Happily there was no wind, and the 
fire-picquets had immediately cut the ropes of 
the adjoining tents, so that the conflagration 
spread no farther. Three hundred men were 
on duty round the reception-tent with orders to 
cut away the sides instantly if anything should 
go wrong, but even so a panic must have led to a 
great catastrophe ; and this warning is one which 
should not be neglected in future. It is not safe 
to pack people by the thousand into a single tent 
in the midst of a great camp. Mr. Lucas's tent 
was burning for about three minutes, and after 



FOUNDING OF NEW DELHI 

that brief space he was left literally with nothing Dec. 1 5. 
except the civil uniform which he wore on his 
back. Tin trunks with the whole of their 
contents had vanished as if they had been made 
of wax, and only the corners of a stout leather 
portmanteau had made some little resistance to 
the fierce heat and flame. It must be added 
that no man could have accepted so trying a 
misfortune with more perfect cheerfulness and 
good temper that did Mr. Lucas. 

On the morning of the 15th at ten o'clock 
Their Majesties drove to the avenue of the 
Indian Government's camp to lay the first stone 
of the new capital city of Delhi. By dint of 
working day and night the Public Works 
Department had raised a wall seven feet high 
upon solid foundations, and over this wall were 
hung two huge blocks of dressed stone. The 
ceremony was extremely simple, and those that 
attended it were necessarily few, since there was 
no space for more. A small but very beautiful 
tent had been erected hard by, where Their 
Majesties upon arrival were received by the 
Viceroy and the members of the Executive 
Council ; a guard of honour of the Gordon 
Highlanders being drawn up in the avenue. 
The Viceroy then addressed a short allocution 
to the King - Emperor, dwelling upon the 
importance and advantages of the change of 
capital, and announcing at the close that the 
Maharaja of Gwalior had expressed his intention 
of presenting a statue of the King-Emperor to 



AN ARCHITECT'S OPPORTUNITY 

Dec. 15. the new city. His Majesty, having made a 
brief reply, advanced to lay the first stone, after 
which the Queen came forward and laid the 
second stone. The heralds, British and Indian, 
then proclaimed the fact with a flourish of 
trumpets ; Sir Louis Dane called for three 
cheers for Their Majesties ; and the brief cere- 
mony was over. The change of capital having 
been kept a secret until the afternoon of the 
1 2th, there was no possibility of making greater 
preparations, and it must be confessed that the 
inception of the new Delhi was decidedly 
modest. This, however, is no great matter. 
What is of more importance is that its progress 
should be in accordance with the aspirations 
expressed with no uncertain voice by the King. 
" It is my desire," said His Majesty, " that the 
planning and designing of the public buildings 
to be erected should be considered with the 
greatest deliberation and care, so that the new 
creation may be in every way worthy of this 
ancient and beautiful city." Here is an oppor- 
tunity indeed for a great architect of original 
genius and ideas, not only to give India a capital 
worthy of herself, but to obliterate the reproaches 
to British architecture which at present stand 
unabashed in Calcutta and Bombay. 

From the avenue Their Majesties drove to 
the polo-ground, where a force of over twenty- 
seven hundred Indian Police had been drawn 
up for the King-Emperor's inspection. Con- 
siderably more than half of them were from 

182 



INSPECTION OF POLICE 

the Panjab, about one -fifth from the United Dec 15. 
Provinces, and the remainder small contingents 
from all the other provinces of India, all of 
whom had been on duty at the Durbar. 
Having ridden up and down the line the King 
dismounted, and the men filing past received 
each a medal from his hand ; after which His 
Majesty expressed to the Inspector-General, Sir 
E. Lee- French, his satisfaction at the arrange- 
ments made and the work done by the police 
during the past week. The compliment was 
well deserved, for, though on every occasion 
when His Majesty drove out at Delhi the way 
was lined with troops, the strain upon the police 
was very heavy and was admirably met. No 
one who had not seen it would credit how 
immense were the mass and variety of vehicles, 
and the rush of traffic with which they had to 
contend, and the patience and good temper with 
which they handled the native crowds. Privi- 
leged motors by the score were dashing along 
the roads at all hours, imperiously demanding 
passage ; and the way was always cleared 
somehow, without bustle and without bullying. 
A word, however, must be added in praise of the 
additional police, both mounted and afoot, which 
was drawn from the British regiments of cavalry 
and infantry. Any one might have thought that 
they had passed an apprenticeship in the 
Metropolitan Police under Sir Edward Henry, 
and I know of no higher praise that could be 
given them. As to the work done by British 

183 



THE MILITARY TOURNAMENT 

Dec. 15. officers of the Indian police force, I saw with 
my own eyes during the religious processions on 
the 13th a young fellow, who could not have 
been more than twenty-three, gently manoeuvring 
a mass of from two to three thousand Sikhs 
into their right places, single-handed, without 
putting his horse into a trot, without a harsh 
word, without so much as a violent gesture. 

In the afternoon Their Majesties drove to the 
polo-ground to witness point-to-point races and a 
military tournament. The Indian cavalry may 
be called the creators of our military tourna- 
ments, and their feats of horsemanship, fully 
equal to those of many circus-riders, in leaping 
on and off a galloping horse, picking up objects 
from the ground without quitting a horse's back, 
and such like, are too well known to need 
description here. But when the whole, or at 
any rate the greater part, of a regiment of Sikhs 
charges forward together, every man galloping 
at the top of his speed to pick up his tent-peg — 
this is not an ordinary spectacle. For the rest, 
■ the British Seventeenth Lancers, as usual fault- 
lessly turned out, performed a musical ride with 
great skill. Possibly indeed many of the 
spectators did not appreciate that skill, nor 
realise how much more difficult it is to make 
two equine quadrupeds waltz together than two 
human bipeds. Finally, a battery of Horse- 
Artillery in line charged a mud-wall three feet 
high ; and the whole of the six teams, with their 
guns, jumped it simultaneously without mishap 

184 



THE RULING CHIEFS' FAREWELL 

to drivers or horses. When one reflects that the Dec. i6. 
sUghtest mismanagement of any one of the 
eighteen pairs of horses would have thrown 
down a part, if not the whole of the team, this 
stands out as a great feat of driving. 

The last day was now come, and it began 
early for the King-Emperor. At half-past nine 
His Majesty received a number of civil and 
military officials who had been concerned with 
the arrangements for the Durbar, and distributed 
among them medals in honour of the occasion. 
At a quarter-past eleven the Ruling Chiefs came 
to the reception -tent to take leave of His 
Majesty, and among the last of them were the 
Maharana of Udaipur, Ruling Chief-in-Waiting, 
and the chiefs and distinguished Indian soldiers 
who are aide-de-camps to the King- Emperor. 
These were the Maharaja Sindia of Gwalior, the 
Maharaja of Bikaner, the Nawab of Rampur, 
Sir Pratap Singh of Jodhpur, and Colonels 
Sir Muhammad Aslam Khan and Nawab Sir 
Muhammad Abdullah Khan ; though some 
of them, as shall be seen, were again in waiting 
on the King at Calcutta. This farewell was 
a mere formality, as recorded in the dry official 
manner for readers of the newspapers, but 
a very different matter for those who took 
part in it. All felt that a great occasion, 
without a parallel in the history of India, was 
come and gone ; few could count upon seeing 
the King again ; and the great majority knew 
that they would look upon his face no more. 

185 



THE DEPARTURE FROM DELHI 

Dec. 1 6. He had received every one of them, not only in 
public as their suzerain, but in private as their 
friend ; and they had realised the true secret 
of His Majesty's coming, namely that he cared 
very much for them and for India. 

Therefore they parted from him in sorrow. 
There v^ere few who were not profoundly 
moved, while some could hardly restrain their 
tears ; and the King himself was not less troubled 
than they. Many harsh criticisms had been 
passed in England upon his resolution to visit 
India ; but the fervent welcome accorded to him 
by all classes from the Ruling Chiefs to the 
humblest peasant had proved to him that he had 
done well. It is small wonder that he was 
grieved at taking leave of such friends. 

At noon Their Majesties drove in procession 
to the Selimgarh station. The last farewells 
were spoken ; the last salutes were fired ; the train 
steamed away, and the first great meeting of the 
King-Emperor with his subjects of all India was 
over. To say that its success exceeded the most 
sanguine expectations is to say little. English- 
men with the longest experience of the country 
stood amazed at the enthusiasm manifested by 
the inhabitants assembled at Delhi ; and the 
phrase constantly recurred " Such a thing has 
never been seen, no nor even dreamed of, in 
India before." And what was it that brought 
forth these extraordinary results ? It was not 
the mere organisation of pageants. Great praise 
is due to the Committee of Management for 

i86 



THE KINGS' INDIAN SUBJECTS 

its labours ; but they would be the last to Dec. i6. 
claim that all their arrangements had, from a 
spectacular point of view, been faultless. Yet 
even if all the setting had been perfect, it would 
have availed nothing without the precious stone 
in its midst. It was the King and not the King's 
clothes or the King's surroundings that so pro- 
foundly impressed India. The inhabitants, it 
must be repeated, believe in no vague abstraction 
called a Government ; they believe in the one 
ruler whom God has set over them ; and when 
he comes among them they fall down and 
worship. Nor, if the matter be considered, is 
this surprising. In the ordinary routine of life 
one man is better than another ; but in the pre- 
sence of the King all men are so immeasurably 
below him as to be merged together on the 
same footing. The King is the King. All others 
are his subjects ; as such they are equal ; and 
in the King's presence the humblest peasant 
feels himself on the same level with the Viceroy. 
In the King's absence, indeed, the Viceroy is 
above all, but only as the King's vicegerent ; 
and it is solely in virtue of the powers deputed 
to him by his Sovereign that he may enjoy 
respect and command obedience. In the pre- 
sence of the King the Viceroy is nothing ; and 
no number of guards, salutes and escorts will 
make him anything in the eyes of the people. 
If he effaces himself and walks humbly before 
his Sovereign, he will be honoured ; and the 
greater and truer his humility the higher will 

187 



THE KING'S INDIAN SUBJECTS 

Dec. 1 6. be his honour and his influence among those 
who are placed under his rule. For he can then 
say to any who offer him disrespect, " If I bow 
to the ground before the King, you owe the 
like homage and obedience to me as his vice- 
gerent." If on the other hand any Viceroy 
should aspire to take rank with his Sovereign in 
that Sovereign's presence and put himself forward 
as of equal importance, so much the worse for 
him. He would be set down not only as ill- 
mannered, but as a foolish man who knows not 
that all subjects alike sink into insignificance 
before the King. This is the reason why His 
Majesty's visit to India filled even the poorest 
classes with a mysterious joy — a joy which was 
mightily increased when King George showed 
himself to be in true sympathy with all his 
subjects. The lowest peasant feels that he has 
a part in this Sovereign Lord, which no man 
can take from him, and his heart is uplifted as 
to something given of Heaven. 



XI 

At the Selimgarh station the King and Queen 
took different routes, the first to Nipal, and the 
second to Agra. It will be convenient first to 
follow the movements of His Majesty. Travel- 
ling by special train the King reached Arrah at 
ten o'clock on the morning of Sunday the 17th of 
December ; where he stopped for two hours and 




t z 



KING'S JOURNEY TO NIPAL 

a half in order to attend Divine Service. Before Dec. 17. 
starting again he went to visit the bilHard-room 
which was the scene of the famous defence 
against the mutineers in 1857.^ Two Indians 
who had taken part in the defence were present, 
the one a bowed and shrivelled old man over 
one hundred years old ; the other younger in 
years, having been at the time a boy, who stole 
out of the compound and gave information to 
the relieving force concerning the beleaguered 
garrison. To both of them the King said a few 
words, ordering also a present to be given to 
them of a certain sum for every year that they 
had lived. Returning to the train before one 
o'clock the King on arrival at Bankipore 
embarked at Digha Ghat and steamed for three 
or four miles down the Ganges, the vessel hug- 
ging the bank on the side of Patna city, which 
was lined with crowds of cheering inhabitants. 
Here there was leisure to think of the fatal 
errors of the Agent at Calcutta, which led to 
the massacre at Patna in 1763, the desperate 
fighting of the victims before they finally 
succumbed, the escape of the sergeant who bore 
a charmed life, and the vengeance taken for the 
massacre by Major Adams. 

Soon after ten on the morning of the i8th 
the train arrived at Bikna Thori, on the borders 
of British India and Nipal. Here the Hereditary 

' The story of the defence of Arrah has been written once for all by Sir 
George Trevelyan, to whose book any readers who do not know it should 
turn without delay. I have no intention of spoiling their enjoyment, nor 
of marring a noble narrative by attempting to abridge it. 

i8q 



THE MAHARAJA OF NIPAL 

Dec. 17. Prime Minister and actual ruler of Nipal, Sir 
Chandra Sham Sher Jang Bahadur Rana, G.C.B., 
was awaiting His Majesty with his three sons, 
his military commander-in-chief, the British 
Resident, Colonel Manners Smith, V.C., and one 
or two more. Having presented the members 
of his suite to the Maharaja,^ the King-Emperor, 
followed by the rest of the party, motored by a 
road, specially cut through the jungle for some 
thirteen miles, to a spot where elephants were 
awaiting him. 

The ground here was flat and undulating, 
being in fact the lower slopes of the lower hills 
of the Himalayas, the main range of which, 
rising to a height of twenty-five thousand feet, 
could be seen in all its majesty of unbroken 
snow, apparently twenty miles, but really seven 
times that distance, away to the northward. 
Below this great wall of white the lower hills 
loomed gaunt and blue, and below them again 
the blue melted into the green of the nearer 
thicket and forest. For many months the 
Maharaja had been making preparations for the 
King's visit, clearing the ground for camps, 
cutting roads for miles through the jungle, 
and keeping careful watch upon the game. In 
all he had six hundred and forty-five elephants 
ready for the sport, the need of which number 

1 The Duke of Teck, Lord Durham, Lord Stamfordham, Lord Annaly, 
Lord C. Fitzmaurice, Sir E. Henry, Sir H. Smith -Dorrien, Sir Derek 
Keppel, Sir Colin Keppel, Sir C. Cust, Sir Havelock Charles, Capt. G. 
Faussett, Major Wigram, Sir R. Grimston, Col. Watson, Capt. Hogg, 
Mr. Jacomb Hood. 

190 



THE CHASE OF THE TIGER 

will be more readily understood when the Dec. 17. 
methods of proceeding are explained. 

Over night, or in the afternoon bullocks are 
tied up in likely places for a tiger, generally at 
the edge of thick jungle ; and in the morning 
the shikaris (or gamekeepers as we should call 
them) go round to see if any of these have been 
killed. A tiger does not necessarily kill his 
victim because he is in want of food, for he will 
often do so from sheer wantonness ; but having 
done so he generally, though not always, drags 
it a little way into the thick jungle, devours 
enough to satisfy himself if he is hungry, or 
simply leaves it and lies down not far away to 
sleep. In the morning the shikaris come in 
with reports of the " kills," upon which about a 
hundred and fifty " pad " elephants, that is to say 
elephants not intended to carry guns, proceed to 
the appointed place. These include many of 
the female elephants, with their young ones 
roped to them to train them up in the right way. 
The whole, having been formed into line a mile 
or more from the "kill,' advance through the 
jungle, and, as they approach nearer to it, the 
flanks of the line move forward from right 
and left and meet beyond it, thus forming a ring 
of perhaps half a mile in diameter. All of 
the elephants in the ring then advance towards 
the centre, closing in gradually until they almost 
touch each other, by which time the diameter 
of the circle is reduced to two or three hundred 
yards. At this point the " howdah-elephants," 

191 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

Dec. 17. which carry guns or privileged spectators, enter 
the ring at intervals which leave eight or twelve 
pad -elephants between each of them. It is 
necessary to keep the guns pretty close together, 
otherwise an incautious or erratic shot might 
slay his neighbour on the other side of the 
circle. 

Such a ring was already formed when the 
King arrived. A ride of a mile and a half 
through the jungle on pad - elephants brought 
the whole party to the howdah - elephants, 
to which they transferred themselves, His 
Majesty being accompanied by the Maharaja, 
and took their places in the ring. Four or 
five staunch pad - elephants then went inside 
the ring, tramping through the grass to move 
the tiger ; and here it must be explained 
that the grass and reeds are incredibly high, 
often rising not merely above the backs of 
the elephants but over the very tops of the 
howdahs. In such an undergrowth, if the term 
may legitimately be employed, a tiger or a 
rhinoceros looks like a rabbit among rushes, 
visible only in open patches and disappearing 
very rapidly. Very soon a tiger dashed out 
with a roar, leaped over a nullah (watercourse), 
and disappeared, but presently charged back 
straight upon the King, who fired and wounded 
him badly. Again he disappeared, but a second 
tiger came out, rose in the air to leap the nullah, 
and fell stone-dead, in sight of every one except 
the King, who had killed him with a snap-shot 

IQ2 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

through the neck as if he had been a rabbit. Dec. i8. 
The howdah - elephants then advanced, the 
wounded tiger was presently found and 
despatched by His Majesty ; and a move was 
then made in motors to another ring, nineteen 
miles away ; the Duke of Teck, Sir Charles 
Cust and Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien going in a 
different direction in search of another tiger. 

After luncheon the howdah-elephants entered 
the new ring, His Majesty announcing that Lord 
Durham and Lord Annaly should have first shot. 
The tiger presently charged. Lord Annaly fired 
and hit him ; but the animal went on until, as it 
was turning back into the long grass, Lord Dur- 
ham stopped its progress for ever. The elephants 
then formed line to beat for rhinoceros, and 
soon a very fine one broke away at great speed, 
offering a difficult shot to the King, who fired 
without apparent effect, for the huge creature 
disappeared into impassable jungle, and was seen 
no more. The line continued to advance, and 
by chance the King happened upon two more 
rhinoceros, killed the first dead with one barrel, 
and with his second wounded the other, which 
was followed, and in due time despatched by His 
Majesty. Yet another was wounded by Lord 
Durham and Lord Annaly, and led his pursuers 
a long chase, being quite invisible in the tall 
grass ; and it was not until many shots had been 
fired into the moving reeds that he was at last 
killed. 

By half- past five the camp, being close at 
193 o 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

Dec. 19. hand, was reached, a most beautiful spot from 
which the jungle had been cleared on the bank 
of the Rapti river, with a noble view of the 
great wall of the Himalayas to northward. 
Here the Maharaja had erected a spacious 
wooden hut with six rooms, replete with 
every comfort, for the King, and tents close by 
for the suite, the whole being lit by electric 
light. This camp offered a very pleasant con- 
trast to that at Delhi which, so far as the suite 
was concerned, was incomparably the worst in 
every respect that we encountered in India. 
The nights were cold, and the dew after sunset 
so heavy that it was hopeless to think of reaching 
the mess-tent dry-shod without waterproof over- 
shoes, which, however, the King's Indian staff 
had been careful to provide. In the mornings 
there was always thick fog until ten o'clock or 
rather later, when it cleared off, giving place to 
a very hot sun. Reports of the " kills " during 
the preceding night could not therefore come 
in until that time, nor could a start be made for 
the day's shooting. 

On the 19th no news of tiger came in until 
half an hour after noon, when His Majesty, the 
Duke of Teck, Lord Durham and Lord Annaly 
set off at once on pad- elephants, travelling at 
good speed, and therefore with considerable 
shaking and discomfort, to the spot where the 
ring was formed. A tiger was soon found, but 
wisely kept himself under cover, charging con- 
tinuously from side to side in the long grass, 

194 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

until at last he fell to the King's rifle. After Dec. 20. 
luncheon a line was formed to beat home- 
ward, but nothing was seen. The remainder of 
the suite went out in several different parties, 
among whom Sir Charles Cust got a tiger, and 
Sir Colin Keppel and Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien 
each a rhinoceros. 

News came in earlier on the 20th, and three 
parties started out, two after tiger and one after 
rhinoceros. In the first His Majesty was the only- 
gun, though several were with him as spectators ; 
and the ring being close at hand was reached 
before eleven o'clock. In the first ring the King 
shot a tigress ; after which a second ring was 
formed close by. Here there was another tiger, 
but also a cow-rhinoceros and calf, which charged 
straight at the ring and broke it at once, for no 
elephant will face the charge of a rhinoceros. 
The tiger probably slipped out at the same time, 
for no more was seen of him. After luncheon 
yet another ring was reached in which four 
tigers were enclosed ; and here the sight was a 
wonderful one. The imprisoned tigers charged 
the line of elephants at various points ; and 
everywhere the mahouts scared them back by 
throwing sticks at them and by frantic shouts, 
which the elephants swelled by loud trumpetings 
and screams. One succeeded in breaking the 
ring, but some elephants were quickly passed 
round him and again he was hemmed in ; another 
actually made a spring at an elephant, mauling 
its trunk with his claws ; but for the most part 

195 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

Dec. 20. the elephants plucked branches of trees, stripped 
them of leaves and small twigs, and holding them 
horizontally under their trunks, kept brandishing 
them to avert any such assault. Ultimately 
every one of the four tigers fell to the King's 
rifle. A line was then formed to move home- 
ward, when a solitary bull rhinoceros suddenly 
appeared before His Majesty, and though only 
wounded by his first shot, was eventually killed 
by him. Five tigers, a rhinoceros and a hog- 
deer were the King's bag for the day ; to which 
Captain Godfrey Faussett and Sir Colin Keppel 
added each one tiger ; Captain Godfrey Faussett 
and Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien each a bear ; and 
the Duke of Teck a rhinoceros. 

By great good fortune this party witnessed a 
very singular scene. A tiger, slightly wounded 
by Sir Colin Keppel, took refuge in thick grass, 
where he came upon a she -bear and cub. 
Furious at being disturbed the enraged mother 
at once fell upon the tiger, standing up to her 
full height and striking at him savagely with 
her fore-paws. The tiger, whose temper had 
been ruffled by his wound, was in no mood 
to endure such aggression tamely ; and the two 
settled down to a regular fight with savage 
grunting and snarling, until the bear made oil- 
in one direction and the tiger in another, both 
of them to meet their end by a rifle bullet. But 
perhaps the most exciting experience was that 
of Major Wigram, whose pad-elephant, while 
on the way home, was pursued by a rhinoceros. 

196 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

The elephant of course ran madly away through Dec 21. 
the jungle, and the Major was obliged to lie down 
at full length on his back, clinging with all his 
strength to the pad, with the second mahout on 
top of him. After a burst of half a mile the 
rhinoceros fortunately abandoned the chase of 
Major Wigram, and transferred his attentions to 
another pad-elephant, which he hunted for four 
miles before at last allowing it to go in peace. 
The mahouts, however, had the enjoyment of this 
latter pursuit to themselves. 

On the 2 1 St the King reached the first ring, 
not far from home, before noon, and found in 
it four tigers and a Himalyan bear — the last 
named a very rare visitor in the low country — 
all of which he killed, one tiger and the bear 
right and left, each with a single bullet. This 
ended his day's sport, for a second ring in the 
afternoon proved to be blank. On this day 
Captain Faussett and Lord Charles Fitzmaurice 
went out in another direction after rhinoceros ; 
and the former underwent the uncomfortable 
experience which had befallen Major Wigram 
on the 20th, his elephant being hunted for some 
distance by a fine bull rhinoceros, which he 
eventually killed. 

On the 22nd Sir Charles Cust and Captain 
Faussett accompanied the King with rifles, 
several other gentlemen going as spectators. 
The first ring, being near home, was reached 
before noon, and three tigers were found to be 
within it. Two at once dashed out towards the 

197 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

Dec. 23. King, who killed with his first barrel but missed 
with his second. The second tiger, however, 
again charged towards him and was killed ; and 
the third met with the same fate at a single shot. 
A line was then formed to beat for rhinoceros, 
and after a long time one was reported to be on 
the left of the line. All the elephants therefore 
started in that direction at once, and in ten 
minutes the whole were scattered about the 
dense jungle in hopeless confusion. From the 
midst of them there suddenly emerged a fine 
bull rhinoceros. He received a bullet from 
Sir Charles Cust, blundered on past the King 
who had an awkward shot at him, but missed, 
and finally charged three pad-elephants close to 
Captain Faussett, who killed him just as he had 
passed them. On this day Lord Durham, Lord 
Charles Fitzmaurice, Sir Derek Keppel, Sir 
Colin Keppel and Sir Henry McMahon killed 
between them seven tigers and a Himalayan 
bear, making a total bag of ten tigers, a bear and 
a rhinoceros ; a wonderful day's sport. 

On the 24th, being Sunday, the King and 
suite attended Divine Service, which was 
conducted by the Rev. J. Godber, chaplain to 
the Bishop of Calcutta. In the evening His 
Majesty with the whole of his suite moved to a 
new camp at Kasra, a duplicate of the former 
camp at Sakhi Bar and about eight miles from it. 
Early on the 25th all again attended Divine 
Service ; and towards noon the whole party 
went with the King to the jungle about three 

198 




^ 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

miles away, where a ring had been formed. Dec. 25. 
With hardly any delay a very fine tiger came 
charging through the grass, and was killed stone 
dead by the King with a shot through the heart. 
He measured 9 feet 6 inches in length. Another 
ring had been formed two miles away, but His 
Majesty made this over to the Duke of Teck 
and Lord Durham, preferring to beat for 
rhinoceros. After a time a cow with a well- 
grown calf was found, which made off, but 
being fired at and missed by the King, turned 
back at once and charged at the top of her 
speed. A second bullet from His Majesty's rifle 
laid her stone dead with a shot through the 
chest ; and every effort was then made to 
capture the calf by forming a ring about him. 
But the gallant little fellow rushed straight at 
the circle of elephants, broke through it and 
disappeared. The ladies and Colonel Manners 
Smith's three little girls came out to luncheon 
by the King's invitation ; and when the meal 
was over, another line of elephants was formed, 
when the King again killed a rhinoceros dead 
with a single shot. Meanwhile the Duke of 
Teck's party had found four tigers, and had 
enjoyed some excitement with them, no fewer 
than three of the animals having jumped on to 
the elephants' trunks, and one having actually 
climbed up within striking distance of the 
mahout. They then hid themselves in thick 
grass, growling continually, while the mahouts 
shouted and the elephants trumpeted all round 

199 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

Dec. them, afraid to come nearer. Ultimately they 
26-27. were dislodged by three or four bullets, and the 
party returned with three tigers and a rhino- 
ceros, making four tigers, three rhinoceros and 
a hog-deer (shot by the King) for the day. In 
the evening, being Christmas night, the whole 
of the suite dined with His Majesty. 

The sport of the previous days by this time 
had begun to tell on the quantity of game still 
afoot. The reports of the morning of the 26th 
set forth that though sixty bullocks had been 
tethered in the jungle on the previous night, one 
only had been killed. The King appointed that 
the Duke of Teck, Lord Durham and Lord 
Annaly should draw lots for the single tiger, and 
the lot fell upon Lord Durham, who duly killed 
him. His Majesty himself, with Sir Charles 
Cust, Sir Henry McMahon and Lord Charles 
Fitzmaurice beat for rhinoceros with a line of 
elephants. One only was found, which was 
killed by the King ; and the afternoon was 
absolutely blank. There was therefore little 
surprise, when on the 27th there came news that 
not a single bullock had been killed. However 
the King started forth at noon on an elephant 
to a place where a tiger had been tracked ; and 
a ring was formed, but no tiger was within. 
After luncheon therefore the party was divided ; 
and a line of elephants was formed in which 
His Majesty, Sir Henry McMahon and Colonel 
Watson carried rifles. Presently the King 
noticed the grass moving before him ; a tiger 

200 



THE KING IN NIPAL 

dashed out, and the flank elephants were quickly Dec. 28. 
thrown round to form a ring. The tigress, 
however, for such she was, was one of those who 
would not be pent in. Charging straight at the 
ring, she broke through it not far from the 
King, who missed her with his first barrel, but 
rolled her over stone dead outside the ring with 
his second, making the twentieth tiger that he 
had shot since his arrival in Nipal. 

On the 28th there was again news of a tiger, 
and the King started at a little before noon for 
his last day's sport. A ring had been formed, 
but it was some time before the tiger broke, 
crossing straight in front of the King and the 
Duke of Teck. Both fired simultaneously, and 
the beast fell dead with two bullets in the neck. 
After luncheon a move was made by motor to 
another ring twelve miles distant, where the 
King killed his twenty-first tiger, and fired his 
last shot in India. The total bag for the ten 
days was thirty-nine tigers, eighteen rhinoceros, 
of which the King killed eight, and four bears, 
of which the King killed one. An unexpected 
addition was made to the tale of the killed by 
the motor mail-cart while on its way from the 
camp to Biknathori on the night of the 27th, 
when it ran over a full-grown panther, smashing 
the lamps and the glass shield and apparently 
breaking the unlucky animal's back, for he could 
only with difficulty struggle again into the 
jungle by the help of his fore-paws. Were it not 
that the next rains will infallibly wash away all 

201 



THE DEPARTURE FROM NIPAL 

Dec. 28. the roads made by the Maharaja, motorists in 
search of new emotions might do worse than 
take their vehicles to Nipal. 

In the evening His Majesty took leave of the 
Maharaja, who had housed him and his suite 
with such admirable comfort and provided him 
with such excellent sport. On Christmas Eve the 
King had pinned on his breast the Grand Cross 
of the Victorian Order and a golden Coronation 
medal ; but the Maharaja's gifts to His Majesty 
were not so easily carried away, for they included 
a young elephant, a young rhinoceros, bears, 
panthers, snow panthers, a Tibetan jackass (very 
wild and very active with his heels), a pair of 
Tibetan mastiffs (both rather savage), bara singh 
deer, sambhur deer, hog deer, cheetul, jackals, 
and others of the same order, mongeese and other 
smaller quadrupeds, with peacocks, jungle fowl, 
pheasants, partridges, and all manner of lovely 
birds, besides beautiful products of native art 
in various kinds. But no such remembrances 
will be necessary to recall to memory the most 
courteous and hospitable of hosts, from whom 
His Majesty, and not less the whole of his suite, 
parted with deep gratitude and very sincere 
regret. 

At six o'clock in the evening the Royal 
train steamed away to the sound of a salute of 
one hundred and one guns, and of cheering from 
a great crowd of natives, many of whom ran 
alongside the train for so long as they could keep 
up with it. At every station where the train 



JOURNEY TO BANKIPORE 

stopped throughout the night there was a crowd Dec. 29. 
of natives shouting in their own tongue " Victory 
to the King," and on the following day, the 
29th, at every crossing and every station, whether 
the train stopped or not, they were assembled 
in thousands to greet him with the same cry. 
At Muzaffarpur the throng broke through the 
barriers and swarmed round both sides of the train, 
trying only to touch the feet of His Majesty, 
as he stood visible to all on the platform of his 
saloon-car with his suite about him. Arriving 
at Paleza Ghat on the Ganges in the afternoon, 
the King and his party embarked on a steamer, 
and went down the river towards the city of Patna, 
again hugging the bank of the river for five 
miles amid the uproarious enthusiasm of a great 
multitude of people. Then landing at Digha 
Ghat he entered the train, and twenty minutes 
later met the Queen at Bankipore. It is now 
time to follow Her Majesty's movements during 
the days when the King was in Nipal. 



XII 

Leaving the Selimgarh station at Delhi with 
a suite of eight persons,^ the Queen travelled by 
train to Agra, arriving at the cantonment station 
at five o'clock. Here Her Majesty was received 

' Prince George of Battenberg, Duchess of Devonshire, Lord and Ladv 
Shaftesbury, Miss Baring, Maj.-Gen. Sir S. Beatson, Lt.-Col. Bird (Indian, 
Medical Service), Major Hill, Major Money, Mr. Fortescue. 

203 



THE QUEEN AT AGRA 

Dec. 1 6. by Mr. Reynolds, Commissioner for the District, 
and drove to the Agra Circuit House, which had 
been made ready for her, with a camp pitched 
about it for the suite. After the rush and turmoil 
of Delhi the change to this quiet and beautiful 
camp was very pleasant. The ground about the 
Circuit House has been laid out as a park ; and 
standing by the entrance one could see to the 
left, two miles distant across the valley of the 
Jumna, the noble red-sandstone fort of Agra, and 
to one's right front the swelling dome and slender 
minarets of the Taj Mahal gleaming white above 
a bank of dark foliage a few hundred yards away. 
In spite of the exhausting week at Delhi, a most 
busy morning, and four hours of a very dusty 
railway journey, the Queen went almost imme- 
diately to the Taj to revisit it before the light 
should fail. One after another the suite drifted 
away in the same direction, to watch the scarlet 
of the sunset blazing over the fort of Agra and 
on the face of the Jumna, and blushing faintly 
on the silent marble of the Taj, till the last light 
died away, and dome and minarets again loomed 
white against a sky of cold steel blue. 

Our new camp, having been formed under the 
superintendence of the King's Indian staff, con- 
trasted very favourably with our late quarters 
at Delhi. The tents were pitched at a proper 
distance from each other, they were comfortably 
warmed, and they were clean. All other arrange- 
ments for messing and so forth were equally good, 
and immeasurably superior to the corresponding 

204 



THE QUEEN AT AGRA 

arrangements at Delhi ; while Colonel Banner- Dec. 17 
man, the political officer who was in charge of 
the Queen's tour, speedily installed himself among 
the suite as the most attentive and courteous of 
hosts, and a very welcome companion. To all 
intent, between journeys and functions, this was 
the first quiet night that we had enjoyed since 
we left the Medina ; and the Queen, who needed 
rest more than any of us, took advantage of it. 
The suite, for their part, found very agreeable 
guests in the officers of the Royal Irish and 
of the Thirteenth Rajputs, which regiments 
furnished the guards of the camp. 

On the morning of the next day, Sunday the 
17th of December, the Queen, attended by her 
suite, drove to St. George's Church for Divine 
Service, the sermon being preached by Dr. 
Westcott, Bishop of Lucknow and son of the late 
Bishop of Durham. The church, which was 
built by the East India Company in 1828, has, 
like all of its kind, no architectural pretensions, 
but as usual carries on the walls many sad 
memorials of young lives cut short, " Died of 
exposure during the Indian Mutiny " is a curt 
phrase which sums up a long and dreary account 
of human misery, and reminds one that the 
casualties of a campaign do not end at the 
conclusion of peace. " Fell in action " are words 
that stir the heart ; but "Died of cholera," "Died 
of fever," leave behind a dull sense of pain, as 
we reflect on the frightful toll of British lives 
which has been levied during the last century 

205 



A FAULTLESS ESCORT 

Dec. 17. and a half by India. Her Majesty had wished 
to go to church as quietly as possible, but the 
Thirteenth Hussars, who had escorted the Royal 
procession from the station on the previous 
day, begged permission to have the honour of 
furnishing a full escort. We had remarked the 
regiment at Delhi ; but even so we were not 
quite prepared for what we saw on that Sunday. 
All the officers in the suite agreed that the 
escort was the most perfect that they had ever 
seen, so admirably were the distances and the 
dressing preserved. This may seem to be a 
small matter, but such details count for much in 
the discipline of a regiment ; for those that are 
careful in small matters are unlikely to be care- 
less in great. Moreover, it is a real pleasure in 
this imperfect world to see anything faultlessly 
done. 

In the afternoon the Queen, still attended by 
her suite, motored to the fort of Agra, where 
Mr. Sanderson of the Archaeological Depart- 
ment guided her over the huge palaces of Akbar, 
Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Excellent work has 
been done here in clearing away modern 
excrescences and excavating the foundations of 
ruined buildings. The palaces are too well 
known to need description by me ; but one or 
two points respecting the Mohammedan archi- 
tects may be noted. First, they thoroughly 
realised — what has too often been forgotten in 
England — that, if a court is to look beautiful, 
the buildings around it must be low ; and hence 

206 



THE PALACES OF AGRA 

their courts wear a peculiar grace of spaciousness. Dec. 17. 
Secondly, their construction was often very 
slovenly ; Akbar's palace, for instance, having a 
very loose core of brick, held together by a great 
deal of soft mortar, and very thinly faced with slabs 
of red sandstone. The walls of Delhi fort are 
another example of this, being simply rubble with 
a thin stone face. Thirdly, they delighted in 
architectural puzzles. They seldom if ever built 
a true arch, so that the structure of arch-shaped 
apertures often presents some mystery ; but this 
pales beside the problem presented by a ceiling 
of flat marble slabs. According to all the rules of 
gravity this ought to fall on the floor, being to all 
appearance an inverted pavement ; but it does not ; 
and although no doubt there are many ways of 
performing the trick, it would be interesting to 
know how in this instance it is accomplished. 

From thence the Queen proceeded a short 
distance farther to the tomb of Etmad-ud- 
dowlah, a very marvellous example of fretted 
marble -work, beautiful in detail but lacking 
the imposing simplicity of earlier and ruder 
Mohammedan tombs. There was still time 
for another visit to the Taj after our return ; 
but indeed being so near at hand, we wandered 
into its silent garden at all unoccupied hours, the 
most constant visitor and admirer of all being 
the Queen. In the evening Her Majesty gave 
a small dinner-party, in which the Bishop of 
Lucknow, the Commissioner and Mrs. Reynolds, 
and a few more were included. 

207 



FATEHPUR SIKRI 

Dec. 1 8. On the morning of the i8th the Queen with 
her suite started early in motors to the deserted 
palace of Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri, some twenty 
miles distant. It is easy to understand why it 
was deserted, but difficult to comprehend why 
even an Oriental despot should have set down 
a gigantic palace in so barren and waterless a 
region. Mr. Sanderson again acted as guide to 
the Queen, to the great good fortune of those 
who were lucky enough to be with Her 
Majesty ; and the hours passed rapidly as we 
wandered through the deserted courts and 
chambers or stood in the hall of audience with 
its marvellously carved superstructure, where the 
greatest of the Mogul Emperors received the 
petitions of suitors and meted out justice to high 
and low. The buildings are interesting, too, as 
including an effort at a feature which the 
Mohammedan architects as a rule neglected, a 
great flight of steps. What they understood 
best was gateways, but steps for some reason 
were beyond them. The stairways in the build- 
ings of the Mogul period are always bad, so 
high, steep and narrow indeed, even in the 
zenanas, that one wonders how the little ladies 
of the harem can have climbed up them. 
Even the different levels of the platforms of 
the Taj are connected by stepping-stones and 
not by steps. At Fatehpur Sikri, however, 
below the magnificent gateway is an attempt at 
a flight of steps, which, if executed, as it might 
have been, on a great scale and carried down the 

208 



THE QUEEN AT JAIPUR 

side of the height, on which the palace stands, to Dec. 19. 
the plain, would have been one of the most 
magnificent architectural objects in the world. 

On the morning of the 19th, after a last visit 
to the Taj, the Queen left Agra by train for 
Jaipur, where she arrived in the evening. At 
the station she was met by the Maharaja, who 
laid his sword at her feet with the chivalrous 
courtesy of the East ; and from thence she 
drove some two miles to the Residency through a 
host of the Maharaja's armed retainers. Very 
picturesque was the spectacle that they presented, 
in colours of every variety and shade — red, 
orange, dark green, pea -green, sage-green. 
Here there was a long row of stately mace- 
bearers ; hard by a troop of gorgeous spearmen on 
Arab horses ; beyond them imposing ranks of 
matchlockmen. Here again were companies of 
fifty or sixty camels, some carrying wild-looking 
warriors with lances, others heavy swivel-guns, 
which must have been most dangerous in the field, 
yet others a few kettle-drummers of inexhaust- 
ible thumping power ; there stood a noble array 
of forty elephants with their faces coloured in 
fantastic patterns, and gorgeous housings of gold 
and silver on their backs ; here an assembly of 
half- naked Nagas with gigantic quivering 
swords ; there a train of great grey bullocks 
harnessed to gorgeous litters, to humbler 
carriages or to quaintly painted guns, their sleek 
hides often hidden by pea-green housings and 
their horns by pea-green cases, but their great 

209 p 



RECEPTION AT JAIPUR 

Dec. 19. soft eyes looking kindly upon the world. And 
the drummers drummed, and the pipers piped, 
and the horses pranced, and the patient elephants 
saluted, and the Nagas leaped, and the spearmen, 
flintlockmen and matchlockmen brandished or 
presented arms ; and so through a blaze of colour 
and every description of gleaming weapon Her 
Majesty drove to the Residency. It was a true 
Oriental welcome, where a host displays all that 
he has as a courtly intimation that it is at the 
disposal of his guest. Arrived at the Residency 
the Queen was received by the Resident, Colonel 
Showers ; and the suite had just time before dark 
to learn the ways of a very comfortable camp, 
pitched in the garden. The day ended with a 
small dinner-party given by Her Majesty. 

On the morning of the 20th the Maharaja 
had motors waiting at the door ; and the Queen 
with her suite drove to the deserted town of 
Amber, which lies in a deep cleft of the hills, 
seven miles from Jaipur. Here Her Majesty 
mounted an elephant and, followed by her suite 
likewise on elephants, went up the steep ascent 
to the palace built by Raja Man Singh, the 
favourite of the Emperor Akbar, in 1592. 
Amber has been described by Mr. Kipling, and 
therefore needs no description from me. In 
bygone ages it was a stronghold of the aboriginal 
Meenas who were dispossessed, through highly 
questionable methods, by a family of Rajputs at 
the end of the tenth century of our era ; and 
with the Rajputs it has remained ever since. A 



VISIT TO AMBER 

huge deserted city set with deserted temples and Dec. 20. 
crowned by a deserted palace, none of them of any 
great architectural interest, is a sufficiently bleak 
and melancholy object, even when repeopled by 
such an imagination as Mr. Kipling's. But 
there is eloquent testimony to the troubled past 
of India in the choice of such a site for a city as 
a gap in the barrenest hills of a barren country, 
approachable only through narrow and dangerous 
dehles and defended by ring within ring of walls 
and towers and circular bastions. The fortifica- 
tions crumble without, and the houses clustered 
upon the steep hillsides crumble within. The 
men who dwelt in them must have lived in fear 
and trembling. One may still see in the palace 
a hall supported by columns which at their core 
are of carved sandstone, but have been cased in 
stucco. The Emperor Jahangir, hearing that 
there were pillars at Amber which vied with 
the glories of Agra and Delhi, in high wrath 
sent commissioners to overthrow them. The 
Raja, however, had been warned ; and when the 
commissioners arrived they found nothing more 
ambitious than stucco, with which he had 
prudently veiled the perilous glory of the sand- 
stone. No doubt he was wise in his generation ; 
but in so strong a place as Amber one would 
have preferred him to defy the Emperor and 
stand a siege. 

In the evening the Queen gave a second 
small dinner-party, at the close of which the 
Maharaja's Naga warriors danced a war-dance. 



VISIT TO MAYO COLLEGE 

Dec. 2 1. The characteristics of all war- dances are the 
same — much brandishing of weapons, much 
leaping in the air, and remarkably little clothing 
— so that it is not worth while to describe this 
one at greater length. One is inclined to agree 
with Corporal Trim that one push of the 
bayonet is worth the whole of it. 

On the morning of the next day the Queen 
took leave of the Maharaja and started with her 
suite for Ajmer, which was reached early in the 
afternoon. At the station she was received by 
the Resident, Sir Elliot Colvin, and from thence 
drove straight to Mayo College, the place of 
education favoured by all ruling Princes for their 
sons, and therefore called the Eton of India. 
After inspecting the college buildings under the 
guidance of the Principal, Mr. Waddington, Her 
Majesty proceeded to the cricket pavilion, on the 
sloping front of which were banked up the whole 
of the two hundred students, making the most 
beautiful group of colour which we saw in India. 
All wore native dress — a cassock of rich material 
and delicate colour buttoned from neck to waist, 
and with long skirts from the waist to the heel, 
and a turban of stronger and more decided tint. 
The Queen requested that every one of them 
might be presented to her individually ; and 
accordingly they filed past her, each bowing 
gracefully over his hands pressed palm to 
palm before him, and returning to his place. 
The Queen then obtained for them an extra 
week's holiday, the grant of which they received 



THE CITY OF AJMER 

in silence, bowing almost to their knees. One Dec. 21, 
could not help contrasting their behaviour both 
on this occasion and when presented to the 
Queen with the awkward self-consciousness of 
English boys in parallel circumstances. The 
elder students then withdrew, and presently 
reappeared mounted on polo-ponies, on which, 
while the Queen drank tea with the Principal, 
they went through such sports as tent-pegging by 
sections, jumping by sections, and a "bending 
race." Finally, when the light began to fail 
Her Majesty drove to the quarters prepared for 
her at the Residency. 

This building, beautifully situated on the top 
of a steep eminence, overlooks the lake of Ajmer, 
along one side of which lies the town with a 
stern fortified height rising behind it ; while on 
the other is a narrow stretch of plain bounded 
by a wall of rugged rocky hills. The situation 
and surroundings of the town suggest a home of 
romance, and such a home Ajmer undoubtedly 
was. The foundation of the citadel by the 
royal race of Chauhan Rajputs is lost in extreme 
antiquity, but it seems certain that as early as 
A.D. 712 these Princes were the most determined 
opponents of Mohammedan invasion. Three 
hundred years later the mighty Mahmoud of 
Ghazni fell back, foiled and wounded from before 
Ajmer; and it was not until 1556 that it was 
finally occupied by Akbar, upon whom, as also 
upon both of his two immediate successors, it 
exerted an irresistible fascination. Here it was 



AJMER ILLUMINATED 

Dec. 2 1. that Jahangir received Sir Thomas Roe, the 
ambassador of King James the First of Britain, 
in 1 615, and here it was that the same Emperor 
and his son Shah Jahan spent their happiest days 
with their adored wives Nur Mahal and Mumtaz 
Mahal. Possibly it was the place last recalled 
to memory by the dying Shah Jahan, as he 
looked with dim eyes from his palace at Agra to 
the Taj, and knew that the time was come at 
last for him to rejoin his beloved under the 
white dome where they still sleep side by side 
in peace. 

The hill on which the Residency stands is so 
steep that only a few tents could be pitched near 
the house ; and the main most comfortable camp 
was situated on the plain at its foot. The Queen 
gave a small dinner-party in the evening ; and 
after dinner every one sought the terrace of the 
Residency to see the illuminations of the lake, 
the fort and the city. The art of illumination is 
nowhere so perfectly understood as in India, 
where it is not confined to hard straight lines of 
glaring electric light on public buildings, but 
follows the beautiful curves of lake and hill, 
fortress and bastion, in myriads of tiny flames fed 
by oil only. The cost is trifling, for little 
earthenware bowls, wicks and oil are all alike 
cheap ; and hundreds of natives can be found, 
for the reward of a few pence, to arrange them 
by natural instinct in perfect order. 

On the morning of the 22nd the Queen with 
her suite drove in motors through a pass in the 

214 



THE QUEEN AT PUSHKAR 

ring of hills to Pushkar, a village about nine miles Dec 22. 
distant, where there is a tank which is of peculiar 
sanctity to the Hindus and therefore the resort 
of many pilgrims. Part of the road was ex- 
tremely steep, and the country, as commonly in 
Rajputana, is miserably barren and inhospit- 
able ; but as usual on every progress of the 
Queen during this tour, the people swarmed up 
from no one knew whence to see her go by. 
Pushkar itself, a picturesque village of a single 
long narrow street, was alive with spectators, the 
women being clustered like flies on the roofs, 
where their deep red clothing made a delight- 
ful mass of rich colour. The tank itself is 
about five hundred yards in diameter, and 
surrounded on all sides by the houses of Rajput 
and Maratha chiefs, with steps down to the 
water. At the end of the village is a temple, to 
which the Queen ascended by many steps to 
wild music of pipe and tabor, and left, after the 
precedent of all distinguished visitors before her, 
a present of fifteen hundred rupees. As usual 
on such occasions the ministers of the temple 
were ready with garlands which they hung 
round the necks of all their visitors. At a i^iat 
(landing-stage) hard by the inhabitants presented 
the Queen with an address, and there was more 
hanging of garlands. In curious contrast to the 
festal appearance of the village, fakirs, smeared 
with ashes, sat here and there about the shrines, 
with limbs hideously deformed and atrophied by 
sitting for months and even years in the same 

215 



MOSQUE AND TEMPLE 

Dec. 22. natural or distorted posture. One of them, who 
sat motionless but for the twitching of his fingers 
as he told his beads, had a singularly beautiful 
face, and would have seemed from his closed 
eyes and grey-stained features to be dead indeed 
to the world, had not close observation revealed 
that, when not conscious of being watched, he 
opened his eyes and took a lively interest in 
things mundane. 

In the afternoon Her Majesty, with her suite 
in attendance, again drove out ; and the Cadet 
Corps of Mayo College asked and obtained 
permission to furnish her escort. A very fine 
appearance they made in the white tunics and 
sky-blue turbans of the Noble Guard ; and if 
there was more cantering and less trotting than 
an orthodox riding-master might have approved, 
the Queen at any rate found no fault with the 
characteristic eagerness of young men mounted 
on young horses. The objects of Her Majesty's 
visit were a Mohammedan mosque and a Hindu 
temple of peculiar holiness, named respectively 
the Dargah and Adhai-din-ka-Jhoara, the former 
of little architectural interest, but the latter 
possessing a fine Hindu screen and hall of pillars. 
As usual the adornment was in detail most 
beautiful, but the general effect, to an eye trained 
in the Hellenic school, was marred by the 
impression of excessive decoration. It is im- 
possible, however, to visit any Hindu or 
Mohammedan building of any architectural 
pretension without lamenting that our Roman 

216 



THE JOURNEY TO BUNDI 

and Gothic scripts fall so far behind the Arabic Dec. 23. 
and Persian, or indeed almost any Oriental 
character, in grace and variety. Bands and 
panels filled with texts possess in the East a 
decorative value such as we cannot approach in 
the West. 

On the morning of the 23rd the Queen and 
her suite left Ajmer on a journey of about one 
hundred miles by motor to Bundi. Her Majesty 
stopped on the way to visit the sites of projected 
memorials to King Edward VH. and Sir Curzon 
Wyllie, and to receive the valedictory salutations 
of the students of Mayo College, who were drawn 
up at the entrance to the grounds. She also 
caused speed to be reduced when passing by the 
orphan school of the Scotch mission at Nasirabad, 
so that the children might see her. A drearier 
country it would be difficult to traverse — mile 
upon mile of stony desert dotted with thorns, or 
from time to time varied by a patch of uncomely 
and unprofitable jungle. Here and there only 
was a patch of cultivation. The sole excitement 
was the overhauling of motors which had broken 
down, and the only amusement the multitude of 
conflicting opinions as to the best method of re- 
storing their suspended animation. After three 
hours we reached an oasis — Deoli — where Her 
Majesty was received at the Agency by the 
Agent, Major Peacock, and a halt was made 
for luncheon. The Deoli Regiment has its 
quarters here, and Colonel Waller and his officers 
had most kindly arranged for shooting a large 

21 7 



A TANK IN RAJPUTANA 

Dec. 23. tank^ or mere, about eleven miles farther on the 
road, in case any of the Queen's suite should care 
for the sport. Two of them were very ready for 
it, and were well rewarded. The evening was 
delightfully warm and nearly cloudless, and the 
sun went down slowly and reluctantly in a blaze 
of scarlet and orange, which was reflected on the 
still surface of the mere — a sheet of water perhaps 
three miles in circumference, dotted with tiny 
islands, overhung in places with low-roofed 
temples, and fringed with a margin of green, 
doubly refreshing to the eye after some days of 
travel through the desert of Rajputana. And in 
the air was every description of water-bird, 
cranes and storks and coots and endless varieties 
of duck. When they came within range, they 
taxed one's best skill to bring them down, and, 
when they did not, it was an equal pleasure to 
watch them and the beautiful scene around. 
After about two hours, darkness drove us 
reluctantly back to our motors, with a bag of 
close upon one hundred and fifty duck, widgeon 
and teal to five guns ; and we were fain to take 
leave of our most hospitable hosts and resume 
our journey. 

The Maharao Raja of Bundi, true to the 

^ It is curious that the word tank should be invariably used in India 
where in England we should employ the words, pond, mere or even lake. 
Derived through the French estang, itang from the Latin stagnum, the 
word tank (or, in its earlier form, stank) is known to me best through old 
deeds, where it generally signifies the reservoir of water for turning a water- 
mill. On the other hand, the word creek universally used in America and 
the Australasian Colonies to signify a stream or river, is never heard in 
India, and rarely, if ever, in this sense in England. 

218 



BUNDI BY NIGHT 

courtesy of his race, had meanwhile come forward Dec. 23. 
to the marches of his territory to escort Her 
Majesty to her camp. We belated ones of 
the shooting-party, however, had the rare 
experience of traversing the city of Bundi after 
dark. We entered a narrow defile between high 
rocky hills, and plunged into a labyrinth of 
narrow, tortuous streets, through which it seemed 
hopeless to attempt to make one's way. Again 
and again, not knowing the road, we found our- 
selves in what appeared to be a blind alley, from 
which sometimes, though not always, a narrow 
lane turning at the sharpest of angles led us into 
a fresh puzzle of the same kind. But these 
delays were welcome, for the sight was extra- 
ordinary. The whole city was lit up in honour 
of the occasion, and was swarming with people, 
whose brilliant sashes and turbans of orange and 
yellow and red, passing continuously from deep 
shadow into glaring light, against the background 
of their white robes, presented marvellous effects 
of colour. At length we passed through the 
city and reached our tents, which were arranged 
in three sides of a square on a carefully prepared 
lawn of grass, making the prettiest and most 
comfortable camp that we encountered in the 
whole of the tour. Even Her Majesty was for 
once lodged in a tent, and was well content to be 
so in such a camp. 

On the morning of the 24th the Maharao 
Raja came with carriages to escort the Queen to 
his palace, and Her Majesty accordingly drove 

219 



THE PALACE OF BUNDI 

Dec. 24. off with him followed by her suite. The 
palace, a huge white building, stands on the 
side of a very steep hill within a fortified 
enceinte, with two outer lines of fortification 
above, and the town crouching below it. The 
entrance is reached by a very steep paved ramp, 
from three to four hundred yards long, at the 
head of which one turns at right angles in to the 
gateway. The scene here was one which an 
artist might have despaired of setting on canvas. 
The Maharao Raja had provided palanquins to 
carry the whole party up the ascent ; and the 
bearers, some in scarlet robes and yellow turbans, 
mingled with guards in rich dark green or in 
yellow, were scattered about at the foot of the 
ramp ; the gorgeous silver palanquin, which was 
to be occupied by the Queen, blazing like fire in 
the midst of them. Hard by stood the leading 
nobles of Bundi, a group of some twenty or 
thirty splendid figures with beards brushed 
fiercely away from the face, but all, whether 
the beards were grey or white, bearing the 
unmistakable mark of high lineage and ancient 
race. The Maharao Raja was dressed in a black 
gown with an orange turban, and a broad orange 
shawl of different shade round the waist. Most 
of the nobles wore the same colours over a white 
linen gown with bell-shaped skirts ; but a few 
added new and different touches of colour. One 
was in sky blue with three shades of yellow — 
from sulphur to orange — in turban and shawl ; 
another had a gown of deep chocolate brown, 




'I HK MAHARAO. THE Q^UEEN-EMPR tSS. 

IN THE PALACE OF BUNDI. 



To face page 220. 



THE PALACE OF BUNDI 

relieved by brilliant green round head and waist ; Dec. 24. 
and a third, whose hair was white, wore dove- 
colour and crimson. All looked well ; it seems 
to be impossible for them to err in the choice 
and blending of colours. Then the palanquin- 
bearers took up their burdens, and the whole 
party — royal, noble and simple — streamed in 
irregular procession up the ramp under the lofty 
weather-worn white walls of the inner enceinte, 
with the sun blazing down upon them — a sight 
such as a man does not see twice in a lifetime. 

Over the gateway, as usual, pipers and drum- 
mers made strenuous music as Her Majesty 
entered ; and within the courtyard we came 
upon the lower walls of the main building, 
towering up to a gigantic height and looking 
all the higher for being somewhat narrow. 
The palace, which was built in 1644, shows 
no great variation from the usual Hindu archi- 
tecture of the period, though to me, personally, 
it was more pleasing than most, being chaste and 
subdued in decoration. A detailed description 
would be tedious, and it can only be said that 
under the guidance of the Maharao Raja, Her 
Majesty and her suite roamed with perfect 
contentment over the palace for an hour and a 
half. Above all, they admired the armoury, a 
beautiful little hall, supported by columns which 
(a rare thing in India) were ornamented on the 
capital only and were perfectly plain in the shaft, 
so that for once they looked stout enough to carry 
the roof. From the very summit the view of city 



THE VALHALLA OF BUNDI 

Dec. 24. and lake below was magnificent, while in the 
foreground the grace of the cupolas and of the 
inner courts of the ladies' apartments was delight- 
ful. Altogether I think that of all the sights 
seen in the Queen's tour in Rajputana, the palace 
of Bundi was the most enjoyable, and in some 
respects the most interesting. 

From the palace the Maharao escorted the 
Queen to a very beautiful garden, which is the 
place of cremation of the dead of the reigning 
family, and contains domed pavilions which are 
the cenotaphs erected to their memory. Simple 
and unpretentious, yet lacking neither richness 
nor dignity in due measure, this Valhalla has a 
pathos and a charm that is all its own. The 
garden has no ostentatious gloom of cypresses, 
but cheerful spreading trees and broad spaces of 
sunlight and shade in which the domes stand 
white and silent, telling that this is a resting- 
place of the dead, indeed, but of the happy 
dead. 

A visit to the Maharao Raja's hunting-box 
through three miles of jungle brought the 
morning and a too short visit to Bundi to a 
close. After luncheon His Highness came to 
take his leave of the Queen ; and Her Majesty, 
followed by the suite, started by motor for 
Kotah, under thirty miles away. Here again 
the Maharao of Kotah came forth to escort Her 
Majesty when she entered his borders, with 
artillery to fire a salute, musicians, elephants 
and a host of armed retainers. Very welcome 



CHRISTMAS AT KOTAH 

was the sight of the Chambal, flowing broad Dec. z\ 
and deep, for we had wandered for days through 
arid country over endless dry watercourses, but 
without a ghmpse of a running stream. Here, 
too, memory called up a thought of the remnants 
of Monson's army of 1804, weary, dispirited and 
demoralised, dragging themselves painfully away 
from the city where the Raja dared not ofl^er 
them asylum. Her Majesty proceeded to the 
Agency, where she was received by the Political 
Agent, Colonel Berkeley, while the rest of us 
found quarters in a camp, as usual most comfort- 
able, in the grounds. In the evening Her 
Majesty, her suite, and the few Europeans at 
Kotah attended Divine Service in a tent. 

Christmas Day opened with Divine Service 
in the same tent ; and in the afternoon the 
Maharao provided two launches for a trip up the 
Chambal, himself accompanying Her Majesty 
in one, and leaving three rifles with the men of 
the party, as he had arranged to beat the jungles 
on the banks. Her Majesty returned in time 
for tea, having seen four bears making away ; 
and the second launch was following hers when 
the villagers shouted that they could see a 
leopard. The banks of the Chambal rise in 
sheer cliffs of sandstone to a height of about 
forty feet above the water ; and on a ledge just 
below the summit we caught sight of the 
leopard from the launch, while he at the same 
moment caught sight of us and crouched down. 
It was curious to watch him. The animal was 

223 



A VIGILANT HOST 

Dec. 26. halting between two opinions, having one eye 
upon us, and the other upon a bullock fifty yards 
away, which had been tied up for his delectation 
and towards which he was making his way. 
For half an hour he remained motionless, until 
some beaters crossed the river from the other 
bank and moved him, when he bounded quietly 
along a ledge of the cliff like a cat on a garden 
wall. A lively fusillade greeted him from the 
launch, and he fell down the face of the cliff 
as if dead, but recovered himself and continued 
his flight along a lower ledge, where he crept 
into a deep cleft and disappeared, no doubt to die. 
On this evening, being Christmas night. Her 
Majesty asked the whole of her suite to dine 
with her, even as the King at the same moment 
was entertaining the whole of his suite in Nipal. 
As the party broke up, we came upon the 
Maharao on his way to inspect the sentries and 
turn out the guard of the Kotah Regiment 
at the Agency, a duty which His Highness 
fulfilled punctually on every night of the Queen's 
stay. 

On the morning of the 26th the Queen drove 
with her suite to the Maharao's palace, the 
Maharao in person commanding the escort of 
Her Majesty's carriage, and afterwards conducting 
her over the building. Perhaps the most 
remarkable thing to be seen in it was the 
collection of arms and armour, which included 
some wonderfully beautiful specimens of native 
workmanship. Indeed it may be questioned 

224 



THE PALACE OF KOTAH 

whether Indian art ever exhibits itself to greater Dec. 26. 
advantage than in the decoration of weapons, 
whether it be applied to the handle of a sword 
or to the barrel of a matchlock. After luncheon 
the Queen and her party, under the Maharao's 
guidance, went to the tank of Abhera, at a short 
distance from the city, where a dozen alligators, 
one of them very large, came swimming up 
from a distance at the call of the keeper to be 
fed. Great efforts were made to induce them to 
put their heads on the landing steps in search of 
food, in order that their portraits might be taken 
by photograph, but they were too shy to make 
the venture. An endeavour to hold them in the 
necessary position by a rude wooden hook was 
equally unsuccessful. They swallowed the bait 
greedily, but speedily disgorged it on feeling the 
strain of the line. They therefore forfeited 
such chances of immortality as the camera can 
confer. 

In the evening the Queen gave a small 
dinner-party ; and at night the city, the banks 
and the islands of the Chambal were illuminated 
with very beautiful effect. The Indians have a 
real genius for seizing the finest lines of a 
contour for illumination, and for making the 
most of the effect by breaking those lines at 
intervals with little structures of bamboo which, 
at a short distance, present the appearance of tiny 
towers of flame. While the Queen was still 
watching and admiring, there arose a sound of 
much trumpeting on the other side of the house ; 

225 Q 



TIGER-HUNT AT KOTAH 

Dec. 27. and there were seen six or eight elephants and as 
many horses, gorgeously caparisoned, while the 
verandah was literally covered with the most 
costly and beautiful of Indian and Persian fabrics, 
mingled with a few caskets of priceless jewels. 
This was the ceremony of the Pesh Kash^ 
signifying that the Maharao laid all of his most 
precious possessions at the feet of Queen Mary 
for her acceptance. Her Majesty accordingly 
inspected the costly gift, and then, as is 
customary, remitted it, fully appreciating that 
this compliment is the highest and most sincere 
that an Indian Prince can tender to his suzerain. 
On the 27th the Maharao, being very anxious 
to show the Queen a wild tiger in the jungle, 
arranged to beat the Bundi jungle some eight 
miles from Kotah, and conveyed Her Majesty 
and the suite thither in motors, providing rifles 
for such of the gentlemen as had not brought 
them from England. Arrived at the jungle Her 
Majesty with her ladies and Lord Shaftesbury 
were stationed on a broad platform constructed 
at some height up a tree. Other guns were 
likewise installed in trees to right and left ; and 
it was I think the inward wish of every one that 
the tiger might pass close to the Queen and fall, 
if not to Lord Shaftesbury's rifle, then to that of 
Prince George of Battenberg, who was as keen 
as only a midshipman ashore can be. The 
beaters, quite half of them native soldiers in 
khaki uniform, then started to drive the jungle 
towards the guns with wild shouts and screams, 

226 



FELINE PERVERSITY 

mingled with terrific aspersions upon the tiger's Dec. 27. 
ancestry and upon the virtue of his female relations. 
All the most nervous inhabitants of the jungle at 
once hurried forward, a crowd of pea-hens the 
foremost, then the young cocks and finally the 
old cocks, the most cunning of which lay fast just 
in sight of the guns, watching for an opportunity 
to fly back. Last of all came the tiger, slowly 
slinking forward ; but such is the perversity of 
the feline nature that instead of passing near the 
Queen, he made straight for the two guns next 
to the right of Her Majesty, who happened to 
be the one a man of letters and the other a man 
of drugs. The former had drawn by lot the 
right of first shot, but so intensely interested was 
he in watching the creature's movements that 
he quite forgot the rifle in his hand, and 
waiting far too long, he let slip his chance of an 
easy shot, and only sent an erratic bullet 
crashing through the bushes when it was too 
late. 

However, it was thought that the tiger 
would not have gone far, and the Maharao 
determined to drive the jungle back in the hope 
of recovering him. The new beat therefore 
began, and with diabolic persistence everything 
again made for the same two guns — first a 
sambhur, then a pig, both of which were 
allowed to go by, and lastly the tiger, this 
time galloping fast. Happily he came in full 
view of the Queen, but unfortunately not of 
Lord Shaftesbury, who had more ground to 

227 



A BEAR SLAIN 

Dec. 27. command than one gun could watch ; and hence 
it was that for the second time he passed nearest 
to the two erudite guns on the right flank. 
This time it was the man of drugs who fired. 
Tiger-shooting was no novelty to him ; but the 
shot was a difficult one, and the animal galloped 
off unhurt. The Maharao, however, tried yet 
another beat over the same ground ; and the 
beaters, being now reinforced by drums, bugles 
and abundance of blank cartridge, raised din 
enough to make any self-respecting animal seek 
new lodgings at once in a quieter neighbourhood. 
Nothing, however, came forward but a black 
bear, which was killed by Lord Shaftesbury. 
Her Majesty therefore had at least the satisfac- 
tion of seeing the picturesque assembly of men 
and elephants which gathers together on such 
occasions for the removal of the corpse ; and so 
ended a very amusing day, unfortunately the last 
of Her Majesty's tour. 

The morning of the 28th was taken up in 
preparations for departure ; and with keen regret 
we had to take leave not only of the generous 
host who had done so much for the amusement 
and pleasure of Her Majesty and her suite, but 
of Colonel Bannerman, who was in charge of all 
the arrangements for the tour. At noon the 
Queen entered the Royal train ; the Maharao, 
with the princely courtesy which had marked 
his every action, attending Her Majesty to the 
last minute ; and our rambles about Rajputana 
had come to an end. Everything concerning it 

228 



FAREWELL TO RAJPUTANA 

had been easy and pleasant from beginning to Dec. 28. 
close. The evenings and nights had grown 
steadily warmer at every change of station, 
while the days were so gloriously fine and cloud- 
less as to make us very sympathetic with sun- 
worship. The air of Rajputana is incredibly 
bracing ; it is, in fact, rather too like champagne, 
for it sometimes causes headache in the morning. 
The people are both friendly and courteous, while 
their tall figures and the daring colours which 
they wear make them a perpetual delight to the 
eye. At every progress of the Queen they came 
in swarms to greet her ; even on the railway there 
were crowds at every station, whether it were a 
stopping-place or not, and not a man allowed 
the Royal train to pass without a salute. As 
to the Rajput nobles and their chiefs. Her 
Majesty's hosts, they were delighted beyond 
measure at the opportunity of displaying their 
loyalty and devotion to the King-Emperor and 
the Queen-Empress ; and that with no fulsome 
ostentation of self-abasement, but with the 
chivalry that comes naturally to a proud and 
ancient race. 

Arriving at five o'clock at Guna the Queen 
found the Thirty-eighth Central India Horse 
drawn up by the station to receive her, and 
alighted to see them pass in review before her, 
and to drink tea with the officers. The two 
regiments of Central India Horse were formed 
in 1859 and i860 to suppress the brigandage to 
which the defeated mutineers had resorted after 

229 



THEIR MAJESTIES REUNITED 

Dec. 29. the British victories at Delhi and Lucknow. 
They are not what is called parade -regiments, 
and I have seen many that marched past better 
than the Thirty-eighth ; but a finer body of men 
it would be hard to find, and their appearance 
showed them to be what they actually are, 
ready for work in the field at the shortest notice. 
After the review Her Majesty resumed her 
journey, always through great crowds of people, 
and rejoining the King on the evening of the 
29th at Bankipore, travelled from thence to 
Calcutta in company with His Majesty. 



XIII 

Calcutta was reached at noon of the 30th. 
Their Majesties were received at the station by 
the Governor-General and Lady Hardinge ; and 
after the presentation of the officials of the railway 
and the inspection of the guard of honour, they 
embarked on the steamship Howrah to cross the 
river Hugli. At the moment of embarkation a 
salute of one hundred and one guns was fired by 
H.M.S. Highflyer^ whose men lined decks and 
gave three cheers for Their Majesties as they 
passed. All the ships in the river were dressed 
with bunting, and the bridge of boats was packed 
from end to end with a dense crowd of spectators. 
Upon landing at Prinsep's Ghat a procession was 
formed to an amphitheatre containing some two 
thousand spectators, where a dais and thrones 

230 



ENTRY INTO CALCUTTA 

had been erected under a canopy. Here Their Dec. 3< 
Majesties took their seats ; and the Lieutenant- 
Governor then presented first the members of his 
Executive Council, next the Indian Princes of 
Bengal, and lastly, in groups, the members of the 
principal municipal and administrative bodies. 
This done, an address of welcome was read from 
the Corporation, to which the King read a 
cordial reply ; and Their Majesties then entered 
a carriage drawn by six horses for their State 
entry into the city ; the escort being composed 
of the Viceroy's bodyguard, two regiments of 
regular cavalry, a battery of Horse Artillery 
and a body of Volunteer Light Horse. 

The greater part of the route was lined with 
stands, and for some distance it ran alongside the 
Maidan, which is the Hyde Park, on a greater 
scale, of Calcutta. The crowd of spectators was 
enormous. For days the country people around 
had been pouring into the city. There was 
ample space for them to stand in the Maidan, 
and they were ranked to an amazing depth in 
this open space, where, the ground being a dead 
flat, it is to be feared that tens of thousands 
could see nothing. Whole lengths of plaster 
balustrade were thrown down by the press, but 
there was no disorder ; and, whether they could 
see or not, all the people were enthusiastic to a 
degree which astonished every English resident. 
The Bengali is a man who rarely smiles, unless 
at jests which perhaps he would do better to 
receive with gravity ; but he proved by grave 

231 



GOVERNMENT HOUSE, CALCUTTA 

Dec. 30. salutations and loud acclaim that he shared the 
deep feeling of reverence, manifested alike at 
Delhi and on the journey in Nipal, for the person 
of the King-Emperor. 

On arrival at Government House the King 
and Queen were received by the Viceroy and Lady 
Hardinge ; a great number of other officials, civil 
and military, being also in attendance, some 
of whom were presented to Their Majesties. 
Government House was, pardonably enough, too 
small to hold Their Majesties, Lord Hardinge's 
guests and the whole of the King's suite ; so a 
great many of us found ourselves again under 
canvas, very comfortably lodged in the garden 
within a stone's throw of the house. The only 
drawback was that we were within a stone's 
throw also of the public street and of some very 
noisy trams ; but that was in the circumstances 
inevitable, being due entirely to the persons, long 
since forgotten, who blundered in the planning 
of Government House grounds a century ago. 
It is satisfactory to think — or at any rate to 
hope — that the Governor-General will be more 
worthily housed in the new capital than he is 
at present in Calcutta. In the afternoon Their 
Majesties, attended by the Viceroy and Lady 
Hardinge, visited the Zoological Gardens, which 
it may be remarked are exceedingly good and 
attractive in Calcutta ; and so the first day in the 
capital came to an end. 

On Sunday the 31st the King and Queen 
attended Divine Service in the cathedral, where 

232 



REVIEW AT CALCUTTA 

the Bishop of Calcutta preached the sermon, and Jan. 1-2. 
in the afternoon the Queen visited the Botanical 
Gardens under the guidance of Major Gage, the 
superintendent. Monday, the i st of January 1 9 1 2, 
was also comparatively a quiet day, the only func- 
tions being Their Majesties' visit to the polo- 
ground in the afternoon to witness a match be- 
tween the Thirteenth Hussars and the Scouts, 
and a State dinner to nearly one hundred guests 
at Government House. The festival of the 
Mohurram being in progress, the streets were 
densely crowded. On Tuesday the 2nd there was 
the usual " Proclamation Parade " to commem- 
orate the assumption of the title of Empress of 
India by Queen Victoria, which took place in 
the presence of Their Majesties ; but this, 
being an affair of fewer than ten thousand men, 
seemed small after the fifty thousand at Delhi. 
Curiously enough, however, the excellences and 
defects of Delhi were exactly reproduced. The 
Volunteers, both cavalry and infantry, made a 
very creditable display ; but the gallop past of 
the regular cavalry and horse artillery was too 
headlong, with the usual result that there was a 
lagging gun in the battery and great appearance 
of raggedness among the cavalry. The Six- 
teenth Lancers, a Hindu regiment, was per- 
haps that which acquitted itself best. In the 
afternoon the King and Queen were present at 
a garden party, to which the Viceroy had in- 
vited some two thousand guests ; and in the 
evening His Majesty held a levee at Govern- 

233 



THE TORCHLIGHT TATTOO 

Jan. 3. ment House, at which there was a very large 
attendance. 

On the 3rd the King drove to the polo-ground 
to witness the final match of the Calcutta 
Coronation Polo Tournament between the Tenth 
Hussars and the Scouts, and at the conclusion 
handed the cup, which was his gift, to the Scouts 
who were the winning team. In the afternoon 
Their Majesties drove to the Calcutta Races, the 
fourth race being for a cup presented by the 
King- Emperor, which was won by Mr. J. C. 
Galstaun's horse. Brogue, and placed in the 
owner's hands by His Majesty. In the evening 
after dinner Their Majesties witnessed a torch- 
light tattoo in the Maidan from a pavilion erected 
near the southern entrance to Government House. 
First, the Sixteenth Cavalry executed a 
musical ride, carrying torches at the end of their 
lances, and ended a very good performance by a 
wild charge down to the Royal pavilion, where 
they halted sharply, saluted and retired. Next 
men of the Black Watch danced a sword-dance, 
and men of the Twenty-seventh Punjabis some 
description of war-dance round a huge fire. 
The infantry, about two thousand strong, then 
advanced, all dressed in white, and after a number 
of intricate manoeuvres, both at the quick step 
and at the double, formed battalion before the 
Royal pavilion, and saluted. Their movements 
were executed principally in single file, which is 
the right formation for a tattoo, so that they 
covered the plain with winding fiery lines ; 

234 



THE TORCHLIGHT TATTOO 

while the illumination of the trees, as usual in Jan. 3. 
admirable taste, made a fine background of 
fixed beacons. Altogether this tattoo was ex- 
tremely well managed and a very beautiful sight. 
Even the fireworks, with which the display 
ended, could not outshine it. But perhaps the 
most remarkable spectacle of all was the crowd. 
Natives of India love nothing better than 
illuminations and fireworks, and they were 
present literally in hundreds of thousands. A 
great length of stands had been erected along the 
Maidan for spectators who had paid sufficient sums 
for a seat ; but the greater part of the space, so 
far as I could see, was silently appropriated by 
the populace before the ticket- holders arrived. 
The roads of approach were more hopelessly 
blocked than any that I have ever seen even 
in London on the greatest occasions ; and the 
police — perhaps they could hardly be blamed 
— completely lost control of the traffic, at any 
rate for some time. Yet the crowd was most 
orderly, civil and good-tempered, and there was 
no trouble of any kind, though many carriages 
were unable to come near the ground at all, and 
many that did reach it can hardly have been 
released before dawn. 

On the morning of the 4th the King-Emperor 
drove in a motor to the site of the Victoria 
Memorial Building, and later proceeded to the 
Calcutta Museum, where the treasures designed 
for exhibition in the Memorial Hall are 
temporarily displayed. The Queen-Empress also 

235 



PESH KASH FROM BENGAL 

Jan. 4-5. visited the Museum in the course of the morning, 
under the guidance of Mr. Percy Brown, and 
was particularly interested in the exquisite 
drawings by native artists, and in the portraits of 
the so-called " Patna School," who were native 
artists under the influence of English miniaturists. 
In the afternoon Their Majesties went to a horse- 
show and jumping competition at the Tollygunge 
Club, at the close of which the Queen distributed 
the prizes to the successful competitors, one of 
whom was the Commander-in-Chief. In the 
evening, after the King had held an investiture. 
Their Majesties held a court in the Throne-room 
at Government House. 

On the 5th the King and Queen went down the 
Hugli to visit the jute factories of Sir David Yule, 
who had been knighted on the previous day ; and, 
enlightened by his explanations, inspected with 
the greatest interest everything that was to be seen 
of this important Indian industry. In the after- 
noon Their Majesties drove to the Maidan to wit- 
ness a pageant which had been organised for the 
occasion. On arriving at the pavilion set apart 
for them they were received by the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, the Nawab of Murshidabad, 
the Maharajadhiraja of Burdwan and other 
members of the committee ; and then followed 
an interesting ceremony. The Maharaja of 
Gidhour handed a purse of one hundred and one 
gold mohurs to the Nawab, who presented it as 
Pesh Kash to His Majesty from the people of 
Bengal, Orissa and Behar, Eastern Bengal and 

236 



THE PAGEANT AT CALCUTTA 

Assam. The Nawab was of course attired in Jan. 5. 
rich native dress, and wore on his right arm an 
enormous flat engraved emerald, more than an 
inch square — an historic jewel and talisman which 
attracted many covetous female eyes. 

The pageant itself came next, and consisted of 
two processions, first the Nawroz or New Year's 
Day procession of Murshidabad, and secondly the 
Dasehara. The festival of Nawroz itself goes 
back to very remote times in Persia ; but the 
processions were first instituted by Akbar, the 
contemporary of Queen Elizabeth, and adopted 
by the Nawabs of Murshidabad in the time of 
our Queen Anne, since which date they have 
been regularly kept up. The Dasehara traces 
its origin far back to the mythological traditions 
of the Hindus, having been established to com- 
memorate the final triumph of Rama the King 
of Oudh, in whom the god Vishnu for the good 
of men took incarnate shape, over Ravana, the 
King of an island, now submerged, in the south 
of India. Both processions in the Maidan 
strictly followed former precedents, and the 
equipment of " properties," if the term may be 
permitted, was furnished by the generosity of 
some of the greatest of the Ruling Chiefs. The 
pageant displayed a train of elephants, camels and 
horses, all in sumptuous housings and trappings,, 
interspersed with small parties of men armed 
with every description of weapon ; and in the 
case of the Dasehara a special feature was. 
furnished by two gorgeous gilded cars, drawn by 

237 



THE PAGEANT AT CALCUTTA 

Jan. 5. elephants, the one containing court poets and 
literary men, and the other personations of the 
Indian King and his courtiers. Otherwise the 
pageant was simply a defile of much the same 
interesting and picturesque figures as the Maha- 
raja of Jaipur had stationed along the road for 
the reception of the Queen, and depended not 
a little for its effect upon schemes of colour. 

As such it was certainly successful. Elephants 
are so staid and wise that it is always a pleasure 
to see them in numbers ; and their stately carriage 
makes them worthy bearers of huge cloths that 
are one sheet of gold thread and of howdahs that 
gleam with the precious metals. Camels also, if 
well groomed and of good breed, can wear fine 
raiment with dignity, though no camel can share 
in the doings of man without evincing, at any 
rate outwardly, intense and unconquerable bore- 
dom. Arab stallions can also carry off the 
splendour of sumptuous trappings ; and dancing 
horses, especially when they dance past for a 
hundred yards on their hind legs, are at least a 
surprise. Scatter these broadcast among troops 
of horsemen and of footmen, each troop in 
flowing robes of green and blue, or red and 
yellow, no two being of the same shade ; let 
the whole file past in not very regular order ; 
and there, roughly speaking, is the pageant. If 
there be a criticism which might justly be 
passed upon it, it is that the clothes of the actors 
were rather too new, and in many cases suggested 
aniline dyes. 

238 



THE PAGEANT AT CALCUTTA 

As an interlude there was a war-dance of j^ 
Paiks, a relic of ancient warriors of Orissa, 
whose duties are now practically those of 
Palace - guards to the native princes of that 
province. Half of them were stained grey with 
ashes and dressed in scanty garments of blue, and 
the other half stained with yellow and arrayed 
in pink, so that the contrast of colour should be 
complete. Lastly, it must be mentioned that 
the entire pageant went forward to the accom- 
paniment of music by living Indian composers, 
arranged for performers whose instruments had 
been carefully copied from ancient models — a 
new and interesting experiment upon which only 
a well -trained musician could pronounce an 
opinion. To the inexpert ear the music seemed 
to bear very strong traces of European influence. 
Perhaps the most striking moment of the whole 
display came after all the actors had defiled past 
the King, when, having formed an irregular line 
a thousand yards in length across the Maidan, 
they made a general advance in review order, to 
use a military phrase, towards Their Majesties. 

So much must be said for the pageant itself, 
but an even more wonderful scene was to follow. 
An immense crowd had assembled to witness the 
show, the great bulk of which was gathered 
in a huge semicircle behind the stage, so to speak, 
and in face of Their Majesties and of the stands 
erected for privileged spectators. At the close 
of the entertainment the King and Queen entered 
their carriage and drove very slowly along the 

239 



THE BENGALIS' HOMAGE 

Jan. 5. whole length of this great ring and within a 
couple of yards of it, so that all could see them. 
It was a happy inspiration. The people — and 
these really were the people — received them 
with deep reverence and joyful acclaim ; the 
men bowed to the ground, and the women 
uttered the peculiar guttural sound which is 
reserved for the religious service of the temple 
only. There was nothing to restrain them, or 
prevent them from swarming over the carriage, 
but they made no attempt to do so, well content 
to have looked upon the face of their King. 
Only when the Royal procession had at last 
moved off did they break loose, and then with 
one impulse they flew across the open sward to 
the King's pavilion, pierced through the guard 
of soldiers as if it had been made of paper, and, 
catching up the earth which had been trodden by 
the King's feet, pressed it in lowly homage to 
their brows. To our cold Western notions such 
an action may seem to be extravagant ; but the 
multitude which shouted " Life and Victory to 
Charles Augustus, crowned by God, the peace- 
giving Emperor," round the basilica of St. Peter 
on Christmas Day of the year 800, would have 
understood it. The Bengalis in the past have 
been a patient but never a combatant people. 
They did not struggle desperately like the 
Rajputs, and fall back into the desert sooner 
than yield their independence. They remained 
upon their rich lands, and bowed their heads in 
submission to each succeeding wave of conquest ; 

240 




"<. 



VISITS TO HOSPITALS 

and the testimony to the keenness of their pro- Jan. 
longed suffering is their adoration of the peace- 
giving Emperor, through whose authority the 
poor man may sow in full confidence that he 
will also reap. It may be that in the West 
also coming years will see political differences 
decided by the primitive method of force, and a 
weary people prostrating themselves before some 
soldier, as did the French before Napoleon in 
1799, because he has restored order and enabled 
inoffensive citizens once more to do their daily 
work in quietness. 

During the drive home the people again 
burst the barriers and swarmed all round the 
Royal carriage with an enthusiasm such as not 
only had never been seen, but had never even been 
dreamed of. The evening of the 5th closed with 
a ball at Government House, to which a select 
number of guests were invited by the Viceroy 
and Lady Hardinge to meet Their Majesties. 
At half-past eight on the morning of the 
6th the King was on his horse, riding out to 
visit the camps of the troops. In the forenoon 
His Majesty received a deputation from the 
University of Calcutta, while the Queen visited 
a number of philanthropic institutes and hospitals. 
Their Majesties could not even make their way 
to PoUygunge steeplechase in the afternoon 
without taking two hospitals on their way. In 
the evening the King and Queen honoured the 
Governor - General and Lady Hardinge with 
their presence at a dinner-party, after which they 

241 R 



DEPARTURE FROM CALCUTTA 

Jan. 7-8. ascended to the roof to see the illumination of 
Calcutta, a most wonderful and beautiful sight ; 
for, as I have said before, the humblest native of 
India seems instinctively to possess the secret of 
artistic illumination ; and these were the finest 
ever known in Calcutta. It is a pity that those 
who are responsible for such decorations in 
London do not pay the East a visit in order to 
learn their business. The crowds in the street 
were gigantic ; and it was curious to see the tall 
Pathan sentries watching the endless flow of 
sleek, white-robed, bare-headed Bengalis with a 
hungry look, as of a captive fox that eyes 
chickens playing just beyond the length of his 
chain. 

On Sunday morning Their Majesties were 
present at Divine Service in the Cathedral, and 
in the afternoon went down by river to Barrack- 
pur, attended by the Viceroy and Lady Hardinge 
and a number of their suite, to enjoy a few hours 
of peace in the beautiful gardens. On the 
morning of the 8th half of the suite left for 
Bombay betimes ; at half-past ten the principal 
officials assembled at Government House to take 
leave of Their Majesties ; and a few minutes 
later the King and Queen drove away with the 
like escort as upon their arrival to Prinsep's Ghat. 
The people had assembled in vast crowds to see 
them pass, and received them with unexampled 
enthusiasm. At the Ghat representatives of 
the principal local bodies and associations were 
gathered together to meet them, and an address 

242 



A MELANCHOLY PARTING 

was presented by the Legislative Council of Jan. 
Bengal, to which the King read a reply. Their 
Majesties then crossed the river in the steamship 
Howrah^ under a salute from the British warships, 
to the station ; and here the King-Emperor bade 
farewell to the three Indian Princes of his 
personal staff, the Maharajas of Gwalior and 
Bikanir, and Sir Pratap Singh. The parting 
was a very melancholy one, for the Maharaja 
Scindia, an honoured friend of the King, could 
not repress his tears, and the gallant veteran Sir 
Pratap could only stammer out that he was 
growing an old man before he broke down 
completely. At noon the Royal train steamed 
away under a final salute of one hundred and one 
guns from the ramparts of Fort William. 

At noon on the loth Their Majesties arrived 
at the Victoria Terminus, Bombay, where they 
were received by the Governor- General, who 
had preceded them, and drove in procession at a 
slow pace to the Apollo Bandar. The demon- 
stration as they passed through the streets 
showed the impression that they had made 
during their visit, for the Indians threw off all 
reserve, shouting and waving with unrestrained 
enthusiasm. Upon arrival at the appointed 
place the King and Queen alighted opposite the 
amphitheatre, which was once again crowded 
with spectators, and a procession was formed to 
the pavilion at the edge of the landing-steps. 
Here Their Majesties took their seats upon their 
thrones, and the Vice-President of the Legislative 

243 



THE KING'S LAST SPEECH 

Jan. lo. Council of Bombay presented a happily-worded 
address of farewell. The King then read his 
reply slowly and clearly, as is his wont ; and it is 
worth while to reproduce here the concluding 
sentences : " It is a matter of intense satisfaction 
to me to realise how all classes and creeds have 
joined together in true-hearted welcome which 
has been so universally accorded us. Is it not 
possible that the same unity and concord may 
for the future govern the daily relations of their 
public and private lives ? The attainment of 
this would indeed be a happy outcome of our 
visit to India. To you, the representatives of 
Bombay, who have greeted us so warmly on our 
arrival and departure, I deliver this our loving 
message of farewell to the Indian Empire." 

Here the King's voice broke, and for some 
seconds he was unable to speak further. Then 
collecting himself, he read on : " May the 
Almighty ever assist me and my successors to 
promote its welfare and to secure to it the 
blessings of prosperity and peace." 

The members of the Legislative Council 
were then presented to Their Majesties, next 
several of the leading officials, civil and military, 
and lastly the Indian Chiefs, conspicuous among 
whom were the Maharaja of Kolhapur,the Begum 
of Bhopal and the Maharao of Bundi. With 
many of these high personages Their Majesties 
shook hands on taking leave, and with none more 
warmly than with the Begum and the Maharao, 
the courtly host of the Queen at Bundi. All 

244 



THEIR MAJESTIES' LAST FAREWELL 

farewells had been said, and all present were Jan. lo. 
expecting the King and Queen to enter their 
launch, when, by a sudden impulse, Their 
Majesties walked forward quite alone towards 
the amphitheatre. The King was in the plain 
white uniform of the Army in the tropics, the 
Queen was dressed in a dress of cream-colour shot 
with gold ; there were not even the Indian attend- 
ants by them with umbrella and shade, and they 
stood at the edge of the sunlight, two white figures 
on the red carpet, the King with his hand to his 
helmet and the Queen as quietly bowing, to pay 
their farewell greeting to the last assembly of 
their Indian subjects. The movement was so 
evidently unpremeditated, so simple and so 
natural, that for a moment the two or three 
thousand spectators hardly realised what was 
going forward ; and then they leaped to their 
feet with one accord, not a few with the tears 
streaming down their cheeks, and answered the 
salute of the King and Queen with a storm of 
cheers. Slowly and reluctantly Their Majesties 
turned round, walked back to the launch that 
was awaiting them, and embarked. The Viceroy 
followed them, remaining to luncheon on the 
Medina^ a meal to which the King had invited a 
large party of guests, including the Governor of 
Bengal and Lady Clarke, and the Aga Khan. 
After luncheon His Majesty presented Delhi 
Coronation medals to a number of officers and 
men of the Royal Navy, first, however, investing 
the Maharao of Bundi with the Grand Cross of 

245 



HOMEWARD BOUND 

Jan. lo. the Victorian Order. Then followed more fare- 
wells, never very pleasant things, and doubly 
unhappy when they involve parting from such 
unselfish friends as the officers of the King's 
Indian staff had been to all of us. How great 
and endless were the labours, anxieties and 
worries of Brigadier Sir Rollo Grimston, Major 
Stockley, Major Money, Captain Hogg, Captain 
Amir Ahmad, and their coadjutors during the 
Royal visit, only they can know ; but I may at 
least bear grateful testimony to their inexhaust- 
ible courtesy, patience and good temper. Last 
of all the Viceroy took leave of Their Majesties ; 
and at six o'clock in the evening the great white 
ship and her four escorting cruisers spun round, 
so to speak, on their heels, and steamed away in 
single line ahead. 



XIV 

Of the homeward voyage there is little to 
be said. We had beautiful calm warm weather 
until we reached Port Sudan on the 17th, 
where, as Lord Kitchener had warned us, the 
temperature suddenly cooled. The Med'ma came 
alongside the wharf early, and immediately the 
foreshore was crowded with people. Pipers and 
drummers presently set to work at their instru- 
ments with frantic energy, and in a very few 
minutes black warriors with long woolly locks 
were bounding about like long slips of india- 

246 




■^ 



PORT SUDAN AND SINKAT 

rubber, with terrific brandishing of sword and Jan- 17- 
spear. At eight o'clock Their Majesties disem- 
barked, and were received by Lord Kitchener, Sir 
Reginald and Lady Wingate, Sir Rudolph Slatin 
Pasha and other gentlemen. An address of wel- 
come was read, and answered by the King ; and 
then a number of Sheikhs in red robes em- 
broidered with gold were presented to His 
Majesty, who gave them decorations and gifts. 
It was strange to see them. Many of them had 
fought against us ; one had been reader of the 
Koran to the Khalifa ; another had been the 
right-hand man of Osman Digna. There they 
were, all peaceful and friendly, wearing dresses of 
honour given by the Government of the Soudan, 
and excessively proud of them. 

After half an hour the King and Queen 
returned on board for breakfast ; and at about 
ten started with their suite by train for Sinkat, 
a name well known in 1884 and 1885 as the 
centre of Osman Digna's operations. The 
journey occupied close upon five hours, the 
climb being long and steep from the sea to 
the lofty plateau of Sinkat. Shortly before 
two o'clock a great crowd of men and camels, 
between two and three thousand according to 
one account, were seen alongside the railway, 
and presently the train stopped at a small station, 
opposite to which was a line of troops of all 
arms, chiefly Soudanese, drawn up on parade. 
Here Their Majesties alighted, and taking their 
place in a tent, saw the troops march past, very 

247 



REVIEW AT SINKAT 

Jan. 17. Steadily and well, cavalry, camel corps, artillery 
and infantry, to the music of Soudanese military 
bands, which played native march-tunes with a 
magnificent swagger of drummers. The cavalry 
and camels then trotted past, and the infantry 
came by again at the double, one of them — a 
newly raised corps of wild Arabs — with a lightness 
and spring delightful to see. We heard without 
surprise that they were astonishing marchers. 
Then the camel- men marched past in irregular 
array, tribe by tribe, with their chiefs at the 
head, and returned again at a more rapid pace. 
The programme promised us a gallop past of 
these wild levies ; but not above half a dozen 
galloped, and only one camel whirled by at the 
top of his speed. It was interesting to see the 
British soldiers of the Nineteenth Yorkshire 
Regiment quite as much at home upon their 
camels as any of the Arabs. Then there was a 
war-dance of Dinkas, a wild jet-black tribe from 
the south of Fashoda, the performers wearing a 
little clothing for this occasion only ; there was 
a sham fight of other tribesmen, who threw 
stones at each other with great accuracy and 
parried them very skilfully with their shields ; 
and there was yet another dance of woolly heads 
such as we had seen in the morning. Altogether 
it was a very remarkable scene, and it became 
the more so when we learned that many of 
the tribes had, not many years before, fought 
desperately against us ; that some had travelled 
hundreds of miles to see the King ; and that the 

248 



KING GEORGE'S DAY 

greater part had never seen nor hardly heard Jan. 17. 
of each other before. However, having met 
upon this occasion, they decided that it would 
be well to meet again ; and so they have 
arranged to assemble every year at Khartoum 
upon the 17th of January to celebrate King 
George's Day. 

At the close of the review Their Majesties 
motored into Sinkat to see the wells, their 
equerries, for the first time in the history of 
the British monarchy, attending them on 
camels ; and at four o'clock Their Majesties 
re-entered the train for Port Sudan, the tribes- 
men running and galloping by hundreds along- 
side the train until it distanced even the fleetest 
horses and camels. Upon our journey we had 
the advantage of travelling with some of the 
leading officials of the Soudan, governors of 
districts and so forth, all without exception 
military men, though many were holding civil 
office. Few people realise that the Soudan 
means roughly one million of square miles, 
and that under this little knot of Englishmen 
it is making very remarkable progress. I am 
afraid that I could not help contrasting the modest 
and manly simplicity of these gentlemen with the 
very different demeanour of civil officials in other 
parts of the Empire. The truth is that, as I have 
already hinted, the British officer in command 
of native troops has this great advantage over 
the civilian, that he is in constant touch with 
the native mind through the medium of his 

249 



ARRIVAL AT MALTA 

[an. 20- native officers and men, and thus learns how to 
^+' handle the inhabitants with tact and ease. 

Soon after dusk the Medina resumed her 
journey, Lord Kitchener by the King's invitation 
taking a passage on board as far as Port Said, 
which was reached on the 20th. Here once 
again His Highness the Khedive came on board 
to greet the King, and the ceremonies of His 
Majesty's first visit in November were in great 
measure repeated. Two of the cruising 
squadron, which had been detached at Aden 
to coal, rejoined us, and five hundred tons of 
coal were put on board the Medina herself in 
an hour. At noon on Sunday the 21st we 
sailed again, and on the 24th at ten o'clock 
in the morning entered Malta Harbour. Five 
French ships, the Danton^ yustice, Verite, Cara- 
binier and Lansquenet were lying in the harbour, 
under the flags of Admiral Boue de Lapeyrere 
and Rear- Admiral Moreau ; and the roar of 
salutes from them as well as from the British 
ships of the Mediterranean squadron,^ as the 
Medina entered into that narrow, echoing inlet 
was deafening. Unfortunately, after picking up 
her mooring the Medina^s hawser parted, and 
she was obliged to go astern, with the result 
that the cable of a mooring aft became entangled 

1 Exmouth, flagship of Admiral Sir E. Poe, Capt. Stuart Nicholson ; 
Duncan, flagship of Rear-Ad. Jerram, Capt. F. L, Field ; Triumph, Capt. 
Waymouth ; S^ftsure, Capt. Tower ; Cornivallis, Capt. Anstruther ; 
Russell, Capt. R. H. Anstruther ; Bacchante, flagship of Rear-Ad. Sir 
Douglas Gamble, Capt. Tyrwhitt ; Hampshire, Capt. Hunter ; Lancaster, 
Capt. Tothill ; Barham, Capt. Cotton ; Medea, Commander Keane ; 
Hussar, Commander Diggle. 

250 



THE FRENCH BLUEJACKETS 

round the shaft of her starboard screw. Divers Jan. 24. 
were at once sent down to cut the cable away ; 
and meanwhile the Governor, Sir Leslie Rundle, 
and several naval officers came on board to wait 
upon the King and Queen. 

Shortly before noon Their Majesties landed 
and went to the Governor's palace, where the 
leading civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries were 
presented to them ; after which they witnessed 
a defile of the troops of the garrison. For the 
first time since the island has been in British 
hands an armed force of French bluejackets 
was landed — sturdy active men, who marched 
past the King with the light jaunty step for 
which the French are famous. A British naval 
brigade numbering over twenty -five hundred 
from the Duncan^ Triumph^ Exmouthy Hampshire 
and Bacchante, had also been disembarked, and 
these went past with a swing which left the 
soldiers far behind. In due time followed the 
Old Fourteenth West Yorks, to the music of Qa 
ira, which they have played ever since their 
colonel at Famars in 1793 bade them beat the 

French Republicans " to their own d d tune " ; 

the Forty -eighth Northamptons, a very fine 
battalion, the Ninetieth Scottish Rifles, and the 
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. But a defile 
past in column of fours is an over-lengthy process. 

Their Majesties lunched at the palace with 
the Governor, the King subsequently visiting 
Admiral Boue de Lapeyrere on the Danton. In 
the evening Their Majesties dined with Admiral 

251 



ST. JOHN'S CATHEDRAL 

Jan. 25. Sir Edmund and Lady Poe at their house in 
Valetta, after which they attended a gala per- 
formance at the Opera. 

On the 25th the Queen went to St. John's 
Cathedral to see the celebrated Flemish tapestries, 
made after designs of Rubens, which were given 
to it by the Grand Master in 1707. The 
Archbishop and all the principal ecclesiastical 
dignitaries were present to receive Her Majesty, 
and Canon Alfredo Mifsud, Librarian of the 
Public Library, acted as guide and interpreter. 
The Canon's great historical knowledge and 
enthusiasm for the romance of the Knights of 
Malta made the visit of no ordinary interest ; 
and he pointed out with quiet humour to one ot 
the suite the effigy, on the roof, of his ancestor, 
an English knight who had been beheaded in 
the sixteenth century by one of His Majesty's 
ancestors on the throne of England. In the 
afternoon the Queen was present, together with 
the King, at a gymkhana at Messa ; and in 
the evening Their Majesties dined with the 
Governor at the palace, and held a levee after- 
wards. The palace at Malta, I may remark, is 
incomparably the finest and most interesting 
Government House in the British dominions, as 
is perhaps natural, seeing that it was built in the 
sixteenth century for the Grand Master of the 
Knights of Malta. 

On the 26th the Medina was brought early 
in the morning into dry dock, where the slight 
damage done on the 24th was made good in a 

252 



THE HYPOGiEUM 

few hours, enabling the ship to return to her Jan. 26. 
moorings before dark. The King this morning 
visited the three flagships Kxmoutli^ Duncan and 
Bacchante^ proceeding afterwards in company 
with the Queen to the Naval Hospital, which 
Their Majesties inspected very thoroughly. 
Early in the forenoon the Queen also made a dash 
into the country to see a subterranean temple 
known as the Hypogsum, which was acci- 
dentally discovered a year or two ago. Seemingly 
unique of its kind, both in design and decoration, 
and reckoned to be at least three thousand years 
old, this Hypogasum is of extraordinary interest ; 
nor did Her Majesty leave it until, under the 
guidance of Professor Zamit, she had explored 
every corner, and heard all that was to be told 
concerning it. Then in the afternoon the King 
and Queen motored out some nine miles to the 
Governor's summer residence at Verdala, return- 
ing in time to drink tea at the mess of the Royal 
Artillery and Engineers in another palace at 
Valetta. The people assembled in thousands 
to see them pass, and received them with an 
enthusiastic welcome; in fact it was not easy for 
the motors to make their way through the press 
in the villages. This unfortunately left the Queen 
little time for the pastime which she enjoys most 
keenly. The Museum at Malta contains very 
much that is of the greatest interest ; the Library 
possesses some beautiful illuminated manuscripts 
and some remarkably fine old bindings ; and the 
walls of the main guard are covered with 

253 



MOURNFUL NEWS 

Jan. 27- perhaps the most striking collection of military 
^9- caricatures, painted by generations of British 
officers, that is to be found in the Empire. Her 
Majesty contrived to see at least something of all 
three of these institutions, lamenting greatly that 
there was no time to go through them more 
thoroughly. Malta at large, in fact, offers a 
great field, both to historian and antiquarian ; and 
its old fortifications, apart from their stupendous 
magnitude and remarkable comeliness, contain 
the graves of more than one modern hero, the 
greatest of whom are Thomas Maitland, once 
famous as King Tom of the Ionian Islands, and 
gentle old Sir Ralph Abercromby. 

On the 27th the Medina sailed from Malta, 
and on the 28th ran into cold, rough, unpleasant 
weather. On the evening of the 29th the King 
received the sad news of the death of the Duke 
of Fife at Khartoum. Few had realised that, at 
the height of the festivities at Delhi, Their 
Majesties had been kept for some hours in 
anxious suspense as to the fate of the Princess 
Royal, the Duke, and the two Princesses their 
daughters, after the wreck of the steamer Delhi 
on the 13th of December. Not indeed until the 
morning of the 15th had the King at last 
received a reassuring telegram from the Princess 
Royal to say that, after passing through great 
peril, she and all of her family were safe. But 
it now appeared too evidently that shock and 
exposure had left a fatal mark upon the Duke 
of Fife ; and the mournful intelligence came 

254 



ARRIVAL AT GIBRALTAR 

with the greater bitterness to the King, inasmuch Jan. 30. 
as it was impossible for him to go to the Princess 
Royal, upon whom this sorrow had come when 
she was far away from home and from all relations 
and friends. At ten o'clock on the morning of 
the 30th the Medina went alongside the dockyard 
quay at Gibraltar, in dismally wet and windy 
weather. The Venerable, Captain Chapman, and 
Ctitnberland, Captain Boyle, were lying in 
harbour, the latter filled with naval cadets. 
The Governor, Sir Archibald Hunter, the 
captains of the two cruisers above mentioned. 
Sir Reginald Lister from Tangier, Sir Maurice 
de Bunsen from Madrid and other high officers 
presently came on board to wait upon the King ; 
but in consequence of the sad news of the 
previous day most of the arrangements had to be 
cancelled. At two o'clock in the afternoon the 
King received addresses from the inhabitants 
of Gibraltar, the Roman Catholic priests, the 
Jews and the Moorish mission, the last named 
to the number of eight or ten attending in 
their graceful white robes. They read their 
address in their native tongue, an interpreter 
being present to translate it and to render into 
Moorish His Majesty's reply. In the afternoon 
Their Majesties went ashore and inspected first 
the Colonial Hospital, and next the huge tanks 
recently made to store water for the fortress, 
afterwards drinking tea with the Governor and 
returning to the ship to dine quietly on board. 
Early on the morning of the 31st three 

255 



AN HISTORIC OCCASION 

Jan. 31. Spanish men-of-war were seen steaming over 
from Alge9iras, forming the escort of the Infante 
Don Carlos of Spain, who was come to bid the 
King welcome in the name of His Most Catholic 
Majesty. This was said, probably with truth, 
to be the first time since 1704 that a Spanish 
Prince and a Spanish man-of war had come to 
Gibraltar except with hostile intent ; and there 
was no want of salutes to do honour to the 
occasion. His Royal Highness presently came on 
board with his suite, attended further by the 
Admiral of the Spanish squadron and his staff. 
The King a little later returned the visit on board 
the Spanish flagship Cataluna^ whereupon the 
saluting was renewed ; and it may be said that 
first and last the guns were not silent until nearly 
three o'clock in the afternoon, when the Spanish 
squadron returned to Alge9iras. 

Meanwhile, after paying the return visit, the 
King went ashore with the Queen to the 
Alameda, which I suppose may be described as 
the Hyde Park of Gibraltar. His Majesty 
having promised to present new colours to 
the first battalion of the South Stafix^rdshire 
Regiment, better known, perhaps, as the old 
Thirty-eighth, the whole of the garrison was 
drawn up on this small space, the Thirty-eighth 
being formed up in line opposite to the saluting 
point, and the remainder massed on both flanks. 
The parade was an extremely pretty one, and 
the occasion was worthy of it ; for the Thirty- 
eighth, albeit a corps of which newspapers, and as 

256 



THE OLD THIRTY-EIGHTH 

a natural consequence the public, knows nothing, Jan. 31 
has one of the most remarkable records of service 
to be found in the Army. The regiment has been 
in existence two hundred and ten years, of which 
it has spent one hundred and sixty abroad, fifty- 
eight of them consecutively in the West Indies, 
and has missed very few campaigns during the 
last century and a half " North America, 
Central America, South America," said His 
Majesty in his address to them, " North Africa 
and South Africa, Northern Europe and Southern 
Europe, the plains of India and the mountains of 
India — nothing has come amiss to you ; and you 
have served in all these countries with honour." 
One could not help reflecting that if this 
regiment wore the kilt the whole British 
Empire would ring with its fame. However, it 
matters not. They can uphold their great name 
without the help of newspapers, these sturdy, 
solid, old English battalions of the Line. 

The ceremony of presentation over, the 
garrison marched past the King. Owing to the 
straitness of the space, the troops could not be 
passed from one end of the ground to the other 
without some extremely clever manoeuvring of 
the old-fashioned kind, which gave one some 
idea of what must have happened when 
Wellington formed his lines of battle. More- 
over, as they all started for the march down a 
considerable decline, they swung past with such 
a stride as I have rarely witnessed. There was 
a large crowd to see this parade, and the 

257 s 



DEPARTURE FROM GIBRALTAR 

Jan. 31. inhabitants did not fail to give the King an 
enthusiastic welcome ; but it was very hard 
upon all in Gibraltar that, after twice making 
every preparation for the reception and entertain- 
ment of Their Majesties, Fate should have 
interfered on both occasions at the last moment 
to disappoint them. In the afternoon Their 
Majesties drove round Gibraltar, and after visiting 
the Naval and Military Hospitals, drank tea 
with Admiral and Mrs. Pelham, who together 
with the Governor and Lady Hunter and Bishop 
Corfe were Their Majesties' guests at dinner in 
the evening. 

At six P.M. on the 31st of January the Medina 
steamed away from Gibraltar for Spithead. A 
melancholy reminder of the loss that had befallen 
the King came before us next morning as we 
sighted the masts and funnel of the ill-fated 
steamer Delhi \ but it was pleasant to hear the 
deep sympathy with which every naval officer, past 
and present, from the highest downwards, spoke 
of her most unlucky commander. At night we 
became aware that the southerly wind, under 
which we had started, had shifted to south- 
westward and was freshening rapidly. By the 
morning of the 2nd it was blowing a full gale, 
and in fact we were repeating our experience of 
the outward voyage in the Atlantic, only with 
the wind more or less abaft instead of straight 
ahead. We made good way, therefore, in spite 
of a heavy sea, though nearly every ship that 
we passed was comfortably lying to ; and the 

258 



A HOMEWARD GALE 

casualties from sea-sickness were considerably Feb. 1-3. 
fewer than in November. Nevertheless, it was so 
long since we had experienced any bad weather 
that few, if any of us, had taken any precautions 
against it. The result was that on the first night 
we were roused by a succession of crashes, and 
jumped out of bed to find the floors of our cabins 
a chaos of loose articles, which were rolling 
joyously to and fro. Fortunately we were all 
too much occupied in securing them, and in 
maintaining our equilibrium meanwhile, to 
listen to each other's language, which, I fancy, 
must have amused the sentries in the passages 
considerably. 

On the afternoon of the 3rd we entered the 
Channel, by which time the wind had shifted 
to the north-east, blowing bitterly cold with 
occasional savage snowstorms — by no means a 
pleasant thing for the Admiral in a water-way 
crowded with traffic. In the night these storms 
became so blinding that it was impossible to see 
a hundred yards ahead, and Sir Colin signalled 
the squadron to reduce speed from sixteen to 
eight knots. Wild whooping of the siren 
proclaimed this fact to us more fortunate mortals 
as we lay snug and warm in our beds ; but the 
Admiral and his officers on the bridge spent a 
very comfortless and anxious night. Fortunately 
the squalls diminished in severity, and before 
daylight the Medina and her escort were 
anchored at Spithead. 

On the morning of Sunday the 4th of 

259 



LAST DAY ON BOARD 

Feb. 4. February therefore, we woke to see, through 
falHng snow, the Home Fleet of battleships on 
one side, and the shore of England on the other. 
There was no mistaking the fact that we were 
at home and not in India, for it was freezing at 
sea, and there were eighteen degrees of frost 
ashore, with a bitter wind to make matters more 
pleasant. The Medina^ being intended for 
voyages in hot latitudes, was not well-equipped 
for such a visitation ; and after seeking in vain 
for some warm spot outside the engine-room, we 
were fain to huddle on greatcoats, and live 
generally as if we were making a cold journey 
by railway. As soon as Divine Service was over 
Their Majesties entered upon a task, which few 
excepting themselves would have thought of 
undertaking, that of giving to every soul in the 
ship with their own hands a memento of the 
voyage to India in the Medina ; the more 
highly privileged being summoned to the King's 
cabin, while the ship's company, marines and 
servants filed past the King and Queen in the 
saloon. Then came the last dinner, at which 
Lord Durham asked permission to propose in a 
few words the health of Their Majesties, and to 
offer them the congratulations of the suite upon 
the splendid success of their visit to India ; and 
the King with equal brevity but much feeling 
replied. There were few, I think, among the 
suite who did not regret the breaking up of a 
party in which it may truly be said that not an 
unpleasant word had passed from the beginning 

260 



THE RETURN TO LONDON 

to end of the journey. It still remained for Feb. 
us to take leave of our friends in the wardroom, 
to which we repaired as soon as Their Majesties 
had retired. Our stay there was protracted 
until late ; and the evening in such good com- 
pany was of the cheerfulest. 

Early next morning Queen Alexandra, the 
Prince of Wales and Princess Victoria, who had 
slept on the Royal yacht on the previous night, 
came on board ; and soon after ten the Royal train 
started in bitter cold for London. As it whirled 
past Arundel Castle the Duke of Norfolk with 
stately courtesy dipped his flag, which was flying 
on the tower — the last flag of many hundreds to 
salute the King on his progress to India and back. 
On arriving at Victoria the Ministers and other 
officials were present to receive Their Majesties. 

Their Majesties and the Prince of Wales then 
drove in procession to Buckingham Palace by 
way of Victoria Street, Whitehall and the Mall, 
followed by the suite in six carriages ; and, in 
spite of a savage north - east wind, large and 
enthusiastic crowds were assembled in the streets 
to welcome them. At the Palace the suite took 
leave of the King and Queen, assembling again 
for the last time on the morrow at St. Paul's 
Cathedral, whither Their Majesties drove in pro- 
cession to attend a special service of thanksgiving 
to God for His mercies vouchsafed to them. The 
noble chorale. Nun danket alle Gott, sung by the 
massed choirs and a vast congregation, brought to a 
worthy close theepisode of theKing's visit tolndia. 

261 



RESULTS OF THE VISIT 



XV 

Will the results of the visit be permanent and 
lasting for good ? That is a question which 
many have asked and are still asking. Beyond 
all doubt a great wave of emotion swept over 
India during the King's progress, and found vent 
in such outward manifestations of loyalty as aston- 
ished both Indians and Europeans. But has the 
wave spent its force in these demonstrations, or is 
it itself but the visible forerunner of a great tide, 
" too full for sound or foam," which will bear 
India steadily on her course of peace and content- 
ment ? If we are to believe the utterances, 
transparently genuine and sincere, of thoughtful 
Indian writers, the good effects of the King's 
visit will not be transient, but enduring. Of 
course we cannot look for all evil to vanish and 
for the golden age to return forthwith. We 
cannot expect all difficulties to be smoothed 
away, and future, or even present, mistakes to 
recur no more. Endeavour as we may, neither we 
nor the people of India can hope to escape from 
the decrees of Fate or from the consequences of 
our own faults. The task which men set them- 
selves, who strive to live together in peace, is 
beset by many and great dangers ; and by reason 
of our frailty we cannot always stand upright. 
We seem to have found our footing and to be 
walking cautiously indeed, but stably ; when 

262 



THE INDIAN PRINCES' MESSAGE 

some gust of passion, or prejudice, or intolerance, 
or it may be of sheer folly only, sweeps down upon 
us, and in a moment we are overthrown. How 
long and painful is the effort of recovery, and 
how deep the humiliation through which it is 
at last accomplished, is written large for those 
who will read in the pages of history. 

To occasional falls and failures, then, both 
English and Indian, being human, must look 
forward ; yet not without cheerfulness and good 
courage. Very full of hope and comfort is the 
message sent by the Princes and people of India 
to the Prime Minister upon the day of the King's 
return to England: — 

" The Princes and people of India desire to 
take the opportunity afforded by the conclusion 
of the Royal visit, to convey to the great English 
nation an expression of their cordial good-will 
and fellowship ; also an assurance of their warm 
attachment to the world-wide Empire of which 
they form a part, and with which their destinies 
are now indissolubly linked. Their Imperial 
Majesties' visit to India, so happily conceived 
and successfully completed, has produced a pro- 
found and ineffaceable impression throughout 
the country. 

" Their Imperial Majesties, by their gracious 
demeanour, their unfailing sympathy, and their 
deep solicitude for the welfare of all classes, have 
drawn closer the bonds that unite England and 
India, and have deepened and intensified the 
traditional feeling of loyalty and devotion to the 

263 



INDIAN OPINION 

Throne and person of the Sovereign, which has 
always characterised the Indian people. 

" Conscious of the many blessings which 
India has derived from the connection with 
England, the Princes and people rejoiced to 
tender in person their loyal and loving homage 
to their Imperial Majesties. They are confident 
that the great and historic event marks the 
beginning of a new era, ensuring greater happiness, 
prosperity and progress to the people of India 
under the aegis of the Crown." 

The British press, with few exceptions, failed 
altogether to appreciate the profound interest and 
significance of this message. Never before has 
any body of men attempted to speak with one 
voice on behalf of an united and one- minded 
India ; and never before has it been possible that 
such an attempt should be made. Yet here 
the one voice cries aloud, resonant, sincere and 
spontaneous, finding utterance for many peoples, 
nations and languages in the Imperial tongue. I 
say the Imperial and not the English tongue, 
because no Englishman was concerned with this 
message. It sprang straight from the hearts of 
the Indian Princes and peoples, and sped on its 
way untouched by any British pen, untaught by 
any British inspiration. 

And the language of the message has found 
both anticipation and echo among thoughtful 
contributors to the Indian periodical press. " We 
are on the threshold of a new era," says a writer 
in the Indian magazine East and West, " with the 

264 



HOPE FOR THE FUTURE 

King's message of hope still ringing in our ears ; 
and we shall strive for greater unity in our 
endeavours for the common good, and tread the 
path of progress w^ith a larger hope in our hearts 
and a firmer faith in our destiny." In other 
words, India is proud of her place in the British 
Empire ; and to prove herself worthy of it 
she will try to quench old internal animosities, 
and to co-operate heartily with England in 
working out her future. And England on 
her side, who has long worked honestly accord- 
ing to her lights for India, will try to work 
more and more with India. For a long time 
she must lead, and India will be content to 
allow her to lead, provided that she will also 
learn. What is needed in both parties is 
sympathy and patience. It is patience, as the 
great Marlborough said, " which conquers all 
things " — patience, not faith in education, nor in 
representative institutions, nor in heroic phrases, 
nor even in heroic measures. Englishmen are 
too fond of proclaiming that Parliamentary 
institutions have made them a great nation ; 
whereas it is really because they are a great 
nation, very peculiarly situated, that they have 
been able for two hundred years to make of 
Parliamentary institutions a comparatively success- 
ful form of government. When India, after long 
and patient search and many inevitable errors, 
has found for herself a path of true progress, 
which she can follow with faith and with hope, 
then she may, if she will, make trial of repre- 

265 



THE ROAD TO UNITY 

sentative institutions ; but let her not suppose 
that by snatching at them prematurely she will 
abridge that search or diminish the number of 
those errors. Rather let both England and India 
remember that though for countless centuries 
men have put forth their petty remedies for the 
evils of this vv^orld, there is one reform and one 
only that has ever availed them — the inw^ard and 
spiritual reform which bids every man seek first 
to abate the evil that is in himself. So shall we 
strive, not in vain, for greater unity in our 
endeavours for the common good. 



266 



APPENDIX A 

November 1 1, 191 2. 
THE ASSEMBLAGE AT VICTORIA. 

Prince and Princess Christian of Schlesvvig-Holstein, with Princess 
Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, Princess Louise (Duchess of Argyll) 
and the Duke of Argyll, Princess Beatrice (Princess Henry of Battenberg), 
with Prince Alexander, Prince Leopold, and Prince Maurice of Battenberg, 
the Duchess of Albany, the Grand Duke Michael Michailovitch of Russia, 
the Duchess of Teck, the Countess Feodora Gleichen, the Lady Valda 
Machell, and the Duke of Fife took leave of Their Majesties at Victoria 
Station. 

The following Members of the Government in the Cabinet were 
present : — 

The Rt. Hon. H. H. Asquith, M.P. (Prime Minister and First Lord 
of the Treasury) and Mrs. Asquith, the Viscount Morley of Blackburn 
(Lord President of the Council), the Earl Carrington (Lord Privy Seal) and 
the Countess Carrington, the Viscount Haldane (Secretary of State tor 
War), the Rt. Hon. R. McKenna, M.P. (Secretary of State for the Home 
Department) and Mrs. McKenna, and the Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Grey, 
Bt., M.P. (Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs). 

Members of the Corps Diplomatique : — 

Their Excellencies the German Ambassador (Count Paul Wolff- 
Metternich), the Russian Ambassador (Count Benckendorff), the Austro- 
Hungarian Ambassador (Count Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein), the 
United States Ambassador and Mrs. Whitelaw Reid, the Spanish 
Ambassador (Seiior Don Wenceslao de Villa Urrutia), the Turkish 
Ambassador (His Highness Tewfik Pasha), the Italian Ambassador and 
the Marchesa Imperiali, the Swiss Minister (Monsieur Gaston Carlin), the 
Belgian Minister and the Countess de Lalaing, the Swedish Minister and 
the Countess Wrangel, the Danish Minister (Monsieur Constantino 
Brun), the Uruguayan Minister (Seiior Don Federico R. Vidiella), the 
Colombian Minister and Madame Perez Triana, the Norwegian Minister 
and Madame Vogt, the Liberian Minister (Mr. J. P. Crommelin), the 
Argentine Minister and Madame de Dominguez, the Chilian Minister 
and Madame Edwards, the Siamese Minister (Phya Akharaj Vardthara), 

267 



APPENDIX A 

the Persian Minister (Mirza Mehdi Khan Mushir-ul-Mulk), the Mexican 
Minister (Seftor Don Miguel de Beistegui), the Portuguese Minister (Senhor 
M. Teixeira Gomes), the Haytian Minister-Resident and Madame Heraux, 
and the Peruvian Charge d'Affaires and Madame de Lembcke, the 
Bolivian Charge d'Affaires and Madame Saurez, the Servian Charge 
d'AfFaires and Madame Grouitch, the Netherlands Charge d'AfFaires and 
Madame van der Goes, the Japanese Charge d'AfFaires and Mrs. Yamaza, 
and the Roumanian Charge d'AfFaires (Prince Antoine Bibesco). 

There were also present : — 

The Archbishop oF Canterbury, the Marchioness oF Salisbury, the 
Marchioness oF Crewe, the Marquis de Several, the Viscount Esher, the 
Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal (High Commissioner For the Dominion 
oF Canada) and the Lady Strathcona and Mount Royal, the Rt. Hon. Sir 
George Reid (High Commissioner For the Commonwealth oF Australia), 
the Rt. Hon, Sir Thomas Crosby (Lord Mayor oF London) and the Lady 
Mayoress, Field-Marshal Sir W. G. Nicholson (ChieF oF the Imperial 
General StafF and First Military Member oF the Army Council), the Hon. 
Sir Richard Solomon (High Commissioner For the Union oF South AFrica), 
Lieut. -General Sir A. Paget (General Officer Commanding in ChieF, 
Eastern Command), the Hon. Sir William Hall- Jones (High Commissioner 
For the Dominion oF New Zealand), Major-General Sir A. E. Codrington 
(General Officer Commanding the London District), and Major Sir 
Frederick Wodehouse (Acting Commissioner oF Police). 

ARRIVAL AT PORTSMOUTH. 

Their Majesties were received on arrival at Portsmouth by — 
The Duke oF Wellington (Acting Lord Lieutenant oF the County oF 
Hampshire), the Rt. Hon. Winston Spencer-Churchill, M.P. (First Lord 
oF the Admiralty), Admiral oF the Fleet Sir Arthur K. Wilson (First 
Lord Commissioner oF the Admiralty), Admiral the Lord Charles BeresFord 
(M.P. For Portsmouth), the Mayor oF Portsmouth, and by Admiral Sir 
Arthur Moore (Commander-in-ChieF at Portsmouth), General Sir C. W. 
H. Douglas (General Officer Commanding in ChieF, Southern Command), 
Rear-Admiral A. G. Tate (Superintendent oF Portsmouth Dockyard), 
Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel, and Major-General W. E. Blewitt 
(General Officer Commanding Southern Coast DeFences), and the respective 
StafFs. 

THEIR MAJESTIES' LUNCHEON-PARTY. 

Their Majesties' luncheon party on board H.M.S. Medina included : — 
Queen Alexandra, the Queen oF Norway, the Prince oF Wales, the 
Princess Mary, the Princess Victoria, Prince Arthur oF Connaught, the 
Duke oF Teck, the Duke oF Devonshire, the Duke oF Wellington, the 
Hon. Lady Keppel, the Rt. Hon. Winston Spencer-Churchill, M.P., 
Mrs. Winston Spencer-Churchill, the Rt. Rev. Bishop CorFe, D.D., Sir 
Walter Lawrence, Bt., Admiral oF the Fleet Sir Arthur K. Wilson, 
Admiral the Lord Charles BeresFord, Sir Thomas Sutherland, Admiral Sir 
Arthur Moore, General Sir C. W. H. Douglas, Sir Richmond Ritchie, 

268 



APPENDIX A 

Rear-Admiral A. G. Tate, Major-General W. E. Blewitt, Lieut. -Colonel 
Sir Charles Frederick, the Hon. Charlotte Knollys, Colonel Sir Arthur 
Davidson, the Hon. John Ward and the Suite in attendance upon the 
King and Queen. 



November 1 5. 
GIBRALTAR. 

This morning Their Majesties received the Governor (General Sir A. 
Hunter), the Governor of Alge9iras, the Governor of Cadiz, the Captain of 
the Spanish cruiser Reina Regente, the Captain of the Portuguese cruiser 
Adamaster, Vice-Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, Vice-Admiral Commanding 
the Atlantic Fleet, and the Captains of the ships of the Atlantic Fleet, and 
Rear-Admiral Frederick Pelham, Admiral-Superintendent and in charge 
of all Naval Establishment at Gibraltar. 



November 20. 
PORT SAID. 

The following, with the Duke of Teck and the Ladies and Gentlemen 
in Attendance, had the honour of dining with Their Majesties : — Field- 
Marshal the Viscount Kitchener, Lieut.-General Sir F. Reginald Wingate, 
Major-General Sir John Maxwell, and Captain Michael Culme-Seymour, 
R.N., H.M.S. Argyll. 



November 21. 
PORT SAID. 

The King this morning received a visit from His Highness the 
Khedive and also from his Imperial Highness Prince Zia-ed-Din, who had 
been deputed by the Sultan to greet Their Majesties and to deliver to the 
King a letter from His Imperial Majesty. 

His Highness the Khedive was attended by His Excellency Said 
Zoulificar Pasha (Grand Master of Ceremonies) and His Excellency Lewa 
Ramzi Tahir Pasha, Chief A.D.C. 

His Imperial Highness Prince Zia-ed-Din was attended by His Excellency 
Djenani Bey, Grand Master of Ceremonies of His Imperial Majesty the 
Sultan, Colagarhi Ahmed Bey, A.D.C, and Murtaza Bey, Private Secretary. 

His Majesty then received a visit from His Highness Prince Mohamed 
Ali. 

After the Khedive's visit the following had the honour of being presented 
to the King by Field-Marshal the Viscount Kitchener : — His Highness 
Kiamel Pasha, ex-Grand Vizier ; His Excellency Mohateed Said Pasha, 
President of the Council of Ministers ; His Excellency Hussein Rushdi 
Pasha, Minister of Foreign Affairs ; Sir Paul Harvey, British Adviser for 

269 



APPENDIX A 

Finance ; Mr. Ronald Graham, British Adviser for Interior ; and the 
French Minister, Monsieur De France, who presented Monsieur Ribot 
(Secretary), Monsieur Charles Roux, Director of the Suez Canal ; and the 
three principal Officials of the Suez Canal, Count De Serionne (Agent 
Superieur), Monsieur Perier (Ingenieur en Chef), Monsieur Coullant 
(Chef du Transit). 

Field - Marshal the Viscount Kitchener also presented Mahomed 
Mahmud Bey, Governor of the Suez Canal ; and Mr. E. C. Blech, British 
Consul-General at Port Said. 

Later His Majesty visited His Highness the Khedive on board His 
Highness's yacht Mahroussa, attended by Field - Marshal the Viscount 
Kitchener, the Duke of Teck, the Marquis of Crewe, Commander Sir 
Charles Cust, Bt., R.N., and Captain B. Godfrey-Faussett, R.N. 

At the conclusion of the visit His Majesty landed and inspected the 
Guards of Honour of the ist Batt. Scots Guards, under the Command of 
Major Carpenter Garnier, and of the 3rd Batt. Egyptian Army, under the 
Command of Captain Ali Effendi Fahmi. 

The King and Queen gave a luncheon-party on board the Medina in 
honour of the Khedive and Prince Zia-ed-Din. Prince Mohamed Ali 
was present, and the following had the honour of being invited : — His 
Highness Kiamel Pasha, His Excellency Mohamed Said Pasha, His 
Excellency Djenani Bey, Monsieur De France, Field-Marshal the Viscount 
Kitchener, His Excellency Hussein Rushdi Pasha, Major-General Sir John 
Maxwell, Sir Paul Harvey, Lieut.-General Sir Reginald Wingate, Mr. 
Ronald Graham, His Excellency Said Zoulificar Pasha, His Excellency Lewa 
Ramzi Tahir Pasha, Mohamed Mahmud Bey, Monsieur Charles Roux, 
Mr. E. C. Blech, and Mr. R. H. Greg (Diplomatic Secretary to Field- 
Marshal the Viscount Kitchener). 

This evening Field-Marshal the Viscount Kitchener, Major-General Sir 
John Maxwell, Lieut.-General Sir R. Wingate, El Lewa Watson Pasha, 
Rear-Admiral Sir Douglas Gamble (H.M.S. Bacchante), Captain Tyrwhitt, 
R.N. (H.M.S. Bacchante), Captain Tothill, R.N. (H.M.S. Lancaster), and 
Captain Moubray, R.N. (H.M.S. Suffolk), were included in Their Majesties* 
dinner-party. 



December 2. 

BOMBAY. 

Walking Procession from the Landing Pavilion to the Dais. 

Staff of Governor of Bombay. 

Staff of Governor-General. 

King-Emperor's Indian Staff. 

The Hon. J. Fortescue. Sir R. H. Charles. Mr. F. H. Lucas. 

Capt. B. Godfrey-Faussett. Comr. Sir C. Cust. Hon. Sir D. Keppel. 
Sir J. Dunlop-Smith. Rear-Admiral Sir C. Keppel. 

Sir Edward Henry. Lieut. -Gen. Sir H. Smith-Dorrien. 

The Lord Stamfordham. The Lord-in-Waiting. 

270 



APPENDIX A 

The Lord Chamberlain to the The Lord Hig^h Steward. 

Queen-Empress. 

THE 2UEEN-EMPRESS. THE KING-EMPEROR. 

The Governor of Bombay. The Governor-General. 

The Duke of Teck. Mistress of the Robes. The Marquis of Crewe. 
The Hon. V. Baring. Lady Clarke. The Countess of 

Shaftesbury. 
The Military Secretary. Major-Gen. Sir S. Beatson. 

Major Clive Wigram. Major the Lord C. Fitzmaurice. 

The Procession through the Citv. 

First Carriage. 
THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — The Governor-General, The Marquis of Crewe. 

Third Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Duke of Teck, the 
Lord-in-Waiting, the Lord Chamberlain to the Queen. 

Fourth Carriage. — The Governor of Bombay, Lady Clarke, the Lord 
Stamfordham, Lieut.-General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien. 

Fifth Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Lord High Steward, Sir 
Edward Henry, Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. 

Sixth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, Lieut.-Colonel Sir James 
Dunlop-Smith, Commander Sir Charles Cust, the Hon. Sir Derek 
Keppel. 

Se'venth Carriage. — Captain B. Godfrey-Faussett, R.N., Sir Richard Have- 
lock Charles, Mr. F. H. Lucas, the Hon. John Fortescue. 

The following Equerries were in attendance on horseback : — Major- 
General Sir Stuart Beatson, Major the Lord Charles Fitzmaurice, Major 
Clive Wigram. 

The route of the procession was by Apollo Bandar Road, Esplanade 
Road, Hornby Road, Cruickshank Road, Kalbadevie Road, Pare! Road, 
Sandhurst Road to Sandhurst Bridge, Queen's Road, Church Gate Street, 
Mayo Road, and thence to the Apollo Bandar. The Escort was furnished 
by the Y Battery Royal Horse Artillery, 7th Dragoon Guards, 26th 
Cavalry, the Bombay Light Horse, and the Governor's Bodyguard. 

The King-Emperor and the Queen-Empress gave a dinner-party on 
board the Medina at night, to which the following had the honour of being 
invited : — The Governor-General, the Military Secretary to the Governor- 
General, the Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Forces in the East 
Indies and Lady Slade, the Hon. Mr. M. B. Chaubal, the Hon. Sir Narayen 
G. Chandavarkar and Lady Chandavarkar, the Hon. Mr. Justice D. D. 
Davar, the Hon. Mr. Justice J. J. Heaton and Mrs. Heaton, the Hon. Mr. 
Justice N. C. Macleod and Mrs. Macleod, the Hon. Sir Sassoon J. David, 
the Hon. Sir Vithaldas Thakersey, the Hon. Mr. C. H. Armstrong and 
Mrs. Armstrong, the Hon. Mr. W. H. Lucas, the General Officer Com- 
manding the 6th (Poona) Division and Mrs. Anderson, the Roman Catholic 

271 



APPENDIX A 

Archbishop, the Consul-General for Portugal, Mr. Ratan Tata and Mrs. 
Tata, and Colonel R. W. L. Dunlop and the Captains of H.M.S. Argyll, 
H.M.S. Cochrane, H.M.S. Natal, and H.M.S. Defence. 



December 3. 

BOMBAY. 

Their Majesties guests at dinner on board H.M.S. Medina included the 
following : — The Governor of Bombay and Lady Clarke, the Hon. Sir 
Basil Scott, the Lord Bishop of Bombay, the Hon. Mr. W. T. Morison, 
the Hon. Mr. R. A. Lamb and Mrs. Lamb, the Aga Khan, the Hon. Mr. 
Justice L. P. Russell and Mrs. Russell, the Hon. Mr. Justice S. L. Batchelor 
and Mrs. Batchelor, the General Officer Commanding the Bombay Brigade, 
the Hon. Sir Henry Procter, the Director Royal Indian Marine and Mrs. 
Lumsden, Sir Jamsetji Jeejeebhoy, Mr. C. A. Kincaid and Mrs. Kincaid, 
Mr. P. R. Cadell, Mr. Shapurji Burjorji Broacha. The Captain of H.M.S. 
Fox and the Captain of H.M.S. Highflyer had the honour of dining with 
the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress on board H.M.S. Medina this 
evening. Lady Jeejeebhoy had the honour of being invited, but was 
unavoidably prevented from obeying Their Imperial Majesties' commands. 



December 4. 

BOMBAY. 

A Guard of Honour of the 127th Baluchis was mounted at the Apollo 
Bandar. ^ 

Procession to the Children's Fete. 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE ^UEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, The Marquis of Crewe, the 
Lord Chamberlain to the Queen-Empress, the Lord-in-Waiting. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Duke of Teck, Lieut.- 
General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien, Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. 

Fourth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, the Lord High Steward, 
Lieut.-Colonel Sir J. Dunlop-Smith, Captain B. Godfrey- Faussett, R.N. 

An escort was furnished by the 7th Dragoon Guards and the 20th 
Cavalry. 

The route was by the Mayo Road and Esplanade Road. 

Guards of Honour of the Bombay Volunteer Rifles and Cadets for the 
same Corps were mounted at the entrance and within the arena. 



December 5. 
BOMBAY. 

This afternoon the King-Emperor and the Queen-Empress, attended by 
the members of their Household, visited the Caves of Elephanta. 

272 



APPENDIX A 

At 10 P.M. Their Imperial Majesties, attended by the Mistress of the 
Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, the Duke of Teck, the Lord High Steward, 
and Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel, left H.M.S. Medina. The remainder 
of the Suite, having previously landed at 2.25, were in attendance at the 
Apollo Bandar, where a Guard of Honour of the 104th Wellesley's Rifles 
was mounted. 

The King-Emperor and the Queen-Empress then drove to the Victoria 
Terminus Station, a procession being formed in the following order : — 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Secoiui Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, 
Brigadier-General R. E. Grimston and Commander Sir Charles Cust. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Duke of Teck, the 
Lord Chamberlain to the Queen-Empress, and Lord Stamfordham. 

Fourth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, the Lord High Steward, and 

Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. Major CHve Wigram (Equerry-in- 

Waiting), and Major L. O. Graeme and Captain B. S. Grissell (Extra 

Aides-de-Camp) were in attendance on horseback. 

An Escort was furnished by the 7th Dragoon Guards and the 26th 

Cavalry. 

On arrival at the station Their Imperial Majesties were received by the 
Governor of Bombay, Lady Clarke, the Chief Justice, the Bishop of 
Bombay, the Members of the Executive Council, the General Officer 
Commanding the Bombay Brigade with the Brigade Staff, the Inspector- 
General of Police, the Municipal Commissioner, the Commissioner of 
Police, the Executive Engineer to the Presidency, the Under-Secretary to 
the Government (Political Department), and the Deputy Inspector-General 
of Police (Southern Range). A Guard of Honour of the 96th Berar 
Infantry was mounted on the platform, and was inspected by His Imperial 
Majesty. 

At 10.45 ^•^- ^^^ Royal train left for Delhi. 



December 7. 

DELHI. 

Their Imperial Majesties alighted at Selimgarh Station at 10 a.m. 
Guard of Honour at the station : Royal Berkshire Regiment. Guard of 
Honour before the Reception-Tent : i6th Rajputs. 

The Royal Procession Mounted. 

Captain Raban. Captain H. Hill. 

Capt. L. F. Ashburner. Capt. R. E. T. Hogg. Major the Hon. 

W. G. S. Cadogan. 

Major H. R Stockley. Hon. Col. Hafiz Major E. D. Money. 
Muhammad Abdullah 
Khan. 

273 T 



Hon. Col. Sir 
Muhammad Aslam 

Khan. 
Col. H. E. Stanton. 

Br.-Gen. Birdwood. 

The Hon. Sir Derek 

Keppel. 
Sir Edward Henry. 

Sir Henry McMahon. 

H.H. The Maharaja 

of Bikaner. 



APPENDIX A 

Col. Viscount Hardinge. 



Col. F. Goodwin. 



Br.-Gen. H. D'U. 

Keary. 

Capt. B. G. Godfrey- 

Faussett. 

Br.-Gen. R. E. 

Grimston. 

Gen. Sir E. Barrow. 

The Lord-in-Waiting. 



Br.-Gen. C. J. Melliss. 

H.H. Prince George 

of Battenberg. 

Commander Sir C. 

Cust. 

Lt.-Gen. Sir H. Smith- 

Dorrien. 

Lord Stamfordham. 

H.H. The Maharaja 

of Gwalior. 



Bodyguard. 
Household Cavalry Orderlies. 

H.E. The Commander-in-Chief H.H. The Duke of Teck. 

Major C. Wigram. Major Lord C. Fitzmaurice. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. 

O.C. Escort. 
The Marquis of Crewe. H.E. The Governor-General. 

THE QUEEN-EMPRESS 
(in a carriage with the Duchess of Devonshire and the Earl of Durham). 

The O.C. Bodyguard riding on the right of the carriage ; Major- 
Gen. Sir Pratap Singh on the left. 
Lt.-Col. Watson, Major-Gen. Sir Stuart Beatson (on horseback). 

Second Carriage. — Lady Hardinge, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and A. D.C. -in- 
Waiting. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Hon. Venetia Baring, 
Mr. J. H. Du Boulay. 

Fourth Carriage. — Mr. F. H. Lucas, Sir James Dunlop-Smith, Rear- 
Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. 

Fifth Carriage. — Lieut.-Colonel Bird, the Hon. J. Fortescue, Sir R. Have- 
lock Charles. 

The route of the procession was by — 

Delhi Gate of the Fort. 
Khas Road. 

Round the Jumma Musjid. 
Esplanade Road. 
Chandni Chowk. 
Fattehpur Bazar. 
Queen's Road. 
DufFerin Bridge. 
Mori Gate. 
Boulevard Road. 
274 



APPENDIX A 

Rajpur Road. 

Chouburja Road. 

Through the pavilion on the ridge. 

A Guard of Honour of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, the Royal 
Fusiliers, and the 130th Baluchis, was mounted in front of the Royal Tents 
in the King-Emperor's Camp. 

In the afternoon the King-Emperor held a reception of the Ruling 
Chiefs in the Reception-Tent. Their Highnesses were conducted to the 
Audience Chamber, and were in turn received in audience by His 
Imperial Majesty. 

The following had the honour of being received : — The Nizam of 
Hyderabad, the Gaekwar of Baroda, the Maharaja of Mysore, the 
Maharana of Udaipur, the Maharaja of Jaipur, the Maharaja of Jodhpur, 
the Maharao Raja of Bundi, the Maharaja of Bikaner, the Maharao of 
Kota, the Maharaja of Kishengarh, the Maharaja of Bharatpur, the 
Maharawal of Jaisalmer, the Maharaja of Alwar, the Maharaj Rana of 
Dholpur, the Maharao of Sarohi, the Maharawal of Dungarpur, the 
Maharaja of Kollahpur, the Rao of Kutch, the Maharaja of Idar, the Mir 
of Khairpur. 

During the ceremony a Guard of Honour of the Royal Berkshire 
Regiment and the i6th Rajputs was mounted in front of the Reception- 
Tent. 



December 8. 

DELHI. 

This morning the King-Emperor held a reception of the Ruling Chiefs. 

Their Highnesses were conducted to the Audience Chamber, and were 
received in turn by His Imperial Majesty. 

The following had the honour of being received : — The Maharaja of 
Travancore, the Raja of Cochin, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, 
the Maharaja of Gwalior, the Maharaja of Indore, the Begum of Bhopal, 
the Maharaja of Rewa, the Maharaja of Orchha, the Raja of Dhar. the 
Raja of Dewas (senior branch), the Raja of Dewas (junior branch), the 
Maharaja of Patiala, the Nawab of Bahawalpur, the Raja of Nabha, the 
Maharaja of Bhutan, the Maharaja of Sikkim, the Khan of Kalat. 

A Guard of Honour of the King's Royal Rifle Corps and the King's 
Own Sappers and Miners was mounted in front of the Reception-Tent 
during the ceremony. 

Procession to the site of the King Edward Memorial. 

¥irU Carriage. 

THEIR IMPERIAL MAJESTIES. 

Second Carriage. — The Duchess of Devonshire, the Marquis of Crewe, 
the Lord Chamberlain to the Queen-Empress, the Lord-in-Waiting. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Duke of Teck, the 
Lord Stamfordham, Sir John Hewett. 

275 



APPENDIX A 

Fourth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, the Lord High Steward, Sir 
H. Smith-Dorrien, Sir Edward Henry. 

Fifth Carriage. — The Commander-in-Chief, General Sir Edward Barrow, 
Sir Stuart Beatson, Colonel J. Dunlop-Smith. 

An Escort was furnished by the loth (Prince of Wales's Own Royal) 
Hussars and the iith King Edward's Own Lancers. 

The route was by the Alipur Road, Kashmir Gate and Elgin Road, 
and was lined throughout by troops. 

Guards of Honour of the Royal Navy, Royal Marine Artillery, the 
Gordon Highlanders, and the 2nd Batt. 2nd King Edward's Own Gurkha 
RiBes, were mounted within the enclosure, and detachments of the follow- 
ing regiments (of which the late King-Emperor was Colonel-in-Chief) with 
standards and colours were grouped around the base of the memorial -. — 
loth Royal Hussars, Royal Regiment of Artillery, King's Own Royal 
Lancashire Regiment, Norfolk Regiment, Gordon Highlanders, 6th King 
Edward's Own Cavalry, iith King Edward's Own Lancers, 102nd King 
Edward's Own Grenadiers, 2nd King Edward's Own Gurkha Rifles, the 
33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry, the Queen's Own Corps of Guides, the 
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners, 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light 
Infantry. 

Procession to the Shamiana. 
Governor-General's Staff. 

Sir Hafiz Mohamed. Sir Aslam Khan. 

Major Wigram. Major the Lord C. Fitzmaurice. 

Capt. Godfrey-Faussett. Sir D. Keppel. Commander Sir C. Cust. 

Sir J. Dunlop-Smith. Gen. Sir Edmund Sir H. Smith-Dorrien. 

Barrow. 
Sir Edward Henry. The Lord-in-Waiting. 

Sir J. Hewett. The Lord Stamfordham. 

The Lord Chamberlain The Lord High 

to the Queen-Empress. Steward. 

THE QUEEN-EMPRESS, THE KING-EMPEROR. 

The Marquis of Crewe. The Governor-General. 

The Duchess of Devonshire. The Duke of Teck. 

The Hon. Venetia Baring. The Countess of Shaftesbury. 

Hon. Col. H.H. the H.H. the Maharana H.H. the Maharaja 

Maharaja Sir Pratap of Udaipur. Scindia of Gwalior. 

Singh. 
H.H. the Maharaja of Bikaner. Hon. Col. H.H. the Nawab of 

Rampur. 
Brigadier-General R. E. Grimston. H.E. the Commander-in-Chief. 

On returning to the Camp His Imperial Majesty inspected the Guards 
of Honour of the King's Royal Rifle Corps and King George's Own 
Sappers and Miners, which were mounted in front of the Royal Tents. 

Their Majesties' Dinner-Party. 

The Governor-General and Lady Hardinge, Sir Arthur Lawley and 
Lady Lawley, the Earl and Countess of Sefton, Lord Alington, the Jam 

276 



APPENDIX A 

Saheb of Nawanagar, the Raja Saheb of Dhrangadra, the Raja of Rajpipla, 
the Nawab of Radhanpur, the Thakur Saheb and Thakurani of Gondal, 
the Nawab of Jangira, Sir Mohamed Ali Muhammed Khan of 
Mahmudabad, the Hon. Mr. M. Mazarul Haque, the Hon. Maung Bah 
Too and Mrs. Bah Too, the Hon. Mr. M. B. Dadabhoy and Mrs. 
Dadabhoy, the Hon. Mr. G. M. Chitnavis, the Hon. Sir Vithaldas 
Damodar Thackersey, the Hon. Mr. G. K. Gokhale, the Hon. Mr. 
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the Hon. Nawab Abdul Majid, the Hon. Mr. F. 
C. Gates and Mrs. Gates, the Hon. Mr. F. A. ff. Phillips and Mrs. Phillips, 
the Hon. Sir Sassoon David, the Hon. Sir Trevredyn Wynne, the Hon. Mr. 
J. S. Meston and Mrs. Meston, the Hon. Mr. J. B. Brunyate and Mrs. 
Brunyate, the Hon. Mr. C. Stewart-Wilson and Mrs. Stewart-Wilson, the 
Hon. Rao Bahadur R. N. Mudholkar, the Hon. Mr. B. Robertson and Mrs. 
Robertson, the Hon. Mr. L. C. Porter, the Hon. Major-General M. H. S. 
Grover and Mrs. Grover, the Hon. Mr. C. H. Armstrong and Mrs. 
Armsti'ong, the Hon. Mr. Ghulam Muhammad Khan, walad Khan 
Bahadur Wall Muhammad Bhurgri, the Hon. Mr. W. H. Vincent and 
Mrs. Vincent, the Right Rev. Eyre Chatterton, D.D. (Bishop of Nagpur), 
and Mrs. Chatterton, the Right Rev. R. S. Fyffe (Bishop of Rangoon), 
the Right Rev. G. H. Wescott (Bishop of Lucknow), Mr. W. H. Wood 
and Mfrs. Wood, Mr. S. Finney, CLE., and Mrs. Finney, Mr. G. W. 
Shaw, the Hon. Mr. Justice H. S. HartnoU and Mrs. HartnoU, the Hon. 
Mr. Justice E. W. Ormond and Mrs. Ormond, Mr. W. W. Drew and 
Mrs. Drew, Sir John Benton and Lady Benton, Surgeon-General F. W. 
Trevor and Mrs. Trevor, Major-General B. T. Mahon, Major-General Sir 
A. A. Barrett and Lady Barrett, Mr. Claude Hill and Mrs. Hill, the 
Hon. Mr. D. C. Baillie, the Hon. Mr. G. A. Tweedy, Colonel P. Z. Cox 
and Mrs. Cox, the Raj of Chhota Udaipur, the Raja of Baria, the Raja 
Saheb of Wankaner, the Nawab of Cochin, the Thakur Saheb of Limbri, 
the Thakur Saheb of Rajkot, Brigadier-General W. E. Peyton, D.S.O., 
and Mrs. Peyton, Brigadier-General H. V. Cox and Mrs. Cox, Lieut. - 
Colonel F. A. Maxwell and Mrs. Maxwell, the Aides-de-Camp-in-Waiting 
to His Excellency the Governor-General, the ladies and gentlemen of 
Their Imperial Majesties' Household in attendance — the Duke of Teck, 
the Marquis of Crewe, the Lord High Steward, the Mistress of the Robes, 
the Earl of Shaftesbury, the Countess of Shaftesbury, the Lord-in-Waiting, 
Lord Stamfordham, the Hon. Venetia Baring, Lieutenant-General Sir H. L. 
Smith-Dorrien, Sir E. R. Henry, Prince George of Battenberg, the Hon. 
J. W. Fortescue, Commander Sir Charles Cust, and Rear -Admiral Sir 
Colin Keppel (Ecjuerries-in-Waiting). 



December 9. 
DELHI. 

The King-Emperor this morning held a further reception of the Ruling 
Chiefs, when the following had the honour of being received in turn by 
His Imperial Majesty in the Audience Chamber : — 

Bombay Chiefs. — The Nawab of Palanpur, the Jam of Navanagar, the 
Maharaja of Bhavanagar, the Raj Saheb of Dhrangadra, the Raja of 

277 



APPENDIX A 

Rajpipla, the Nawab of Cambey, the Nawab of Radhanpur, the Thakur 
Saheb of Gondal, the Nawab of Janpira, the Sultan of Lahej, the Sultan 
of Sherer and Mokalla, the Fadhli Sultan, the Raja of Dharampur, the 
Raja of Bansda, the Raja of Chhota Udepur, the Maharawal of Bariya, 
the Nawab of Sachin, the Rao Saheb of Wankaner, the Thakur Saheb 
of Palitana, the Thakur Saheb of Limbdi (Limri), the Thakur Saheb of 
Rajkot, the Chief of Bhor, the Chief of Mudhol. 

Rajputana. — The Maharaja Rana of Jhalawar. 

Central India. — The Maharaja of Samthar, the Nawab of Jaora, the 
Raja of Rutlam, the Maharaja of Panna, the Maharaja of Charkhari, the 
Maharaja of Bijawar, the Maharaja of Chhatarpur, the Raja of Sitamau, 
the Raja of Sailana, the Raja of Rajgarh, the Raja of Narsinghgarh, the 
Rana of Barwani, the Raja of Alirajpur. 

Bengal. — The Maharaja of Cooch Behar, the Raja of Karond. 

United Provinces. — The Nawab of Rampur, the Maharaja of Benares, 
the Raja of Tehr (Garhwal). 

Panjab. — The Raja of Jhind, the Raja of Kapurthala, the Raja of 
Mandi, the Raja of Sirmur (Nahan), the Raja of Bilaspur (Kohlra), the 
Nawab of Kotla, the Raja of Faridkot, the Raja of Chamba, the Raja of 
Suket, the Nawab of Loharu. 

Madras. — -The Raja of Pudukota. 

Eastern Bengal and Assam. — The Raja of Hill Tippera, the Raja of 
Manipur. 

Burma. — The Sawbwa of Kengtung, the Sawbwa of Yanghur, the 
Sawbwa of Hsipaw. 

Baluchistan. — The Jam of Las Bela. 

After the reception the King-Emperor inspected the Guards of Honour 
of the I St Batt. Northumberland Fusiliers and the istBatt. King George's 
Own Gurkha Rifles, which were mounted in front of the Reception- 
Tent. 

Procession to the Polo-Ground. 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — The Duke of Teck, the Duchess of Devonshire, 
Captain G. Godfrey-Faussett. 

Third Carriage. — The Marquis of Crewe, the Lord High Steward, Major 
the Lord C. Fitzmaurice. 

The Escort was furnished by the 13th Hussars and 3rd Skinner's 
Horse. 



December 10. 

DELHL 

Procession to the Church Parade Ground. 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

278 



APPENDIX A 

SeconJ Carriage. — The Duchess of Devonshire, the Lord High Steward, 
the Marquis of Crewe, and Lord Shaftesbury. 

Third Carriage. — The Duke of Teck, the Countess of Shaftesbury, the 

Lord-in-Waiting, and Lord Stamfordham. 
Major Lord C. Fitzmaurice and Major Clive Wigram were in attendance 

on horseback. 

The Escort was furnished by the 6th Inniskilling Dragoons and the gtli 
Hodson's Horse. The route of the procession, which was by the Kings- 
way and the Military Road, was lined throughout by British and Indian 
Infantry and the Imperial Service Troops. 

The return route was by the Military Road, Parade Road, and Prince's 
Road. 



December 1 1 . 
DELHI. 

Mounted Procession to Parade Ground for Presentation 
OF Colours. 

First Division of Escort. 

Orderly. Orderly. 

Orderly with Royal Standard. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. 

The Duke of Teck. The Gov. -General. 

Major C. Wigram. Sir Charles Fitzmaurice. 

The Maharaja of The Nawab of Maj.-Gen. The Maharaja of 

Bikaner. Rampur. Sir Pratap Singh. Gwalior. 

Gen. Sir E. Barrow. Lord Annaly. The Commander-in- 

Chief 
Maj.-Gen. Sir S. Beatson. Lt.-Gen. Sir H. Smith- Lord Stamfordham. 

Dorrien. 

Colonel Maxwell. Br.-Gen. Grimston. 

Royal Groom. Royal Groom. 

THE ^UEEN-EMPRESS 

(in a carriage with the Mistress of the Robes and the Lord High 
Steward). 

Captain Hill. Lt.-Colonel Watson. 

LADY HARDINGE 
(in a carriage with the Marquis of Crewe and Capt. P. Burn). 

Second Division of Escort. 

The Escort was furnished by the 13th Hussars and 36th Jacob's Horse. 

Guards of Honour at the King-Emperor's Camp were furnished by the 
2nd Batt. King's Royal Rifle Corps and 2nd Batt. King Edward's Own 
Gurkha Rifles. 

279 



APPENDIX A 

December i 2. 

DELHI. 

Programme of the Ceremonies to be observed on the Occasion 
OF the Coronation Durbar, December 12, 191 1. 

The Members of the Household, including the Minister in Attendance, 
will leave the King-Emperor's Camp at 10.45 A-*^- ^"^ ^i^^ proceed by the 
Kingsway to the Durbar Amphitheatre, where they will be conducted to 
their places. 

2. Their Excellencies the Governor-General and Lady Hardinge will 
leave the King-Emperor's Camp at 11. 10 a.m. with an escort of one 
regiment of British Cavalry and one regiment of Indian Cavalry. 

On approaching the Amphitheatre, their carriage will pass to the right 
along the front of the Spectators' Mound, turn down the Centre Road 
and proceed to the left by the Circular Road to the Durbar Shamiana, 
where they will be received by the Governor-General's Staff and conducted 
to their seats. 

On arrival in the Amphitheatre they will be received with salutes by the 
troops massed in the arena and by the Guards of Honour. All present will 
rise and remain standing until Their Excellencies have alighted and taken 
their seats. 

3. Their Imperial Majesties the King-Emperor and Queen- 
Empress will drive from the Camp at 11.30 a.m. attended by two 
equerries-in-waiting on horseback and with an escort of one regiment of 
British Cavalry (loth Hussars), a Battery of Royal Horse Artillery, the 
Bodyguard, the Imperial Cadet Corps, and one regiment of Indian 
Cavalry (i8th Lancers). 

The cortege will proceed to the Durbar Shamiana by the route 
described above. 

The Imperial Cadet Corps and the Bodyguard will remain in the pro- 
cession throughout, but the remainder of the escort will leave the proces- 
sion as it is about to enter the Circular Road to pass in front of the 
Amphitheatre and will form up outside the arena. 

4. As Their Imperial Majesties enter the Amphitheatre a salute ^ 
of loi guns will be fired, and when they reach the Durbar Shamiana the 
Royal Standard will be hoisted, a Royal Salute will be given by the 
Guards of Honour and all the troops present, and the Massed Bands will 
play the National Anthem. 

Their Imperial Majesties will be received by His Excellency the 
Governor-General as they alight from their carriage, and conducted to 
their Thrones. 

All present will rise as Their Imperial Majesties enter the arena 
and will remain standing until they have taken their seats. 

^ The salute will be timed so as to terminate as Their Imperial Majesties enter 
the Durbar Shamiana. 

280 



APPENDIX A 



5. On the conclusion of the salute the Master of the Ceremonies will 
obtain the King-Empkkor's command to open the Durbar. 

The opening of the Durbar will be signalised by a flourish of trumpets 
and roll of drums from the Massed Bands in the arena. 

The King-Emperor has announced his gracious intention of then 
addressing the assemblage. 

6. After this, the Governor-General, the High Oflicials and the Ruling 
Chiefs will do Homage in the following order : — 

(i) His Excellency the Governor-General. 

(2) His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief and the Ordinary 
Members of the Governor-General's Executive Council. 

(3) The Ruling Chiefs in political relations with the Government ot 
India, and the Agents to the Governor-General and Residents,^ in the 
following territorial order, i.e. — 

Hyderabad. 

Baroda. 

Mysore. 

Kashmir. 

Rajputana. 

Central India. 

Baluchistan. 

Sikkim and Bhutan. 

4) The Chief Justice and Puisne Judges of the High Court, Bengal. 

5) The Governor-General's Legislative Council. 

6) His Excellency the Governor of Madras. 

7) The Governor's Executive Council. 
Ruling Chiefs in political relations with the Government of Madras. 
Provincial Representatives of Madras. 
His Excellency the Governor of Bombay. 
The Governor's Executive Council. 
Ruling Chiefs in political relations with the Government of Bombay. 

3) Provincial Representatives of Bombay. 

4) His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. 

5) The Lieutenant-Governor's Executive Council. 

6) Ruling Chiefs of Bengal. 

7) Provincial Representatives of Bengal. 

8) His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of the United Provinces. 

9) Ruling Chiefs of the United Provinces. 
20) Provincial Representatives of the United Provinces. 

His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab. 
Ruling Chiefs of the Panjab. 
Provincial Representatives of the Panjab. 
24) His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Burma. 
Ruling Chiefs of Burma. 

26) Provincial Representatives of Burma. 

27) His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
Ruling Chiefs of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 



^ The Agents to the Governor-General and Resiiients will each precede their 
Chiefs and remain until the last of these has done Homage. 

281 



APPENDIX A 

(29) Provincial Representatives of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

(30) The Hon. the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces. 

(31) Representatives of the Central Provinces. 

(32) Representatives of Baluchistan. 

(33) The Hon. the Chief Commissioner of the North-West Frontier 
Province. 

(34) Representatives of the North-West Frontier Province. 

7. At the conclusion of the ceremony, the King-Emperor and Queen- 
Empress will move in procession from the Durbar Shamiana to the 
Royal Pavilion. 

They will advance hand-in-hand, their robes being held by Pages and 
the golden umbrellas held over their heads. 

Then will follow Their Excellencies the Governor-General and Lady 
Hardinge, the Minister in Attendance, His Highness the Duke of Teck, 
the Duchess of Devonshire, and at a suitable interval the remainder of the 
suite in attendance. 

All will rise as the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress leave the 
Thrones in the Durbar Shamiana and will remain standing until Their 
Imperial Majesties are seated in the Royal Pavilion. 

Their Excellencies the Governor-General and Lady Hardinge, the 
Minister in Attendance and His Highness the Duke of Teck with the 
Duchess of Devonshire, the Countess of Shaftesbury and the Hon. 
Venetia Baring will stand on the second tier of the Royal Pavilion ; His 
Excellency and Lady Hardinge on the right and the others above named 
on the left of the Thrones, round which the Pages will be grouped. 

The Staffs will stand on the next lower platform. 

8. The Bands within the arena will then sound a summons to the 
Heralds. 

The Heralds with the Trumpeters, who will be posted outside, will 
reply with a flourish of trumpets and will ride up to the Amphitheatre. 
They will halt at the entrance to the Centre Road beyond the Spec- 
tators' Mound and sound another flourish of trumpets. They will then 
ride to the front of the Royal Pavilion, form up and sound a third flourish. 

The Herald will then be commanded to read in English the Royal 
Proclamation announcing the Solemnity of His Imperial Majesty's 
Coronation in London on the 22nd June 191 1, after which it will be read 
in Urdu by the Assistant Herald. 

When the Proclamation has thus been read, the Trumpeters will sound 
another flourish. 

As this flourish concludes, the Massed Bands will play the National 
Anthem, and the Guards of Honour and troops massed in the arena will 
present arms. All the spectators will rise from their seats and remain 
standing while the National Anthem is being played. On its completion 
a salute of loi guns by salvos of batteries will be fired, and the troops 
outside the arena will fire ^.feu dejoie. 

9. When the Royal Salute has been fired, the Herald and Trumpeters 
will sound a prolonged flourish, after which His Excellency the Governor- 
General will make such announcement as His Imperial Majesty may 
command. 

282 



APPENDIX A 

Tlie Herald and Trumpeters will then sound another flourish, and the 
Herald, raising his helmet, will call for three cheers first for the King- 
Emperor and then for the Queen-Empress, which will be joined m by 
all the spectators and the troops inside the Amphitheatre. As soon as 
these cheers have subsided, the General Officer Commanding the Troops 
outside the arena will similarly call for cheers from them. 

10. Their Imperial Majesties will then return to the Durbar 
Shamiana in procession i as before, and, when they are again seated, the 
Trumpeters will sound another flourish, after which the Herald and 
Trumpeters will retire from the arena. 

The Master of the Ceremonies will next request the King-Emperor s 
permission to close the Durbar, whereupon the Massed Bands will play the 
National Anthem, which will be sung by the whole assembly. 

11. Their Imperial Majesties will then depart in the same manner 
and with the same ceremonies as when they came. All present will 
remain standing until they have left the arena. 

The procession will pass to the Centre Road by the Circular Road on 
the opposite side of the Durbar Shamiana to that by which it arrived and 
when it reaches the end of the Centre Road, will turn to the left and 
proceed below the Spectators" Mound to the Prince's Road and thence by 
that route to the King-Emperor's Camp. 

The first gun of the salute will be fired as the procession leaves the 
arena by the Prince's Road. . 

After the departure of the Royal cortege. Their Excellencies the 
Governor-General and Lady Hardinge will leave the Durbar in the same 
way and with the same honours as on their arrival, the spectators rising as 
they enter their carriage. . , „ , ^^ i u -n 

After the Governor-General, the members of the Royal Household will 

depart. , . 

High Officials and Ruling Chiefs will then be conducted to their 



carriages. 



irriageb. -i i u u 

All others are requested to remain in their places until the above have 
left, and they will then leave in the same manner as on arrival. 

Full dress 2 will be worn. Gentlemen not entitled to wear uniform 
will appear in Court or Morning Dress. 

Collar Day. ^ ,t .* ivt 

A. H. McMahon. 

Durbar Procession from the Shamiana to the Pavilion. 

Lord Chamberlain to the Lord High Steward. 

Queen-Empress. 

THE 2UEEN-EMPRESS. THE KING-EMPEROR. 

Pages.— The Thakur Saheb Pages. — The Maharaja of 

of Palitana, Rajkumar Ram- Bharatpur, Maharaja Kumar 

Chandra Singh of Sailana, Himmat Singh of Idar, Ver 



1 The Massed Bands will play a March during the procession. 

2 With trousers and not knee-breeches. 

283 



APPENDIX A 



Maharaja KunwarGulab Singh 
of Rewa, Maharaja Mandhata 
Singh of Sailana. 



Singh (grandson of the Maha- 
raja of Orchha), the Maharaja 
of Jodhpur, Maharaja Kunwar 
Sadul Singh of Bikaner, Sahib- 
zada Muhammad Wahid-uz- 
Zafar Khan of Bhopal. 



Lady Hardinge. 
The Duke of Teck. 

The Hon. Venetia 

Baring. 

Sir Pratap Singh. 

The Maharaja of Bikaner. 

Sir John Hewett. 

Sir Edward Henry. 



Attendants. 

The Duchess of 
Devonshire. 



The Governor-General. 
The Marquis of Crewe. 



Maharana of Udaipur. 

The Lord Annaly. 
Sir H. McMahon. 



Lt.-Col. 
Sir J. Dunlop-Smith. 

Major 

Lord C. Fitzmaurice. 

Lt.-Col. 

H. D. Watson. 

Col. Lord Harris. 

Br.-Gen. Mercer. 

Major Stockley. 



Sir C. Keppel. 



The Countess of 

Shaftesbury'. 

Maharaja of Gwalior. 

The Nawab of Rampur. 

The Lord Stamfordham. 

Lt.-Gen. Sir H. 

Smith-Dorrien. 

Sir Stuart Beatson. Br.-Gen. Grimston. 



Hon. 

Sir D. Keppel. 

H.H. Prince 

George of 

Battenberg. 

Br.-Gen. 

H. D'U. Keary. 

Col. Goodwin. 

Hon. Col. 
Nawab Sir Hafiz 

Mohamad 

Abdullah Khan. 

Hon. J. Fortescue. 

Capt. Ashburner. 



Commander 

Sir C. Cust. 

Major Wigram. 



Capt. B. G. 
Godfrey-Faussett. 
Sir R. H. Charles. 



Br.-Gen. 

Birdwood. 

Col. Viscount 

Hardinge. 

Hon. Col. 

Nawab Sir Mohamad 

Aslam Khan. 



Br.-Gen. 
C. J. Melliss. 
Col. Stanton. 

Major Money. 



Lt.-Col. Bird. Hon. J. Fortescue. Mr. Lucas. Captain Hogg. 

Captain Raban. Capt. Ashburner. Major Cadogan. Captain Hill. 

Governor-General's Staff (8). 

Gentlemen-at-Arms. 

Royal Archer. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress gave a State banquet this 
evening, to which the following had the honour of being invited : — The 
Governor-General of India and the Lady Hardinge of Penshurst, the 
Governor of Bombay and Lady Clarke, the Governor of Madras and Lady 
Carmichael, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab and Lady Dane, the 
Governor of Ceylon and Lady McCallum, the Governor of the Straits 
Settlements and Lady Young. 

The Nizam of Hyderabad, the Gaekwar of Baroda, the Maharaja of 
Kolhapur, the Commander-in-Chief in India and Lady Creagh, Sir John 
Hewett (President Coronation Durbar Committee) and Lady Hewett, the 

284 



APPENDIX A 

Lieutenant-Governor of Burma and Lady Adamson, the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Eastern Bengal and Assam and Lady Bayley, the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the United Provinces, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal and 
Mrs. Duke, the Chief Justice of Bengal and Lady Jenkins, Sir Guy Fleet- 
wood Wilson (Ordinary Member of the Council of His Excellency the 
Governor-General), Mr. J. L. Jenkins (Ordinary Member of the Council 
of the Governor-General) and Mrs. Jenkins. 

Mr. R. W. Carlyle (Ordinary Member of the Council of the Governor- 
General) and Mrs. Carlyle, Mr. S. H. Butler (Ordinary Member of the 
Council of the Governor-General) and Mrs. Butler, Mr. Syed AH Imam 
(Ordinary Member of the Council of the Governor-General), Mr. W. H. 
Clark (Ordinary Member of the Council of the Governor-General) and 
Mrs. Clark, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Simla. 

The Earl and the Countess of Mar and Kellie, Lord Charles Montagu, 
Admiral the Hon. Sir H. and Lady Meux, Major-General the Maharaja of 
Gwalior (Hon. A.D.C. to the King-Emperor), the Maharaja of Indore, 
Major-General the Maharaja Sir Pratap Singh Bahadur, Regent of Jodhpur 
(Hon. A.D.C. to the King-Emperor), Colonel the Maharaja of Bikaner 
(Hon. A.D.C. to the King-Emperor), the Maharaja of Patiala, the Maha- 
raja of Bhutan, the Raja of Behar, the Raja of Dewas (senior branch), the 
Raja of Dewas (junior branch), the Maharaja of Keshangarh, the Maha- 
raja of Alwar, the Maharaja of Sikkim, the Maharaja Rana of Dholpur, 
the Maharawal of Dungarpur, the Maharaja of Idar, Colonel the Nawab 
of Rampur (Hon. A.D.C. to the King-Emperor), the Nawab of Jaora, the 
Raja of Hill Tippera, the Aga Khan. 

The Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Naval Forces in the East 
Indies and Lady Slade, Lieut. -Colonel Sir Henry McMahon (Master of 
Ceremonies) and Lady McMahon, Sir Charles Arnold White (Chief 
Justice of the High Court of Judicature at Madras) and Lady White, Sir 
Basil Scott (Chief Justice of the High Court of Judicature at Bombay), 
Mr. H. G. Richards (Chief Justice of the High Court of Judicature for the 
North-Western Provinces) and Mrs. Richards, the Bishop of Madras and 
Mrs. Whitehead, the Bishop of Bombay, Sir Murray Hammick (Ordinary 
Member of Council, Madras) and Lady Hammick, Mr. M. B. Chaubal 
(Ordinary Member of Council, Bombay), Mr. W. T. Morison (Ordinary 
Member of Council, Bombay), Mr. R. A. Lamb (Ordinary Member of 
Council, Bombay) and Mrs. Lamb. 

Mr. Krishnaswami Aiyer (Ordinary Member of Council, Madras), the 
General Officer Commanding the Southern Army and Lady Barrow, the 
Chief of the General Staff and the Hon. Lady Haig, the General Officer 
Commanding the Northern Army and Lady Willcocks, the Agent to the 
Governor-General in Rajputana and Mrs. Colvin, the Resident in Kashmir 
and Mrs. Eraser, the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces and 
Mrs. Craddock, the Chief Commissioner of the North-West Frontier 
Provinces, the Resident in Mysore and Mrs. Daly, Mr. F. A. Slacke 
(Member of the Executive Council of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal) 
and Mrs. Slacke, Rai Kisori Lall Goswami Bahadur (Member of the 
Executive Council of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal), the 
Agent to the Governor -General of Baluchistan and Mrs. Ramsay, the 
Agent to the Governor-General in Central India and Mrs. O'Dwyer, the 

285 



APPENDIX A 

Resident in Hyderabad and Mrs. Pinhey, Mr. R. F. Greer (Member of the 
Executive Council of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal) and Mrs. Greer. 

Justice Sir G. H. Knox (Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature 
for the North -Western Provinces) and Lady Knox, Mr. Justice P. C. 
Banerjee (Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature for the North- 
Western Provinces), Justice Sir Ralph Benson (Puisne Judge of the High 
Court of Judicature at Madras) and Lady Benson, Justice Sir Richard 
Harington, Bart. (Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature at Fort 
William, in Bengal) and Mrs. Harington, Mr. Justice C. N. W. Brett 
(Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature at Fort William, in Bengal) 
and Mrs. Brett, Mr. Justice H. L. Stephen (Puisne Judge of the High 
Court of Judicature at Fort William, in Bengal) and Mrs. Stephen, Mr. 
Justice J. E. P. Wallis (Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature at 
Madras) and Mrs. Wallis, Mr. Justice C. Sankaran Nair (Puisne Judge of 
the High Court of Judicature at Madras) and Mrs. Sankaran Nair, Mr. 
Justice H. D. Griffin (Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature for 
the North-Western Provinces) and Mrs. Griffin, Mr. Justice Abdur Rahim 
(Puisne Judge of the High Court of Judicature at Madras), Sir Charles 
Fox (Chief Justice of the Chief Court of Burma) and Lady Fox, Sir 
Arthur Reid (Chief Judge of the Chief Court, Panjab) and Lady Reid, the 
Lieutenant-General Commanding the ist (Peshawar) Division and Lady 
Nixon, Lieut.-General Sir A. R. Martin (commanding the 2nd (Rawalpindi) 
Division), the Lieutenant-General Commanding the 7th (Meerut) Division 
and Lady Lake, the Lieutenant-General Commanding the 3rd (Lahore) 
Division and Lady Pearson, Lieut.-General Sir J. B. Moon (commanding 
the 9th (Secunderabad) Division), the Lieutenant-General Commanding the 
4th (Quetta) Division and Mrs. Sclater, the Bishop of Lahore, Mr. J. B. 
Wood (additional Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign 
Department) and Mrs. Wood, Brigadier-General R. E. Grimston (Military 
Secretary to the King-Emperor), Mr. H. V. Cobb (Resident at Baroda), 
Major F. W. Wodehouse (Political Agent, Kolhapur), Mr. C. A. Bell 
(Political Officer, Sikkim), the Private Secretary to the Governor-General 
and Mrs. Du Boulay, Captain the Hon. E. Hardinge (Aide-de-Camp-in- 
Waiting to the Governor-General). 

Ladies and gentlemen of the Household in attendance : — The Duke of 
Teck (Silver Stick and personal A.D.C. to the King- Emperor), the 
Marquis of Crewe (Minister in Attendance), the Earl of Durham (Lord 
High Steward), the Duchess of Devonshire (Mistress of the Robes), the 
Earl of Shaftesbury (Lord-in- Waiting), the Lord Annaly (Lord in-Waiting), 
the Lord Stamfordham (Private Secretary to the King-Emperor), the Hon. 
Venetia Baring (Maid of Honour), Lieut.-General Sir H. L. Smith-Dorrien 
(Aide-de-Camp), General Sir E. R. Henry (Extra Equerry to the King- 
Emperor), Major-General Sir S. B. Beatson (Private Secretary to the 
Queen-Empress), Rear-Admiral Sir C. R. Keppel (Extra Equerry to the 
King-Emperor), Lieut. -Colonel Sir J. R. Dunlop-Smith (Political A.D.C. 
to the Secretary of State), Commander Sir C. L. Cust, Bart. (Equerry-in- 
Waiting to the King-Emperor), Lieut.-Colonel the Hon. Sir D. W. G. 
Keppel (Master of the Household), Captain B. G. Godfrey - Faussett 
(Equerry to the King -Emperor), Lord Charles G. F. P. Fitzmaurice 
(Equerry to the King-Emperor), Major Clive Wigram (Assistant Private 

286 



APPENDIX A 

Secretary and Equerry to the King-Emperor), Prince George of Battenberg, 
Lieut. -Colonel Sir R. Havelock Charles (Sergeant-Surgeon to the King- 
Emperor), Mr. F. H. Lucas (Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for 
India), the Hon. J. W. Fortescue (Official Historian to the King-Emperor), 
Mr. Jacomb Hood (Official Artist to the King-Emperor). 

The Nawab of Tonck also had the honour of being invited, but was 
unavoidably prevented from obeying His Majesty's commands. 



December i 3. 
DELHI. 

The King-Emperor left camp by motor at 8 a.m. this morning, attended 
by the Duke of Teck, the Commander-in-Chief, the Lord Annaly, General 
Sir E. Barrow, Lieut. -General Sir H. L. Smith-Dorrien, Brigadier-General 
R. E. Grimston, Major Lord C. Fitzmaurice, Major Clive Wigram. 

On arrival at the camp of the Naval Contingent, His Imperial Majesty 
mounted his charger and rode through the camps of the Naval Contingent, 
the 19th Infantry Brigade, the 20th Infantry Brigade, the 21st Infantry 
Brigade, the 9th Brigade, the 8th Brigade, the 7th Infantry Brigade, the 
I St Composite Infantry Brigade. 

His Imperial Majesty returned to camp by motor by the Kingsway. 

Procession to the Shamiana. 

Presentation of Volunteer Officers, Indian Officers, and Officers of the 
hnperial Ser--vice Troops. 

Brigadier-General Grimston. Two Equerries-in-Waiting. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. 

The Duke of The Commander- The Governor- The Marquis of 

Teck. in-Chief. General. Crewe. 

Nawab of Rampur. Maharaja Sir Maharaja of Maharaja of 

Pratap Singh. Gwalior. Bikaner. 

Sir E. Henry. Gen. Sir Lord Lt.-Gen. Sir H. 

E. Barrow. Stamfordham. Smith-Dorrien. 
Lord Harris. The Hon. D. Keppel. Br.-Gen. Birdwood. 

Col. Goodwin. Br.-Gen. Melliss. Br.-Gen. Keary. Col. Viscount 

Hardinge. 

Col. Stanton. Nawab Sir Hafiz Col. Sir Aslam Br.-Gen. Mercer. 
Muhammad Khan. 
AbduUa Khan. 

Governor-General's Staff. 

The Volunteer officers first had the honour of being presented to the 
King-Emperor. The Indian officers and Imperial Service officers then had 
the honour of being presented. 

The Governor - General's Bodyguard, the Governor's Bodyguard 
(Madras), the Governor's Bodyguard (Bombay), the Escort to the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Burma. 

287 



APPENDIX A 

3rd Skinner's Horse, 8th Cavalry, 9th Hodson's Horse, nth Lancers, 
30th Lancers, 36th Horse. 

31st Mountain Battery, 32nd Mountain Battery, ist Sappers and 
Miners, 2nd Sappers and Miners, 25th and 26th Railway Companies* 
Sappers and Miners, 31st, 32nd and 33rd Delhi Signal Companies. 

16th Rajputs, 1 8th Infantry, 25th Panjabis, 23rd Pioneers, 28th Pan- 
jabis, 33rd Panjabis, 34th Pioneers, 36th Sikhs, i-39th Garhwal Rifles, 
2-39th Garhwal Rifles, 41st Dogras, 45th Sikhs, 47th Sikhs, 48th 
Pioneers, 53rd Sikhs, 57th Rifles, 74th Panjabis. 

90th Panjabis, 107th Pioneers, 11 6th Maharattas, 126th Pioneers, 130th 
Baluchis, i-ist Gurkha Rifles, 2-ist Gurkha Rifles, 2-2nd Gurkha Rifles, 
I -3rd Gurkha Rifles, 2-3rd Gurkha Rifles, 2-4th Gurkha Rifles, 2-9th 
Gurkha Rifles, 2-ioth Gurkha Rifles. 

ist Lancers, 6th Cavalry, 26th Cavalry, 38th Horse, 39th Horse, 104th 
Rifles, 6ist Pioneers, 102nd Grenadiers, i-2nd Gurkha Rifles, 33rd Cavalry, 
the Corps of Guides, 2nd Infantry, Malay States Guides, 14th Lancers, 3rd 
Sappers and Miners, 31st Lancers, 2nd Lancers, 12th Cavalry, 7th Rajputs, 
60th Panjabis. 

Indian Aides-de-Camp to the Governor -General, the Commander-in 
Chief, the General Officer Commanding Northern Army, the General 
Oflfiicer Commanding Southern Army. 

Medical Department, Transport units. 

Imperial Service Troops. — Alwar Lancers, Bhavnagar Lancers, Bhopal 
Lancers, Gwalior Lancers, Hyderabad Lancers, Jodhpur Lancers, Kashmir 
Lancers, Mysore Lancers, Navanagar Lancers, Patiala Lancers, Rampur 
Lancers, Kashmir Artillery, Faridkote Sappers, Malar Kotla Sappers, 
Sirmur Sappers, Tehri Garhwal Sappers, Bhawalpur Camel Corps, 
Bikaner Camel Corps, Khairpur Camel Corps, Alwar Infantry, 
Bharatpur Infantry, Bikaner Infantry, Gwalior Infantry, Jind Infantry, 
Kapurthala Infantry, Kashmir Infantry, Nabha Infantry, Patiala Infantry, 
Rampur Infantry, Gwalior Transport Corps, Indore Transport Corps, 
Jaipur Transport Corps. 

At the conclusion of the presentation His Imperial Majesty inspected 
the Guard of Honour of the 1st Batt. Connaught Rangers, ist King 
George's Own Sappers and Miners. 

Before the presentation of the above officers took place the King- 
Emperor presented Albert Medals to the following officers, warrant and 
non-commissioned officers of the Indian Ordnance Department, which 
were conferred on them for their gallantry in saving life on the occasion of 
the explosion of cordite at Hyderabad (Sind) and Ferozepur in 1906. 

Albert Medal of the First Class. — Captain G. C. Donovan and Sub- 
Conductor A. E. Purkis. 

Albert Medal of the Second Class. — Major-General C. A. Anderson, 
Major M. S. Clarke Campbell, Captain H. Clarke, Assistant Commission- 
ary and Hon. Lieutenant F. Hensely, Conductor H. Pargiter, Sergeant A. 
J. Robinson, Sergeant G. Smith, and Sergeant D. Daw. 

Their Imperial Majesties gave a dinner-party this evening, to which the 
following had the honour of being invited : — The Governor-General of 
India and Lady Hardinge of Penshurst, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of 
Agra, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Madras, the Raja of Jhind, the 

288 



APPENDIX A 

Raja of Kapurthala, the Raja of Pudukottai, the Maharaja Rana of 
Jhalawar, the Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad. 

Additional Members of the Council of the Governor-General. — The 
Hon. Mr. C. W. N. Graham (President Bengfal Chamber of Commerce), 
the Maharaja Adhiraja Bahadur of Burdwan, the Hon. Raja of Dighapatia, 
the Hon. Maulvi Syed Shamsul Huda, the Hon. the Raja of Kurupam, 
the Hon. Nawab Saiyid Muhammad Sahib Bahadur, the Hon. Babu 
Bhupendra Nath Basu, the Hon. Mr. Sachchidananda Sinha. 

The Commissioner (Fyzabad Division) and Mrs. Holmes, the Hon. 
Khan Zulfikar Ali Khan of Maier Kotla, the Hon. Malik Umar Hayat 
Khan, Tiwana, the Hon. Mr. J. M. Macpherson, the Director-General 
of the Indian Medical Service and Mrs. Lukis, the Director-General of 
Telegraphs in India and Mrs. Dempster, the Inspector-General of Excise 
and Salt and Mrs. Todhunter, the Hon. Mr. G. H. B. Kenrick (Advocate- 
General, Bengal), the Hon. Mr. C. H. Kesteven, the Hon. Kour Sir 
Ranbir Singh of Patiala, the Hon. Sir Ghulam Muhammad Ali Khan 
Bahadur, K.C.I.E., Prince of Arcot. 

The Secretary to the Government of India in the Home Department, 
the Hon. Mr. E. D. MacLagan (Secretary to the Government of India in 
the Department of Revenue and Agriculture), the Hon. Mr. H. Sharp 
(Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Education), 
the Hon. Mr. W. B. Gordon (Secretary to the Government of India in 
the Public Works Department), the Financial Commissioner of Panjab 
and Mrs. Meredith, the Hon. Mr. P. C. Lyon (Member of the Board of 
Revenue, Eastern Bengal and Assam) and Mrs. Lyon, the Hon. Mr. R. C. 
C. Carr, I.C.S. (Member of the Board of Revenue, Madras), the Com- 
missioner of Northern India Salt and Revenue and Mrs. Arthur. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice F. A. Robertson (a Judge of the Chief Court, 
Panjab) and Mrs. Robertson, the Hon. Mr. Justice A. Kensington (a 
Judge of the Chief Court, Panjab) and Mrs. Kensington, the Hon. Mr. 
Justice D. C. Johnstone (a Judge of the Chief Court, Panjab) and Mrs. 
Johnstone, the Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras and Member 
of the Madras Legislative Council and Lady Stuart, the Director of 
Supplies and Transport and Mrs. Mansfield. 

Major -General W. Du G. Gray (Inspector-General of Volunteers in 
India), the General Officer Commanding the 5th (Mhow) Division and 
Mrs. Blomfield, Major-General T. D. Pilcher (commanding the Sirhind 
Brigade), Major-General G. C. Kitson (Quartermaster-General in India). 

The Hon. Mr. A. K. L. Stuart (Senior Member of Board of Revenue, 
Madras, and a Member of the Madras Legislative Council), the Hon. Mr. 
J. McC. Douie (First Financial Commissioner, Panjab, and a Member of 
the Panjab Legislative Council) and Mrs. Douie. 

The Hon. Mr. P. G. Melitus (Member of Board of Revenue, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, and a Member of the Eastern Bengal and Assam 
Legislative Council) and Mrs. Melitus, the Hon. Mr. A. H. Diack 
(Second Financial Commissioner, Panjab, and a Member of the Panjab 
Legislative Council) and Mrs. Diack, Surgeon-General W. B. Bannerman 
and Miss Bannerman, the Hon. Mr. D. J. Macpherson (Member of Board 
of Revenue, Bengal, and Member of the Bengal Legislative Council) and 
Mrs. Macpherson. 

289 U 



APPENDIX A 

The Rev. J. C. R. Ewing (Vice-Chancellor of the Panjab University), 
the Commissioner of Delhi Division and Mrs. Dallas, the Political Agent 
of the Phulkian States and Bhawalpur and Mrs. Atkins, Colonel 
Viscount Hardinge (C.B., A.D.C. to the King-Emperor) and Viscountess 
Hardinge, Colonel Nawab Sir Muhammad Aslam Khan, Sardar Bahadur 
(A.D.C. to the King-Emperor), Raja Sir Harnam Singh of Kapurthala 
and Rani Lady Harnam Singh. 

The Inspector-General of Police ot the Panjab and Mrs. Lee-French, 
the Raja Dhiraj of Shahpura, the Maharaja of Moharbhanj, the Nawab of 
Bhanganapalle, the Raja of Sarangarh, the Surgeon to the Governor- 
General of India and Mrs. O'Kinealy, the Comptroller of the Governor- 
General's Household and Mrs. Mackenzie, Captains Burn and Todd 
(Aides-de-Camp-in-Waiting to His Excellency the Governor-General). 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Household. — Duke of Teck (Silver Stick 
and personal Aide-de-Camp), the Right Hon. the Marquis of Crewe 
(Minister in Attendance), the Right Hon. the Earl of Durham (Lord High 
Steward), the Duchess of Devonshire (Mistress of the Robes), the Earl of 
Shaftesbury (Lord Chamberlain to Her Imperial Majesty), the Countess 
of Shaftesbury (Lady-in- Waiting), the Lord Annaly (Lord-in-Waiting), 
the Lord Stamfordham (Private Secretary to His Imperial Majesty), the 
Hon. Venetia Baring (Maid of Honour), Major-General Sir S. S. Beatson 
(Private Secretary to Her Imperial Majesty), Lieut. -Colonel Sir J. R. 
Dunlop-Smith (Political A.D.C. to the Secretary of State), Lieut. -Colonel 
the Hon. Sir D. W. G. Keppel (Master of the Household), Lieut.- 
Colonel Sir R. Havelock Charles (Sergeant -Surgeon to His Imperial 
Majesty), Captain B. Godfrey-Faussett, Rear-Admiral Sir C. Keppel. 



December 14. 

DELHI. 

Mounted Procession to the Review Ground. 

The Governor-General's Personal Staff. 



Capt. R. Raban. 
Major H. R. Stockley. 



Hon. Col. Sir 

Muhammad Aslam 

Khan. 

Col. Goodwin. 

Br.-Gen. Birdwood. 

Lt.-Gen. Sir H. L. 

Smith-Dorrien. 
Lord Stamfordham. 



Capt. R. E. T. Hogg. 

Hon. Col. Nawab Sir 

Hafiz Muhammad 

Abdulla Khan. 

Col. Viscount Hardinge. 



Br.-Gen. H.D'U.Keary. 
Sir E. Henry. 



Major Hon. W. 

Cadogan. 

Major E. D. Money. 



Col. Stanton. 



Br.-Gen. C. J. Melliss. 

Br.-Gen. Mercer. 

Gen. Sir E. Barrow. 

The Lord-in-Waiting. 



Bodyguard. 
Household Cavalry Orderlies with Standard. 
290 



APPENDIX A 



Adjutant, Bodyguard. 

The Duke of Teck. 

Major Lord C. 

Fitzmaurice. 

The Maharaja of Bikaner 

Royal Groom. 



THE KING-EMPEROR. 

Commandant, Bodyguanl. 

The Governor-General. 

Col. Maxwell. 



Br. -Gen. Grimston. 



The Maharaja of Gwalior. 
Royal Groom. 



THE QUEEN-EMPRESS 
(in a carriage with the Mistress of the Robes and the Lord High Steward). 
Commandant, Imperial Cadet Corps. Major-Gen. Sir Pratap Singh. 
Lt.-Col. H. D. Watson. Major-Gen. Sir Stuart Beatson. 

Capt. K. Hill. Capt. L. F. Ashburner. 

Second Carriage. — Lady Hardinge, Marquis of Crewe, Lord Chamberlain 
to the Queen-Empress, Aide-de-Camp. 

Imperial Cadet Corps. 

Order of March, Royal Review. 
His Imperial Majesty the King-Emperor's Procession. 

Army Headquarters Staff. 

Foreign General Officers and Military Attaches. 

The Commander-in-Chief's Personal Staff. 

The Governor-General's Personal Staff. 



Capt. Raban. 
Major Stockley. 



Hon. Col. Muhammad 

Aslam Khan. 

Col. Goodwin. 

Br. -Gen. Birdwood. 

Lt.-Gen. Sir H. L. 

Smith-Dorrien. 
Lord Stamfordham. 



Capt. Hogg. 

Hon. Col. Hafiz 

Muhammad Abdulla 

Khan. 

Col. Viscount Hardinge. 

Br.-Gen. Keary. 
Sir E. Henry. 



Major Cadogan. 
Major Money. 

Col. Stanton. 

Br.-Gen. Melliss. 

Br.-Gen. Mercer. 

Gen. Sir E. Barrow. 

The Lord-in-Waiting. 



First Division Bodyguard. 

Household Cavalry Orderlies with Standard. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. 



Adjutant, Bodyguard. 

The Duke of Teck. 

Major Lord C. 

Fitzmaurice. 

The Maharaja of 

Bikaner. 

Royal Groom. 



Commandant, Bodyguard. 
The Governor-General. 
Br.-Gen. Grimston. Col. Maxwell. 



Second Division Bodyguard. 
291 



The Maharaja of 

Gwalior. 

Royal Groom. 



APPENDIX A 

Her Imperial Majesty the Queen-Empress's Procession. 

First Division, Imperial Cadet Corps. 

THE QUEEN-EMPRESS 
(in a carriage with the Mistress of the Robes and the Lord High Steward). 
Commandant, Imperial Cadet Corps. Hon. Major-Gen. Sir Pratap Singh. 
Lt.-Col. H. D. Watson. Major-Gen. Sir Stuart Beatson. 

Capt. H. Hill. Capt. Ashburner. 

Second Carriage. — Lady Hardinge, Marquis of Crewe, Lord Chamberlain 
to the Queen-Empress, Aide-de-Camp. 

Second Division, Imperial Cadet Corps. 
Guards of Honour were furnished : — 

At the Saluting Point by Royal Navy and Royal Marine Artillery. 
At the Imperial Camp by the ist Batt. Seaforth Highlanders and 
45th Sikhs. 

THE INVESTITURE. 

Procession to the Dais. 

Delhi Herald, Major Stockley, Captain Hogg, Major Money, Lieut.- 
Colonel Bird, Lieut.-Colonel Sir H. Charles, Prince George of Battenberg, 
Major C. Wigram, Lieut.-Colonel Sir D. Keppel, Major Lord C. Fitz- 
maurice. Captain Godfrey-Faussett, Commander Sir C. Cust, Sir James 
Dunlop-Smith, Major-General Sir Stuart Beatson, Sir Colin Keppel, Sir 
Edward Henry, Lieut. -General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien, Sir J. Hewett, the 
Lord-in-Waiting, the Lord Stamfordham, the Lord Chamberlain to the 
Queen-Empress, the Lord High Steward. 

THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. THE KING-EMPEROR. 

Pages. — Maharaja Kishen Singh of Bharatpur, Maharaja Sumer Singh 
of Jodhpur, Maharaja Kunwar Sadul Singh of Bikaner, Vir Singh 
(grandson of the Maharaja of Orchha), Maharaja Kumar Kimmatsinghji 
of Idar, Sahibzada Muhammad Wahidaz Zafar Khan of Bhopal, the 
Thakur Saheb of Palitana, Raja Kumar Chandra Singh of Sailana, 
Maharaja Kumar Gulab Singh of Rewa, Maharaja Mandhata Singh of 
Sailana. 

The Duke of Teck, the Hon. Venetia Baring, the Mistress of the 
Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, Sir H. McMahon, the Assistant Herald. 

The Guard of Honour mounted outside the Investiture Tent was 
furnished by the ist Batt. Seaforth Highlanders and the 5th Sikhs. 



December i 5, 

DELHI. 

Procession to lay Foundation-Stone of New Delhi. 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

292 



APPENDIX A 

Second Carnage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, the 
Lord High Steward, and the Duke of Teck. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Sliaftesbury, the Hon. Venetia Baring, 
the Lord Chamberlain to the Queen - Empress, and the Lord 
Stamfordham. 
Brigadier-General Sir R. Grimston and Major Lord C. Fitzmaurice 

were in attendance on horseback. 

Procession to the Review of Police. 

First Division of Escort. 

Orderly. Orderly. 

Orderly with Royal Standard. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. 
The Duke of Teck. The Governor-General. 

Major Lord Charles Fitzmaurice. General Sir R. Grimston. 

The Maharaja of The Nawab of Major-Gen. Sir The Maharaja of 
Bikaner. Rampur. Pratap Singh. Gwalior. 

Gen. Sir E. Barrow. Lord Annaly. The Commander-in- 

Chief. 
Major-Gen. Sir Lt.-Gen. Sir E. Smith- Lord Stamfordham. 

S. Beatson. Dorrien. 

Colonel Maxwell. A.D.C. to Governor-General. 

Royal Groom. Royal Groom. 

THE QUEEN-EMPRESS 

(in a carriage with the Mistress of the Robes and the Lord High Steward). 

Captain Hill. Lt.-Col. Watson. 

Lady Hardinge 

(in a carriage with the Marquis of Crewe and the Lord Chamberlain to 

the Queen-Empress). 

Second Division of Escort. 

The Escort was furnished by the 13th Hussars and the 17th Cavalry. 

Procession to the Military Tournament. 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, the 
Duke of Teck, and the Lord High Steward. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Hon. Venetia Baring, 
and the Lord Chamberlain to the Queen-Empress. 

Major Lord C. Fitzmaurice and Major Wigram were in attendance on 
horseback. 

The route was by the Kingsway, Princess Road, and the Parade Road. 

The Escort was furnished by the Volunteer Light Horse, detachments 
of the 1st Lancers, the 6th Cavalry, and the 39th Central India Horse. 

293 



APPENDIX A 

December i6. 

AGRA. 

Queen-Empress's Camp. 

Guards of Honour were mounted at the station by the 13th Rajputs, 
and at the Circuit House by the i8th Royal Irish Regiment. 



December 17. 

King-Emperor's Camp. 

The King-Emperor's train stopped at Arrah this morning and His 
Imperial Majesty, attended by his Suite, was present at Divine Service in 
Arrah Church. After the Service the King-Emperor inspected the Behar 
Light Horse and visited Arrah House and returned to the train, which 
left for Bikna Thori. 

AGRA. 

Queen-Empress's Camp. 

In the evening Her Imperial Majesty gave a dinner-party, to which the 
following ladies and gentlemen had the honour of being invited : — The 
Bishop of Lucknow, Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds, Mr. and Mrs. Lyle, Mr. 
and Mrs. Mardan, Colonel and Mrs. Downing, Colonel and Mrs. 
Camilleri, Major and Mrs. Austin Smith, and Major and Mrs. Buchanan. 



December 19. 

JAIPUR. 

Queen-Empress's Camp. 

Guard of Honour at Agra : Royal Irish Regiment. 

Escort at Agra : 13th Hussars. 

Guard of Honour at Jaipur Station : 30th Rajputs. 

Guard of Honour at Jaipur Residency : 42nd Deoli Regiment. 

Her Imperial Majesty gave a dinner-party this evening. The following 
ladies and gentlemen had the honour to be invited : — Colonel and Mrs. 
Showers, the Hon. Nawab Sir Faiyaz Ali Khan, Major Fisher, Sir 
Swinton and Lady Jacob, Major Shelley, Mr. Lanson, Mr. Berkeley, the 
Rev. Dr. Jameson, and Mrs. Stothard. 



December 21. 

AJMER. 

Queen-Empress's Camp. 

Guards of Honour were furnished at Ajmer station by the 44th 

294 



APPENDIX A 

Merwara Infantry, and the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway 
Rifle Volunteers. 

Her Imperial Majesty proceeded direct from the station to the Mayo 
College, the Escort being supplied by the 27th Light Cavalry. 

In the evening Her Imperial Majesty gave a dinner-party, to which the 
following ladies and gentlemen had the honour to be invited : — Sir Elliot 
and Lady Colvin and Miss Colvin, Colonel Stratton, Lieut. - Colonel 
Poingdestre, Lieut. -Colonel Deane, Mr. and Mrs. Waddington, and Mrs. 
Saunders. 

December 24. 

KASRA, NIPAL. 
King-Emperor's Camp. 

The King-Emperor arrived at Kasra Camp last night. 

His Imperial Majesty attended Divine Service in camp this morning. 
The sermon was preached by the Rev. John Godber. 

Sir Henry and Lady McMahon, Miss McMahon, and Lieut. -Colonel 
and Mrs. IVIanners-Smith had the honour of being invited to luncheon 
with His Imperial Majesty. 

Christmas Day. 

The King-Emperor attended Divine Service in camp this morning. 
His Imperial Majesty was attended by the whole of his Suite. 



December 26. 
KOTAH. 

Queen-Empress's Camp. 

In the evening Her Imperial Majesty gave a dinner-party, to which the 
following ladies and gentlemen had the honour to be invited : — Colonel and 
Mrs. Mathews, Lieut. -Colonel and Mrs. Carr White, Mr. and Mrs. 
Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. Devon, and Mr. Sutton. 



December 28. 

NARKATIAGANJ. 

King-Emperor's Camp. 

The King-Emperor, attended by the whole of his Suite, left Kasra 
Camp this morning. 

His Imperial Majesty was accompanied to Bikna Thori Station by His 
Excellency the Prime Minister of Nipal. After His Excellency with his 
sons (General Mohan Shum Shere Jung Rana Bahadur, Lieut. -General 
Baber Shum Shere Jung Rana Bahadur, and Lieut.-General Kishen Shum 

295 



APPENDIX A 

Shere Jung Rana Bahadur) had taken leave of His Imperial Majesty, the 
Royal special train left Bikna Thori Station at 6 p.m. Lieut.-Colonel 
Manners-Smith and Mr. H. C. Streatfield were in attendance on the 
platform. 

December 30. 
CALCUTTA. 

Arrival at Howrah. 

Walking Procession from Howrah Station to the Pontoon 
AND from the Landing-Stage AT Prinsep's Ghat to the Pandal. 

H.E. the Governor-General's Staff. 
Captain Maclachlan. Major the Hon. W. Captain Holmes. 

Cadogan. 
Captain Hogg. Lt.-Col. Bird. 

Hon. J. Fortescue. Br.-Gen. Mercer. Mr. F. H. Lucas. 

Colonel Stanton. Br.-Gen. Birdwood. Br.-Gen. Keary. 

Lt.-Col. Sir R. Major Lord Charles Major C. Wigram. 

Havelock Charles. Fitzmaurice. 

Captain B. G. Godfrey- Commander Sir The Hon. Sir D. Keppel. 
Faussett. C. Cust. 

Sir James Dunlop- Major-Gen. Sir Stuart Rear-Admiral Sir C. 
Smith. Beatson. Keppel. 

Sir E. Henry. Gen. Sir E. Barrow. Lt.-Gen. Sir H. L. 

Smith-Dorrien. 
Lord Stamfordham. The Lord-in-Waiting. 

The Lord Chamberlain to the The Lord High Steward. 

Queen-Empress. 

THE (JUEEN-EMPRESS. THE KING-EMPEROR. 

Attendants. Attendants. 

H.E. Lady Hardinge. H.E. the Governor-General. 

H.H. the Duke of Teck. The Mistress of the The Marquis of Crewe. 

Robes. 
The Hon. Venetia Baring. The Countess of Shaftesbury. 

H.H. the Maharaja of H.H. the Maharaja of Hon. Major-Gen. Sir 
Bikaner. Gwalior. Pratap Singh. 

Br.-Gen. Sir R. Grimston. Sir Henry McMahon. 

Mounted Procession from Prinsep's Ghat to Government 
House, Calcutta. 

G.O.C. 8th Lucknow Division and Staff. 
Captain Maclachlan. Major the Hon. W. Captain Holmes. 

Cadogan. 

Captain Hogg. Br.-Gen. Mercer. 

Colonel Stanton. Br.-Gen. Birdwood. Br.-Gen. Keary. 

Captain B. G. Godfrey- Commander Sir The Hon. Sir D. 

Faussett. C. Cust. Keppel. 

296 



APPENDIX A 

Br.-Gen. Sir R. Sir E. Henry. Major-Gcn. Sir Stuart 

Grimston. Beatson. 

Lt.-Gen. Sir H. Smith-Dorrien. General Sir E. Barrow. 

The Master of The Lord-in-Waiting. The Lord Stamfordham. 

Ceremonies. 
The Maharaja of The Maharaja of Sir Pratap Singh. 

Bikaner. Gwalior. 

Composite Squadron of Light Horse. 

Calcutta Light Horse. 

O.C. Calcutta THEIR IMPERIAL MAJESTIES O.C. O.C. 

Light Horse. (in a carriage). Bodyguard. Escort. 

The Duke of Teck. 

Major C. Wigram. Major the Lord Charles Fitzmaurice. 

Royal Groom. Royal Groom. 

Carriage Escort of 2 N.C.O.'s and 4 Sowars of the Bodyguard. 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, 

Rear-Admiral Sir C. Keppel. 
Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Lord High Steward, 

Lt.-Col. Sir J. Dunlop-Smith, Lt.-Col. Sir R. Havelock Charles. 
Fourth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, the Lord Chamberlain to 

the Queen-Empress, Mr. F. H. Lucas. 
Fifth Carriage. — Lieutenant-Colonel Bird, the Hon. J. Fortescue. 
The Bodyguard. 
Indian Cavalry Regiment. 

The route, which was lined by troops, was by the EUenborough course 
south of Havildar's Tank, Red Road, Government Place East, and Old 
Court House Street, entering Government House by the north gate. 

The Escort was furnished by U Battery Royal Horse Artillery, the 8th 
Hussars, Calcutta Light Horse, Light Horse Composite Squadron, the 
Governor-General's Bodyguard, 4th Cavalry (one squadron), i6th Cavalry. 

On arrival at Government House the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress 
were received by the Governor-General and Lady Hardinge. 

The following were also assembled at Government House to receive 
Their Imperial Majesties : — The Commander-in-Chief with his Staff, the 
heads of Local Governments and Administrations, the Most Rev. the Bishop 
of Calcutta, the Metropolitan of India and Ceylon, the Members of the 
Governor-General's Executive Council, the Naval Commander-in-Chief of 
the East Indies with his Staff, the Chief of the General Staff, the President 
and Members of the Railway Board, the Additional Members of the 
Governor-General's Legislative Council, the Secretaries and Deputy Secre- 
taries of the Government of India, the Headquarters Staff of the Army, 
the heads of Civil and Military Departments, the Hon. the Chief Justice of 
Bengal, the Puisne Judges of the High Court. 

The King-Emperor inspected the Guard of Honour of the East York- 
shire Regiment and the 66th Panjabis. After the inspection the following 
had the honour of being presented to Their Imperial Majesties by the 
Governor-General :— The Chief Justice, the Bishop of Calcutta, the Members 
of the Executive Council, the Naval Commander-in-Chief, the Chief of the 
General Staff, the President and Members of the Railway Board, the 

297 



APPENDIX A 

Additional Members of the Legislative Council, the Secretaries to the 
Government of India, after which the senior officers of the Army Head- 
quarters Staff had the honour of being presented by the Commander-in- 
Chief, and the Puisne Judges by the Chief Justice. 



December 31. 
GOVERNMENT HOUSE, CALCUTTA. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress attended Divine Service at the 
Cathedral this morning. 

The procession from Government House to the Cathedral was as 
follows : — 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE gUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Duke of Teck, and 
Captain Godfrey-Faussett, R.N. (Equerry-in-Waiting). 

Third Carriage. — The Marquis of Crewe, the Lord High Steward, and 
Major Lord Charles Fitzmaurice (Equerry-in-Waiting). 

The route to the Cathedral was by the Red Road, Mayo Road, and 
Chowringhee. 

The Escort was furnished by the 8th Hussars. 



"January 2. 

CALCUTTA. 

Mounted Procession from the Dufferin Statue to 
THE Review Ground. 

Army Headquarters Staff. 
H.E. the Governor-General's Staff. 
Captain Maclachlan. Captain Holmes. 

Major the Hon. Captain Hogg. Major Graeme. 

W. G. S. Cadogan. 

Major Money. Colonel Stanton. Br.-Gen. Mercer. 

Br.-Gen. Keary. The Hon. Sir Derek Br.-Gen. Birdwood. 

Keppel. 
Lieut. -Gen. Sir H. Gen. Sir E. Barrow. 

Smith-Dorrien. 
Lord Stamfordham. The Lord-in-Waiting. 

First Division Bodyguard. 
N.C.O., 8th Hussars with Standard. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. 

Commandant, Bodyguard. 
H.E. the Commander- H.E. the Governor- H.H. the Duke of Teck. 
in-Chief. General. 

Major Lord Charles Br.-Gen. Grimston. Colonel Maxwell. 



Fitzmaurice. 



298 



APPENDIX A 

H.H. the Maharaja of H.H. the Maharaja of Sir Pratap Singh. 
Bikaner. Gvvalior. 

Royal Groom. Royal Groom. 

THE QUEEN-EMPRESS 
(in a carriage with the Mistress of the Robes and the Lord High Steward). 

Adjutant of the Bodyguard. 
Major H. R. Stockley. Major Gen. Sir Stuart 

Beatson. 

H.E. Lady Hardinge 

(in a carriage with the Marquis of Crewe and the Lord Chamberlain to 

the Queen-Empress). 

Second Division Bodyguard. 



January 3. 

CALCUTTA. 

This afternoon the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress honoured the 
Calcutta Races with their presence. 

Their Imperial Majesties left Government House at 2.30 P.M., and a 
procession of carriages was formed as follows : — 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, the 

Duke of Teck. 
Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Lord Chamberlain to 

the Queen-Empress, General Sir E. Barrow. 
Fourth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, Lord Stamfordham, Sir 

Henry McMahon. 
Fifth Carriage. — Commander Sir C. Cust, Rear-Admiral Sir C. Keppel 
(Equerries-in-Waiting). 
Major Lord Charles Fitzmaurice and Major Wigram were in attendance 
on horseback. 

The Escort, under the command of Major Keighley, was furnished by 
the Governor-General's Bodyguard. 

The route of the procession was by the Red Road, the Jail Road, and 
the east side of the Racecourse to the Grand Stand. 



January 4. 
CALCUTTA. 

Last night the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress honoured with their 
presence a military tattoo, and also witnessed the illuminations and a display 
of fireworks, which took place on the Maidan between Government House 
and the fort. 

Their Imperial Majesties arrived at the Lawrence Statue at 9.30, and 

299 



APPENDIX A 

were conducted to their seats on the dais by the Governor-General and 
Lady Hardinge. The following gentlemen — members of the Illuminations 
Committee — then had the honour of being presented to the King-Emperor 
and the Queen-Empress by His Excellency : — 

Mr. J. G. Apcar, Raja Kristo Das Law, Mr. Emerson, Babu Charu 
Chandar Malik. Colonel Ward, Captain Brancker, and Risaldar Chapal 
Singh, organisers of the torchlight tattoo, also had the honour of being 
presented. 

Their Imperial Majesties* Suite in attendance were assembled below to 
the right and left of the dais. 

At the conclusion of the display the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress 
returned to Government House. 

The King-Emperor this night held an Investiture. 

His Imperial Majesty entered the Throne-room at 9 P.M., attended by 
the Governor-General, the Duke of Teck, the Marquis of Crewe, the Lord 
High Steward, and the Equerries-in-Waiting. 

The following gentlemen were then severally introduced into His 
Imperial Majesty's presence, when the King-Emperor conferred upon them 
the honour of knighthood, and invested them with the insignia of the 
division of the Order into which they had been admitted : — 

To be Knights Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. — The Nawab 
Bahadur of Murshidabad, Major-General B. T. Mahon, Major-General 
Sir A. A. Barrett, Major-General G. C. Kitson. 

To be Knights Bachelor.— Mr. D. Yule, the Hon. Mr. F. L. Halliday. 

To be Commanders of the Royal Victorian Order. — The Hon. Mr. C. J. 
Stevenson-Moore, Mr. C. B. Bayley. 

To be Companions of the Order of the Indian Empire. — The Hon. 
Mr. W. C. Madge, Colonel B. W. Marlow, Major L. Rogers, Mahama- 
hopadhyaya Hara Prasad Shastri, Mr. J. H. Kerr. 

To be Members of the Fourth Class of the Royal Victorian Order. — 
Captain G. H. Wills, Lieut.-Colonel R. Bird, Major the Hon. H. J. Eraser, 
Captain the Hon. A. O. W. Weld-Forester, Captain V. A. S. Keighley. 

To be Members of the Fifth Class of the Royal Victorian Order. — 
Mr. C. Stead, Mr. F. C. T. Halliday, Mr. C. A. Tegart, Mr. H. S. H. 
Pilkington, Mr. Amir Ahmad. 

To be Companions of the Imperial Service Order. — Mr. H. L. French, 
Shaikh Shadi, Babu Upendra Nath Chatterji, Rai Bahadur Rala Ram, Mr. 
T. W. Payne, Babu Narayan Kishen Sen, Mr. T. O. Drake, Mr C. W. 
Caston, Mr. J. E. Lacey, Mr. Ahsan-ud-Din Ahmad, Mr. G. W. Marshall. 

The Kahar-i-Hind Medal of the First Class.— Mr. J. T. Stark, Rai Hari 
Mohan Chandra Bahadur, Mr. E. G. Barton. 

After the Investiture the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress held a 
Court. 

"January 5. 

CALCUTTA. 

Procession to the Pageant. 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

300 



APPENDIX A 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Marquis of Crewe, the 
Duke of Teck, the Lord High Steward. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Lord Chamberlain to 
the Queen-Empress, Lord Stamfordham, Commander Sir C. Cust. 

Fourth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, the Commander-in-Chief, 
Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. 

Major Lord Charles Fitzmaurice and Major Wigram were in attend- 
ance on horseback. 

The remainder of the suite were in attendance in the panJal, in front 
of which a Guard of Honour of the Middlesex Regiment and the 27th 
Panjabis was mounted. On arrival the King-Emperor and Queen- 
Empress were received by the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, the 
Nawab of Murshidabad, the Maharajadhiraja of Burdwan (President of 
the Imperial Reception Executive Committee), Hon. Sir Cecil Graham 
and Dr. Rash Behari Ghose (Vice-President), the Maharaja of Darbhanga 
(President of the Pageant Sub-Committee), and the Hon. Mr. Norman 
MacLeod, and were conducted to the front of the pavilion, where Their 
Imperial Majesties were received by the Governor-General and Lady 
Hardinge and conducted to their seats on the dais. 

The Maharaja of Gidhour then handed a Pesh Kash of loi gold mohurs 
on a tahli to the Nawab of Murshidabad, who on behalf of the people of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa and Eastern Bengal and Assam, handed it to 
the King-Emperor. 

The following then had the honour of being presented to Their 
Imperial Majesties by the Nawab of Murshidabad : — 

The Maharajadhiraja of Burdwan, Prince Amir Adr Mirja Abid Ali, 
the Maharaja of Gidhour, the Maharaja of Darbhanga, the Hon. 
Maharaja of Dinajpur, Maharaja Sir Prodyot Coomar Tagore, the 
Maharaja of Chota Nagpur, the Maharaja of Surang, the Maharaja of 
Nattore, the Hon. Maharaja of Cassimbazar, Maharaja of Narsingpur, the 
Maharaja of Krishnagar, Raja Bahadur Benod Krishna Deb, Raja Peary 
Mohun Mookerjee, the Hon. Raja of Dighapatiya, Nawab Shamsh-ul- 
ulama, Saiyed Imdad Imam, the Maharaja Kumar of Hathwa, Sir 
Alexander Apcar, Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee, the Hon. Sir Cecil 
Graham, Major-General Drummond, Dr. Rash Behary Ghose, the Hon. 
Mr. F. H. Stewart, the Hon. Babu Bhupendra Nath Basu, Mr. R. H. A. 
Gresson, the Hon. Mr. Norman MacLeod, the Hon. Mr. J. G. Apcar, 
the Hon. Babu Deva Prasad Sarvadicary, Mr. E. O. Emerson, Sir Jyoti 
Singh, Sir Jyoti Singh of Pachote. 

The Maharajadhiraja of Burdwan presented the programmes to Their 
Imperial Majesties, and the Pageant, which consisted of the Nawroz 
Procession and the Dasehara Procession and the dance of the Orissa Paiks, 
then commenced. 

At the conclusion of the Pageant the following had the honour of 
being presented to their Imperial Majesties : — 

Dr. Dennison Ross, Mr. Lascelles, Captain Meadows, Mr. Thornton. 

After taking tea the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress left the 
dais and were conducted to their carriage, attended by the Maharaja Sir 
Prodyot Coomar Tagore and the Maharaja of Nattore, who held the State 

301 



APPENDIX A 

umbrellas, and also by the Maharaja Kumar of Mourbhang and the 
Mirza of Murshidabad, pages to the Queen-Empress. Their Imperial 
Majesties then drove in procession, making a circuit of the grounds on 
which the Pageant took place, and returned to the Government House by 
the Red Road. 

The Escort, under the command of Major McClellan, was furnished 
by the 8th Hussars and 4th Cavalry. 



January 6. 

CALCUTTA. 

This morning at 8.30 the King-Emperor mounted his charger and left 
Government House, attended by the Commander-in-Chief, the Duke of 
Teck, General Sir E. Barrow, Major-General Sir G. C. Kitson, Major- 
General Sir B. T. Mahon, Brigadier-General Sir R. Grimston, Major 
Lord Charles Fitzmaurice, and Major Wigram (Equerries-in-Waiting). 

The King-Emperor inspected the following military camps on the 
Maidan : — U Battery Royal Horse Artillery, 74th Battery Royal Field 
Artillery, 8th Hussars, No. 70 Company Royal Garrison Artillery, 2nd 
Batt. East Yorkshire Regiment, 2nd Batt. the Black Watch, 3rd Batt. 
Middlesex Regiment, a wing of the 1st Batt. Middlesex Regiment, the 66th 
Panjabis, the 2nd Batt. loth Gurkha Rides. 

His Imperial Majesty then rode to Kidderpur and Allpur, and inspected 
the camps of the detachment of the 2nd Lancers, the 4th Cavalry, the i6th 
Cavalry, and the 27th Panjabis. 

The King-Emperor returned from Alipur to Fort William, where the 
2nd Rifle Brigade and the 88th Carnatic Infantry were drawn up in line 
on their parade grounds. 

His Imperial Majesty returned from the Fort to Government House by 
motor. 

In the forenoon the King-Emperor received a deputation from the 
University of Calcutta. His Imperial Majesty entered the Throne-room 
at 10.30, attended by the Governor-General, the Lord Steward, the Duke 
of Teck, Lord Stamfordham, Lieut. -General Sir H. L. Smith-Dorrien, 
Brigadier-General W. R. Birdwood, Brigadier-General H. D'U. Keary, 
Colonel Stanton, Brigadier-General Mercer, the Maharaja of Gwalior, the 
Hon. Major-General Sir Pratap Singh, the Maharaja of Bikaner, Captain 
Godfrey-Faussett, R.N., Major Lord Charles Fitzmaurice (Equerries-in- 
Waiting). 

Dr. Ashutosh Mukerjee (Vice-Chancellor) then, on behalf of the 
University, presented an Address to the King-Emperor, to which His 
Imperial Majesty was graciously pleased to read a reply. 

Before entering the Throne-room the King-Emperor was graciously 
pleased to present to Dr. Ashutosh Mukerjee portraits of Their Imperial 
Majesties to be preserved by the University as mementoes of the King- 
Emperor's visit to Calcutta. 

This morning the (^ueen - Empress visited the Young Women's 
Christian Association, the Presidency General Hospital, the Dufferin 
Hospital, and the Medical College Hospital. 

302 



APPENDIX A 

Her Imperial Majesty left Government House by motor, attended by 
Lady Hardinge, the Duchess of Devonshire, Sir Havelock Charles, and 
Colonel O'Kinealy. 

On arrival at the Young Women's Christian Association the Queen- 
Empress was received by Mrs. Noel Paton, the President. 

After making an inspection of the institute, Her Imperial Majesty pro- 
ceeded to the Presidency General Hospital, where the Queen-Empress was 
received by Surgeon-General Sir Charles Lukis, Colonel Harris, Colonel 
Pilgrim, and the staff of the hospital. Her Imperial Majesty visited the 
various wards in the main building and in the Woodburn block, and then 
proceeded to the Dufferin Hospital. The Queen-Empress was received by 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal and Miss Platts (the surgeon-in-charge). 

After inspecting the hospital Her Imperial Majesty visited the Medical 
College Hospital, on arrival at which the Queen-Empress was received 
by Colonel Drury and the staff of the hospital. Her Imperial Majesty 
inspected the Prince of Wales's block and the Eden Hospital, and then 
returned to Government House. 



January 7. 

CALCUTTA. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress attended Divine Service at the 
Cathedral this morning. 

The procession from Government House to the Cathedral was as 
follows : — 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, the Duke of Teck, Captain 
Godfrey-Faussett, R.N. (Equerry-in-Waiting). 

Third Carriage. — The Lord High Steward, Commander Sir Charles Cust 
(Equerry-in-Waiting). 

Captain Holmes and Captain Maclachlan (extra Aides-de-Camp) were 
in attendance on horseback. 

The route to the Cathedral was by the Mayo Road and Chowringee. 
The Escort was furnished by the 8th Hussars and i6th Cavalry. 

January 8. 

CALCUTTA. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress proceeded from Government 
House to Prinsep's Ghat at 1 1 a.m. this morning. 

The following gentlemen had the honour of taking leave of Their 
Imperial Majesties at Government House : — 
The Commander-in-Chief with his Staff. 
The heads of Local Governments and Administrations. 
The Most Rev. the Bishop of Calcutta, Metropolitan of India and 
Ceylon. 

303 



APPENDIX A 

The Members of the Governor-General's Executive Council. 

The Naval Commander-in-Chief with his staff. 

The President and Members of the Railway Board. 

Additional Members of the Governor-General's Legislative Council. 

The Secretaries and Deputy Secretaries to the Government of India. 

The Headquarters Staff of the Army. 

The heads of Civil and Military Departments. 

The Chief Justice of Bengal. 

The Puisne Judges of the High Court. 

Ruling Chiefs. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress then entered their carriage and 
drove from Government House to Prinsep's Ghat. 
The procession was in the following order : — 

Captain Holmes. Major the Hon. W. 

Cadogan. 
Major Graeme. Brigadier-General 

Mercer. 
Colonel H. R. Stanton. Brigadier-General Brigadier-General 

Birdwood. Keary. 

General Sir E. Barrow. Sir Henry McMahon. 

The Maharaja of The Maharaja of Hon. Major -General Sir 

Bikaner. Gwalior. Pratap Singh. 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE ^UEEN-EMPRESS. 

(On Horseback) (On Horseback) 

Colonel Apostolides. Major Keighley. 

Brigadier-General Cookson. 
Major Wigram. Brigadier-General Sir R. 

Grimston. 

Second Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, The Marquis of Crewe, 
Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. 

Third Carriage. — The Duke of Teck, the Countess of Shaftesbury, 
Commander Sir C. Cust, Sir Derek Keppel. 

Fourth Carriage. — Hon. Venetia Baring, the Lord High Steward, Sir 
R. Havelock Charles. 

Fijth Carriage. — The Lord Chamberlain to the Queen-Empress, Lord 
Stamfordham, Mr. F. H. Lucas. 

As Their Imperial Majesties entered their carriage the National 
Anthem was played, and a salute of loi guns was fired from the ramparts 
of Fort William. 

The Escort, under the command of Brigadier-General Cookson, was 
furnished by — 

U Battery Royal Horse Artillery. 
8th Hussars. 

The Calcutta Light Horse. 
Composite Squadron Light Horse. 



APPENDIX A 

The Governor-General's Bodyguard. 
1 6th Cavalry. 

On arrival at the Ghat the King-Emperor and Queen-Empress were 
received by the Governor-General and Lady Hardinge. The following 
were also present : — 

The Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal with his Staff. 
Members of the Bengal Executive Council. 
The Ruling and feudatory Chiefs of Bengal. 
The principal nobles of Bengal. 
Members of the Bengal Legislative Council. 
Representatives of — 

The Bengal Chamber of Commerce. 

The Commissioners of the Port of Calcutta. 

The British Indian Association. 

The Trades Association. 

The Bengal National Chamber of Commerce. 

The Bihar Landholders' Association. 

The University of Calcutta. 

The Commissioners of the Calcutta Corporation. 

The Hon. Mr. Slacke (Vice-President) then, on behalf of the Legislative 
Council of Bengal, presented an Address to Their Imperial Majesties, to 
which the King-Emperor was graciously pleased to read a reply. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress then proceeded on board the 
steamer Hon.vrah, where Their Imperial Majesties were received by the 
Vice-Chairman of the Port Commissioners, the Port Officer of Calcutta, 
and the Deputy Conservator of the Port of Calcutta. 

The procession from the Ghat to the steamer was in the following 
order : — 

The Governor-General's Staff. 
Captain Holmes. Major Graeme. Major the Hon. W. 

Cadogan. 
Mr. F. H. Lucas. Colonel Stanton. Brigadier-General 

Mercer. 
Brigadier-General Sir R. Havelock Charles. Brigadier-General 
Keary. Bird wood. 

Major Wigram. Sir Derek Keppel. 

Commander Sir C. Cust. Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. 

General Sir A. Barrow. Lord Stamfordham. 

The Lord Chamberlain to the The Lord High Steward. 

Queen-Empress. 
THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. THE KING-EMPEROR. 

Lady Hardinge. The Governor-General. 

The Duke of Teck. The Mistress of the The Marquis of 

Robes. Crewe. 

The Hon. Venetia Baring. The Countess of Shaftesbury. 

The Maharaja of The Maharaja of Hon. Major-General Sir 

Bikaner. Gwalior. Pratap Singh. 

Brigadier-General Sir R. Grimston. Sir Henry McMahon. 

305 X 



APPENDIX A 

As the steamer left Prinsep's Ghat a salute of loi guns was fired by 
H.M.S. Highflyer. 

The steamer, escorted by six ferry boats manned by the Calcutta Port 
Volunteers, proceeded up the Hugli River to Howrah landing-stage, 
where Their Imperial Majesties disembarked and were received by the 
Commissioner of the Burdwan Division, the Magistrate of Howrah, and 
the Agent of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. 

The procession was then re-formed, and the King-Emperor and Queen- 
Empress proceeded to Howrah Station. 

The Governor-General and Lady Hardinge then had the honour of 
taking leave, and Their Imperial Majesties entered the Royal train, which 
left for Bombay at 12.15 p.m. 

The National Anthem was played, and a salute of loi guns was fired 
from the ramparts of Fort William as the train left Howrah Station. 

Guards of Honour of the 3rd Batt. Middlesex Regiment and the 
2nd Batt. loth Gurkhas, the 2nd Rifle Brigade and the Eastern Bengal State 
Railway Volunteers, and the Bengal-Nagpur Railway Volunteer Rifles, 
were mounted at Government House, the Prinsep's Ghat, and Howrah 
Station respectively. 



y^nuary 9. 
KING-EMPEROR'S CAMP, NAGPUR. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress, with their Suite in attendance, 
arrived at Nagpur at 2.15 p.m. to-day, and on alighting from the train 
were received by the Chief Commissioner, the Lord Bishop of Nagpur, and 
the General Officer Commanding the Jubbulpur Brigade. 

Their Imperial Majesties paid a visit to the Fort, and proceeded again 
at 3.15 P.M. by special train for Bombay. 



January 10. 
H.M.S. MEDINA, BOMBAY. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress arrived at Bombay at 12 
noon. 

Their Imperial Majesties were received at the Victoria terminus by the 
Governor-General, the Governor of Bombay and Lady Clarke. 

A Guard of Honour of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Volunteers 
was mounted at the station. 

The King-Emperor having inspected the Guard of Honour, Their 
Imperial Majesties were escorted to their carriage and a procession was 
formed as follows : — 

First Carriage. 

THE KING-EMPEROR. THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. 

Second Carriage. — His Excellency the Governor-General, the Marquis of 
Crewe. 

306 



APPENDIX A 

Third Carriage. — The Mistress of the Robes, His Highness the Duke of 
Teck, Commander Sir C. Cust, Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel. 

Fourth Carriage. — His Excellency the Governor of Bombay, Lady Clarke, 
Lord Stamfordham. 

Fifth Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, the Lord High Steward, 
the Hon. Sir Derek Keppel. 

Sixth Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring, the Lord Chamberlain to the 
Queen-Empress, Sir R. Havelock Charles. 

Major-General Sir R. Grimston and Major Clive Wigram were in 
attendance on horseback. 

The route was by Hornby Road, Esplanade Road, and Apollo Bandar 
Road. 

The Escort was furnished by Y Battery Royal Horse Artillerj', 7th 
Dragoon Guards, Bombay Light Horse, 26th Cavalry, and the Governor's 
Bodyguard. 

On arrival at the amphitheatre Their Imperial Majesties alighted from 
their carriage, and the King-Emperor having inspected the Guard ot 
Honour of the Norfolk Regiment, a procession was formed to the pavilion 
in the following order : — 

Procession at the Bandar, Bombay. 

H.E. The Governor of Bombay's Staft". 

H.E. The Governor-General's Staff. 

Captain Grissell. Captain Hogg. Major Humphreys. 

Mr. Jacomb Hood. Mr. F. H. Lucas. The Hon. J. Fortescue. 

Sir R. Havelock Charles. Captain Godfrey- Major Lord C. 

Faussett. Fitzmaurice. 

The Hon. Sir Derek Sir James Dunlop- Commander Sir C. 

Keppel. Smith. Cust. 

Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Sir Edward Henry. Major-Gen. Sir Stuart 

Keppel. Beatson. 

Gen. Sir H. Smith- The Lord-in-Waiting. Lord Stamfordham. 

Dorrien. 
The Lord Chamberlain to the The Lord High Steward. 

Queen-Empress. 

THE QUEEN-EMPRESS. THE KING-EMPEROR. 

H.H. the Duke of Teck. H.E. the Gov.-Gen. The Marquis of Crewe. 
Lady Clarke. H.E. the Gov. of The Mistress of the 

Bombay. Robes. 

The Hon. Venetia Baring. The Countess of Shaftesbury. 

Major C. Wigram. Brig.-Gen. Sir R. Grimston. 

Their Imperial Majesties having taken their seats in the pavilion, Sir 
R, Lamb, Vice-President of the Bombay Legislative Council, on behalf of 
the Council, read an Address of Farewell, to which the King-Emperor 
was graciously pleased to reply. 

The following gentlemen then had the honour of being presented to 
Their Imperial Majesties by the Governor of Bombay : — The Chief Justice 

307 X2 



APPENDIX A 

of Bombay, the Bishop of Bombay, the Judges of the High Court, the 
Additional Members of the Legislative Council of His Excellency the 
Governor-General, the Commissioner of Customs, the General Officer 
Commanding the 6th (Poona) Division, the General Officer Commanding 
the Bombay Brigade, the Commissioner (Northern Division), the Foreign 
Consular Officers, the Native Chiefs present, and the Sheriff of Bombay. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress, attended by the Governor- 
General, the Governor of Bombay, and Lady Clarke, and the ladies and 
gentlemen of the Suite in attendance, then embarked and left the Apollo 
Bandar for H.M.S. Medina. 

The King-Emperor and Queen-Empress gave a luncheon-party on 
board H.M.S. Medina, to which the following had the honour of being 
invited : — The Governor- General, the Governor of Bombay and Lady 
Clarke, His Highness the Aga Khan, Captain Lumsden, Sir Charles 
Cleveland, Lieut.-Colonel Maxwell, Major Greig, Captain Tod, Captain 
Muir, Major-General Sir R. Grimston, Major Money, Captain Mac- 
lachlan. Captain Hogg, Captain Raben. 

After luncheon the King-Emperor invested the Maharao Raja of 
Bundi with the insignia of a Knight Grand Cross of the Victorian Order. 

His Imperial Majesty's Indian Suite took leave of the King-Emperor 
and Queen-Empress. 

At 6 P.M., the Governor-General having taken leave of their Imperial 
Majesties, H.M.S. Medina left for Port Sudan. 



January IJ. 
H.M.S. ME DIN J, PORT SUDAN. 

The King and Queen arrived at Port Sudan at 7.15 A.M. 

This morning a salute of 2 1 guns was fired from the saluting battery as 
H.M.S. Medina entered the harbour. 

At 7.30 A.M. His Majesty received Field - Marshal the Viscount 
Kitchener, and afterwards the King received the Governor-General, who 
was the bearer of a letter of greeting to Their Majesties from His 
Highness the Khedive. 

The Governor - General was accompanied by Lewa Ramzi Taher 
Pasha, chief A.D.C. to the Khedive. 

At 8 am. the King and Queen disembarked, attended by their Suite, 
and were received on the quay by Field-Marshal the Viscount Kitchener, 
the Governor-General and Lady Wingate, and Major-General Sir R. 
Baron von Slatin, with their respective Staffs, and Mr. Graham Kerr 
(Governor Red Sea Province). 

Guards of Honour of the ist Batt. Alexandra Princess of Wales's Own 
Yorkshire Regiment and the 8th Batt. Egyptian Army were mounted 
opposite the pavilion on the quay. 

Having inspected the Guards of Honour, His Majesty returned to the 
dais. 

The Governor-General then read an Address of Welcome to the King 
and Queen, to which His Majesty was graciously pleased to reply. 

308 



APPENDIX A 

Certain Sheikhs and notables then had the honour of receiving presents 
from His Majesty. 



JaJiuary 20. 
H.M.S. MEDINA, PORT SAID. 

The King and Queen arrived at Port Said this morning. 

At 1. 15 P.M. the King received a visit from the Khedive. His 
Highness remained to luncheon with Their Majesties on board H.M.S. 
Medina, and the following had the honour of being invited : — 

His Highness Kiamel Pasha (ex-Grand Vizier), Muzuffer Bey Kiamel, 
Major-General Sir John Maxwell, His Excellency Said Zoulificar Pasha 
(Grand Master of the Ceremonies), El Leja Watson Pasha, Prince 
D'Arenberg (President Suez Canal), Mr. H. T. Anstruther, Mr. R. S. 
Donkin, Count de Serionne, Mahomed Mahmund Bey (Governor of 
Port Said), Councillor M. Cheetham, Mr. E. C. Blech (British Consul- 
General, Port Said), Captain O. A. G. FitzGerald, and Captain Darell 
(A.D.C. to the General Officer Commanding the troops in Egypt). 

After luncheon the Khedive having taken leave of the King, His 
Majesty disembarked and inspected the Guards of Honour of the ist'Batt. 
Scots Guards under the command of Major Carpenter-Garnier, and the 
3rd Batt. Egyptian Army, imder the command of El Yusbashi Mahom- 
med Effendi Bahgat. 

In the afternoon the Queen received a deputation of ladies from Port 
Said, and Her Majesty was graciously pleased to accept a bouquet, 
presented by Mrs. Blech. 

The following, with the Suite in attendance, had the honour of being 
included in Their Majesties' dinner-party on board H.M.S. Medina this 
evening : — 

Field-Marshal the Viscount Kitchener of Khartoum, Major-General 
Sir John Maxwell, El Lewa Watson Pasha, Colonel Macauley, Councillor 
M. Cheetham, Captain William Goodenough, R.N., Captain Michael 
Culme-Seymour, R.N., Captain Henry Bruce, R.N., Captain Clement 
Greatorex, R.N., Flag-Captain Alfred Chatfield, R.N., and Commander 
George Tomlin. 



January 24. 
H.M.S. MEDINA, MALTA. 

The King and Queen arrived at Malta at 10 a.m. this morning. 

As H.M.S. Medina entered the Grand Harbour, salutes of 21 guns 
were fired from Forts Ricasoli and St. Elmo, from His Majesty's ships, and 
the ships of the French Fleet in harbour, and from the saluting battery. 

On arrival the King received the Governor on board H.M.S. Medina. 

His Majesty then received the Naval Commander-in-Chief, by whom 
the Admirals and Captains of the Mediterranean Fleet had the honour of 
being presented to His Majesty. Admiral A. E. H. Boue de Lapeyrire, 

309 



APPENDIX A 

Rear-Admiral F. P. Moreau, and the Captains of the ships of the French 
Fleet also had the honour of being presented to Their Majesties by the 
Commander-in-Chief. 

Later the King honoured Admiral A. E. H. Boue de Lapeyr^re with a 
visit on board the French flagship Danton. 

This evening the King and Queen honoured the Naval Commander-in- 
Chief and Lady Poe with their presence at a dinner-party at Admiralty 
House, and afterwards attended a gala performance at the Opera. The 
Duchess of Devonshire, the Countess of Shaftesbury, the Hon. Venetia 
Baring, the Duke of Teck, the Marquis of Crewe, the Earl of Shaftesbury, 
the Lord Annaly, the Lord Stamfordham, Lieut. -General Sir Horace 
Smith-Dorrien, Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel, Commander Sir Charles 
Cust, and Captain B. Godfrey-Faussett, R.N., were in attendance. 

Guards of Honour of the Royal Marine Light Infantry and the 2nd 
Batt. King's Own Malta Militia were mounted at Admiralty House and 
the Opera House respectively. 



Jatiuary 30. 

H.M.S. MEDINA, GIBRALTAR. 

The King and Queen arrived at Gibraltar at lo o'clock this morning. 

As H.M.S. Medina entered the harbour salutes of 21 guns were fired 
from the Portuguese men-of-war, His Majesty's ships in harbour, and from 
the saluting battery. 

On arrival His Majesty received the Governor, the Colonial Secretary, 
the Captain of the Portuguese man-of-war, Rear-Admiral Pelham, and the 
Captains of His Majesty's ships in harbour. 

The King then received in audience Sir Maurice de Bunsen, British 
Ambassador, Madrid. 

His Majesty also received Sir Reginald Lister, British Minister, Tangier. 

Deputations from the Exchange Committee and Chamber of Commerce, 
the Roman Catholic Community, and the Hebrew Community, were after- 
wards received in turn by Their Majesties, followed by a Special Mission 
sent by the Sultan of Morocco. 

Si Mohammed el Guebbas (Commissioner for Foreign Affairs), the Pasha 
of Tangier, and the Members of the Mission were introduced to Their 
Majesties by Sir Reginald Lister. 

Si Mohammed el Guebbas then read an Address of Welcome from the 
Sultan, to which His Majesty was graciously pleased to reply. 

In the afternoon the King and Queen drove to the Colonial Hospital, 
where they were received by Dr. W. Turner (Colonial Surgeon), Sir 
Frederick Evans (Chairman), and the Members of the Board of Hospital 
Commissioners. 

After visiting the various wards Their Majesties drove to the Water- 
works, where they were received by Mr. W. W. Copeland (Engineer), 
Colonel A. Grant (Chairman), and the Members of the Board of Sanitary 
Commissioners. 

The Queen then opened the new reservoir works by firing the first mine. 

310 



APPENDIX A 

The King and Queen honoured the Governor and Lady Hunter with a 
visit at Government House, where they remained to tea and then returned 
on board H.M.S. Medina. 



January 31. 
H.M.S. MEDINA, GIBRALTAR. 

This morning at 9 a.m. the Infante Don Carlos, escorted by a Spanish 
naval squadron, arrived at Gibraltar. 

Salutes of 21 guns were fired from His Majesty's ships in harbour and 
the saluting battery as the squadron entered the harbour. 

At 9.30 A.M. the Infante visited the King and Queen on board H.M.S. 
Medina, where he was received by the Duke of Teck and the Lord High 
Steward. 

His Royal Highness was accompanied by the Governor of Alge(;iras, 
and attended by his personal Suite and the Admiral and Captains of the 
ships of the Spanish squadron, who had the honour of being presented to 
Their Majesties. 

The King afterwards visited the Infante on board the Spanish flagship. 

This afternoon Their Majesties drove to the Military Hospital. 

Firtt Carriage. 

THE KING, THE QUEEN, and THE Governor. 

Second Carriage. — Lady Hunter, the Duke of Teck, Lieut. -General Sir H. 
Smith-Dorrien, and Commander Sir Charles Cust. 

Third Carriage. — The Countess of Shaftesbury, The Marquis of Crewe, 
the Earl of Shaftesbury, and Sir Richard Havelock Charles. 

After visiting the hospital Their Majesties proceeded to the Mount, 
where they honoured the Admiral-Superintendent and Mrs. Pelham with 
a visit and remained to tea. 

After tea Their Majesties returned on board H.M.S. Medina. 



February 4. 

H.M.S. MED IN J, SPITHEAD. 

H.M.S. Medina arrived at Spithead at 10 a.m. this morning. 

The King and Queen attended Divine Service on board at 10.30 a.m., 
and afterwards Their Majesties received the Captains of the cruisers of the 
Escort : — 

Captain Goodenough, H.M.S. Cochrane ; Captain Michael Culme- 
Seymour, H.M.S. Argyll ; Captain H. H. Bruce, H.M.S. Defence ; and 
Captain Greatorex, H.M.S. Natal. 

3" 



APPENDIX A 

February 5. 

ARRIVAL AT PORTSMOUTH. 

Previous to disembarking this morning the King received on board 
H.M.S. Medina the Rt. Hon. Winston Spencer-Churchill, M.P. (First 
Lord of the Admiralty), and Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
Admiral Sir Arthur Moore (Commander-in-Chief at Portsmouth), Rear- 
Admiral A. G. Tate (Superintendent, Portsmouth Dockyard), and the 
Flag Officers with their personal Staffs, and the Captains of His Majesty's 
ships in harbour and at Spithead. 

Their Majesties disembarked shortly after 10 o'clock, and were received 
on the jetty by the Duke of Wellington (Acting Lord-Lieutenant of the 
County of Hampshire), General Sir C. W. H. Douglas (General Officer 
Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Command), and Major-General W. E. 
Blewitt (General Officer Commanding Southern Coast Defences). 

Royal salutes were fired from His Majesty's ships and the land forts at 
Portsmouth at 9 o'clock, and Guards of Honour of the Royal Marine Light 
Infantry (under the command of Captain Norman O. Burge) and of the 
Royal Marine Artillery (under the command of Captain Lancelot D. 
Briscoe) were mounted at the South Railway Jetty. 

An Address was presented to Their Majesties by the Mayor of Ports- 
mouth (Sir Scott Foster) on board H.M.S. MediJia on behalf of the 
Corporation of Portsmouth, to which the King handed a reply. 

ARRIVAL AT VICTORIA. 

The King and Queen were met on arrival at Victoria Station by Prince 
and Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein with Princess Victoria and 
Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, Princess Louise (Duchess of 
Argyll) and the Duke of Argyll, the Duchess of Albany, Princess Louis 
of Battenberg and Princess Louise of Battenberg, the Countess Feodore 
Gleichen and the Countess Helena Glelchen. 

The Members of the Corps Diplomatique as follows were present : — 

Their Excellencies the French Ambassador, the German Ambassador, 
the Countess Benckendorff, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, the Spanish 
Ambassador, the Turkish Ambassador, the Italian Ambassador and the 
Marchesa Imperial!, the Netherlands Minister, the Countess de Lalaing, 
the Brazilian Minister, the Swedish Minister and the Countess Wrangel, 
the Danish Minister, the Uruguayan Minister, the Colombian Minister, 
the Norwegian Minister and Madame Vogt, the Liberlan Minister and 
Madame Cromelin, Madame Gennadius, the Bulgarian Minister and 
Madame Tzokow, the Argentine Minister and Madame de Dominguez, 
the Chilian Minister and Madame de Edwards, the Siamese Minister, the 
Persian Minister, and the Mexican Minister and Madame de Belstigui. 

The Haytian Minister-Resident, the Guatemalan Charge d'Affalres, the 
Peruvian Charg^ d'Affalres, the Cuban Charge d'Affalres, the Bolivian 
Charge d'Affalres and Madame Suarez, the Japanese Charge d'Affalres, the 
Portuguese Charge d'Affalres, the United States Charge d'Affalres, the Swiss 

312 



APPENDIX A 

Charg-e d'Affaires, the Servian Charge d'Affaires and Madame Grouitch, 
and Monsieur Vouros (Greek Legation). 

Their Excellencies the Russian Ambassador, the Belgian Minister, the 
Greek Minister, the Chinese Minister, the Charges d'AfFaires for Costa 
Rica and tor Roumania, Madame de Villa Urrutia, Madame Regis de 
Oliveira, Madame Perez Triana, and Mrs. Yamaza were unavoidably pre- 
vented from attending. 

The following members of the Government in the Cabinet were present 
at Victoria Station upon the arrival of the King and Queen : 

The Rt. Hon. H. H. Asquith, M.P. (Prime Minister and First Lord of 
the Treasury), the Earl Carrington (Lord Privy Seal) and the Countess 
Carnngton, the Viscount Haldane (Secretary of State for War), the Rt. 
Hon. R. McKenna, M.P. (Secretary of State for the Home Department) 
and Mrs. McKenna, the Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Grey, Bt., M.P. (Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs), the Rt. Hon. L. Harcourt, M.P. (Secretary of 
State for the Colonies) and Mrs. Harcourt, and the Rt. Hon. H Samuel, 
M.P. (Postmaster-General). 

There were also present :— 

The Archbishop of Canterbury, the Duke of Norfolk, the Duke of 
Devonshire, the Marquis and Marchioness of Lansdowne, the Marchioness 
of Crewe, the Marquis de Soveral, Earl of Aberdeen, the Earl and Countess 
of Bessborough, the Earl and Countess Grey, Field -Marshal the Earl 
Roberts, the Viscount Esher, General the Lord William Seymour, the Lord 
and Lady Sandhurst, the Lord Revelstoke, the Lord Strathcona and Mount 
Royal (High Commissioner for the Dominion of Canada), the Rt. Hon. Sir 
George Reid (High Commissioner for the Commonwealth of Australia), 
the Rt. Hon. Ameer Ali (member of the Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council) and Mrs. Ali, Admiral the Hon. Sir Edmund Fremantle (Rear- 
Admiral of the United Kingdom), Field-Marshal Sir W. G. Nicholson 
(Chief of the Imperial General Staff), the Hon. Sir Richard Solomon (High 
Commissioner for the Union of South Africa), Lieut.-General Sir Arthur 
Paget (General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Command), Sir 
Richmond Ritchie (Permanent Under-Secretary of State for India), the 
Hon. Sir W. Hall Jones (High Commissioner for the Dominion of New 
Zealand), Sir Theodore Morison and the Members of the Council of the 
Secretary of State for India, Rear-Ad miral Sir Adolphus FitzGeorge, 
Colonel Sir Augustus FitzGeorge, Major-General Sir A. E. Codrington 
(General Officer Commanding the London District), Colonel R. Scott-Kerr 
(Commanding Grenadier Guards), Colonel the Hon. W. Lambton (Com- 
manding Coldstream Guards), Colonel G. J. Cuthbert (Commanding Scots 
Guards), and Mr. Edward White (Chairman of the London County 
Council). 

The Lady Gweneth Ponsonby had the honour of presenting a bouquet 
to the Queen. 

The Rt. Hon. Sir Thomas Crosby (Lord Mayor of London) and the 
Lady Mayoress, the Sheriffs of London, and the Lord Mayors of Birming 
ham,_ Bristol, Cardiff, Dublin, Liverpool, Leeds, Manchester, Norwich, 
Sheffield, and York, and the Lord Provosts of Aberdeen, Dundee, Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, and Perth were present. 

A Guard of Honour of the 3rd Batt. Grenadier Guards, with the Colour 

313 



APPENDIX A 

and Band of the regiment, under the command of Captain B. N. Brooke, 
was mounted at the station. 

PROCESSION TO THE PALACE. 

The King having inspected the Guard of Honour, a Royal carriage 
procession was formed in the following order : — 

First Carriage. 

(Plain Road Landau and Four Bay Horses.) 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 

Second Carriage. 

(Plain Road Landau and Four Bay Horses.) 

The Duchess of Devonshire (Mistress of the Robes), the Duke of Teck 
(Personal Aide-de-Camp to the King), the Earl of Durham (Lord 
High Steward), Commander Sir Charles Cust, Bt., R.N. (Equerry-in- 

Waiting). 

Third Carriage. 

(Plain Road Landau and Four Bay Horses.) 

The Countess of Shaftesbury (Lady-in-Waiting), the Marquis of Crewe 
(Secretary of State for India), the Earl of Shaftesbury (Lord Chamber- 
Iain to the Queen), the Lord Annaly (Lord-in- Waiting). 

Fourth Carriage. 
(Plain Road Landau and Four Bay Horses.) 

The Hon. Venetia Baring (Maid of Honour), the Rt. Hon. Sir William 
Carington (Keeper of the Privy Purse), the Lord Stamfordham (Private 
Secretary), the Hon. Sir Derek Keppel (Equerry-in-Waiting). 

Fifth Carriage. 

(Plain Road Landau and Four Bay Horses.) 

Lieut. -General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien (A.D.C. General-in-Waiting), Sir 
Edward Henry (Commissioner of Metropolitan Police), Major-General 
Sir Stuart Beatson (extra Equerry), Captain Bryan Godfrey-Faussett, 
R.N. (Equerry-in-Waiting). 

Sixth Carriage. 

(Plain Road Landau and Four Bay Horses.) 

Colonel Sir James Dunlop-Smith (Political A.D.C. to the Secretary of State 
for India), Sir Richard Havelock Charles (Sergeant-Surgeon), Mr. 
F. H. Lucas (Private Secretaiy to the Secretary of State for India), the 
Hon. John Fortescue (Librarian). 



APPENDIX A 

Major Lord Charles Fitzmaurice and Major Clive Wigram (Equerrles- 
Jn-Waiting) were in attendance upon horseback. 

Their Majesties were escorted from Victoria Station to the Palace by a 
Captain's Escort of the Royal Horse Guards, under the command of Major 
the Viscount Crichton. 

The route of the Royal procession was by Buckingham Palace Road, 
Victoria Street, Parliament Square, Parliament Street, Whitehall, the 
Admiralty Arch, and the Mall. 

Princess Mary, Prince George, and Prince John met Their Majesties 
at the Grand Entrance to the Palace. 

The Earl Spencer (Lord Chamberlain), the Master ot the Household, 
the Hon. Sidney Greville (Paymaster of the Household), Sir Walter 
Campbell, Mr. Harry L. Verney, and Captain Philip Hunloke (Grooms- 
in-Waiting), Sir Francis Laking, Bt., the Countess of Minto, the Lady 
Ampthill, and the Lady Desborough (Ladies in Waiting), the Lady Eva 
Dugdale (Woman of the Bedchamber in Waiting), the Hon. Katharine 
Villiers and the Hon. Mabel Gye (Maids of Honour in Waiting), the 
Hon. A. Nelson Hood, Mr. E. W. Wallington, and Lieut.-Colonel F. 
Dugdale (Treasurer, Private Secretary, and Equerry to the Queen), Mile. 
Dussau and Mr. H. P. Hansell, were in attendance at the Palace upon the 
arrival of the King and Queen ; and the Earl of Granard (Master of the 
Horse), Colonel Sir Douglas Dawson (Comptroller in the Lord Chamber- 
lain's Department), the Hon. Arthur Walsh (His Majesty's Master of 
the Ceremonies), the Hon. Richard Moreton (Deputy -Master of the 
Ceremonies), Captain the Hon. Sir Charles Wentworth FitzWilliam 
(Crown Equerry), Lieut.-Colonel Sir F. Ponsonby (Equerry to the King), 
and Colonel G. C. Nugent (Field Officer in Brigade Waiting) were in 
attendance at the railway station. 



February 6. 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE. 

The King and Queen were present this morning in St. Paul's Cathedral 
at a Service of Thanksgiving for Their Majesties' safe return to this 
country. 

Their Majesties, accompanied by the Prince of Wales, Princess Mary 
and Prince George, left the Palace at 1 1.40 o'clock, escorted by a Captain's 
Escort of ist Life Guards, under the command of Captain the Lord Hugh 
Grosvenor, a State Procession having been formed in the following order : — 

First Carriage. 
THE KING. THE QUEEN. 

The Prince of Wales and Princess Mary. 
The following were in attendance on horseback : — 
Major-General Sir A. E. Codrington Lt.-Gen. Sir H. L. Smith-Dorrien 
(General Officer Commanding (Aide-de-Camp General- 

the London District). in-Waiting). 



APPENDIX A 

Major the Lord Charles Major Clive Wigram Capt. the Hon. 

Fitzmaurlce (Equerry-in-Waiting). Sir Charles 

(Equerry-in-Waiting). Wentworth Fitzwilliam 

(Crown Equerry). 
Colonel G. C. Nugent Lieut. -Colonel the Duke of Teck 

(Field Officer in Brigade Waiting). (Silver-Stick-in-Waiting). 

Capt. the Hon. J. F. Forbes Trefusis Captain G. E. M. Mundy 

(Adjutant in Brigade Waiting). (Silver Stick Adjutant). 

Second Carriage. — Prince George, the Duchess of Devonshire (Mistress of 
the Robes), the Countess of Shaftesbury (Lady-in-Waiting), the 
Earl of Granard (Master of the Horse). 

Third Carriage. — The Hon. Venetia Baring (Maid of Honour in Waiting), 
the Earl of Durham (Lord High Steward), the Earl of Shaftesbury 
(Lord Chamberlain to the Queen). 

Fourth Carriage. — The Lord Annaly (Lord-in-Waiting), Lieut. -Colonel 
the Rt. Hon. Sir W. Carington (Keeper of the Privy Purse), Lieut.- 
Colonel the Lord Stamfordham (Private Secretary), Captain Philip 
Hunloke (Groom-in- Waiting). 

Fifth Carriage. — Commander Sir Charles Cust, Bt., R.N., Equerry-in- 
Waiting), the Hon. Sir Derek Keppel (Equerry-in-Waiting), Lieut. - 
Colonel Sir Frederick Ponsonby (Equerry-in-Waiting), Captain B. 
Godfrey-Faussett, R.N. (Equerry-in-Waiting). 

The King's Guard of the ist Batt. Grenadier Guards, with the Colour 
and Band of the regiment, under the command of Captain L. V. Colby, 
was mounted in the Quadrangle of the Palace. 

The route of the Royal Procession was by the Mall, Marlborough Gate, 
Pall Mall, Trafalgar Square, the Strand, Fleet Street, and Ludgate Hill to 
St. Paul's Cathedral. 

The Procession halted at Trafalgar Square, and the King received a 
deputation from the Westminster City Council, headed by the Mayor, 
who presented an Address of Welcome to the King and Queen, to which 
His Majesty handed a reply. 

The King and Queen were received at Temple Bar by the Lord Mayor, 
the Sheriffs, and members of the Court of Aldermen and Common 
Council. 

The Lord Mayor, in accordance with ancient custom, surrendered the 
City Sword to the King, which His Majesty returned. 

The King and Queen afterwards proceeded to the Cathedral, where a 
Guard of Honour of the ist Batt. Coldstream Guards, under the command 
of Captain W. A. Fuller-Maitland, was mounted. 

A Detachment of the London Diocesan Church Lads' Brigade lined the 
steps leading to the West Door of the Cathedral. 

Queen Alexandra, accompanied by the Princess Victoria, attended by 
Her Majesty's Suite, and escorted by a Captain's Escort of ist Life Guards 
under the command of Lieutenant L. H. Hardy, had proceeded before- 
hand to St. Paul's Cathedral. 

316 



APPENDIX A 



Prince and Princess Christian of Schlesvvig-Holstein, Princesses Victoria 
and Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, Princess Louise (Duchess of 
Argyll) and the Duke of Argyll, the Duchess of Albany, Prince Arthur 
of Connaught, Princess Louis of Battenberg, with Prince George and 
Princess Louise of Battenberg, the Duchess of Teck and Prince George 
of Teck, and the Countesses Feodore and Helena Gleichen had previously 
arrived and taken their appointed places. 

Their Majesties were received at the Cathedral by the Dean and 
Chapter, together with the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs. 

The Archbishop of Canterbur)% the Archbishop of York, and Bishop 
Boyd Carpenter (Clerk of the Closet) were present. 

The King, the Queen, and Queen Alexandra were conducted to their 
scats, a procession being formed in the following order : — 

Minor Canons. 

Prebendaries. 

Bishops. 

Clerk of the Closet. 

Archbishop of York. 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Canons Residentiary. 

Sheriffs. 

The Lord Mayor (bearing the Pearl Sword). 

THE KING. Dean of St. Paul's. 



Senior Canon. THE gUEEN 

Prince of Wales. 
The Princess Victoria. Prince George 

The Earl of Durham (Lord High 



Steward). 

The Countess of Shaftesbury (Lady 
of the Bedchamber to the Queen). 
Admiral Sir M. Culme-Seymour, Bt. 
(Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom) 

The Earl Howe 

(Lord Chamberlain 

to Queen Alexandra). 

The Hon. Venetia Baring 

(Maid of Honour to the 

Queen). 



The Earl of Gosford 

(Vice-Chamberlain 
to Queen Alexandra). 



Capt. B. Godfrey- 

Faussett 

(Equerry to the King). 



The Lord Annaly 
(Lord-in-Waiting 

to the King). 

The Countess of 

Gosford (Lady of the 

Bedchamber to Queen 

Alexandra). 

Lieut. -Colonel 

the Rt. Hon. 

Sir William Carington 

(Keeper of the Privy 

Purse). 

Commander Sir Charles 

Cust, Bt., R.N. 
(Equerry to the King). 



Queen Alexandra. 

Princess Mary. 
The Earl of Granard (Master of 
the Horse). 

The Duchess of Devonshire 
(Mistress of the Robes to the Queen). 
Field-Marshal the Lord Grenfell 
(Gold-Stick-in- Waiting). 

The Earl of Shaftesbury 
(Lord Chamberlain 

to the Queen). 
The Hon. Charlotte 

KnoUys (Woman 

of the Bedchamber to 

Queen Alexandra). 

The Lord Stamfordham 

(Private Secretary 

to the King). 



The Hon. Sir Derek 

Keppel 
(Equerry to the King). 



APPENDIX A 

Lt.-Col. Sir Frederick Capt. the Lt. -Gen. Sir Major-Gen. Sir 

Ponsonby (Equerry Hon. Sir Charles H. L. Smith- A. E. Codrington 

to the King). Fitzwilliam Dorrien (Aide-de- (General Officer 

(Crown Equerry). Camp General-in- Commanding the 
Waiting). London District). 

Major the Lord Charles Captain Philip Hunloke Major Clive Wigram 
Fitzmaurice (Groom-in-Waiting (Equerry-in- Waiting 

(Equerry-in-Waiting to to the King). to the King), 

the King). 

Colonel Henry Streatfeild Colonel Sir Arthur Davidson 

(Equerry-in-Waiting to Queen (Equerry-in-Waiting to Queen 

Alexandra). Alexandra). 

Colonel G. C. Nugent (Field Lieut.-Colonel the Duke of Teck 

Officer in Brigade Waiting). (Silver-Stick-in-Waiting). 

The National Anthem was then sung, being followed by the special 
form of service appointed for the occasion. 

At the conclusion of the service the Recessional Hymn was sung, during 
which Their Majesties were conducted by the Lord Mayor, the Clerk of 
the Closet, and the Dean and Chapter to the West Door of the Cathedral, 
where the Royal Procession was re-formed and proceeded by way of 
Ludgate Hill, New Bridge Street, the Embankment, Northumberland 
Avenue, Admiralty Arch, and the Mall to Buckingham Palace. 

In addition to Their Majesties' Suites, the following were on duty in 
the Cathedral : — 

Colonel Sir Douglas Dawson (Comptroller of the Lord Chamberlain's 
Department), the Hon. Arthur Walsh (Master of the Ceremonies), the 
Hon. Richard Moreton (Marshal of the Ceremonies), the Rt. Hon. Sir S. 
Ponsonby-Fane, Mr. Lionel Cust, Sir David Erskine, Mr. Arnold Royle, 
Major-General Sir John Slade, Mr. Horace West, Mr. Percy Armytage, Vice- 
Admiral Charles Windham, Mr. Thomas Kingscote, Captain Gerald Ellis, 
Colonel H. Fludyer, Mr. Montague Eliot, and Colonel Lord William Cecil 
(Gentlemen Ushers), and Mr.R. F.Synge (Deputy-Marshal of the Ceremonies). 
Major J. C. Brinton (late 2nd Life Guards), Captain Phillips and 
Lieutenant A. Leigh Bennet (Coldstream Guards), Major McCalmont and 
Lieutenant Lord Arthur Hay (Irish Guards), and the gentlemen of the 
Lord Chamberlain's Department were also on duty in the Cathedral. 
Amongst those present at the Service were : — 

Their Excellencies the Ambassadors, Foreign Ministers and Chefs de 
Mission, the Cabinet Ministers and other Members of the Government, ex- 
Cabinet Ministers, the Speaker, Members of the Houses of Parliament, the 
Lord Mayors and Lord Provosts of the United Kingdom, the Mayors of 
the Metropolitan boroughs, the Chairman and Members of the London 
County Council, the Permanent Officials of the various departments of the 
State, the Council of the Secretary of State for India, officers of the Army 
and Navy, a detachment of officers and men from H.M.S. Medina, His 
Majesty's Judges, the Aldermen and Common Councilmen of the City of 
London, representatives of the City Companies, the Households of the King 
and Queen, Queen Alexandra and the Royal Family, officials and visitors 
from India and the Colonies. 

The route to and from Buckingham Palace and St. Paul's Cathedral was 
lined with troops. 

.-.18 



APPENDIX B 

THE KING-EMPEROR'S STAFF IN INDIA. 

Permanent Staff. 

Brigadier-General R. E. Grimston, Militarj' Secretary. 

Major E. D. Money (ist Gurkha Rifles), Assistant Military Secretary. 

Major A. R. Stockley (ist Sappers and Miners), Assistant Military 

Secretary. 
Captain R. E. T. Hogg (38th Central India Horse), Assistant Military 

Secretary. 
Lieut. -Colonel R. Bird (Indian Medical Service), Surgeon. 

EXTRA STAFF AT DELHI. 

Attached. 

Sir John Hewett, President Durbar Committee. 

Colonel Sir Henry McMahon, Master of the Ceremonies. 

The King's Honorary Aides-de-Camp. 

Hon. Major-General the Maharaja of Gwalior. 
Hon. Major-General Sir Pratap Singh. 
Hon. Colonel Nawab Sir Aslam Khan. 
Hon. Colonel the Maharaja of Bikaner. 
Hon. Colonel the Nawab of Rampur. 
Hon. Colonel Nawab Sir Hafiz Khan. 

Extra Equerry. 
Lieut. -Colonel H. D. Watson (9th Gurkha Rifles). 

The King's Aides-de-Camp. 

Brigadier-General W. R. Birdwood. 
Brigadier-General H. D'U. Keary. 
Brigadier-General C. J. Melliss. 



APPENDIX B 

Colonel H. E. Stanton. 
Colonel Viscount Hardinge. 
Colonel F. Goodwin. 

Extra Aides-de-Camp. 

Major the Hon. W. G. S. Cadogan (loth Hussars), 
Captain L. F. Ashburner (Royal Fusiliers). 
Captain H. Hill (Royal Welsh Fusiliers). 
Captain R. Raban (ist Skinner's Horse). 

British Officers from Indian Regiments. 

Captain G. Craster (6th Cavalry). 

Captain J. K. Gatacre (nth Lancers). 

Major E. C. Corbyn (i8th Lancers). 

Captain E. L. Pophani (26th Cavalry). 

Captain A. B. Eckford (39th Central India Horse). 

Captain F. E. G. Talbot (14th Sikhs). 

Captain B. E. A. Manson (6ist Pioneers). 

Captain T. Oakes (102nd Grenadiers). 

Captain N. R. Anderson (130th Baluchis). 

Major F. G. C. Ross (2nd Battalion 2nd Gurkha Rifles). 

Lieut.-Colonel H. L. Roberts (16th Cavalry). 

Indian Officers from Indian Regiments. 
Cwvalry. 

Risaldar Ismail Khan (ist Lancers, Skinner's Horse). 

Risaldar Ramjas (6th Cavalry). 

Ressaidar Anup Singh (nth Lancers). 

Risaldar Gul Nawaz Khan (i8th Lancers). 

Risaldar Saiyid Abdullah (26th Cavalry). 

Risaldar Lall Khan (38th Central India Horse). 

Risaldar Mumtaz Ali Khan (39th Central India Horse). 

Infantry. 

Subadar Gulab Singh (14th Sikhs). 

Subadar Ram Das (6 ist Pioneers). 

Subadar Sahib Din (102nd Grenadiers). 

Subadar Sultan Mir (130th Baluchis). 

Subadar Jangbir Thapa (ist Batt. ist Gurkha Rifles). 

Subadar Rudrnarain Nagarkoti (2nd Batt. ist Gurkha Rifles). 

Subadar Jangbir Thapa (ist Batt. 2nd Gurkha Rifles). 

Subadar Sital Singh Lama (2nd Batt. 2nd Gurkha Rifles). 

Subadar Mihr Din (ist Sappers and Miners). 

STAFF IN NIPAL. 

Brigadier-General R. E. Grimston. 

Captain R. E. T. Hogg (38th Central India Horse). 

Lieut.-Colonel H. D. Watson (9th Gurkha Rifles). 



APPENDIX B 

STAFF FOR THE QUEEN-EMPRESS'S RAJPUTANA TOUR. 

Lieut. -Colonel A. D. G. Bannerman. 
Major E. D. Money (ist Gurkha Rifles). 
Captain H. Hill (Royal Welsh Fusiliers). 
Lieut. -Colonel R. Bird, Surgeon. 

EXTRA STAFF AT CALCUTTA. 
The King's Honorary Aides-de-Camp. 

Extra Aides-de-Camp. 

Major Hon. W. G. S. Cadogan (loth Hussars). 
Captain A. F. C. Maclachlan (King's Royal Rifles). 
Major L. O. Graeme (Cameron Highlanders). 
Captain H. Holmes (Royal Irish Fusiliers). 

EXTRA STAFF AT BOMBAY. 
Extra Aides-de-Camp on Arrival. 

Captain B. S. Grissell (Norfolk Regiment). 

Major L. O. Graeme (Cameron Highlanders). 

Captain L. F. Ashburner (Royal Fusiliers). 

Major G. G. P. Humphreys (127th Baluch Lifantry). 

Extra Aides-de-Camp on Departure. 

Major G. G. P. Humphreys (127th Baluch Infantry). 
Captain R. Raban (ist Lancers). 
Captain A. F. C. Maclachlan (King's Royal Rifles). 
Captain B. S. Grissell (Norfolk Regiment). 



321 



APPENDIX C 



REGIMENTS IN INDIA WITH WHICH THE KING 
IS ASSOCIATED AS COLONEL-IN-CHIEF. 

British Service. 

loth Prince of Wales's Own Royal Hussars. 

Royal Artillery. 

Royal Engineers. 

The Royal Fusiliers. 

The Norfolk Regiment. 

The Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

The King's Royal Rifle Corps. 

The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders. 

Princess Victoria's (Royal Irish Fusiliers). 

Indian Service. 

ist Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinner's Horse). 

6th King Edward's Own CavalrJ^ 

nth King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse). 

102nd King Edward's Own Grenadiers. 

2nd King Edward's Own Gurkha Rifles (the Sirmoor Rifles). 

1 8th King George's Own Lancers. 

26th King George's Own Light Cavalry. 

38th King George's Own Central India Horse. 

39th King George's Own Central India Horse. 

I St King George's Own Sappers and Miners. 

14th King George's Own Ferozepur Sikhs. 

61st King George's Own Pioneers. 

130th King George's Own Baluchis (Jacob's Rifles). 

I St King George's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Malaun Regiment). 

REGIMENT WITH WHICH THE QUEEN IS ASSOCIATED. 
127th Queen Mary's Own Baluch Light Infantry. 



322 



APPENDIX D 

THE PRAYER OF THE SIKHS ON THE 
13th of DECEMBER. 

SRI WAHGURU JI KI FATAH ! 

Having first remembered the Sword meditate on Guru Nanak ; 

Then on Guru Angad, Amar Das, and Ram Das ; may they assist us ! 

Remember Arjan, Har Gobind, and the holy Hari Rai ; 

Meditate on the holy Hari Krishan, a sight of whom dispelled all 
sorrow. 

Remember Teg Bahadar, and the nine treasures shall come hastening 
to your homes. 

Ye holy Gurus, everywhere assist us ! 

May the tenth King, the holy GURU GOVIND SINGH, everywhere 
assist us. 

God Himself knoweth, He Himself acteth ; it is He who adjusteth. 

Standing in His presence, NANAK, make supplication. 

Sikhs of the true Immortal God, turn your thoughts to the teachings of 
the Granth Sahib and the deeds of the Khalsa ; utter Wahguru ! 

Meditating on the Deathless One, endowed with all power, compassion- 
ate, and just, utter Wahguru ! 

Meditating on the deeds of those who worshipped the Name, plied the 
sword, ate and distributed their food in companionship and overlooked 
others' faults, O Khalsa, utter Wahguru ! 

O Deathless Creator, illimitable, this creature forgetting Thy name is so 
attached to worldly goods, that he hath forgotten the Real Thing. With- 
out Thy Supreme mercy how shall we cross the ocean of the world ? O 
great King, lust, wrath, greed, worldly love, jealousy, and other evil 
passions greatly trouble our minds, but on coming towards Thee worldly 
maladies and afflictions are healed and dispelled. Show us such favour 
that we may by word and deed be Thine, and that in all things we may 
obtain Thine assistance and support. 

Grant to thy Sikhs the gift ot Sikhism, the gift of the Guru's instruction, 
the gift of faith, the gift of confidence in Thee, and the gift of reading and 
understanding the holy Granth Sahib. 

May the Sikh choirs, mansions, and banners ever abide ! Victory to 

323 



APPENDIX D 

the faith ; May the minds of the Sikhs be humble but their intellects 
exalted ! Utter Wahguru ! Wahguru ! ! Wahaguru ! ! ! 

O Primal Father, Everlasting Creator, we Thy humble worshippers are 
to-day assembled at the spot where our Messenger of salvation, the true 
Guru Teg Bahadar, seeing the people of India the victims of an oppressive 
and unjust Government, made the following prophecy in 1675 ^■^■ 

"I behold coming from across the ocean a race of men who will spread 
peace and dispense justice and root out tyranny and oppression." By Thy 
mercy, O God, his words have proved true, for the British Government, 
which confers happiness on its subjects, has been firmly established in India. 
We Sikhs of the Gurus in the midst of our happiness and rejoicing to-day 
specially render Thee our humble gratitude and thanks that our beloved 
Emperor has come to the City where our holy Guru the Bestower of 
salvation uttered the above fateful prophecy, in order to place the Crown 
of the realm of many lands on his head. 

O Eternal God, may this peaceful and just sovereignty ever endure and 
may the Emperor George and his gracious consort Queen Mary with their 
family abide in happiness, and may their Empire extend and prosper ! 

Beloved Sikh brethren, let us of one mind thank the Cherisher of the 
world through Whose favour we have beheld this magnificent coronation 
ceremony, and let us conclude the great event with three cheers of Sat Sir: 
Akal for the safekeeping and prosperity of Their Majesties and the Royal 
Family. 



THE END 



Printed by R. & R. Clark, Limited, Edinhirgk. 



DURBAR. 
DELHI, 12th DECEMBER. 1911. 




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