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The Work of the Canadian Presbyterian Mission 







We welcome Mr. Taylor's book, giving the story of 
our Central India Mission. Such a book is long overdue. 
Formosa and Central India are the two Foreign Mission 
Fields of the Presbyterian Church in Canada (Western 
Section) whose origin dates back to the years immediate- 
ly following the Union of 1875. The outstanding 
personality and unique achievements of George Leslie 
Mackay appealed to the imagination of Canadians and 
created a demand for some permanent record of his 
life and work. This story, so well told by himself and 
edited by Dr. J. A. Macdonald, has familiarized the 
whole Church with the history of our Mission in 
Formosa ; but in the larger field of Central India, with 
a greater number, of Missionaries and a more varied 
type of work, no one personality commanded attention 
in quite the same way. No one life story could give the 
history of the Mission, and, apart from "The Redemp- 
tion of Malwa," a very valuable account of the origin 
and early development of the Mission by Rev. W. A. 
Wilson, D.D., and those illuminating sketches of 
"Village Work in India," by Rev. Norman Russell, 
there has been nothing on Central India available for 
Missionary Libraries and Mission Study Classes. 

Mr. Taylor has written the book we need. In few 
words he presents the call and claim of India with its 
315,000,000 people one-fifth of the world's inhabitants 
and three-fourths of the population of the British 
Empire. Briefly he sketches the history and describes 



the physical features of Central India, makes us see the 
people, their thoughts, their religions, their caste system, 
their manner of living, and, in and through all, their 
need of that new conception of God which comes with 
the vision of Jesus Christ. Then, we learn how the work 
began in these neglected native States, how the preach- 
ing of the Gospel was accompanied by ministries of 
healing, how the zenanas were entered, schools and high 
schools founded, industrial work for the native Chris- 
tian community established, and all crowned by a 
Christian College doing University work. Streams 
have broken forth in the desert. 

Mr. Taylor tells his story simply and vividly, is 
concrete and specific, yet does not overload with detail. 
The book is such that any intelligent person who sits 
down and reads it will rise with a comprehensive 
knowledge of India and of what missionary work there 
means ; but the aim has been to provide a suitable 
text-book for Missionary Societies and Mission Study 
Classes, and a group study of this book, taking up a 
chapter a week with the suggested supplementary 
readings, would be a liberal education. 

No time could be more fitting for such a study than 
the present when all Britishers are filled with a new 
pride and joy in India because of the splendid loyalty 
of her people to the Empire in this supreme crisis. The 
intelligent loyalty of India has saved the Empire 
billions of money and millions of lives. Nay, had the 
people of India not proved loyal, we might to-day be 
witnessing the breaking up of the British Empire ; and 
who can tell how far India's appreciation of Britain's 


righteous cause has been due to the Christian message, 
the Christian schools and colleges, the Christian hospi- 
tals and dispensaries, the kindly ministries and wise 
teachings of the noble army of missionaries ? Titanic 
as is the present struggle, it is small compared to the 
conflict that will be if, in the future, East and West are 
arrayed against each other. But in God's good Pro- 
vidence India occupies the key position in Asia. Be- 
longing to the Orient, India is at the same time a loyal 
partner in a great Western Empire ; and may we not 
hope that an India, Asiatic yet British, Oriental yet 
Christian, will be the mediator between East and West ? 
The Christian conquest of India may well appeal to 
the heroism of our young men and the devotion of our 
young women. Almost every congregation in the land 
has to-day its Honor Roll attesting the fact that the 
best can be spared when a need sufficiently great and 
a call sufficiently noble are presented. The Church, 
which can give thousands of young men to danger and 
death in distant lands under the banner of King George 
and cannot inspire even a few hundreds of its youth to 
enlist for overseas service under the banner of King 
Jesus, has stultified itself. However valuable as a 
national institution, it has no claim to be called a 
Church of Christ. This war has shown what sacrifices 
can be made when the nation is threatened. Is there 
to be no similar sacrifice when the peace of the world 
and the whole future of Christ's kingdom on earth are 
at stake ? 

Knox College, April 3rd, 1916. 


The Title chosen for this book has more than a 
geographical significance. In some respects the Native 
States of Central India are typical of the real heart of 
conservative India. Large districts in Central India 
are still without any knowledge of the Gospel, and the 
sway of hoary Hinduism is unchallenged. 

The task laid upon me in the preparation of this book 
proved to be more difficult than at first appeared. To 
write the history of the growth of a Mission is one 
thing ; to make out of it a book suitable for study 
classes on India is a more difficult matter. The com- 
bination of the two has imposed limitations which will 
be only too manifest to the readers. For instance, much 
in reference to religious beliefs and religious and social 
reform movements had to be omitted, and the history 
of the Mission is at best a mere outline. 

No attempt is made in this book to discuss women's 
work as a distinct and separate phase of the work in 
Central India. It is so closely related to the whole 
work of the Mission that it was felt that any such dis- 
tinction would be unnecessary and unwise. 

There is much that has already been written on 
Indian life and religion, and the author is largely 
indebted to the writers referred* to in the foot notes. 
He would also express his gratitude to his fellow-work- 
ers in Central India and other friends there who kindly 
supplied photographs which are reproduced in this 



The book is sent forth with the prayer that it may be 
used to help forward the evangelization of Central 
India, which presents to our Church such unique claims 
and opportunities. 

April, 1916. J. T. T. 



INTRODUCTION By Rev. Principal Gandier, D.D. iii. 





The Claims of India i 

The Mind of India 15 

Central India and Its People 35 

Beginnings, or, First Two Decades 

of the Mission's History 55 

The Widening Work 99 

The Indian Church 135 

Problems of Indian Missions 159 

Looking Forward 181 


A. Present Staff in Central India, and Missionaries 

who have retired or have died 205 

B. Indian Census Returns 209 

C. Forces on the Field 211 

D. The Charter of Religious Liberty 212 

E. Letter to Army Officers from Three Field- 

Marshals 213 

F. Extract Minute of General Assembly of Pres- 

byterian Church in India 214 

Bibliography 216 

Index 219 




Frontispiece i 

The Defenders of India British and Indian Troops 2 
(i) The Old Palace Indore City. (2) On the 

Banks of the Sacred Narbadda 4 

(i) Indore State Elephants. (2) Ships of the 

Desert 5 

Mahesar on the Narbadda The Old Capital of 

Holkar State 10 

Devotees : (i) Worshipping ; (2) In the Midst of 

the "Five Fires" n 

(i) Feeding the Sacred Fish. (2) Religious Men- 
dicants Fakirs 22 

The East and the West. Ox-Cart Towing a Dis- 
abled Motor Car 23 

The Mohurram Procession Indore 30 

Mohammedans at Prayer Delhi 31 

Political map showing Native States and British 

India 42 

Agricultural India : (i) A Field of Jowar 43 

(2) A Load of Cotton *. . 43 

(3) A Country Scene 43 

A State Function Durbar \ . . 46 

(i) Temple Architecture. (2) Hall of Audience of 

Moghul Emperors 47 

(i) A Busy Railway Centre Rutlam. (2) A Bit 

of the Jungle 50 

Our Pioneers Rev. J. Fraser Campbell, D.D., and 

Mrs. Campbell 51 

(i) Rev. Nehemiah Goreh, Famous Brahman 

Preacher.. (2) Mission Church and School 

Mhow 62 

Itinerating : (i) The Start 63, 

(2) A Shady Grove 63 

(3) The Camp 63 




Some State Buildings, Indore 78 

Girls' High School, Indore 78 

Graduates and Undergraduates of Christian Boys' 

School, Rasalpura 79 

(i) Rev. and Mrs. Smith and a Christian Bheel 

Congregation ; (2) Famine Refugees 106 

(i) The Native Bheel ; (2) A Bheel House 107 

Malwa Theological Seminary 118 

(i) Marathi Girls' School, Indore : (2) Hospital 
Patients moved out to the warm sunshine 

Neemuch 119 

(i) "Inasmuch"; (2) Dispensary Patients 126 

(i) On the Way to the Hospital. Dr. McKellar ; 
(2) Motto over Door of Dispensary, Nee- 
much ; (3) Where God and We Work 127 

(i) Rutlam Mission Hospital ; (2) Carving on 

Temple Walls 130 

Bheel Theological Class, with Rev. H. H. Smith 

and Dr. Buchanan 131 

Pastor and Officers of Church at Mhow Rev. Mr. 
Drew (seated) and Rev. Mr. Taylor, Members 

of Session 131 

Christian Mela at Rutlam, 1913 138 

(i) A Christian Family. (2) Mr. and Mrs. Johory 139 
(i) The Banyan Tree- -A Parable of the Indian 
Church. (2) Missionary's Bungalow at Kha- 

rua 150 

Balaram and Family 151 

A Group of Enquirers Kharua 166 

Indore Christian College 167 

Map of Mission Field - 190 

Lord's Prayer in Two of the Vernaculars of Central 

India 191 


Faith and the War. "How few of those who find 
their faith perplexed now, were perplexed by the 
darkness which covered the heathen world a darkness 
in which miseries and horrors reign from generation to 
generation unrelieved." Sir Wm. Robertson Nicoll. 

"The great majority of the population of India con- 
sists of idolaters, blindly attached to rites and doctrines 
which, considered merely with reference to the temporal 
interests of mankind, are in the highest degree pernic- 
ious. In no part of the world has a religion ever 
existed more unfavourable to the moral and intellectual 
health of our race." Lord Macaulay (Speech on the 
Gates of Somnath). 


The Charm of India. India has always been a land 
of peculiar charm. From the days of Alexander the 
Great down to the present it has had a fascination for 
the peoples of Europe and the West. It was this 
which led Columbus over unknown Western seas to 
find a waterway to India. Then it was the desire for 
her silks and spices, her gold and precious stones, which 
drew the merchants of Europe to her shores. Now a 
new element has entered in, and it is India's place in 
the Empire that claims our attention and makes her 
welfare deeply interesting to the people of Canada and 
to British people everywhere. 

The dramatic entry of the armies of India into the 
European conflict, and the universal response of India's 
people to the Empire's need when the fateful fourth of 
August, 1914, brought the outbreak of hostilities with 
Germany, will stand out as one of the most significant 
events in the history of that great people. The Great 
Eastern " Dependency" is now asserting its right to be 
treated as a portion of the Empire, not as a mere 
dependent, but as a partner. 

There is a call, as never before, for a sympathetic 
study of the needs and aspirations of the people of 

In this time of crisis the heart of India is revealing 
itself. There is a keen sense of the greatness of the 


issues at stake. There is loyal co-operation in helping 
to win a victory for those principles which are funda- 
mentally Christian ; and upon the Christian churches 
of the Empire particularly lies the responsibility of 
giving to India the message of the Gospel of Jesus 

Early History of Christianity in India. The history 
of Christianity in India is full of instruction, (i) 
Primitive Christianity had its opportunity in the first 
centuries of the Christian era. Traditions there are 
of visits of Missionaries in the first century. It is 
known certainly that Pantaeus of Alexandria was in 
India near the close of the second century. But there 
is no trace of any direct fruit of these early efforts. (2) 
The oldest Christian community in India is known as 
the Syrian Church, whose history can be definitely 
traced back to the 6th century. It was founded by 
Nestorian Missionaries who were driven out of Orthodox 
Christendom and travelled to the East. They preached 
the doctrine of a Human Saviour indwelt by the Divine 
Word. A Church was planted in South- West India, 
which now numbers over 700,000, but it has failed as 
a propagating force, and has settled down alongside 
of Hinduism in the spirit of mutual toleration. (3) 
The Church of Rome came next. Its activities were 
most marked after the coming of the Portuguese in 
1498, who brought Missionaries representing various 
religious orders. In the i6th and iyth centuries great 
numbers were baptized. Chief among those sent out 
was Francis Xavier, in 1542, and with his coming 
began the labors of the Jesuit Order. Multitudes 






were baptized, but baptism was not followed by the 
needed instruction. The result was that the name 
"Christian" came to have such an unworthy meaning, 
that Protestants generally choose instead to call them- 
selves "Isai" or "Masihi."* As a positive force for 
the uplifting of the converts, the Church of Rome 
had little success. 

The Paralysis of Christianity. All through these 
centuries, Christianity seems to have suffered from 
paralysis, and to have been rendered largely fruitless, 
conquered by the inertia of surrounding Hinduism, 
and because of its own tolerant and compromising 

Protestant Christianity. (4) Protestant Missions 
began e.arly in the i8th Century with the coming of the 
Danish Missionaries, Ziegenbalg and Plutchau, in 
1706 ; but not till the close of the century did England 
put her hand to the work. To her shame be it said, 
that English adventurers and English merchants had 
long preceded the messengers of Christ to the people 
of India ; and when they at last followed, they were 
forbidden to land and had to begin their work on foreign 

The past century has seen a steady growth in the 
interest in India among the Churches of the West, and 
a very striking growth in the Protestant Churches in 
India. They have not succumbed to the influence of 
Hinduism. The first attempt to tabulate progress was 
in 1851. There were then 91,092 Protestant Christians. 
In 1911 they numbered 1,636,731, and they are in- 

*The people, or followers, of Jesus. 


creasing much more rapidly than any other Christian 

The Stern Conflict. It is a stern conflict in which 
the Christian Church is engaged. Hinduism, with its 
caste system, is its great opponent. The latter has 
proved more than a match for both Buddhism and- 
Mohammedanism. Buddhism was once spread all 
over the country. But it almost disappeared as an 
organized faith. Hinduism overcame it, and in the 
process, absorbed from it what have now become some 
of its own most distinctive beliefs. For six centuries 
Mohammedan power was dominant in India, and many 
Hindus were forcibly converted to the Moslem faith. 
But Hinduism was not conquered. The distinctive 
features in which it differed from Mohammedanism 
grew stronger by the conflict. Image- worship, so 
offensive to Moslem teaching, is now everywhere 
performed. Caste is as cruel as ever, and Mohamme- 
danism is practically a caste outside of Hinduism. Saint- 
worship by Mohammedans, and Image-worship by 
Hindus exist side by side. Festivals of each of the 
religions are frequently observed by followers of both 
and the two religions have agreed to tolerate each other. 
The British Government, of course, will not permit 
violent outbreaks of hostility. Hinduism has great 
powers of accommodation to various types and beliefs, 
for its principles admit all religions as different ways of 
Salvation, and all beliefs as true. 

The Intolerance of Christianity. Hinduism is a 
subtle and dangerous foe. The elements of truth it 
contains, on the one hand, and its tolerance of error 


and vice on the other, make necessary on the part of 
Christians a "loving intolerance." Were Christianity 
to be tolerant as is Hinduism, it would be fatal. "Christ 
is your Saviour, Krishna is ours ; you worship in your 
way, we in ours ; but we are all striving after the same 
thing ; let us live in peace and respect each other's 
honest convictions." But Christianity must insist on 
the Apostolic claim ; ' ' Neither is there Salvation in any 
other, for there is no other Name under Heaven, given 
among men, whereby we must be saved." There can 
be no compromise where the unique place of Jesus 
Christ in man's salvation is concerned. 

One of the dangers to the Church of Christ is that o^ 
being content with half-victories, which, considering 
the character of Hinduism, can only mean defeat in the 
end. It is a striking fact, and one of great encourage- 
ment, that there are multitudes in India convinced of 
the truth of the Christian religion, but who are as yet 
only "secret disciples." And there are those who, out 
of a deep sympathy with the difficult position in which 
such secret disciples find themselves, are disposed to be 
lax in the requirements of Baptism, and even speak of 
the rite as "Baptism into organized Christianity," 
which, being foreign in its type, can hardly be supposed 
to commend itself to the thoughtful Indian. And 
Hinduism itself will be quite tolerant of such disciples. 
They may retain all their caste privileges if only they 
will refrain from Baptism. There is great danger, if 
Christians concede that the follower of Christ may 
ignore his Master's explicit command in regard to 
Baptism, that Christianity itself will become Hindu- 


ized, and its power will go from it. Christians can best 
show their love for India by a true intolerance of all 
inconsistency between belief and conduct. The Church 
cannot afford to make peace with Hinduism, which 
has triumphed over two of the great missionary re- 
ligions of the world, triumphed by its tolerance and 
its spirit of compromise. " Instead of the thorn shall 
come up the fir tree and instead of the briar shall come 
up the myrtle tree ; and it shall be to the Lord for a 
name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off." 

(Is. 55 : 13). 
Influence of Christianity on Indian Life and Thought. 

The impact of Christianity on Indian life and thought 
produces a variety of results. There is the influence 
of the Supreme Government, which, while neutral in 
regard to the Christian propaganda, is Christian in its 
attitude to flagrant abuses and immoral practices. 
Some of the crimes which were sanctioned by Hinduism 
have been suppressed by Government, even in the face 
of public opinion. Suttee, female infanticide, thuggism, 
and human sacrifices, have been put down. Public 
opinion has followed and endorsed such legislation, 
although desire for the old practices lingers still in 
unlocked for quarters. For instance, when there was 
an outbreak of the spirit of suicide in Calcutta a few 
years ago, and several young wives, on the death of 
their husbands, burned themselves to death by soaking 
their garments in coal-oil, locking themselves in their 
apartments and perishing miserably, some Indian 
papers lauded their action as a revival of the ancient 
spirit of devotion and courage in India's women the 
spirit of suttee. 


Growth in number of Samajes. There is the growth 
of a number of Samajes or Associations. It is the age 
of Samajes in India. Some of these are like half-way 
houses in the approach of earnest Indians towards 
Christianity. They seek to form an amalgam of what 
is good in all religions ; but no eclectic system ever 
exerted much influence. Others are antagonistic, and 
are intended to revive ancient Hinduism by stripping 
it of some of its modern accretions, and throwing about 
other of its features a borrowed glory. Such Associa- 
tions aim also at providing mutual benefits for members, 
along with social reform, and thus bear testimony to the 
force of the Christian idea of human brotherhood. 

In considering the impact of Christianity on the life 
of India one has to take account of the presence of a 
large European element. There are the tradesmen, 
the British garrison, and the officials. These are the 
representatives of Christianity in the minds of the 
common people. In spite of all the blessings that have 
come with British rule, it is a common experience that 
the work of evangelizing, and that of building up the 
Indian Church, is more difficult in garrison towns than 
in places where European life and influence are compara- 
tively unknown. And there is the large Eurasian, or 
more properly, Anglo-Indian, community, who by 
birth, by baptism, by name, and to a certain extent, 
by upbringing, are Christians. These are largely 
separate from both the European and the purely 
Indian communities, and have not received the atten- 
tion they deserve. 

The Call to Service, (i) For Europeans. The call 


to the Church for service in India is clear and insistent. 
It comes on behalf of the European community. It is 
true that Government provides for Chaplaincies, but 
Christians at home cannot be indifferent to the influence 
of those who are on the outposts of the Empire, the 
representatives of British Christian ideas and ideals, 
who serve their King and their God by maintaining 
peace, and enforcing the principles of Truth and 
Justice in the country's administration ; and those 
too who have gone to India in the interests of trade and 

(2) For the Masses. But the call comes particularly 
on behalf of the millions of India, the native-born, with 
their countless gods and goddesses. It comes from the 
50 million out castes, among whom there is a growing 
spirit of unrest and dissatisfaction with agelong oppres- 
sion. They are turning toward the Christian faith as 
their only door of Hope. Wonderful mass movements* 
have from time to time begun among them in different 
parts of India, and these present to the Christian church 
some of its gravest problems. 

(3) For the Aboriginal Tribes. The way, too, in 
which the aboriginal tribes are open and responsive to 
the Gospel, constitutes a clamant call to evangelize 
these neglected peoples. In their case it is a matter of 
great urgency, for the Hinduizing process is going on 
among them, and if this be accomplished, the barrier 
of caste will make work among them difficult. Caste 
is not now recognized by them. 

(4) For India's Women. And there is the insistent 
call of India's women. With a rapidly growing demand 

*See Chap. VII. 





for education, and a wide-spread desire on the part of 
Indian men that facilities should be provided, there is a 
lamentable lack of teachers. The Medical needs, too, 
are appalling. "It is computed that out of 150 million 
women of India, not more than 3 million as yet are 
within the reach of medical aid." Think what this 
means ! 

(5) For the Nation. The National movement* is a 
call to the Christian Church. To quote the words of a 
leading Indian Christian writer : 

"The problem of surpassing interest in every educated 
centre is how to build up the one Indian Nation out of 
all the diverse races and divisions. The picture of a 
United India fires the imagination of the young, and 
rouses the enthusiasm even of the older man .... A 
great Indian Church is needed to form a great Indian 
Nation."** The power of a Supreme Government may 
hold together in peace India's diverse peoples ; but to 
weld them into a nation, with common sentiments and 
with a sense of true brotherhood, there is needed a great 
motive force which the Spirit of Christ alone can 

The Fundamental Reason for Serving India. The 
need, and the opportunity to meet that need, are a 
sufficient call to rouse us to service for India. But a 
deeper reason is found in our Lord's Great Commission 
and Promise to His people. " Go ye therefore and make 
disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name 

*See Chap. VII. 

**Prin. Rudra from "Christ and Modern India" The Student 
Movement Jan., 1910. 


of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit ; 
teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have 
commanded you ; and lo, I am with you alway, even 
unto the end of the world." (Matt. 28 : 20). 

No church can be indifferent to this Command, or 
plead any excuse whatever, or limit the range of its 
prayers and efforts, without suffering in itself. Holding 
the Gospel in trust for the world, the Church which 
fails in obedience to its Lord's Command, not only robs 
the non-Christian world of its due, but robs itself of its 
best blessings. "The light that shines the farthest 
shines brightest nearer home." There can be no con- 
flict between 'home' and 'foreign' claims. These act 
on each other, as Dr. Duff used to say/'not by way of 
mutual exhaustion but by way of mutual fermentation." 
Even the greatness and seeming impossibility of the 
task can become a means of richest blessing. It will 
but serve to throw the Church back on its supernatural 
resources on God. It will drive it to prayer, which is 
"the Christian's vital breath." It will compel it to 
advance on its knees, the only sure way to victory. 

Inner Compulsion the Impelling Motive. But deeper 
even than obedience to a command, lies the true secret 
of world-wide missionary activity. It is the inner 
compulsion of the Christian life. It waits for no ex- 
ternal command. Even had the Great Commission 
never been formally given, the Church of Christ would 
still have been Missionary. It had an experience which 
compelled it to be such. Peter and John, when for- 
bidden to preach, said, "We cannot but speak the things 
which we have seen and heard." To have tasted and 


seen that the Lord is gracious, is to know the meaning 
of that inner compulsion. "I cannot eat my morsel 
alone." some one has said, "was the best Missionary ad- 
dress I ever heard." Impelled by this motive, the 
Primitive Church soon gave its testimony throughout 
the known world. We need to be possessed anew with 
the wonder, and fragrance, and sweetness, of the 
Gospel Message, to realize afresh the saving power of 
Christ, and the Non-Christian world will soon hear the 
Good News. "The possession of Grace," said Mc- 
Cheyne, "is different from the possession of everything 
else in the world." It alone enables us to realize that 
it is better to give than to receive. "There is that 
scattereth and yet increaseth ; and there is that 
withholdeth more than is meet, but it tendeth to 
poverty." (Prov. XI. : 24). Sir Robert Laidlaw, a 
prince among India's merchants, said, "We merchants 
come to India to get out of it what we can. You Mis- 
sionaries come to put into it what you can. If I had 
my life to live over again I would be a Missionary." 


"This immutable and all-pervading system of caste 
has no doubt imposed a mechanical uniformity upon 
the people, but it has, at the same time, kept their 
different sections inflexibly separate, with the conse- 
quent loss of all power of adaptation and readjustment 
to new conditions and forces. The regeneration of the 
Indian people, to my mind, directly and perhaps solely 
depends upon the removal of this condition of caste. 
When I realize the hypnotic hold which this gigantic 
system of cold-blooded repression has taken on the 
minds of our people, whose social body it has so 
completely entwined in its endless coils that the free 
expression of manhood, even under the direst necessity, 
has become almost an impossibility, the only remedy 
that suggests itself to me is to educate them out of 
their trance." 



The Need of Knowing the Mind of India. "Behold 
a sower went forth to sow. And when he sowed, some 
seeds fell by the wayside : and some fell upon stony 
places, where they had not much earth : and some fell 
among thorns : and other fell into good ground." 
Scientific farming lays much stress on a minute study 
of the soil, the elements in it which are adapted to cer- 
tain seeds, the extent to which it has become impover- 
ished, and the best method of treatment in order that 
there may be a suitable return in the time of harvest. 
And the missionary who would sow the Good Seed of 
the Kingdom must needs know the soil in which the 
Seed is to be sown. There should be a knowledge of 
the character and institutions of the people, and their 
religious beliefs and practices, those things which it is 
the office of the Gospel, to transform and sanctify, or it 
may be to supplant and destroy. Mission work is a 
lifelong study, not only for the acquisition of the lan- 
guage, which is essential, but for the knowledge of the 
people without which the missionary cannot intelli- 
gently and sympathetically commend the Gospel to 
their needs. 

Difficulty : Mental Seclusion of the Indian. But it 
has been often asserted that such a study must. in the 
end prove a failure, for the mental seclusion of the 
Oriental is such that his character can never be 


understood, particularly by the Westerner. Meredith 
Townsend in his book, "Asia and Europe," thus 
describes this attitude, ' ' They are fenced off from each 
other by an invisible, impalpable, but impassable wall. 
The wall is not, as we believe, difference of manners, 
or of habits, or of modes of association, for those 
difficulties have all been conquered by officials, travel- 
lers, missionaries, and others, in places like China, 
where the external difference is so much greater. They 
have indeed been conquered by individuals in India 
itself, where many men especially missionaries who 
are not feared do live in as friendly and frequent 
intercourse with Irjdians, as they would with their own 
people at home. The wall is less material than that, 
and is raised mainly by the Indian himself who, what- 
ever his profession, or grade, or occupation, deliberately 
secludes his mind from the European, with a jealous, 
minute, and persistent care .... But in his most facile 
moments the Indian never unlocks his mind, never 
puts it to yours, never reveals his real thought, never 
stands with his real and whole character confessed, like 
the Western European. You may know a bit of it, the 
dominant passion, the ruling temper, even the reigning 
prejudice, but never the whole of it." He gives his 
explanation of this exclusiveness as follows : "We 
doubt if any European ever fully realizes how great 
the mental effect of the segregativeness, the separation 
into atoms, of Indian society, continued, as it has been, 
for three thousand unbroken years, has actually been. 
We speak of that society as 'divided into castes,' but 
it is, and has always been divided into far more minute 


divisions or crystals, each in a way complete, but each 
absolutely separated from its neighbor by laws, rules, 
prejudices, traditions, and principles of ceremonial 
purity, which in the aggregate, form impassable lines of 
demarcation. It is not the European to whom the 
Indian will not reveal himself, but mankind, outside 
a circle usually wonderfully small, and often a single 
family, from whom he mentally retreats. His first pre- 
occupation in life is to keep his 'caste/ his separateness, 
his ceremonial purity, from any other equally separate 
crystal ; and in that preoccupation, permanent, and 
all-absorbing, for thousands of years, he has learnt to 
shroud his inner mind, till in revealing it he feels as if 
he were revealing some shrine which it is blasphemy to 
open, as he had earned from Heaven the misfortune he 
thinks sure to follow .... This loneliness (of the mind) 
has been increased in the Indian by the discipline of 
ages, until it is not an incident, but the first essential of 
his character." 

Every one who has lived any length of time in India 
has felt the difficulty of the problem ; but it has its 
brighter and truer side, for a touch of Grace can make 
the whole world kin.. Kipling has sung : "East is 
East, and West is West ; and never the twain shall 
meet," but Dr. Murray Mitchell, with a deeper insight 
into the Indian mind, ventures to correct the bard of 
the barrack-room, and says : "East is East and West 
is West, and yet the twain shall meet, And Eastern men 
join Western men in fellowship complete." The writer 
considers some of the most cordial and helpful friend- 


ships of life to include those which have been formed 
with Indian Christians. 

Conservatism. Closely allied to the above trait is 
their conservatism. Naturally this is more marked in 
the villages than in the towns and large centres ; and 
inasmuch as 92 per cent of the population of Central 
India, live in the villages, this trait is a very common 
one. Methods of work in vogue hundreds, and even 
thousands of years ago, are still followed. The potter 
at his wheel, the blacksmith at his forge, the weaver at 
his simple loom, and the farmer with his primitive 
implements, work as their forefathers have worked as 
the centuries have rolled by ; and it cannot be said 
that they have reached perfection in their arts. The 
Indian regards it as disrespectful to his ancestors for 
him to depart in any way from their example. To do 
so would be to commit a sin. Many of the everyday 
proverbs of life give expression to this sentiment. 
Anyone seeking to improve his house, or to introduce 
better methods of work, or to adopt a different style of 
clothing, would be treated as an upstart, and in many 
cases such innovations would not be tolerated by the 

Spirit of Progress. The spirit of progress, however, 
is slowly but surely forcing itself on India. The large 
towns and cities are like another world. The Old and 
the New rudely jostle each other. In a city street may 
be seen the primitive ox-cart which from time immemor- 
ial has jogged along at three miles an hour, and the 
modern bicycle, ridden by old and young, men and 
women (the Parsee ladies as yet are almost the only 


ones who have taken freely to the bicycle) . And there 
are strings of camels, swinging along at their easy gait, 
symbolic of the leisurely East, and motor cars and motor 
cycles shooting hither and thither, while policemen in 
uniform regulate the traffic in up-to-date fashion. Tall 
chimneys indicate the coming of the modern factory, 
arid the telegraph, the telephone, and electric light tell 
of the impact of the more strenuous Western life upon 
the conservative East. For ages almost every detail 
of life has been stereotyped by having the seal of re- 
ligious authority placed upon it. It is not difficult to 
see that even Western ways are influencing the minds 
of the people and affecting the soil the soil of religious 
conceptions in which the Seed of the Kingdom is be- 
ing sown. 

Proportion of Literates. The illiteracy of the 
masses makes the work of seed-sowing one requiring 
much patience. The appeal of the Evangelist or 
Christian Teacher in the home land is reinforced by 
countless influences which are at work in a community 
which has the library, and the newspaper, and above 
all, the Bible, to stimulate thought. In India it is far 
different. In Central India, the proportion of illiterates 
is very high. In the census of 1911, the test of a 
"literate" person was ability to write a letter and 
read the answer to it ; and the returns showed 26 per 
thousand of literates in the whole population. One 
male in every 20 and one female in every 330 was able 
to satisfy the test. It is interesting to note that among 
Indian Christians, the percentage of literates is 46 for 
males, and 34 for females ; that is, among "literates" 


the proportion of Christians to general population is, 
for males 9 to i , and for females, 1 1 2 to i . (The Census 
returns include under the name "Indian Christian" 
both Protestant and Roman Catholic). 

Religious knowledge among the illiterate masses of 
the Hindus, is kept alive by wandering bards who recite 
or sing their sacred scriptures. It is no uncommon 
sight to see the men of the village gathered together 
after the day's work is done, listening attentively while 
someone reads or sings by the hour portions of the 
Ramayana or other of the sacred books. Stories of the 
marvellous doings of their deities, and pithy sayings and 
proverbs, expressive of religious and moral conceptions, 
are the sole intellectual food of multitudes. While 
occasionally women may be found who are versed in 
their scriptures, for their sex as a whole, the ritual of 
worship at the temple and the village shrine, and the 
religious ceremonies associated with the various re- 
lationships of life, with betrothal, marriage, motherhood 
and death, fill up the measure of their religious instruc- 
tion. It is no wonder that the women are proverbially 
the stronghold of, idolatry and religious conservatism. 
Among Mohammedans there is the public reading of 
the Koran and preaching by the moulvies ; but as the 
Koran is read in Arabic, which to the Indian Moham- 
medan is a foreign tongue, it is not surprising that many 
are almost entirely ignorant of the teachings of their 
sacred book. 

How and When to Preach the Gospel. How is the 
Good Seed to be sown in soil such as this ? Must we 
first educate and then preach ? Must the Good News 




be held in abeyance till man's condition is bettered, 
and a certain stage of culture be reached before the 
preaching of the Gospel can be profitable ? Our an- 
swer is that we can, and must preach a present salvation 
to all men. The proclamation of a message, the testi- 
mony to a great reality, must be the first and formative 
thought in the life of the missionary. "If we had to 
offer to the world a Gospel of rites, the form of our 
ministry would be sacerdotal ; if we had to offer a 
Gospel of thoughts, our ministry would be professional 
and didactic, but we have a Gospel of fact ; therefore 
we preach." (Dr. Alexander McLaren). We have a 
Saviour so many-sided, so full of Grace and Truth, that 
He meets the need of every man. And it is a Saviour, 
not a system of abstract truth, that is to be preached. 
Hence the Great Commission lays the emphasis first 
of all on a right relationship, and lastly on growth in 
knowledge. First jisjnple then baptize then teach. 
On the other hand the Gospel is Truth, and Truth is so 
comprehensive, that every enlightening agency can be 
profitably employed as her handmaid. The Christian 
school is invaluable in this respect. 

The Element of Fear. Illiteracy is closely allied to 
a trait in the Indian character which is painfully 
manifest in so many of their religious ceremonies, 
the element of fear. Knowledge liberates, but ignor- 
ance, especially when played upon by an unscrupulous 
priesthood, brings bondage. u For the Hindu, the fear 
of malignant spirits is, like the atmosphere, all-perva- 
sive. The readiest explanation of misfortune, loss, 
sickness, calamity, is that it is due to an angry deity, 


who must be propitiated. A crowd is seen gathered 
outside the village, and a goat is being prepared for 
sacrifice. You ask the reason, and are told that a 
member of the village headman's family is ill with fever 
and the deity is calling for a sacrifice of blood. Or a 
grievous sickness afflicts the villagers. The particular 
deity concerned is angry and must be appeased, and 
if possible, persuaded to depart. A little cart is made 
for his comfort, offerings are brought, and with much 
shouting and noise, he is solemnly escorted to the bound- 
aries of the village where he is bidden a glad farewell. 
O, for the shedding abroad of that Love which casts 
out fear, for fear hath torment! 

The idols of India are invariably ugly. Those fash- 
ioned by man's hand are made to appear terrible- 
Sometimes a shapeless stone from the fields, unfashioned 
by man, is set up as the village shrine, and is worshipped 
and feared. But the image is no more ugly or unseemly 
than their conception of the spirit supposed to dwell 
there, which is their god. The thought of God as 
malevolent, vindictive, waiting to pounce on them in 
punishment for any false step, is a horrible conception 
of Him whose name is Father. "Being then the off- 
spring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead 
is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and 
device of man." (Acts 17 : 29). "No man hath seen 
God at any time, the Only-begotten Son, which is in the 
bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him." (John 
i : 1 8). India needs the vision of God the Father, in 
the face of Jesus Christ. 


People in whose minds fear is so marked a trait, are 
always subject to panic. Though patient to a fault, 
when excited they work themselves into a frenzy, and 
this constitutes one of the perils of residence in India. 
A false rumor, or a misunderstanding, especially if 
religious feelings are concerned, may provoke a fanatical 
outburst in which neither life nor property are safe, 
as witness the terrible excesses of the Mutiny. 

Things to be Admired. But there are traits of 
character worthy of admiration. Their patience is 
unwearied. The agricultural classes have provided 
the sinews of war for the warlike hordes which have 
swept over India again and again from time immem- 
orial. Patience under changes of rulers with ac- 
companying oppression, has become ingrained in their 
nature. Impatience and angry outbursts are looked 
upon as signs of weakness and excite their pity. In 
this respect the impulsive Westerner has something to 
learn from the Indian. "No words are sufficient to 
tell how meek and lowly in heart the winner of souls 
must be, what humility of speech, what quietness of 
manner, what superlative self-effacement are necessary 
in order that the Light of Christ may shine through him 
into Hindu eyes."* There is also not a little in the 
family life of the Indian which is admirable. The 
greatest deference is paid to parents. The crippled or 
otherwise unfortunate members of the family are 
cared for by all. The social graces of forbearance, 
helpfulness and submission to authority are fostered. 
The Patriarchal system prevails, and while there is 

*Crown of Hinduism, J. N. Farquhar, page 55. 


little opportunity for the individual (except the head 
of the household) to develop a self-reliant character, the 
selfish individualistic spirit gets little chance to grow. 

Religious Ideas of Hinduism. From the Christian 
standpoint the soil of religious belief is what most deeply 
interests us. What are the thoughts of this people ? 
What ideas lie behind practices which often seem 
unreasonable and conflicting ? What is the subsoil 
of religious observances ? While certain philosophical 
ideas seem to be like the air itself and pervade the life 
of India as a whole, it will be well to consider the two 
chief religions in order, viz., Hinduism and Moham- 

Hinduism, Karma and Transmigration. One of the 

most distinctive marks of Hinduism is the belief in 
Karma, or Works. The belief is that a man's char- 
acter, his station in life, his joys and sorrows, his 
temperament, indeed the whole sum of his present 
existence, is the just recompense for his deeds, good or 
bad, done in his previous births. The present life, 
moreover, works itself out in retribution in another 
birth, this in another and so on ; so that as one has 
said : "As fast as the clock of retribution runs down, 
it winds itself up again." No life, and no act of life is 
free from this all-embracing law of Cause and Effect. 
There is no one who believes with more consistency 
and persistency than the Hindu, the cold, relentless 
doctrine of retribution. As a man sows so shall he 
reap, is accepted by the Hindu in all its implications. 
Not only does he see this law linking up the future with 
the present, but he sees it linking up the present with 


the past. There is no room here for forgiveness. The 
cup of retribution must be drunk to its bitter dregs. 

The allied doctrine of Transmigration or successive 
births, helped the Hindu to understand, or at least to 
make less mysterious, the ever-pressing problem of the 
inequalities of man's lot in life. 

Their belief is that when this life ends the soul enters 
into another body, it may be that of some animal, some 
bird, or it may be some loathsome insect. The nature 
of that rebirth will depend on the merit or demerit 
accumulated in the present life. The practical out- 
come of the doctrine is seen in the reverence for all 
forms of life. Who knows but that the rat or the snake 
that some would ruthlessly destroy may be the earthly 
tenement of some deceased ancestor. Rewards or 
punishment for deeds done in any given stage of exis- 
tence are meted out by entrance into a higher or lower 
stage of existence in a subsequent birth, as the case 
may be. 

The human heart is much the same in all lands. The 
same problems press in on the Hindu mind that, for 
instance, so perplexed the Patriarch Job. The prob- 
lem of suffering and life's inequalities has to be solved 
by every thoughtful man for himself. Job did not 
find a philosophical explanation, but his heart found 
rest in God. Hinduism has sought to find rest in a 
theory of life which just pushes the problem farther 
into the background, but does not solve it. Previous 
births of which the soul has no consciousness do not 
explain the problem of sin and suffering ; but the theory 
may provide a hint whereby the message of a vicarious 


atonement may not prove a stumbling block to the 
Hindu mind. 

These two beliefs rest like a pall over all human 
action. India's condition reminds one of the famous 
statue the Laocoons in which are represented a 
father and his two sons, battling vainly in death 
struggle with serpents which envelop and crush them 
"The miserable sire, wrapped with his sons in Fate's 
severest grasp." 

How many births are past I cannot tell ; 

How many yet to come no man can say ; 
But this alone I know, and know full well, 
That pain and grief embitter all the way. 

(South India Folk Song.) 

Two results are everywhere manifest, (i) A dead- 
ening of conscience, and a lack of the sense of moral 
responsibility. A fatalism holds the people in its 
grasp, and it seems at times impossible to arouse them 
to any high and noble endeavor. (2) Inasmuch as 
salvation can come only by the release of the soul from 
this constant bondage of action, the stress is laid more 
and more on quietism and retirement from the world. 
Nirvana, or true blessedness, is a state of actionless 
calm, where impulses of all kinds, good and bad, are 
no longer felt. The practical result is seen in the in- 
dividual withdrawing from the ordinary relationships 
of life, with the consequent loss to both. The Christian 
ideal is directly contrary to this. It emphasizes loving 
service of God and man as its true expression. 

The Doctrine of Illusion. Another belief which is 
almost universal is that the world is unreal and illusive. 


Brahma, the impersonal one, is the only reality, and 
all that appears is unreal. We mortals are absorbed 
in the things which are unreal, and these keep us from 
attaining to the consciousness of our essential unity 
with Brahma, and thus attaining to Deliverance which 
is salvation. No saying is more frequently met with 
than this : '"All is Illusion." 

All that is historical is necessarily unreal, and the 
preacher of a religion which is founded in the Historic 
Person, Jesus Christ, has this inborn prejudice of the 
Hindu mind to deal with. The philosophically minded 
objector cannot accept Jesus as the universal Saviour 
just because He is historical. He fails to see that no 
one can be a Universal Saviour, unless He can and does 
enter into touch with, and participate in, the course of 
human History. This doctrine of Illusion is the inner 
fortress in which the Hindu invariably takes refuge 
when driven from his outer defences in argument. 

What is Hinduism ? Within recent years a wordy 
controversy has been carried on as to what -constitutes 
Hinduism, and who may be included under the term 
Hindus : but no entirely satisfactory definition of 
these terms has been found. The chief characteristic 
of Hinduism is its vagueness. A few typical definitions 
will illustrate the difficulty. Sir Narayan Chandar- 
varkar, a prominent Social Reformer says : ' ' Hinduism 
is not one religion but many, a mixture of creeds, and a 
cult of compromises." (i) 

Dr. Lucas, a veteran missionary says : "By Hindu- 
ism we mean pantheism, idolatry, transmigration of 

(i) "India Witness," July 23, 1912. 


souls through millions of births, and caste ; for if these 
be given up, there is nothing left of Hinduism." (2) 

An orthodox Brahman says : (3) "The fact that 
people do not agree in their definition of Hinduism 
points of itself to its all-comprehensiveness. Hinduism 
baffles all definition, like Brahma (God) whom it 
worships. The ancient rishis sought to define Brahma 
as this and that, and failing, ended by defining him as 
not this or that." 

Another, defining the term "Hindu," says: (4) "that 
while there is a real principle of unity in Islam, and 
also in Christianity, the Hindus have neither faith nor 
practice nor law to distinguish them from others. I 
should therefore define a Hindu to be one born in India 
whose parents as far as people can remember, were not 
foreigners, or did not profess foreign religions like 
Mohammedanism, or Christianity or Judaism, or who 
himself has not embraced such religions." 

This very indefiniteness makes it possible for Hin- 
duism to accommodate itself to all forms of religious 
influence, and to absorb even conflicting beliefs. Were 
Christianity a mere system of truth, it too would pro- 
bably be absorbed ; but it is a vital faith and centres 
in a Person who claims absolute allegiance. Jesus, 
the Son of God, cannot be placed in the Hindu Pantheon. 

At least two-thirds of India's people are Hindus. 
Hinduism itself is a gigantic social and religious struc- 
ture. It is held together not only by those subtle, all- 
pervasive ideas we have described, the belief in 

(2) Article in Bible Record, 1911. 

(3) "India Witness," July 23rd, 1912. 

(4) Year Book of Missions in India, 1912, page 77. 



Transmigration, Karma and the Illusory nature of the 
world, but it is riveted still more closely into a system 
by the reverence shown to the Brahmans. Their 
authority is well nigh absolute, and the curse of a 
Brahman is feared more than anything else. To this 
may be added the reverence for the cow. 

Popular Hinduism. Popular Hinduism thinks of the 
Impersonal Spirit as revealing himself under three forms 
which are known as the Hindu trinity (i) Brahm, the 
Creator ; (2) Vishnu, the Preserver ; (3) Siva, the 
Destroyer.- The worship of the first is of little import- 
ance. His work is completed and he receives little 
attention. Vishnu, the Preserver, appears in the 
world as an incarnation whenever the need calls for it. 
Nine times he is supposed to have appeared, and his 
coming once again is looked for. Of his incarnations, 
two are most popular among the common people. 
One of these is Rama, the hero of India's most famous 
epic poem, the Ramayana ; the other is Krishna, the 
cowherd, the tales of whose marvellous doings have laid 
hold on the popular imagination. 

The worship of Siva is connected in the popular 
mind with the creative energy of mankind. His special 
emblem is often accompanied by the image of the 
Sacred bull, while in the temples of Siva will be found 
also an image of his spouse. 

In regard to the members of the Hindu trinity, they 
all have a tarnished moral record. Their jealousy and 
sensuality and the impure stories of their deeds are 
corrupting and debasing the thoughts and the life of 


the people of India. Modern Hinduism is without any 
motive power to purify and uplift India. 

Mohammedanism. Among Mohammedans we find 
a much more definite creed, and its points of contrast 
with other faiths are more clear and explicit. It 
challenges Christianity, as a world religion. It claims 
to incorporate all preceding revelations, even Chris- 
tianity, and to be the true and final revelation of God. 
Their sacred Book, the Quran, "is believed to be the 
word of God in the sense that every word, jot and tittle 
is a matter of divine revelation, the angel Gabriel having 
copied it from the original, inscribed upon the Preserved 
Table kept under the throne of God, and committed 
it to Mohammed who thus became the mouthpiece of 
God.". .. ."The faith of the Muslim is summed up 
under seven heads, as follows : ' I believe in God, in the 
Angels, in the Books, in the Apostles, in the Last Day, 
in the Decrees of the Almighty God, both as respects 
good and evil, and in the Resurrection after death.". . . 

"Faith in God is not only belief in His being as a 
Personal God, but especially in His absolute unity. 
It excludes all plurality of persons in the Godhead, and 
repudiates every suggestion of Incarnation, and there- 
fore rejects the Christian doctrines of the Holy Trinity 
and the Eternal Sonship of Christ."* 

NOTE No attempt is made in this chapter to deal 
with the reforming sects that have sprung up within 
Hinduism, and Mohammedanism, especially within 
recent times. In many cases they are the fruit of the 
impact of Christian ideas on the teachings and practices 

*"The Year Book of Missions in India, 1912," page 113!!. 


of these religions, and are to be welcomed as evidences 
of an awakening religious spirit. A study of the Re- 
form Movements would require a much fuller treatment 
than is possible in this volume. The subject is fully 
treated in "Modern Religious Movements in India," 
see Bibliography. 



"I have found in every page of the book of my 
experience clearest evidence of the fact that human 
nature is the same in the East as in the West, that 
when we get below the surface we find that the desires 
and affections, the needs and capacities of men, are 
practically the same. And my experience tells me 
that the power of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus to 
cheer and purify the lives of men, and to elevate and 
transform their characters, is the same in India as in 
England. There may be flashes of light here and there 
in exceptional cases, but it is darkness that prevails 
among the non-Christian peoples whom I have known ; 
and there is nothing more beautiful than to see the 
Light of the Gospel breaking in on this darkness, not 
among the educated and more influential classes alone, 
but among the poor and depressed. I could tell of 
bright and worthy Christians, in the humble homes of 
India, just as I could tell of them among the humble 
homes of the villages and glens of my own land." 
(Among Indian Rajahs and Ryots, pp. 268-69, by Sir 
Andrew Fraser.) 


Location and Area. Central India is the name of a 
political division or "Agency" a collection of Native 
States under the supervision of the Agent to the 
Governor-General in Central India, and may be said 
to consist of two large detached and irregular blocks 
of country lying partly across the centre of the great 
Peninsula of India. The term "Central India" was 
formerly applied to the old geographical district of 
Malwa only, but since 1854, when the Eastern block of 
States was added to Malwa to form the Central India 
Agency, the name was applied to the whole tract. 

Central India is bounded on the North-east by the 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. OtiTheTjTast and 
along the whole length of its Southern border, lie the 
Central Provinces ; the South-western boundary is 
formed by Khandesh, the Rewa Kantha Agency, and 
the Panch Mahals of Bombay ; while various states of 
the Rajputana Agency enclose it on the West and 
North. The total area of this tract is 77,367 miles, 
more than 2^/2 times the area of Scotland, or slightly 
less than one-fifth the area of Ontario, and has a 
population of just over nine millions. 

Area Occupied. The Canadian Mission has con- 
fined its operations to the Western Group of states and 
has roughly defined its Eastern boundary at 76 30" 
E. longitude. Within this area there are approximate- 



ly 30,000 square miles, 12,000 towns and villages, and 
a population of considerably more than 3 millions. No 
other Protestant Mission is at work in this area and 
its evangelization is the special care of the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada, in co-operation with the Indian 

Physical Features. This area is for the greater 
part an undulating plateau, with an average elevation 
of i, 600 feet and rising in places to over 2,000. It 
slopes gently to the north and its rivers drain into the 
great river systems of the Gangetic plain. In the 
South, draining the plain at the foot of the Vindhaya 
Mountains, flows the sacred Narbadda, which can be 
forded with difficulty, and only in the driest season of 
the year ; while in the Monsoon it is a resistless torrent, 
rising from 30 to 40 feet above its normal level ; but on 
account of its deep-cut channel, doing little damage to 
the adjacent country. Almost all the other rivers are 
worthy of the name only during the rainy season. 
For the rest of the year they are only winding ravines, 
strewn with boulders or white sand, with here and there 
pools of stagnant water. The scenery of the plateau 
is not lacking in beauty. The monotony of the vast 
rolling plains is relieved here and there by curious 
flat-topped hills, which appear to have been all planed 
off to the same level by some giant hand. Broad 
winding belts of palm trees indicate the existence of 
watercourses, while clumps of green trees thickly 
dotting the landscape mark the sites of villages or way- 
side wells. The fertile black cotton soil, with which 
the plateau is covered, bears magnificent crops, and 


the tract is well cultivated. Where no grain has been 
sown the land is covered with luxuriant grass, affording 
excellent grazing for the large herds of cattle which 
roam over it. During the rains, the country 
presents an appearance of unwonted luxuriance. 
Each hill clothed in a bright green mantle, rises from 
plains covered with waving fields of jowar,* corn, and 
grass, and traversed by numerous streams, filled from 
bank to bank. The luxuriance, however, is but 
short-lived, and within little more than a month after 
the conclusion of the rains, gives place to the monoton- 
ous dusty yellow color which is so characteristic of 
this region during the greater part of the year. Later 
this is relieved by the broad patches of gram or pulse, 
and wheat, and cotton, the growth of which has in- 
creased so greatly during recent years. 

Irrigation. Irrigation is almost entirely from wells 
and tanks, or artificial lakes, the latter formed by 
building great banks or retaining walls of masonry 
and mud, wherever there is a suitable area ; and for 
the most part the farmers have to depend on the 
rainfall which begins usually early in July and con- 
tinues with occasional breaks till the end of September, 
the yearly average being about 30 inches. And how 
it rains ! Bullen's description of rain in the tropics, 
"an ocean out of which the bottom occasionally falls," 
is not absurdly inaccurate. Eleven inches in one day' 
has been recorded, but this is unusual. The constant 
beating of huge drops of rain on the mud walls of the 

*A species of millet which is the staple food of most of the com- 
mon people. 


houses of the poorer classes causes many a collapse 
with its consequent discomfort and suffering. 

Seasons. There are three distinct seasons in Central 
India. The Rainy Season is followed by the Cold 
Season, which lasts from October till the end of March. 
During these months India is a delightful land. Ad- 
vantage is taken of the coolness and the continued 
dry weather to make extensive tours all through the 
District, the missionaries sometimes going one hundred 
miles from the Central Stations and preaching in 
hundreds of villages. It is the season, too, of the 
globe-trotter, and of the annual migration of visitors 
from the colds and mists of the winters in the Western 
lands to the clear and sunny but cool climate of India. 
Unfortunately they see India only at her best. They 
rush from place to place, seeing the architectural 
beauties and getting only a side glance at the real India 
from the train windows, and hasten home again with 
the first breath of the Hot Season ; but they have 
not seen, and do not know India. They should spend 
at least a full year in the East. 

Next comes the Hot Season, from April till the rains 
break in July. This is the time when man and beast 
"ease off" and even Nature seems to sleep. The hot 
wind blows continually, parching throat and nostrils. 
The farmer leaves his fields in the heat of the day and 
sleeps in the welcome shade of the village trees, or 
under the tiled roof of his little verandah. Even the 
birds seek the denser shades and sit with wings half 
drooping and beaks expanded waiting for the cooler 
hours of the evening. 


But there are compensations. Some of the most 
brilliant and gorgeous of the jungle trees and shrubs 
choose this season to delight the eye with their beauty 
and to spread abroad their fragrance. Other trees at 
this season cast away their old garments, and put on a 
coat of the most brilliant and delicate green. 

Means of Communication. Western Central India 
is only fairly well equipped with means of communica- 
tion. A metre gauge railway goes through from North 
to South ; and from East to West the broad gauge main 
line from Bombay to Delhi traverses the field. Two 
other short lines connect with these. Well built 
macadamized roads connect all the larger centres, but 
a great deal of the traffic has no other outlet than over 
the "trails" or country roads which in the wet season 
are impassable, and the rest of the year, abominable 
until one gets used to them. The Telegraph and 
Postal systems of India are worthy of all praise. Most 
of the larger centres of Central India have these facili- 
ties, and new branches are constantly being opened. 

Early History of Central India. Much of the early 
history of Malwa is shrouded in darkness and fable. 
The District is noticed as a separate Province about 
eight centuries and a half before the Christian era, 
and the name of a Bheel chief emerges from the mists. 
It is believed that this now despised race enjoyed 
extensive power in this part of India at a very remote 
period. "The original prestige and power of the 
Bheels, linger as a memory in a custom observed in the 
Rajput State of Udaipore. When a new Rana ascends 


the throne, his forehead is marked with blood from the 
great toe of a Bheel."f 

Nearer the time of Christ, the history becomes more 
definite, and we read of the famous Hindu King, 
Vikramaditya, who has given the era which is at this 
day in general use over a great part of India. It is 
computed, like the Christian era, by the solar year, 
and commences fifty-seven years before Christ. Like 
Solomon in Israel, this famous prince is said to have 
raised the Hindu Monarchy to a degree of splendor 
unknown before, while at the same time encouraging 
Arts and Learning. The capital of his kingdom was 
the city of Ujjain, which is said to have more undoubted 
claims to remote antiquity than any other inhabited 
city in India.* Later the capital was transferred to 
Dhar where it remained till the Mohammedan conquest 
of Central India, early in the fourteenth Century, when 
it was ruled by Viceroys appointed by the Emperor of 
Delhi. About the end of that century, one of these, 
Dilawar Khan Ghori, taking advantage of confusion 
in Delhi, made for himself an independent kingdom in 
Malwa, and fixed his capital in Dhar, which still pre- 
serves, in the ruins with which it is surrounded, the 
history of this change. The materials of the finest 
temples appear to have been used to make palaces and 
mosques for the new ruler. It was not long, however, 
before the capital was removed from Dhar to Mandu 

fThe Redemption of Malwa, page 26. 

"" Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cities of India, not yielding 
even to Benares in sanctity .... It is also the first meridian of Long- 
itude of the Hindu geographers." Imperial Gazetteer of India, 
Central India, page 189. 



(1) A Field of Jowar. (2) Load of Cotton. (3) A Country Scene 


only a few miles distant and picturesquely situated on 
the very edge of the Vindhya mountains. The mag- 
nificent ruins of this old city attract many visitors and 
not a little has been done, chiefly by Lord Curzon, to 
preserve its mosques and palaces from further destruc- 

Although the Mohammedan monarchs of Malwa 
attained to great power and influence, they never com- 
pletely subdued the Rajput princes and petty chiefs 
in their vicinity, but rather pursued, with these valiant 
Hindus, the policy of compromise, being content with a 
nominal submission and moderate tribute with military 
service. Nor did the Mohammedan occupation of 
Central India disturb greatly the social institutions of 
the mass of the people, whose unit is the village, an 
independent and distinct community ruled by its own 
officers within its own limits. 

Modern History. With the decay of the Moham- 
medan power in the eighteenth century, Central India 
was invaded by the warlike Marathas from the south. 
At the same time the Pindarics, plundering hordes of 
disbanded soldiers from the north, swept over Malwa ; 
while the B heels came forth from their hill retreats, 
whither they had been driven by centuries of oppression, 
and raided the villages of the plains. In the early 
years of the nineteenth century, the confusion had 
reached a crisis. Several soldiers of fortune had carved 
out kingdoms for themselves, conspicuous among 
whom were the Maratha chiefs, Holkar and Scindia. 
But these did little to establish settled forms of govern- 
ment, sometimes sending out large military detach- 


ments to collect the revenue. All feeling of security 
was gone and the land was wasted by its oppressors. 
At last the British Authorities, in 1817, gave Lord 
Hastings, the Governor-General, authority to intervene, 
and rapidly forming alliances with the Native Chiefs 
who would accept his advances, he sent three divisions 
of his army which closed in on Central India. The 
opposing forces numbered no less than 150,000 troops 
with 500 cannon, but in the course of four months this 
formidable armament was utterly broken up.* The 
robber bands were extirpated. The various chiefs 
were confirmed in the possession of the lands that they 
held, and a feeling of substantial security was diffused 
through Central India. Save for some minor disturb- 
ances and the uprisings of the Mutiny in 1857, there has 
been since 1820 an era of peace and prosperity in Central 

Peaceful Years. The general settlement effected 
among the Central India States at the close of the 
Pindari war has continued with few changes till the 
present. There are over 140 States and Estates in the 
Agency, which range in size from Gwalior, with 25,000 
sq. miles (larger than Nova Scotia and P. E. Island 
combined) to small holdings of only a single village. 
These do not all stand in the same relationship to the 
British Power. Some of the larger ones, such as Indore, 
Gwalior, and Bhopal, are known as " Treaty States" 
which have entered into direct Treaty relationships 
with the British. Others are known as "Mediatized 
or Guaranteed." Agreements between certain small 

"Imperial Gazetteer, page 24. 


States and more important ones claiming authority 
over them, were arranged through British Mediation. 
The conditions under which these smaller States are 
"Guaranteed" in their rights vary in almost every 

Native State Defined. The term "Native State" 
has been defined by Sir William Lee- Warner as "a bit 
of foreign territory in the midst of the King's Do- 
minions." But the relationship is closer than this indi- 
cates. Native States, as distinguished from British 
India, are directly governed by Indian Princes, but 
under the oversight of the British Government.* 

British Courts of Law have no jurisdiction in these 
States, or over them, so far as the general population is 
concerned. Britain does not ordinarily interfere in 
matters of internal Administration. The British Gov- 
vernment limits the number of troops which any State 
may maintain. Their rulers are held responsible for 
the good goverment of their States. 

Area of India under Rule of Native Princes. About 
one-third of the area of India is made up of these 
Native States, and it is to the honor of Britain that she 
has sought, even in the face of great difficulties at times, 
to preserve the integrity of the States, and be faithful 

*Sir Alfred Lyall, in his "Rise and Progress of British Dominions 
in India," page 295, says : It became the universal principle of 
public policy that every State in India (outside the Punjab and 
Sinde) should make over the control of its foreign relations to the 
British Government, should submit all external disputes to British 
arbitration, and should defer to British advice regarding internal 
management so far as might be necessary to cure disorders or scan- 
dalous misrule. A British Resident was appointed to the Courts 
of all the greater Princes as the agency for the exercise of these high 


to the principle laid down in the Despatch of 1860 
which says : "It is not by the extension of our Empire 
that its permanence is to be secured, but by the charac- 
ter of British rule in the territories already committed 
to our care, and by showing that we are as willing to 
respect the rights of others, as we are capable of main- 
taining our own."* 

Method of Administration. The Chiefships and 
Estates of the Agency of Central India, are divided into 
several groups, called "Political Charges," with each 
of which is associated a Political Officer who represents 
the British Power and who is under the authority of the 
Agent who resides in Indore. He, on the other hand, 
is the medium of communication between all the States 
and the Government of India through the Foreign 

A glance at the map of Central India shows a be- 
wildering net work of boundary lines. One State may 
have its territory scattered in a score of places, while the 
intervening areas will represent isolated sections of 
several ot4ier States, while here and there will be a bit 
of British India. It will readily be understood that 
administration under such conditions is a difficult 
matter. The points of contact are many. In dealing 
with disease and famine, in bringing to justice fugitive 
criminals, and in all schemes for the welfare of the 
public, the cordial co-operation of the States with each 
other and with the Supreme Power is essential. Ab- 
solute non-interference is impossible, and where it is 
necessary, pressure has to be wisely exercised ; but it 

*Quoted in "The Citizen of India," page 65. 




has been found possible to combine these diverse ele- 
ments into one Political System. 

Mutual Advantages. The mutual advantages to the 
Empire and to the Native States of the continuance of 
the present relations between them has been thus 
summed up by Sir William Lee- Warner : 

"The States are a permanent object-lesson of the 
faithful adherence of the Indian Authorities to their 
engagements. They also enable the people of India to 
compare the results of various systems of administra- 
tion. Those who are curious to learn whether popula- 
tion, education, commerce, and industry increase more 
rapidly under one system of Government than under 
another, can answer this question for themselves. The 
British Government at present contributes more to 
the States than they contribute to the welfare of British 
India. The cost of the naval and military defence of 
the Empire, the upkeep of the Ports and Dockyards, the 
main weight of expenditure on Railways, and the 
expense of Imperial establishments which benefit the 
whole of India, are borne almost entirely by the British 
Provinces. The small payments which some states 
make under treaties more often represent a commuta- 
tion charge for expenses of which they have been re- 
lieved, than a contribution towards their share of 
protection from a foreign foe. But the Princes and 
Chiefs relieve the British Government not merely of 
the cost of their local administration, but also of other 
civil responsibilities. So long as the Chiefs are, in the 
words of Lord Canning, ' loyal to the crown, and faithful 
to the conditions of the treaties, grants, or engagements 


which record their obligations to the British Govern- 
ment,' they have nothing to fear from their powerful 
protector. All observers testify that under British 
advice great improvements have been effected in the 
administration of the States, and all friends of India 
look forward to the continuance of the union, and to the 
growth of a friendly rivalry between the officers (of 
the Emperor) and the Princes of the States in promot- 
ing the prosperity of their respective subjects. The 
British have brought from the far west to the east new 
ideas of freedom and toleration. It may be hoped that 
in the best governed of the Native States, the new 
spirit will mix with the life of the Indian people, and 
that we shall learn from them what changes are best 
adapted to eastern habits."* 

Internal Administration. The internal administra- 
tion of the States varies, but most Chiefs exercise their 
authority through a Dewan, or Minister. In Gwalior 
the Maharajah himself presides over an Administrative 
Board made up of the Heads of Departments. In 
Indore, the Maharajah has a Prime Minister, assisted 
by a Council, whose separate members control Finance, 
Settlement, Revenue, and other departments. In 
small States an Indian Minister is usually placed in 
charge, and in cases where gross maladministration 
occurs, or where the Chief, is a minor, the control is 
vested in the Political Officer, who is assisted by a 
council, or it may be, some one special Officer. 

Diversity Among India's Peoples. There is great 
diversity among the people of India. They have no 

*"The Citizen of India," page 75. 


common origin. They differ in personal appearance, 
in religious beliefs, and social customs. They are a 
heterogeneous mass of tribes, races, and tongues, and 
only the widest generalizations are possible in describ- 
ing them. Perhaps Central India more than other 
parts shows this mixed character because of the diverse 
races who have invaded its borders. For purposes of 
study, however, the classification given by Sir Wm. 
Hunter may be followed.* 

Classification, i. The Non- Aryans. These repre- 
sent the aboriginal races who inhabited the land before 
the incursions of the light-colored Aryans from the 
north. They now inhabit chiefly the hilly tracts, or 
may be found on the plains as servants in the villages, 
or as wanderings bands of marauders, jugglers, etc. 
The aborigines in Western Central India are mostly 
B heels. Formerly they were a wild lawless race, but 
the kindly treatment of the British Government as 
represented by such noble Christian men as Sir James 
Outram in earlier days, and Capt. DeLassoe and others 
in later times, has won the confidence of these people. 
Drunkenness and theft are their outstanding vices, 
but they have noble qualities, and are as a race truthful 
and loyal and faithful to their friends. They have 
been treated with such contempt by their Hindu 
neighbors, and have for so long. been oppressed and 
compelled to work for others, that habits of industry 
are not easily learned. But when once their confidence 
is gained, efforts for their intellectual and material 
improvement meet with most encouraging response. 

*"The Indian Empire," page 51. 


Thus far they are not much influenced by their contact 
with Hinduism, but the Hinduizing process is going on 
and they are now much more susceptible to the en- 
nobling influences of Christianity than will be the case 
a few years hence. 

2. The Aryans. The Brahmans and the Rajputs 
pride themselves on being the purest descendants of 
the Aryan stock which came into India. But it is 
doubtful if in India, in spite of its rigid caste, there is 
such a thing as pure Aryan blood. There have been 
too many influences tending towards fusion to leave 
any room for pride of racial purity. The Brahmans 
enforce their claim to supremacy by the assertion that 
their race issued from the mouth of Brahma, and they 
claim the right to be the sole teachers and priests of the 
people. The Rajputs, who sprang from the arms of 
Brahma, claim to be "the sword of the Hindu faith." 
They are the warrior caste. The Brahmans number 
about 13% of the population, and a large proportion of 
them are engaged in agriculture. They are sub- 
divided into several sects, which refuse to intermarry 
or even to eat with each other. 

The Rajputs form an important section of the popu- 
lation of Malwa. Some of the reigning Princes are of 
this race, and many of the petty landowners. They 
are proverbially hospitable, but now that their ancestral 
occupation is practically gone, many have fallen vic- 
tims to drunkenness and other vices of an idle life. 

The Parsees are non- Indian Aryans of Persian 
origin, who came to India in the eighth century to avoid 
persecution by the Mohammedans. In Malwa they 




are few in number, scarcely more than 1,000, but are an 
influential element in the community. In religion they 
claim to be worshippers of the one God, the Creator, 
whose appropriate symbol is fire, hence they are required 
to face some luminous object when worshipping. 
Hindus give a similar excuse for the use of images in 
their worship it helps to keep the mind fixed upon the 
spiritual reality. Alas, the opposite effect is produced 
and men "worship and serve the creature more than 
the Creator, who is blessed for ever." 

3. The Mixed Hindus. For a description of this 
and the remaining class, the Mohammedans, one can- 
not do better than quote from Dr. Wilson's " Re- 
demption of Malwa" :* 

"To this class, which has grown out of the Aryan and 
non- Aryan races, belong the great mass of the people 
of Malwa. It embraces elements as far removed from 
each other as the merchant and the sweeper. The 
banias or merchants claim to be Vaishyas, sprung 
from the legs of Brahma, 'twice-born' and entitled to 
wear the sacred thread. The low caste, or ' once-born ' 
had their origin in his feet and were destined to serve. 

In these mixed peoples, the leading principle of 
division into caste is found in occupation. Each 
employment has become a separate caste, and at the 
same time a sort of trade guild and religious sect. 
Each division has its own social laws, customs, religious 
rites, and practices, and hence one exercises little social 
or moral influence on another. 

*Page 27, ff. 


The more important castes among the middle class 
Hindus are shopkeepers, farmers, cowherds, gardeners, 
carpenters, and artizans of all sorts. At the low end 
of the scale, and treated as unclean, are the leather 
workers, and scavengers the Chamars, Mangs and 
Bhangis. In almost every village there will be found a 
Brahman family to transact with the gods, and ward 
off the evil influence of demons by securing the due 
performance of religious rites ; a Bania or two to supply 
grain, spices, tobacco and to make loans ; a carpenter 
to make and mend ox-carts, yokes and ploughs, as well 
as door frames for houses ; a blacksmith to make and 
sharpen picks and spades ; a potter to fashion on his 
wheel jars and bowls and cooking vessels ; a confec- 
tioner to provide the sweetmeats which the vegetable 
and grain-eating Hindu so dearly loves. The Chamar 
families, too, are needed to remove the hides from dead 
cattle, to make and repair shoes and leather water-bags; 
and the sweepers to remove things unclean, so that 
the higher castes may retain their ceremonial purity. 
In the larger villages and towns artizans and menials 
in greater number and variety work for the well-being 
of the whole community, and each caste, whatever its 
rank in the scale may be, proudly maintains its own caste 
purity. Caste has come to mean as much for the 
Bhangi (sweeper) as for the Brahman. This peculiar 
organization in which caste and employment are closely 
blended, makes the individual helplessly dependent 
on the community of which he forms a part. 

Jains. They are found in large numbers in the chiet 
commercial centres of Malwa, and have in their hands 


. . . the banking operations and the chief financial trans- 
actions of the country. In religion they are akin to the 
Buddhists. They deny the existence of God, or of any 
god. They reject the Vedas and regard the universe 
as under the control of "Karm" or Fate. They trust 
their future to their own actions according to the law, 
"as you sow, so shall you reap." They manifest a 
scrupulous regard for animal life, and build hospitals 
for sick animals. At night a gauze screen is placed 
over their lamps to prevent helpless moths from de- 
stroying themselves in the flame. Their temples are 
large, elaborate and costly, the finest in Central India, 
erected to the memory of ancient sages whom they 
adore as men who have "crossed the ocean of exis- 
tence." Of all the people- of India, none is more 
irresponsive to the Gospel. 

4. Mohammedans. About one-twentieth part of the 
population of Central India is Mohammedan. This 
element has been contributed from several sources. 
Some are descendants of the Court and armies of the 
Moslems who long ruled the country, and some are 
villagers whose ancestors were converted to the faith 
of the prophet. Bohr a merchants of Arab extraction 
came in from Gujerat. These are found mainly in the 
large towns, as tinsmiths, dealers in European articles, 
and second-hand goods. The Mohammedans in Malwa 
are little given to agriculture. They are employed in 
subordinate positions in the Native Governments, or 
follow weaving, dyeing, transporting goods, etc. The 
lower classes among them have been much influenced 
by Hinduism, and are given to the worship of saints, or 


Pirs, and burn lights and make offerings at their 
whited sepulchres, and even join in Hindu worship and 

This is the people among whom the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada has chosen to send its representatives 
to preach the Gospel. How different from ours is their 
political and social atmosphere ; yet there are points 
of similarity to our own great Dominion, (i) Central 
India's wide stretching plains, where the vast majority 
of its people are tillers of the soil, are in appearance, if 
not in extent, not unlike the vast plains of our West 
where agriculture is the mainstay of the people. In- 
dians, like Canadians, are an agricultural people. (2) 
The wide diversity of religious beliefs, and the variety 
of her peoples, are not unlike the picture that Canada 
presents with her multitudes drawn from the many 
nations and languages of the whole world. The prob- 
lem of the church in each is similar. It is to draw to- 
gether in the fellowship of Christian life and service 
the diverse peoples separated by religious and racial 
prejudices, and to bring in the Kingdom of Christ 
which is righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy 



' ' Only like souls I see the folk thereunder, 
Bound who should conquer, slaves who should be 


Hearing their one hope with an empty wonder, 
Sadly contented in a show of things. 

Then with a rush the intolerable craving 
Shivers throughout me like a trumpet-call, 
Oh to save these ! To perish for their saving, 
Die for their life, be offered for them all !" 

-F. W. H. MYERS. 
(Paul's feelings as he faced a crowd) 

It is grand to be here, such opportunity ! Such 
need ! 

Such work ! Oh, to be prepared for such a privi- 
lege !" 







Awakening of Interest in Canadian Churches. Pre- 
vious to the Presbyterian Union in 1875 the Churches 
in Canada had begun to recognize the claims of the 
Indian Mission field, and to share in its Evangelization. 
, A "Juvenile Mission and Indian Orphanage Scheme" 
was inaugurated in the Synod of Canada in connection 
with the Church of Scotland, as early as 1856. The 
attention of the Synod was that year called to the work 
of Supporting and Training Injia^_Orphans carried 
on by: the Edinburgh Ladies' Association for Fern a] p. 
Education in India. Previous to this, some congre- 
gations were supporters of the Association, and now 
the Synod adopted the Scheme as one which would 
appeal particularly to the Sabbath Schools of the 
Church. This "Juvenile Mission" continued as a 
stimulus and blessing to the Churches until 1884, when 
it was discontinued. 

Besides the support of children in the Orphanages, 
which were managed by the Scottish Association, the 



support of separate schools for girls in India was under- 
taken and provided for by the contributors to the 
Juvenile Mission. " The Canadian School was opened 

in Calcutta on the first of September, 1858 a day 

ever memorable from the proclamation which trans- 
ferred that vast Empire from the sway of a Company 
to the Christian Government of our Gracious Queen. 
Under the Divine blessing the effort has proved emin- 
ently successful. In a Mohammedan suburb of 

Calcutta a_ neat house was found, over~wEich file 
hitherto unknown name of 'The Canadian School' has 
been inscribed, and, the services of an excellent Chris- 
tian and his wife having been engaged, the day school 

jts utmost capacity. Similar 
Opened with encouraging 
prospects and satisfactory results."* 

The Eastern Churches further extended their work 
in India in 1874 when the Synod of the Maritime 
Provinces sent to Madras a lady missionary, Miss 
Johns, to take part in Zenana work. Her entire 
expenses were borne by the congregation of St. Mat- 
thew's Church, Halifax. But soon after her arrival, 
this accomplished and devoted lady contracted a serious 
illness which necessitated her return, and which ter- 
minated fatally in April, 1876. Moreover, on the eve 
of the Union, the Synod of the Maritime Provinces 
designated a missionary, Rev. J. Fraser Campbell, to 
labor among the English-speaking natives of Madras, 
but he did not leave for India till after the Union. 

*Gregg's Short History of Presbyterian Church in Canada," 
page 128. 


In the Western Section, the attention of the Churches 
was first turned towards India in 1854, when Dr. Duff 
of Calcutta visited Canada, and by his fiery eloquence 
stirred the Churches to a recognition of their responsi- 
bility to the Great Eastern Dependency. An attempt 
was made to begin a Mission there, but no Canadian 
minister could be found for the work. The late Rev. 
John Laing, D.D., then minister at Scarboro, was offered 
the appointment, but his congregation pleaded for his 
retention, and his Presbytery refused to release him. 
jAn appeal was made to Scotland to lend a man, and 
this was more successful. The Rev. George Stevenson, 
with his wife, were sent out that same year as the 
representatives of the Free Church in Canada. On the 
recommendation of Dr. Duff they settled in Bancoorah, 
Bengal. But after a short time, a violent outbreak 
of cholera, followed by the terrible mutiny of 1857, so 
interfered with the success of the work that the mis- 
sionaries resigned and the Mission came to an encQ 
The fires of missionary enthusiasm had, however, been 
kindled, and, as is invariably the case, the Home land 
reaped the benefit for work was then begun among the 
North American Indians, the Rev. James Nisbet being 
designated to this work in 1862.* 

Pioneer Missionaries and Selection of Field. It 
was fifteen years before interest in India was again 
revived in the West ; and, as has happened so often 
in the history of Missions, ^it_jw^_thewomen of the 
Church who were instrumental in the reawakening of 
interest. Two young ladies, Miss T^airweather and 

*Vide Missionary Pathfinders, page 87. 


Miss Rodger, offered themselves for work in_jndia. 
They were accepted and sent out in 1873, to work, 
however, in connection with the Mission of the Presby- 
terian Church (North) of the United_States. 

When the Union of the Presbyterian Churches took 
place in 1875, Mr., now Dr., Campbell, the Synod's 
appointee, was accepted ; and the following year, 
Rev. J. M. Douglas, minister at Cobourg, was ap- 
pointed ; these two being the first ordained missionaries 
to be sent out by the newly formed Presbyterian 
Church in Canada. 


Mr. Campbell reached India in December, 1876, and 
was followed shortly by Mr. Douglas. The former 
went to Madras, where for a few months he worked 
among the English-speaking Indians. Mr. Douglas 
visited the American missionaries to confer with them 
about the work. Little had as yet been done among 
the "Native States" of India and the great irregular 
block of territory known as "The Central India 
Agency" was as yet unevangelized and practically 
untouched. This was the field which the Canadian 
Church hoped to be able to enter, and on January 2$th, 
1877, Rev. Mr. Holcomb, of the American Mission, 
with Mr. Douglas, arrived in Indore, the chief city of the 
Western part of the Agency, and the capital of Holkar 
State, and remained for a short time to assist in opening 
up 'work. Mr. Campbell came up from Madras in 
July and began work in Mhow, a military Cantonment* 

*A town, or part of a town, where troops are located, and which 
is under military authority. 


thirteen miles distant. Before the end of the year 
Miss Forrester and Miss McGregor, with Mrs. Douglas 
and children, arrived from Canada. The two ladies 
who had previously come out had already joined the 
Mission, and the end of the year 1877 saw work well 
begun ; at Indore by Mr. and Mrs. Douglas, Miss 
Fairweather, and Miss McGregor ; and at Mhow by 
Mr. Campbell, Miss Rodger, and Miss Forrester. 

Unfurling the Banner ; Previous Efforts by Cow- 
ley Fathers. Thus was the banner of Jesus Christ 
unfurled in Central India. It was pioneer work. Pre- 
vious to this, almost nothing had been done for the 
non-Christians of Central India. The Military Chap- 
lains confined their efforts generally to their fellow- 
countrymen. The 'Cowley Fathers had, some. years 
before, visited Indore City, and remained for a time. 
They lived in a native house and largely conformed to 
Indian manners and style of living. Their leader, 
Father O'Neill, who is described as a character of rare 
saintliness, died of cholera and the Mission ceased to 

The famous Brahman convert, Rev. Nehemiah 
Goreh, had toured through part of Central India, and 
had visited Mhow and Indore, where he lived for a time 
with Father O'Neill ; but when our missionaries arrived 
they found the field unoccupied and uhevangelized ; 
and, while other parts of Central India have since been 
entered by other Missions, ours to-day is the only 
Protestant force working in a solid block of territory 
larger than Scotland. 


In February, 1879, Miss Forrester and Mr. Campbell 
were married ; and in the end of the same year, Rev. 
and Mrs. John Wilkie were sent out and settled in 
Indore. At the same time, the Mission Council was 
formed for local administration. For four years no 
further reinforcements came from Canada. Some 
changes took place in the personnel of the staff, and 
these, with the subsequent additions and other changes, 
are indicated in the "list of Missionaries" in appen- 
dix "A." The publication of this History marks the 
completion of almost four decades of work in Central 
India by the Presbyterian Church in Canada. 

An Epochal Year in the Mission's History. For 

convenience in study the history of the Mission may 
be divided into two almost equal periods ; yet the divi- 
sion is by no means an arbitrary one, for the year 1897 
was, in some respects, epochal in the Mission. Initial 
difficulties had been largely overcome, and during the 
two preceding decades, almost all the phases of mission- 
ary work had been established. The mere enumeration 
of them shows how complete were the plans laid for 
Central India's evangelization. Evangelistic work was 
constantly carried on in its varied phases. Medical 
work had proved itself invaluable as the hand-maid of 
Evangelism, and had won the hearts of the people. 
Educational work was well distributed through Primary 
and Anglo- Vernacular Schools. In Mhow, a High 
School* for boys, and in Indore also a High School 
and Arts College were well established. Theological 

*Since closed, owing to the pressure of other work and also to 
the centralization of High School work at Indore. 




Training was provided for- by the Presbytery. A Press 
had, from the very first, been constantly kept running. 
Normal Classes for teachers had been in existence 
for two -or three years. Industrial work was begun. 
A class for the Blind had been opened ; and provision 
made for segregation of lepers, who were numerous 
in all the larger centres, and were a public menace. 
The initial steps had been taken for work among the 
aboriginal tribes the Bheels. In five out of the six 
centres occupied, organized congregations, with elders 
and deacons, had been established ; and the annual 
gathering of the Christians of the whole field in Con- 
vention, or Mela, for conference and mutual inspira- 
tion, had become a recognized feature of Church life. 
Some of these phases of work have been modified since. 

Changes in Administration. The year 1897 marked 
also an important change in Mission Administration. 
In that year the Zenana missionaries (who previously 
had been in the Mission Council) were formed into a 
"Women's Council" with control of their own funds, 
while the male missionaries became a Finance Commit- 
tee (later called the "Mission Council") for the ad- 
ministration of other funds from Canada, and the Pres- 
bytery was expected to discharge more fully its own 
proper functions. 

Trying Experiences. This year was epochal in an- 
other respect. The Mission had for the first time to face 
the awful spectre of famine, accompanied by its dread 
consort, cholera, together with other diseases. The strain 
was particularly severe in the Eastern part of the Cen- 
tral India Agency, but a great deal of rescue work fell 


to the lot of our Mission. So great a burden was laid 
on the Mission by the famine of 1897, and still more by 
that in Malwa two years later, that the whole work was 
profoundly affected. It was a year of crisis in the his- 
tory of the Mission, not only on the field, but in rela- 
tion to the Home Church. The Mission had just passed 
through one of those most harassing experiences, a 
"cut" in the allowances from Canada, which so cripples 
existing work and discourages the worker because of 
the indifference it too often indicates at the Home Base. 
Then came the wonderful outburst of sympathy when 
the news of the famine reached home, and, best of all, 
the definite association of scores of Christian men and 
women with Indian work in the support, for purposes 
of education and training, of the rescued orphans and 


Those Peculiar to Work in Native States. Pioneer 
missionaries in the Native States have special difficul- 
ties to contend with as well as those which are common 
to missions everywhere. Authority is largely in the 
hands of the Indian Princes, and they sometimes look 
with suspicion on the advent of the missionaries, whom 
they consider to be associated somehow with the 
paramount Power. In Malwa, too, the chief Maratha 
princes had not forgotten their conflict with the British. 
The masses of the people were as yet but little in- 
fluenced by the Western forces of civilization, which 
were noticeable in British India. New ground had to 
be broken in several forms of educational and philan- 


thropic work, and the message of the Gospel was a 
strange new story to multitudes. 

Of the physical inconveniences of these early days, 
the insanitary and uncomfortable dwelling houses 
and the lack of suitable buildings for school and medical 
work, there is no need to write. These have been re- 
peated in greater or less degree with the opening of each 
new centre of work, and are accepted gladly as part of 
the fellowship of the Cross of Christ. 

First Converts. For a time all went well with the 
Mission. Primary schools were opened, zenanas were 
visited, the Gospel was preached in bazars, and ad- 
jacent villages, and enquirers made their way to the 
missionaries' bungalows to discuss the new religion. 
A Printing Press was established, and it enabled the 
missionaries to spread the truth far and wide. Two 
Brahman youths of Indore named Sukhananda and 
Narayan Singh, of good social standing in families 
belonging to the Court, professed their faith in Christ, 
and asked for baptism. This was made the occasion 
of violent antagonism and opposition to Christianity, 
which developed in such a way as to threaten the very 
existence of the work in Indore and its expansion in 
other parts of the Agency. On the day fixed for the 
baptism of the young men, they were seized and taken 
before Maharaja Holkar and threatened with imprison- 
ment. They fled to Bombay. Later Mr. Douglas 
met them at Borsad, Gujarat, where they were bap- 
tized. Thus the first fruits of the Mission confessed 
Christ at the peril of their lives. Caste is cruel to 


those who dare to shake themselves free from its 

Principle of Religious Toleration at Stake. Not 

long after this an order was issued by the Indore 
Durbar* forbidding any Christian work in the State. 
Violence was offered to the preachers, and hindrances 
of various kinds were made. The issue raised was a 
momentous one for missionary work. It was the ques- 
tion of religious toleration in Native States. It seemed 
to the missionaries that the alternative was either, 
retiring from the field, or, seeking to gain for Christians 
that same toleration that was enjoyed by Hindus and 
Mohammedans alike in all the States of Central India. 
The British Government would not tolerate any at- 
tempt to violate this sacred principle in the case of 
Hindus and Mohammedans ; would it now be equally 
firm in the case of Christianity ? It was a principle 
guaranteed by Queen Victoria's famous Proclamation 
of 1858 (vide Appendix "D"). Widespread interest 
was aroused. Some of the secular papers bitterly 
criticized the missionaries. The religious press, ably 
led by The Indian Witness, the organ of the Methodist 
Episcopal Mission, championed the cause of freedom. 
The Calcutta Missionary Conference, at that time the 
most influential and active in India, took up the matter 
and sent a memorial to the Viceroy, urging others 
also to do the same. The appeal to the Secular Power 
was an appeal only for liberty to proclaim the Gospel, 
which is the primary duty of every Christian. If the 
Gospel is not proclaimed, if the Christian life is not 

*The Supreme Council of the State. 


constantly going forth in glad service for mankind, it 
cannot live. Christianity asks no favors but the com- 
mon right to walk and breathe and express itself where 
it can help and uplift mankind. 

Toleration Secured. The reply of the Viceroy, Lord 
Ripon, gave some relief ; but for a time the law" of 
liberty was evaded, the native officials taking their cue 
from the Agent to the Governor-General at that time, 
who was unfriendly to Missions. The whole situation 
was later laid privately before Lord Dufferin, who had 
come from Canada to succeed Lord Ripon in the Vice- 
royalty of India. Not long afterward he visited Indore 
and took the opportunity not only of publicly showing 
his deep personal interest in the work of the Mission, 
but of impressing on the Local Officials, British and 
Indian alike, the necessity of allowing Christian Mis- 
sionaries to do their work without interference. 

A Changed Atmosphere. From that time forward 
the whole atmosphere was changed. Official opposi- 
tion almost entirely ceased, and, on the contrary, the 
Mission received many tokens of goodwill from both 
officials and private citizens of Indore State. Perhaps 
the most marked was the grant, by the Dowager 
Maharani, of a splendid plot of ground, on which now 
stand the High School, College, and Women's Hospital. 


The Supreme Aim of the Missionary. Every true 
missionary is a preacher of the Gospel in season and 
out of season. Whether bending over the couch of the 
sick, or conversing by the wayside with the chance 


acquaintance, or gathering about him the little groups 
of eager, bright-eyed school children, he remembers 
that he is there to represent Christ. 

Preaching. Preaching in India has little in common 
with the methods in the Homeland. There are, 
however, some well trodden ways, according to which 
preaching is everywhere carried on. In the public 
squares of the larger towns and cities and in the mo- 
hullas,* this work can be carried on in all seasons. It 
has many disadvantages. There are many interrup- 
tions. A dog fight near by, some shrill-voiced women 
quarrelling in front of their houses, the pungent odor 
of condiments being prepared for food, and countless 
other distractions, make the work exhausting for body 
and mind. But it is almost always possible to gather a 
crowd, and in it there are many who listen intently and 
quietly to a simple earnest presentation of the funda- 
mental facts of human need and Divine Grace. After 
such preaching one longs to take the interested ones 
aside and talk privately about their heart longings. 
But there is no privacy in India. Unless the interested 
ones have the courage to come to the preacher's home 
for further instruction, there is little opportunity to 
follow up effectivelly the preaching of the word. 

False Rumors. Nothing is more distressing than the 
foolish and often cruel and wicked rumors that are 
circulated by unscrupulous persons, and such exper- 
iences are not confined to the early and pioneer days 
of the Mission. Most persistent are the reports that 

*A mohulla is a part of the city occupied, as a rule, by the mem- 
bers of one caste only. 


the missionaries are the Agents of Government and are 
paid in proportion to the converts won ; also that the 
people will be carried away and made Christians by 
force. As this book is being written, many villages are 
practically closed to the Gospel because* the people 
have been made to believe that the missionaries are the 
agents of Government, sent to compel the people to 
go and fight for the Empire in the great war now raging 
in Europe ; the % sending of Indian regiments to the 
front being, in the minds of simple villagers, all the 
proof needed. (jDuring the ravages of the Plague, 
rumors were so prevalent, as, at times, completely to 
frustrate all attempts at preaching. It was said that 
the missionaries were going about poisoning the wells, 
of course on behalf of Government?) 

Another story was that Kali, their bloodthirsty 
murderous goddess, had demanded from King Edward 
several hundred thousand victims as the price of being 
allowed to sit on the throne. The King had complied 
with the demand, stipulating however, that the victims 
must be taken from among his Indian subjects. 

Nothing is so painfuj_to_the missionary as to havejiite 
friendliest approaches treated with suspicion. At one 
place where a plague-smitten body was being prepared 
for the burning, a missionary stopped his cart and en- 
quired if he could be of any assistance to any others 
who might be ill. In reply an old man joined his 
hands, and in deprecating supplication said : "Bahut 
ho gaye, miharbani kijie" "many have gone, please 
show kindness." His meaning was that the Europeans 
had already destroyed plenty, and it was time to stop. 


Persecutions. The earlier days of the Mission were 
not without persecution in its more violent forms, the 
brunt of which fell on the faithful Indian preachers. 
One worker in Ujjain was seized and put in prison, his 
only offence being that he kept the school open. God, 
however, opened the way for his release. The head 
moulvi of the Mohammedans took up his cause, and 
freedom was given to him to continue his work. In 
Mand^saur, two Indian preachers were one evening 
hooted and pelted with mud and stones and driven 
out of the city. In this city on another occasion, and 
in Manasa also, Dr. Wilson and his assistants were 
mobbed and pelted with mud and stones and compelled 
to abandon preaching. On other occasions, the police 
with sticks would violently drive away the people and 
make all work impossible. In Barwaha the local 
officials openly countenanced the abusing of some 
Christians. A reference to the Durbar brought a 
rebuke to the Headman and later his removal. In 
Padlia the preacher was forbidden to draw water from 
any of the village wells, although the well dug for his 
use had been drained dry by a deeper and larger well 
dug only a few yards away. In another town false 
charges of robbery were brought against the Christian 
converts. They were seized and tied up by their 
wrists until the blood burst from their finger tips ; 
they were also beaten to make them confess. 

The story of persecution is a long one, and much of it, 
especially that meted out to enquirers and converts, 
never can be written, it is so subtle, so secret, and so 
cruel. In spite of the protection afforded by a Chris- 


tian Supreme Government, there is always some mea- 
sure of risk. In a land like India, the danger is that one 
is never quite sure what an Indian crowd may do. A 
false rumor, a misunderstanding, a wound to religious 
susceptibilities, even when unintentional, and the 
crowd may be roused to a mad fury. 

Itinerating. Itinerating has from the beginning been 
a chief feature of the evangelistic work. From October 
till March, while the weather is comparatively cool, and 
almost no rain falls, the missionaries, both men and 
women, accompanied by Indian helpers, go forth to 
tour their Districts unless prevented by station work. 
Dr. Campbell in the early years of the Mission toured 
far and wide covering hundreds of miles, which was of 
great value as the work expanded ; and he was per- 
mitted to preach the Gospel in hundreds of towns and 
villages which had never before heard a Christian 
preacher. One of the first fruits of this work, was the 
baptism of the headman of one of the lower castes, 
about sixty miles from the central station. For many 
years this man witnessed a good confession among his 
caste followers, and his memory is cherished by them 

Camping in the District. Touring in the district is 
strenuous but delightful work. As a rule the village 
people, the great agricultural class, hear the preachers 
gladly. It is customary to pitch tents in some shaded 
grove near a large town, visiting the adjacent villages 
in the mornings, and spending the afternoons and 
evenings in the town. Often the people gather in 
such numbers to the tent that there is no need to go 


afield. Sometimes late into the night the interested 
enquirers will tarry, anxious to hear more and yet more 
of the strange good news. 2JTh e ^ a< ^Y missionaries also 
visit the villages and find all the opportunities they 
desire, being called to one house after another where the 
women all gather in the secluded courtyards to listen) 
Preaching to these is a much more different matter than 
addressing the men. They seem unable to keep their 
minds for more than a few minutes on anything. The 
hymns set to native airs, and short conversational 
addresses, gain their attention. yWork among men and 
women is carried on separately ; but when it is possible 
to have lady missionaries accompany the male mission- 
ary and his wife on tour, it is greatly to the advantage 
of the work of both. The incidents of travel while on 
tour with the slow-going ox-carts, make up an exper- 
perience never to be forgotten. Life in the open, more- 
over, is so healthy, that apart from the limitless op- 
portunities for preaching the Word, those who can get 
away, are glad to spend the cold season under canvass 
among the villages. One result of this method is that 
the religion of Christ is advertised far and wide, and 
for many a day the visit of the preacher and his new 
and startling message will be discussed about the vil- 
lage fires. 

Women's Evangelistic Work. A large part of the 
special field of Evangelistic work by the lady mission- 
aries is in the zenanas. The zenana system, that of 
seclusion for the female members of the family, came 
into India with the Mohammedans, and was adopted 
by, or rather forced upon, the Hindus in self-defence. 


Except among the poor classes, who cannot afford it, 
and the Marathas, the haughty opponents of the 
Mohammedans in days gone by, this system prevails^ 
generally. But the closely-drawn veil, as tHe^women 
go about their duties, shows how the spirit of seclusion 
is everywhere. ) When preaching in the public bazaar 
it often happens that a group of women will be seen 
gathered at the rear of the crowd of male hearers ; it 
is nevertheless true, however, that if the women of 
Central India are to be reached with the Gospel, it 
must be by those of their own sex. It : s well that our 
Church has, from the very first, recognized the extreme 
urgency of women's work. In the illy-ventilated 
houses where the atmosphere is foul and stiflingly hot, 
and where there is often much to offend both sight and 
smell, the Gospel is preached. Teaching of reading, 
knitting, or sewing is frequently the price to pay for 
entrance. Many sad and longing hearts are touched, 
and slowly, oh, so slowly, the women of India are being 
brought into touch with Him who has in all lands been 
the Emancipator of womankindj 

Special Problems of Work in Zenanas. It need 
scarcely be said that there are difficulties and problems 
peculiar to this work. Many, we believe, in these 
secluded Indian homes have been truly born again and 
have learned to love Jesus Christ and pray to Him. 
yBut so interlaced is the whole family system that con- 
fession of Christ by baptism to many of them appears 
impossible. Frequently the expression of a desire for 
baptism means the closing of the door to the zenana 
missionary and the work seems to have been for naughtTj 


But there is the sure promise, "My word shall not re- 
turn unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which 
I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I 
sent it" (Is. 55 : n). There is for the faithful worker 
all the time the glad consciousness that a better day is 
dawning for India's daughters. Often young men, near 
to the kingdom, declare that the only hindrance to their 
open confession of Christ is in the home. That is the 
stronghold of idolatry, and they participate in idola- 
trous ceremonies rather than cause trouble in the home, 
but their hearts condemn them all the while. ^The 
zenana missionary is helping "to roll away the stone" 
of offence ; for undoubtedly many women are led to 
abandon idolatry and have had their minds awakened 
to higher and better things. There is great need that 
work for men and work for women should be closely 


Pioneering by Medical Ladies Indore. In the 

story of Medical Missions in Central India, the work 
of the lady missionariesjtakes a leading place. Govern- 
ment Medical merTHidTwhat they could for the Indians, 
but medical work for women by women doctors was an 
unheard of thing. It was pioneer work, and much of 
suspicion and deep-rooted prejudice had to be over- 
come. The Church was fortunate in its choice of 
pioneer lady doctors for Central India. In December. 
i884,_the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society sent 
\ out their first Medical Missionary, Dr. Elizabeth 
Beatty^ who began work at Indore. She was of a 
singularly sympathetic nature, one that could "weep 


with those that weep and rejoice with those that 
rejoice," and she soon won the confidence and the hearts 
of the people. Within two years the work had grown 
too heavy to be carried on single-handed, and in Decem- 
ber, 1886, Dr. Beatty wasjained by Dr. Marion Oliver. 
Their Medical work had an important bearing on the 
growth of the Mission. Dr. Beatty had barely begun 
her work when patients came from far-distant places 
for treatment ; and the influence was seen in some 
marked ways. In 1885, a high official of nv>ar sent 
his wife and their Tamily doctor_down for consultation, 
and after that several others came. Ten years later 
Dhar was opened as a Central Station under cir- 
cumstances which gladdened the hearts of the whole 
Mission. But it is significant^ that it was the hope of 
having a lady doctor there,_which secured for the Mis- 
s'lon a cordial welcome to that station. 

Medical Work Begun in Neemuch. In 1892 Dr. 

Margaret McKellar began Medical work in Neemuch, 
the most northerly of our stations, and for many years 
work was carried on in dispensaries, in the city, and 
outstations, and in Cantonment. _Npt always_ are 
^the_jnessengers of^ mercy received gladly. Soon after 
beginning work there, some one with no love for the 
lady doctor thought to hinder the work by placing 
on_the doorstep of the dispensary the symbol of the 
curse he hoped would comeupon her. It was a vessel j j 
Half filled with blood and beside it some lemons cu t" 1 1 
in two and a corncob. On asking what it meant, the 
servant replied, "Oh, Miss Saheb, an enemy has put 
it there, something dreadful will befall you. This is 


the worst thing that any one could do to you." To the 
astonishment of all, the lady doctor was not disturbed 
in the least byThe thought of the impending disaster. 
She dismissed the matter b^telling them shejbelieved 
m"the pro"tecting power of God^wTio said, " There shall 
no evil befall tEee, neither shall any plague come nigh 
thy dwelling." The jables were soon turned, and blind 
superstition and demonolatry received their hardest 
blows, when medical skill ^and Christlike, loving service 
of the sick and afflicted, were freely given. 

Tribute to the Pioneers. The story of the later 
development of this work is left to another chapter, 
but tribute may here be paid to the two pioneer medical 
missionaries, Drs. Beatty and Oliver ; one, still spared, 
though no longer able to continue her chosen work ; 
and the other, after a long term of service, called to her 
Eternal Rest. Eminently Christ-like in all their work, 
every door their skill opened for them was entered, not 
alone by them, but Christ was with them. A patient 
who afterwards became a Christian and herself con- 
tinued long to minister to the sick, told how, when she 
was first brought sick to the Hospital and laid on the 
cot in the ward, she was filled with terror, not knowing 
how she would be treated by the foreign Miss Saheb. 
When Miss Oliver came into the ward to see the patients 
with that kindly look so well remembered, all her fears 
vanished, "but," she said, "when she came and put her 
hand on my fevered brow, I loved her ; she had won 
my heart." She had done more, she had won her for 
the Saviour. 


The Need for Medical Men. Compared with a land 
like China, it maybe said that the need for male medical 
missionaries is not so clamant in India. Wherever 
British officials are found, there also, as a rule, is the 
European medical man and "there also the charitable 
dispensary and, usually, Hospital equipment in some 
degree. Government Medical schools turn out num- 
bers of men each year. Year by year also, more is being 
done by the Native States to have medical relief pro- 
vided at accessible centres. But when one considers 
the vast amount of unrelieved suffering, and especially 
the proportion of medical men to population compared 
with that in Western lands, one can only say that the 
need is appalling. It is estimated that not more than 
five per cent of the people have any medical treatment 
in their last illness. 

The pioneer missionaries felt they must do something 
and dispensaries were opened where it was possible to 
secure Indian men with some knowledge of medicine 
along Western lines ; and where these were not avail- 
able, the missionaries themselves did what they could. 

John Buchanan, First Male Physician, Opens Work 
in Ujjain. Dr. John Buchanan was the first medical 
man sent out ; and he with his wife, formerly Dr. Mary 
MacKay, began work in Ujjain, which has been con- 
tinued with much success up to the present. The only 
place available there for some years was a small shop 
opening into a crowded busy street. The door was the 
only place for ventilation, and every morning crowds 
gathered there so that the doorway had to be cleared 
frequently to allow the workers inside to get fresh air. 


On the little verandah in front, the Catechist read and 
sang and preached the Word. Hour after hour the 
healing message for the sin-sick soul, and healing skill 
for the diseased body, went hand in hand ; and so it 
ever is in our medical Mission work. Later Dr. 
Buchanan secured an excellent sight just within the 
city gates, and on one of the main thoroughfares, and 
there erected a serviceable brick building. The lower 
story contains rooms for medical work and also a hall 
used daily for preaching to the patients and on Sundays 
for services. The upstairs has room for patients. It 
was built with subscriptions raised by the missionaries, 
and every brick represents sacrifice and speaks of love 
for the sick and suffering. 

Ujjain is one of the sacred cities of India. It had a 
population of about 34,000 and was a peculiarly needy 
and therefore inviting field for medical work. Thou- 
sands of pilgrims gathered there at certain seasons and 
in consequence disease was rife. 


The Crying Need for Schools. It was inevitable that 
the attention of the missionaries should be early turned 
to educational work. The masses were almost en- 
tirely illiterate. Even after nearly four decades, in 
which the Mission has done much, and the Native 
States have increasingly encouraged the establishment 
of schools, the illiteracy is appalling, only i in 20 males, 
and i in 330 females, being able to read and write. In 
the large centres the youth were eager to be taught, and 
the school was an ever-open door for the dissemination 




of Christian ideas. The value of schools as a method of 
evangelization has been much discussed and the 
almost universal verdict is favorable to the schools. 
They have been known by their fruits. The Edin- 
burgh Conference Report* gives these in substance as 
follows : 

Fruits of Mission Schools, (i) A very large pro- 
portion of the best moral and spiritual influences of 
Missions have emanated from the schools and a great 
part of the harvest hitherto reaped by evangelization 
has sprung from seeds sown by the schools. 

(2) The most striking public witness for Christianity 
in India has been the power Missions have exhibited, 
by means of education, to raise the lowest classes. 

(3) In India, Missions have led the way in female 
education, and have immensely raised the status of 
women in the community. 

(4) Excellent as was the system of education of the 
British Government, it was hampered by its policy of 
neutrality and its desire not even to appear to interfere 
with religious beliefs. It has been the particular glory 
of Missions that their schools have presented an all- 
round educational ideal in which moral and spiritual 
instruction have had their place. 

(5) In the fusion of East and West, "whatever has 
been accomplished in the direction of realizing the fel- 
lowship of humanity, and this is one of the greatest 
of all human enterprises, has been accomplished by 
no class of men so much as by the missionaries .... and 
while these results .... have been due to the missionary 

*Page 365, Vol. III., "Christian Education." 


enterprise as a whole, there can be no question that in 
bringing them about, missionary schools and colleges 
have played a prominent part." 

Desire to Learn English. In the large cities, the 
desire to learn English was very marked. Government 
service was the goal of many students, and for this, 
English was needed, But once learned, the door of the 
treasure-house of Christian literature was opened. In 
Mhow, Indore, Ujjain and Neemuch, the little primary 
schools rapidly developed into Angles Vernacular ; and 
in the case of 3 of them, into High Schools. In 
Indore, the High School developed still further up to 
the full University course, and the "Canadian Mission 
College,* stands to-day as the answer of the Christian 
Church to the deep-rooted craving of the youth of 
Central India, not only for knowledge, but also for 
deliverance from false philosophies, from corrupt moral 
ideas, and for soul-satisfying views of duty and of 

Development of Higher Educational Work in Indore. 
In May, 1884, Rev. Mr. (now Dr.) Wilkie opened a 
High School in the Camp, Indore. In July the attend- 
ance had risen to 100 per month. Compulsory re- 
ligious instruction raised difficulties, but these were soon 
surmounted, and ever since the Bible has been a regular 
part of the day's teaching. This first Christian High 
School in Central India created great interest. Some 
of the native Officials looked askance at it. Some 
frankly welcomed it. Some European Officers and 

The name has recently been changed to "The Indore Christian 


business men in other places aided by scholarships, and 
before long the local British authorities sanctioned a 
substantial monthly grant. The ground was won, and 
it remained for the institution to prove itself indispensa- 
ble in the community. It was not long until Dr. 
Wilkie was urged to start a "First Arts Class," i.e., to 
develop the High School into a College teaching up to 
the second year of University work. Lack of room 
made the plan impossible. The demand for such a 
College increased, and. in 1888 a First Arts College was 
opened in affiliation with Calcutta University. This 
was the first institution of such a grade in Central India. 
In 1893 it became a First Grade College, teaching up 
to the B.A. degree. An event of prime importance 
was the opening of the spacious new College Building 
on November 22nd, 1895, by Col. Barr, the Agent to the 
Governor-General in Central India. This fine struc- 
ture is well situated near the Railway Station, and is 
central to the life of the great city of Indore. 

Such is the outline of the growth of the College. It 
is a monument to the persistent energy and enthusiasm 
of Dr. Wilkie. Many difficulties were met and over- 
come in its erection, and all the time the College classes 
had to be kept up in an efficient manner. With the 
completion of the building, it was possible to organize 
the general work of the institution and the related 
activities with some comfort and satisfaction to those 
in charge. The growth of the class lists in recent years 
has shown the wisdom of making generous plans in the 
pioneer days, and laying large the foundations. 


Women's Work for the Girls of Central India. In 

the work of female education in Central India, the 
Mission has been conspicuous from the very beginning. 
Everywhere that opportunity afforded, the ladies, 
married and single, put their hands to this work ; but 
more often they forced the doors of opportunity. 
They boldly challenged the right of India to keep her 
daughters in darkness, and knocked loudly at the doors 
of age-long prejudice and contempt for the intellectual 
and spiritual powers of womankind. It was theirs to 

"Hear a clear voice calling, calling, 

Calling out of the night 
Oh you who live in the Light of Life, 
Bring us the Light." 

The difficulties to be surmounted were many. 
Many Hindus thought, or wanted to think, that women 
were incapable of education. It was said that the do- 
mestic virtues of India's women would suffer if educa- 
tion were introduced. Now, young men who have 
even a smattering of education, want their wives to be 
educated ; and a wise Mission policy demanded that 
female education should keep pace, so far as possible, 
with that for males. 

Difficulties Overcome. In the actual working ot 
Girls' Schools the difficulties that confront the teacher 
would appal any one not possessed of a great faith in 
God and a great love for India's womanhood. It is 
almost impossible to insist on regularity and punctual- 
ity, for the homes from which the children come know 
little of these virtues ; and just when the teacher, with 


much patience and pains, has brought the girls to a 
stage when their education begins to be of real use to 
them, they are removed from school. The marriage- 
able age has been reached, and the disappointed teacher 
sees the girls whom she has learned to love, removed 
from her influence, and often taken away to distant 
homes where there will be little chance to improve the 

Violent Opposition. Girls' schools had their share 
of violent opposition also in the early years. In Indore 
city, toleration for girls schools was only attained after 
serious difficulties. An Indian Magistrate had for 
some time been trying to close the Girls' School in this 
neighborhood, and had been guilty of a series of petty 
persecutions, until it was thought best to rent another 
house at a distance. The zealous official found this out, 
however, and continued his persecutions. A sejaoy 
was sent to break open the door of the school and remove 
all Christian books. This was a clear case of theft and 
it was thought necessary to take a decided course. A 
complaint was made to the Magistrate in the vicinity 
who took up the matter warmly. Indian friends ad- 
vised that an appeal should be made to the Prime 
Minister, who was an enlightened and liberal man. He 
immediately took such measures that the offenders 
were brought to justice, and the result of his interference 
was most beneficial to the work. 

Provoked Unto Good Works. One result of the 
Girls' Schools was that others were provoked unto 
good works. A striking illustration of this was seen 
in Ujjain. After the ladies had carried on their schools 


for some years, the Durbar announced the opening of a 
State School for Girls, which would be liberally sup- 
ported, and to which the people were urged to send their 
girls. Men were sent to every street taking the names 
of the girls, small rewards were given every day, and 
liberal grants of clothing were made to the children, 
and there was the additional inducement that there 
would be no danger of children becoming Christian. 
Naturally the Mission schools suffered in attendance. 
But this misplaced generosity could not last. The 
sequel is interesting. In that same city a Christian 
woman has been for years a trusted teacher in one of 
the State Girls' Schools, while in other places Christian 
women have been similarly employed. 

Girls' High School, Indore. Female education has 
been most fully developed in Indore, where there is now 
a good High School, teaching all grades up to Univer- 
sity Entrance. Early in the Mission's history, in 1887, 
Miss Rodger began a Boarding School with a class of 
three Christian girls whom she received into her own 
bungalow. The number grew, and no suitable ac- 
commodation being available, the girls were sent to the 
Boarding School in Nasirabad, which was carried on 
by the Scotch Mission adjoining our Mission on the 

In 1889 Miss Harris was sent out from Toronto, and, 
in Neemuch the following year, reopened the Boarding 
School. But Miss Harris' health broke. down, and she 
died at London on her way home to Canada. In the 
meantime a fine commodious building was being erected 
in Indore. Miss Jean Sinclair, (now Mrs. J. S. Mac- 


Kay) was put in charge, and began work in the still 
unfinished building with about twenty Christian girl 
boarders. The idea of training the girls for domestic 
duties was never lost sight of. The school grew stead- 
ily in numbers and importance. When the Great 
Famine came, the capacity of the school was more than 
taxed, about two hundred of the brightest of the orphan 
girls being sent there. 

Recognized as a High School by Government. In 
1898 the Boarding School, having been for some years 
inspected annually by the Government Inspector of 
Schools, was recognized as a High School in affiliation 
with Calcutta University, and the next year one of the 
Christian girls, who had received all her education in 
the school, appeared for the Entrance Examination to 
Calcutta University, and failed in only one subject. 
It is of interest to note that as early as 1894 a branch 
of the Indian Y.W.C.A. was organized in the Boarding 
School, the second Indian Christian Girls' Branch in 
all India. It was a source of blessing to many, and the 
girls, for many years, raised by self-denying effort, a 
contribution in aid of the work for lepers. 

Communities Influenced. Other activities of the 
early years can be only briefly referred to in this chapter. 
The influence of the Gospel of Christ was manifested 
in many ways. Time and again whole communities 
were strongly moved. Great mass movements in 
various parts of India are to-day sweeping thousands 
into the fold of the Christian Church. Our pioneer 
missionaries were early confronted with these move- 
ments. But, like the flowing and ebbing tides of the 



great ocean, there were fluctuations. Sometimes the 
hearts of the missionaries would be greatly encouraged 
by what seemed to be genuine spiritual movements. 
In the city of old Neemuch the mehars, or sweeper 
caste, became deeply interested. One of them who 
had been practically blind for four years was given 
the use of his eyes. He brought his friends with him 
to the daily services which were held at the dispensary. 
Then meetings were held in their mohulla. Night after 
night intense interest was shown. The people professed 
great joy and repeatedly declared their readiness to 
abandon heathenism and to follow Christ, Finally 
they were asked to bring out their idols and break them 
in the presence of the missionaries. They went to do 
so, but returned^sayin^ that thejr whresjwpuld-riot give 
.TEem up. Ifjthey^became Christians they would come 
all together, but the women hesitated wEen it was seen 
to mean a "clean cut" with idols and idolatrous rites. 
The lady missionaries began systematic instruction 
oFthe women, BuTthe tide had turned. Thejwomen 
had won the day, and the emancipation of that despised 
down-trodden community was, for a time at least, 

A few years later in Ujjain a section of that same 
community became much interested, first in the dis- 
pensary meetings, and then in the regular services. 
So marked was this, that many of the high castes raised 
the old complaint laid against the Master, that the 
missionaries were ' ' receiving sinners ' ' out castes . The 
work of the school was seriously threatened on this 
account ; and then, through some mysterious influence, 


they entirely ceased coming to any of the meetings. 

Downtrodden so long, the threats, doubtless, of the 

higher castes drove them away from the door of Hope. 

The " Mang " Movement in Indore. In Indore 

in 1892 a similar caste movement began among the 

Mangs a community of very poor people, low down 

in the social scale. A school had been in existence for 

some time, and was well attended by both boys and 


girls. jUM~K^in~SingEu aT Christian convert from 
North India, gave himself to this community, and so 
faithfully presented the truths of Christianity, that the 
whole caste was profoundly stirred, and over three 
hundred declared their purpose to become followers of 
Jesus Christ. At first the force of the movement was 
not realized by the caste itself, but soon all the powers 
of evil seemed to join forces to check it. Wives in- 
clined towards Christianity were shut up as close 
prisoners, wives and children were taken from husbands 
looking in the same direction. 

Social intercourse with the rest of the caste people 
was forbidden. Indeed all that seemed formerly to 
make up the sum total of their circumscribed lives, was 
snatched away from the enquirers. Their caste people 
from all the surrounding towns and villages were called 
together, and in solemn conclave it was decided that 
all who were looking toward Christianity should be 
refused any share in the perquisites that fell to the lot 
of the Mang caste during the wedding celebrations 
among the higher castes ; for, as the drum beaters and 
trumpet blowers on such occasions, the Mangs received 
a share of the food provided for the marriage feasts. 


This was only one of the methods adopted to bring 
the waverers into line. Becoming Christians, for these 
people, meant the overturning of their whole social 
fabric, for the old life was inseparately bound up with 
idolatrous practices. The social life of caste crushes 
out individual action.^ No wonder these people come, 
when they do come, in the mass. To baptize such and 
receive them into the Christian Brotherhood, is a great 
responsibility. After a time of probation a goodly 
number were received by baptism into the Christian 
Church at Indore ; and from time to time others have 
been added to the Church from the same community. 

This movement has not fulfilled all the hopes that 
were entertained in its beginnings. Possibly the stress 
of other work, and the fewness of the workers, prevented 
the giving of all the care that was demanded. The 
great famine of 1898 dealt sorely with the newly enrolled 
Christians. Many were scattered abroad. But from 
that despised community, some, both men and women, 
grew to be us^fuH:eachers and preachers of the Gospel. 

Industrial Home grew out of Mass Movement. One 
direct result of this movement was the establishing of 
an Industrial Home in 1893, the support of which was 
undertaken by the congregation of Indore. The social 
upheaval among the Mangs made it necessary that the 
Christian community should care for the women and 
girls rendered homeless. From this beginning has 
grown a "Home" which has been a helper to the whole 
Mission Field of Central India. ]\Jrs. Johpry has been 
its presiding genius, and has rendered a service FcT the 
Indian Church which has been invaluable, Quiet and 


unostentatious, she has been a succorer of many. 
Industrial work, such as weaving, knitting, and sewing 
were combined with ordinary educational work ; and 
the training has been such that those who have gone 
forth from the "Home" to houses of their own have 
helped to spread abroad the Light which is emanci- 
pating India's women. 

Residence in Native States. One of the most 
delicate problems confronting the Mission throughout 
the whole course of its work, has been that of residence 
within the bounds of the Native States. In Mhow, 
Indore, and Neemuch, the stations occupied previous 
to 1885, the missionaries were resident on land under 
British jurisdiction. But when the time came to 
launch out and seek permission to live within the bounds 
of the Native Rulers, and secure land for permanent 
residence there, it was evident that new problems would 
have to be faced. There was (i) the fact that ordinar- 
ily land in Native States is held directly by the State, 
making it necessary for the Mission to deal directly with 
the Indian Princes or their Durbars, instead of securing 
land by private purchase. (2) The Indian Rulers are, 
not unnaturally, somewhat timid about the entrance of 
foreigners, as permanent residents, into their territories, 
because of possible difficulties in the matter of juris- 
diction. British law in India makes it impossible 
for a British subject to be entirely under the jurisdiction 
of a Native State, and even where a missionary might 
be perfectly willing to renounce his rights, it is doubtful 
whether the Government would consent to any one 
occupying such a position, because of its prestige as the 


suzerain power. This is a problem, the solution of 
which does not lie within the power of the individual 
missionary. (3) From the standpoint of the mission- 
ary it is extremely desirable that his residence in the 
Native State should be with the cordial assent of those 
in authority, and therefore no step should be taken 
which even appears to force their hands by official 
influence. They much prefer to have the missionary 
deal directly with them, and not to approach them 
through the resident British Political Officer ; and it is 
generally the case that Political Officers are of a similar 

Dr. and Mrs. Campbell begin Work in Rutlam. 
In 1885, the first steps were taken for the definite 
occupation of Native territory ; and as was fitting, the 
most experienced missionaries, Dr. and Mrs. Campbell, 
were chosen for the work. They had just returned 
from their first furlough, fresh and strong for work, and 
all their physical powers and all their patience of hope 
were needed for the testing days that lay before them. 
Their hearts were drawn to Rutlam, the capital of the 
Native State of that name. Their reception there had 
been encouraging on their first visit in 1879 (when Dr. 
Campbell gained permission to carry on Christian work 
in the State) and on subsequent visits. As soon as 
possible after returning from furlough, Dr. Campbell 
revisited it and had interviews with the authorities, 
from which he understood that they would be willing 
to have him open a mission station, but that the 
"punches "* would also need to be consulted. This the 

*The local authority within the "caste." 


Dewan promised to do. Dr. Campbell brought the 
matter before the Mission Council, explaining the 
situation, and Council accepted his offer to move to 
Rutlam. After touring over and revisiting some of the 
outlying districts, Dr. and Mrs. Campbell arrived in 
Rutlam on February 8th, 1886. Then they got the 
depressing news that the authorities did not wish them 
to make Rutlam a Mission Station, though they would 
be pleased to have them come for a few weeks at a time 
or to come and live there without carrying on Mission 

Dr. Campbell replied to the Dewan that he had 
waited in vain for his promised intimation of the 
punches' attitude, had taken silence as consent, had 
accordingly been appointed to Rutlam, and that the 
appointment had been intimated to the Church in 
Canada, and now that they had come, it was too late to 
say that the punches objected. 

They pitched their two small tents in the grove shown 
them, and were thus afforded shelter for a time. They 
tried to rent, and then to buy, a property, but the owner 
after agreeing, drew back, saying he was forbidden. 
They moved about among the people who seemed 
friendly. The month of March that year was un- 
usually hot, and they felt the heat in tents greatly. 
Early in April through an Indian friend, they secured 
a small house in the city and went into it though with a 
good deal of misgiving as to whether or not they could 
stand it. There was no way of keeping the hot wind 
out, the rooms were tiny, and there was no ground 
around it. Even the lane in front was very narrow. 


But this was our Mission's first attempt at occupying 
purely Native territory ; and the missionaries realized 
how much depended on their gaining an entrance to 
/ Rutlam, and that even a te^n^oraryjetreat at that time 
! might permanently__mjure the cause of Missions. If 
Rutlam f ailed Jx) receivejthem, it_would be a precedent 
for other States to follow, and all doors might be shut. 
The missionaries, therefore, preferred putting up with 
discomfort rather than bring the matter before the 
British authorities. They rented the native house for a 
year, paying six months' rent in advance. It was well 
they did so, else they would probably have been turned 
out. The weeks and months went on. There was more 
to try them than merely the uncomfortable house and 
its surroundings, but they thought it wise to keep 
quiet, and neither friends at home nor their Indian 
J neighbors knew all it cost them. Every care was taken 
that even in the household arrangements there should 
be no offence to Indian prejudices. Gradually as the 
people about became more friendly and gained con- 
fidence, they felt less restricted. About six months 
after their arrival the Dewan met Dr. Campbell and 
said to him : "Well, since you seem determined to 
remain, there is no use in our making you uncomfort- 
able," to which sentiment Dr. Campbell agreed. 

Later on the Political Agent, Col. Martin, visited 
Rutlam with his family and was very friendly, and let 
the authorities know that he would be very favorable to 
the missionaries getting a settlement there. Dr. 
Campbell had previously seen him, and asked him not 
to do or say anything officially, as they did not wish 


either the authorities or the people to feel that the 
Mission had been forced upon them. Early in 1887 
they were allowed to rent from the State pait of the 
Dak or Travellers' Bungalow, and their position was 
thus officially recognized. ' Residence there was a 
delightful change from the house in the foul-smelling, 
crowded city street, which was their abode for the first 

Some months elapsed before His Highness the Rajah 
kindly consented to sell a site on which to build, a site 
which is a most desirable situation for Mission premises. 
The settlement of the Mission in Rutlam was gained, 
subject to no hampering conditions as to work, which 
was cause for gratitude to God, by whose permission 
Princes rule, and who willeth that all men should be 
saved and come to the knowledge of the Truth. 

Ujjain, the Holy City, Occupied. Additions to the 
Mission staff made possible a further advance in 1887. 
Ujjain, the "Sacred City," in the territory of Gwalior 
State, had as yet no resident missionary, though 
Indian helpers had worked there for several years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Murray were appointed, but had to live 
in Indore 40 miles away, as no accommodation was 
available. Before the year was done, both were called 
to Service in the presence of their Lord, the first of the 
now long roll of those who have laid down their lives 
for Central India's redemption. 

They came from Pictou County, Nova Scotia, the 
county which has given the Church of Christ so many 
noble servants, and among them all, Robert Murray 
and Charlotte Wilson hold no inconspicuous place. 


They were cut off in the very beginning of their career. 
Their bodies rest together in the beautiful little ceme- 
tery at Indore. 

Dr. and Mrs. Buchanan stepped into the breach, and 
Ujjain became theirs to win for Christ. From 1888 
to 1892 they had no certain dwelling place. Sometimes 
in tents, sometimes Mrs. Buchanan in Mhow 50 miles 
away and the Doctor living in a native house in the 
crowded city ; sometimes having respite from discom- 
fort in a rented bungalow, but always healing and teach- 
ing the people, they won their way through. Land to 
build was given, and a comfortable house erected. 

But why these struggles for land some may ask, when 
He whom we serve, had not where to lay His head. 
Can the missionaries not be content to be "pilgrims" 
and "strangers" in India, to be apostolic (?) in their 
labors, live as do the people of the land, and thus avoid 
all the criticism to which their present policy exposes 
them ? To those who know Indian conditions, the 
apostolic answer is sufficient : "To abide in the flesh 
is more needful. ..." With all the care that can be 
taken, there is still an alarming wastage of the mission- 
ary forces, due to breakdowns of health. 

Friendly attitude of Indian Rulers. But the Mission 
has had experiences of a different character from these. 
Some of the Rulers of Central India have from, the first 
been sympathetic. One of the most interesting in. con- 
nection with our Mission history, was the late Mahara- 
jah of Dhar. His tolerant spirit may be seen in the 
fact that, even before a Mission station was opened in 
his State, on the occasion of the proclamation of Queen 


Victoria as Empress of India, he asked a missionary, 
who happened to be present at the ceremony, to engage 
in prayer. 

Influences Leading to the Opening of Dhar as a 
Station. Many convergent lines of influence were pre- 
paring the way for the opening of this Native State to the 
Gospel messengers. One of the smaller kingdoms, it had 
been kept intact by British intervention. Some of its 
officials had reaped the benefits of, and had learned to_ 
appreciate, women's medical skill, their families in some 
cases having gone to Indore for medical treatment. 
The Maharajah had made himself acquainted with the 
work of Girls' Schools, and had on one occasion when 
in Indore, invited Miss Sinclair and her pupils to his 
residence that he might hear the children sing, and ex- 
pressed his pleasure at what he heard. The mission- 
aries, moreover, had often visited the State where they 
were always well received. On one occasion Dr. 
Campbell was introduced to his audience by the Super- 
intendent of Education, Mr. Dike, a Brahman, in words 
of profound appreciation of the Christian message. 

In the autumn of 1894, Revs. Norman and Frank 
Russell accompanied by other helpers, camped for some 
weeks outside the walls of the capital city of Dhar, and 
night after night great crowds flocked to their tents to 
hear the preaching, In the mornings, the various parts 
of the city were visited, and so general was the interest 
aroused that it was estimated that the whole population 
of the city of 17,000 inhabitants must have heard the 
Gospel, some of them several times. The missionaries 
were summoned to the palace to preach and sing the 


Christian hymns there. One evening they were asked 
to speak in the State School, and nearly all the officials 
and educated young men of the city were present. 
Addresses were given in English and Hindi, and one of 
the officials asked permission to repeat the substance 
of the address in Mar at hi, the mother-tongue of many 
of them. 

Thus a temporary visit had resulted in the Gospel 

I being preached and_heard gladly from the humblest 
portion of the city right up to the throne. But what 

- would happen when the Mission proposed settling there 
permanently and opening a station ? The opening 
out of a station is like the staking of a claim, and it is a 
claim, the claiming of that place for Jesus Christ. 
To the people it is the unfurling of the banner of Jesus 
Christ and an indication that the casual visitors have 
come to stay, and to be a part of the life of the com- 
munity. And it is just here that many Indian Rulers 
hesitate. It means the permanent entrance of persons 
who are not, and cannot be, in all points, subject to 
their authority. They dislike alienating their land to 
foreigners who cannot become their subjects. 
' It was with some hesitancy, therefore, that the mis- 
sionaries sought an interview with the Maharajah to lay 
before him their plans) They were referred to the 
Minister of State, and on entering his office they noted 
as a good omen that a Christian Bible was lying on his 
desk, (jf he missionaries frankly presented their re- 
- quest telling of their interest in Dhar, and adding, that 
a lady doctor would be included in the staff. As no 
immediate answer could be given, the missionaries 


began to look for sites for opening work, and modestly 
selected an unoccupied piece of land some distance from 
the city wall. The lady doctor decided to go ahead and 
open a dispensary and work in the city and surrounding 
villages. On July 8, 1895, Dr. Margaret 0' Kara began 
: work in Dhar as the first resident missionary, having ' 
rented, for a time, partToTthe Travellers' Bungalow, the 
only place available. So, alone in a non-Christian city, 
thirty miles from the "nearest European, she began to 
minister, ~not^6nly_to the bodily needs of the women, 
but to the spiritual needs of airclags.ejg^f ^jbhe^cornrnunity. 
It was not long before the male missionary appointed, 
Mr. F. H. Russell, was called to make final arrange- 
ments for handing over the necessary land for buildings. 
By the Maharaiah's_ personal choice, jm_excellent_site 
was given quite close to the city. In spite of his palsied 
frame, he had traversed the roads and paths inspecting 
every available site, and finally selected the best 
possible. After himself paying the owner one thousand 
rupees compensation, he handed over the land as a free 
gift to the Mission. 

One day the lady doctor was considerably disturbed 
to hear that the Maharajah was delaying to sign the 
deed of gift until he had a promise from her. "What," 
she asked herself, "can it be ? Surely he does not want 
me to promise not to preach the Gospel ?" Thank 
God, it was no such demand, but a request for a promise 
that was only too willingly granted, a request that 
showed the difficulty with which they understood the 
Christian's complete indifference to caste ; he wished_^ 
to have the promise that all comers to the women's 


.hospital, rich and poor, and of every caste, would be 
treated alike.* 

The speed with which this station was opened 
established a record in our work. Within six weeks of 
the first arrival of a resident missionary in the station, 
sites were granted, buildings, started, and almost every 
branch of the work established. In the years that 
followed, and under the rule of the present young 
Maharajah, the friendly and sympathetic attitude to- 
ward the Mission has been maintained. 

The end of the second decade of the Mission's His- 
tory saw work well established in six centres, three of 
which were within Native State territory. Phases of 
work, other than those already outlined which had their 
beginnings in these early years, will be described in 
another chapter. At the close of 1896 there were 

k eleven nmlgjnksjonaries and~eighteen lady missionaries, 
a_tota^,^cludkig...w.Lves i of missionaries, of forty on the 
Canadian Staff. 

*The story of the opening of Dhar has been told with literary 
skill and enthusiasm in "Village Work in India" by the late N. H. 


"The only thing that will save the Church from the 
imminent perils of growing luxury and materialism, is 
the putting forth of all its powers on behalf of the world 
without Christ .... The Church needs a Supreme World 
purpose a gigantic task, something that will call forth 
all its energies, something too great for men to accom- 
plish, and therefore, something which will throw the 
Church back upon God Himself." 


In the secret of His presence how my soul delights to hide. 
Oh, how precious are the moments which I spend at Jesus' side; 
Earthly cares can never vex me, neither trials lay me low : 
For when Satan conies to tempt me, to the secret place I go. 

When my soul is faint and thirsty, 'neath the shadow of His wing, 
There is cool and pleasant shelter, and a fresh and crystal spring ; 
And my Saviour rests beside me, as we hold communion sweet; 
If I tried, I could not utter what He says, when thus we meet. 

Only this I know : I tell Him all my doubts and griefs and fears ; 
Oh, how patiently He listens and my drooping heart He cheers ; 
Do you think He ne'er reproves me ? What a false friend He would 

If He never, never told me of the sins which He must see. 

Would you like to know the sweetness of the secret of the Lord ? 
Go and hide beneath the shadow this shall then be your reward; 
And whene'er you leave the silence of that happy meeting place, 
You will bear the shining image of the Master in your face. 

-ELLEN LAKSHMI GOREH, daughter of Nehemiah Goreh, pioneer 
Evangelist to Central India. 


Times of Stress : Famine. There are outstanding 
events in the History of Central India from which the 
common people reckon the years. With the older ones, 
it was the "Great Mutiny." Now, it is the "Great 
Famine." The horror of it hovers over the land still 
as a sad memory. jn^iSg;, the Eastern part of the 
Agency was visited by a severe famine, which only 
Malwabhe area in which the 

Mission was at work ; but the work of the Mission - v 
itself was profoundly influenced. An area of 36,000 
square rrnTelTwas affected by~~famine, and systematic 
measures of relief were inaugurated by Government. 
The total number who came to the relief works was 
2,900,000, an average of 320,000 persons daily. Mis- 
sions in that vicinity rendered every possible aid to 
Government, but so appalling was the distress that the 
local missionaries appealed to our Mission to help. 
The result was that great numbers of starving children, 
most of them orphans, were brought to the several 
stations of our Mission. Such accommodation as was 
possible was provided, and the strength and time of 
many Missionaries and Indian Jielpers were given to 
this new and pressing work. iTwo years later, 1899- 
1900, Malwa itself, in which famines rarely occurred, 
and which is noted for the extraordinary power of 
retaining moisture possessed by its soil, was visited 



by the most terrible famine in all its history. The area 
over which famine prevailed was 47,700 square miles, 
or 60% of the total area of the Central India agency, 
and the cost to the Native States was 148 lakhs* of 
Rupees. The results of that famine are still apparent. 
In hundreds of villages large numbers of ruined houses 
are to be seen, which the villagers explain as relics of 
Chhapan Ka Sal, i.e., of "the year 56" (1956 being the 
Hindu year corresponding to A.D. 1899.) Much land 
was then abandoned also which has not yet been fully 
reoccupied. During those terrible days the prices of 
food grain often rose over 100%. Jowar sold at 10 
seers (i seer = 2 Ibs.) per rupee, instead of 24 to 30 
seers per rupee ; wheat at 8 seers, instead of 15 per 
rupee, and other grain similarly. Of the mortality, no 
accurate figures are available, but it is noteworthy that 
the census returns for Central India covering the decade 
showed a decrease of over 16% in a population of 10,3 1 8,- 
812 (1891). As the normal increase had previously 
been about i% per annum the enormous loss of life 
occasioned by the famine can be roughly estimated. 

Its Wide Extent. But it was not confined to Central 
India alone. Its extent will be seen from the following 
extract from a report, by the Viceroy, on the famine of 
1899-1900. "This famine, within the rangeToTits in- 
cidence^ has been the severest that India has ever 
known. It has affected an area of over 400,000 quare 
miles, and a population of about 60,000,000 of whom 
25,000,000 belong to British India and the remainder 
to Native States. Within this area the famine con- 

* A lakh =100,000. 


ditions have, during the greater part of the year, been 
intense. Outside it they have extended, with a gradual- 
ly dwindling radius, over wide districts In a greater 

or less degree nearly one-fourth of the entire population 
of the Indian continent have come within the range of 
famine operations .... At normal prices, the loss was 
at least seventy-five crores, or 50,000,000 sterling. . . . 
It was not merely a crop failure, but a fodder famine, 
on an enormous scale, followed in many parts by a 
positive devastation of cattle .... both plough cattle, 
buffaloes and milk kine. In other words, it affected, 
and may almost be said to have annihilated, the work- 
ing capital of the agricultural classes." 

Aid Rendered by Missions. Missionaries all through 
the famine area were able to render timely aid to Gov- 
ernment in its schemes of relief, and Government 
officials readily availed themselves of the proffered 
help. In many cases the missionaries were the only 
Europeans in a position^to^reach certairi'~cTassesT T " Tn 
helping to oversee public relief works, and in distribut- 
ing relief sent from America and Britain, their intimate 
knowledge of the people was of great value. The 
assistance given was gratefully recognized by Govern- 
ment. Lord Curzon, in reviewing the methods of 
famine relief, said : * ' Particularly must I mention the 
noble efforts of the various Christian denominations. 
If ever there was an occasion in which their local knowl- 
edge and influence were likely to be of value, and in 
which it was open to them to vindicate the highest 
standards of their beneficent calling, it was here ; and 


strenuously and faithfully have they performed the 

The Legacy of the Famine. Government relief had 
specially in view the helping of the people to tide over 
the days of stress ; and when the rains again came, the 
giving of such aid as would enable them to resume their 
usual occupations. On the Missions, there came the 
special burden of caring for the orphans and widows, 
those whom the famine left destitute, uncared for, and 
unprotected. And what a burden ! One that taxes 
physical powers to the utmost to nurse the emaciated 
bodies back to health ; and that taxes all one's spiritual 
energies, for the missionaries had to be fathers and 
mothers to those orphaned children. There was no 
need to go out to hunt for needy cases. They crowded 
to our doors, and it was necessary to give shelter to 
practically every child who came. Sometimes parents 
would leave children with the missionary, while they 
themselves went wandering on in the hopeless quest of 
food. At one time the total of orphans and widows 
who were sheltered by our Mission was over 1,750. 
The numbers varied greatly. Many left after regaining 
a measure of strength. Many died. Some were 
reclaimed by relatives when the fragments of the 
shattered homes regathered in their villages after the 
famine. When the stress was over and normal con- 
ditions again prevailed, about 1,000 remained as wards 
of the Mission. 

During the years of stress, practically every member 
of the staff who could be spared from the established 
institutions of the Mission was engaged in this famine 


work ; and even in the institutions Hospitals, Col- 
leges, and Schools, the care of the sick refugees and 
the nursing of them back to health and strength, and 
the providing for their instruction, became a large part 
of the work of those in charge. Touring and preaching 
in the villages gave place to feeding the hungry, and 
some of the schools for non-Christians had to be closed. 


The Industrial Problem Thrust on the Mission. 

What was to _be done with the thousand helpless 
creatures thrust upon the Mission ? Feeding and 
clothing them was the least part of the work. . Habits 
of order and decency must be taught. Elementary 
Christian morality must be enforced, and suitable 
provision be made for educating youthful heads and 
hands. With little in the previous experience of the 
Missionaries to guide them, they would have been 
more than human had no mistakes been made. How 
were the children to be prepared for life's duties ? 
How utilize to the best advantage this army of prospec- 
tive Christians ? Should each station provide for its 
own, and thus keep the children in as near proximity 
as possible to their original homes and their acquaint- 
ances ? Or should there be a policy of concentration 
for the sake of economy in men and money, and to 
make the work of training easier ? What trades 
should be taught ? The attempt to solve these prob- 
lems filled a large part of the thought and time of the 
staff for years. The famine forced the Mission to 
undertake what the normal growth of the Christian 


community would sooner or later have forced upon it, 
the work of Industrial Training. Indeed a beginning 
had been made even before the famine came. In 
the "Home" at Indore, under Mrs. Johory's care, 
something had been done along this line to provide 
training for the women who had been thrust out by 
their relatives during the movement among the Mangs 
towards Christianity. 

Training Girls and Boys. The education of the or- 
phans in secular subjects was not a serious problem. 
Teachers for such can be secured without much diffi- 
culty. But to get teachers for training in the various 
trades was a more serious matter. For the girls, 
the range of possible occupations was not large. To 
training in household duties, there was added instruc- 
tion in sewing, knitting, fancy work, etc., and, where 
possible, instruction in gardening and out-door work. 

For the boys, provision has been made from time to 
time in printing, carpentry, black-smithing, weaving, 
shoemaking, tailoring, rug-making, and, to a very 
limited extent, in farming. It was felt that the last 
named should have been the first in importance, and 
for years the Mission endeavored to secure land for the 
purpose, but to our disappointment suitable land could 
not be got. 

Teachers Scarce. A course in theology, which is the 
normal preparation for a missionary, is not the best 
preparation for managing a workshop or for giving 
expert instruction in carpentry, shoemaking, etc. 
Trained Indian teachers were difficult to obtain. 
Caste has divided the lower orders of Hindu Society 






into a great number of "Trades-Guilds" and each 
trade is kept scrupulously within the bounds of its 
particular caste. On this account it was next to im- 
possible to get any non-Christians to teach the Chris- 
tian lads. Christian trained men were very few even 
in all India. It is no wonder that the industrial part 
of the work for the orphan boys has been a somewhat 
slow evolution. A Christian weaver, C. V. Noah, was 
secured from South India. His coming has been a 
blessing to the boys. An expert weaver, he is, more- 
over, a man of strong character and an earnest Christian. 
His influence over the boys has been for righteousness, 
and he has devoted himself to their welfare with a fine 
zeal, refusing tempting offers to go to more lucrative 
posts in business concerns. 

Concentration : Rasalpura. In 1901 the Mission 
Council decided on the policy of concentration for the 
boys ; and, after not a little negotiating with the 
British and Indian authorities, a piece of land, about a 
mile to the north of Mhow Cantonment, was leased 
from the Indore Durbar. Here in 1902 the foundations 
of "Rasalpura" were laid by the late Norman Russell, 
and the village now bears his name. The name of this 
settlement has since become widely known throughout 
India, particularly because of its silk and cotton-woven 

Industrial Training and Church Growth. Industrial 
training is now recognized as a phase of educational 
work that is vital to the development of the Church in 
India. The dignity of labor needs to be asserted in a 
land where all manual labor has been relegated to the 


lower castes. Faith in Jesus, who was not ashamed 
to be a carpenter in Nazareth, must bring in its train 
an entire revolution in India's ideas of manual toil. 
The Mission cannot force new ideas on the Church, 
but it has determined that there shall be an opportunity 
for the youth of the Indian Church to learn some useful 
trade ; and, further, that all boys who are helped to an 
education by the Canadian Church, shall ordinarily 
enter the workshops for at least part of their life 
training. Such training, it is considered, can best be 
accomplished, not in a school for training alone, which 
is always expensive, but in connection with actual 
business. With this in view, the Mission sought to 
secure capital to carry on the various trades referred 
to above without constant appeal year by year. 

New Workers. For a time the Industrial Missions 
Aid Society of London, which is in close touch with 
Industrial Mission work in various parts of the world, 
came to our aid. But the expansion of the work made 
it desirable to seek more capital in order to put the 
institution in a position to accomplish the work for 
which it was founded. The Foreign Mission Board 
generously responded to the appeal made. Mr. F. H. 
Russell was called from his work in Dhar to organize 
more fully the Industrial work, and in 1914 two young 
men, Messrs. L. D. S. Coxson, and A. R. Graham, with 
special business training, were sent out from Canada to 
co-operate, Mr. Coxson having in addition the duties 
of the Mission Treasurer ship. 

Growth and Fruitage. Established at first to meet 
a temporary and urgent need, the Industrial work is 


now increasingly meeting a more constant need. 
There is a steady influx of children from Christian 
homes. During 1914 for instance, twenty-four boys 
were added to the enrolment. These came from several 
parts of the Central India Field, showing that parents 
are coming to recognize the advantages the institution 
offers for the efficient training of Christian youth. The 
orphan element which originally constituted the school 
is gradually disappearing, its place being taken, in many 
cases, by children of those who were rescued as orphans. 
We are thus beginning to reap, in the second generation, 
some of the fruits of the good work which was begun 
when orphans were first taken in by the Mission in 

The Press. The one industry with the longest 
history in the Mission is the Printing Press. Begun 
in Indore by Mr. Douglas, it was later transferred to 
Rutlam, where for many years it afforded training for 
young Christian lads and also published a large amount 
of Christian literature. There were printed tracts, 
hymn-books, catechisms, The Confession of Faith, and 
Christian newspapers, largely in the vernacular, but 
also in English, notably the organ of the Alliance of the 
Presbyterian Churches. Millions of pages of these 
silent messengers of the Kingdom have been issued from 
the Press Room. With the consolidation of Mission 
Industries, the Press was removed to Rasalpura in 1912, 
where it continues, with evergrowing opportunities, to 
serve the double purpose of training Christian workmen 
and evangelizing India. Recently, at the request of the 


Bible Society, this Press has printed the first Scripture 
translated into the Bheel language. 

Fruits of Work for Orphans. The time has not yet 
come to estimate fully the value of the Industrial work. 
When a work becomes an integral part of Mission 
policy, its value cannot be judged apart from other 
agencies. But it is possible to look back over the inter- 
vening years since the great famine and trace the good 
hand of God in bringing blessing out of the dread 

1 . Practically all the children who remained with the 
Mission when the famine ceased, have since been re- 
ceived into the fellowship of the Church of Christ. 

2. A large proportion of the present staff of Mission 
helpers, preachers, teachers, hospital assistants, nurses, 
etc., have come from the various Industrial Institutions 
of the Mission. 

3. From these Institutions have gone forth a large 
number to form homes of their own, homes where both 
husband and wife are educated much beyond the aver- 
age of the non-Christians about them, and where both 
make good use of the manual training they have re- 
ceived from the Mission. A goodly proportion of those 
trained in the Central Institution at Rasalpura, after- 
wards continue there as regular workmen to the ad- 
vantage of the work as a whole. By enlisting these 
in voluntary Christian service in the adjacent villages, 
the Institution becomes a training school for Christian 

4. The workshops provide one of the best possible 
recruiting grounds for Christian workers. The man 


who can "make good" as a workman, will, if called of 
God to the wider field of evangelism among his fellow 
countrymen, ordinarily prove himself a workman that 
needeth not to be ashamed. 

Industrial Training for Girls. The Industrial train- 
ing of the orphan girls and widows, while more circum- 
scribed and therefore less expensive than that for boys, 
has received every care at the experienced hands of 
Mrs. Campbell, Dr. O'Hara, Miss Campbell, Miss 
White, Mrs. Johory and others. After marriage the 
young wives, to add to the family income, frequently 
continue the work in their homes, hence the develop- 
ment of this work is becoming increasingly important. 


The Hill Tribes : Work among the Bheels. One 

of the most difficult, as well as one of the most hopeful, 
phases of work in Central India, has been that carrie_d 
on among the aboriginal tribes, the Bheels. , -Along 
with the Irish Presbyterian Church and the Church 
Missionary Society, our Canadian Church has under- 
taken its share of the responsibility of evangelizing 
these wild jungle folk. 

The Bheels originally cultivated the fertile plains of 
Central India, but centuries of Hindu, Moghul, and 
latterly and chiefly, Maratha oppression drove them 
to the Vindhya Hills, from which no power has been 
able to dislodge them. Goaded on by cruelty, they 
have maintained themselves by plunder, especially 
cattle stealing from their more prosperous Hindu 
neighbors on the plains. The British Government by 


kind treatment, and direct dealing with them, and 
especially by enlisting Bheel regiments, has done much 
toward restoring law and order among them. "Short 
black men, thin-limbed and wiry, with fierce-looking 
faces, high cheek bones, thick-matted hair, and scanty 
clothing, the Bheels are a quick, active race, famous as 
hunters, handling the bow and arrow, which are their 
only weapons, with remarkable skill, and fearless of 
danger." But they are suspicious ^ of_gtrarigers. When 
first our_Mjssionaries went among them, they would 
hide in the jungle or in. their . .hutsjtinThey had gone. 
It was a sad comment on the injustice they had endured 
for many years, that in many cases it was only the men 
who fled, fearing lest the missionaries were the agents 
of the money lender, or representing someone in 
authority. The Bheels, too, are greatly addicted to 
drinking, often keeping up their carousals for days. 
The liquor they brew from the toddy palm and from 
the blossoms of the Mowa tree. In religion, while, 
due to Hindu influence, they recognize Mahadev,* 
and claim to be his descendants, they are really fetich 
worshippers. What appealed to the Mission in open- 
ing work among them, apart from their deep need, was 
the fact that as a people, they were largely untouched 
by Hinduizing influences. "They had not been won 
over from their primitive superstitions to either of the 
more permanent religions of India, and they were not 
burdened with caste." 

*Mahadev or the "great god" is the third in the Hindu triad. 
He is the austere and terrible one, an object of fear. He represents 
creative activity. 


Tours into the Hill Country. As early as 1885, Dr. 
Campbell had toured into the Bheel country, and 
realized the great need of opening a Mission among 
these oppressed and despised Hill tribes. When Dr. 
Buchanan arrived in India in December, 1888, he ac- 
companied Dr. Campbell on an extended tour into these 
same jungles, and from that time forth the desire to 
save these wild hill-people became the consuming 
passion of his life. Not for another seven years did the 
way open, however. The exigencies of existing work, 
coupled with depletion of the staff by the sad death of 
Mr. and Mrs. Murray, and the (as it proved to be) fatal 
illness of Mr. Builder, made expansion impossible. In 
November, 1895, the Council formally set apart Dr. 
Buchanan for the Bheel work, at his own request, 
and as his furlough was then due, he left for Canada 
where he was successful in raising a special fund for the 
Bheel Mission. 

In the Heart of the Jungle. In the meantime, on 
the invitation of Captain de Lassoe, the Bheel Agent, 
Messrs. Norman and Frank Russell went down to the 
Bheel country to seek a suitable site. The place 
chosen was a beautiful valley in the very heart of 
Bheeldom, far from the Hinduizing influence of the 
towns. The situation was recommended by Captain 
de Lassoe, one of God's noblemen, who loved the 
Bheels, and who said he thought that with faithful 
work for a few years, we should have a Christian nation 
in the Bheel country. The site was difficult of access, 
but, "there," he said, "you get the real Bheel." There 
it was that, in December, 1897, Dr. Buchanan began 


the work, alone, for Mrs. Buchanan had to remain for 
a time in Canada. 

Guiding Principle in Beginning Work. One guiding 
principle from the first was to make every feature in the 
opening of the work an evangelizing agency, and to 
allow no Hinduizing influences from the outside to be 
introduced. Dr. Buchanan declined to take with him 
any Hindu or Mohammedan contractors for the work 
of building ; and, rather than take heathen servants 
along, he began with two Christian orphan lads as 
personal attendants to act as cook and house-boy, 
although they knew almost nothing of their work. 
Three Christian catechists accompanied him, and with 
these he determined somehow to complete the con- 
struction of bungalow and all else necessary. 

The first lesson was one for the missionary himself 
the lesson of waiting. The timid people would not 
come near the missionary's tent. An officer of the 
State offered to give them as much "forced labor" 
as was" required, but it was declined. After some days 
a lad of ten years of age offered to go and cut grass for 
the pony. He was paid for it, and, his confidence 
increasing, he next day brought along three other boys, 
and with this insignificant band Dr. Buchanan began 
building operations. Gradually suspicion was dis- 
armed, and bungalow, school and dispensary, were 
erected, all by the labor of these jungle people. After 
some months a Christian overseer was secured from a 
neighboring Mission, but at first the missionary was 
overseer, paymaster, and everything, working daily 
with his hands. "Down on his knees with a brick 


mould in one hand and a lump of plastic mud in the 
other, he showed them how to make bricks. It was 
not a clean job, but, what was far more important, 
there was a clean lesson in it." The catechists, who 
unfortunately sometimes feel that the call to preach has 
nothing to do with labor of the hands, followed his 
example with enthusiasm. 

Doors Opened by Medical Skill. Candid treatment 
in every way, and above all medical skill, which was 
a priceless boon to these neglected people, won them 
over. This was the key which unlocked .the heart's 
door of the timid superstitious B heels. Dr. Buchanan 
writes : "We have had at times waves of confidence, 
and again all but panics, among the people. While 
we have taken care in treating the people and done our 
best, still we cannot ascribe it to skill or chance, but to 
the special Providence of God, that during the 14 
months (since the work was begun) so far as we know, 
not a single patient under medical treatment has died. 
Some were dangerously ill, and we almost despaired of 
them. One man, Gulab, brought his ox for treatment, 
but through some superstitious dread, refused to take 
medicine himself. The ox got better, but the man 
died. A stupid or malicious Hindu gave the warning : 
' Don't take the Saheb's medicine. He will give good 
medicine at first, but afterwards he will give you bad 
medicine and kill you.' Only on seeing the dread 
that spread suddenly through the neighborhood, could 
one appreciate God's tender care that even these simple 
ones might not be offended. Some of the cases have 
been specially helpful in gaining the goodwill and con- 


fidence of the people. One poor old woman, Ditali, 
who was supposed to be dying, away from her home, 
was brought to Amkhut in an ox-cart over about 12 
miles of rough road. I was asked to go and see her, and 
found her barely alive, and unable to speak or take food. 
She rallied and was about once more. The news 
spread. A man from the neighboring community 
came and asked me to give his family medicine. He 
did not even think it necessary for me to go to his 
house, as it had been reported that Detali, whom he 
knew, had been dead and was alive again ; still he was 
not displeased that I did go." 

The Gospel is the Power of God. The best argu- 
ment for the truth of Christianity is its fruit in non- 
Christian lands. The transformation of those looting, 
drunken, despised "monkey-people" into self-respect- 
ing, God-fearing, soul-seeking Christians was not, and 
is not, merely a matter of preaching. It had to in- 
clude the "All things." The young converts, in addi- 
tion to receiving Scripture truth daily, were taught to 
use their hands more deftly, to saw, plane, construct, 
and to read and write, to the confusion of their scornful 
Hindu neighbors, "provoking them to jealousy by 
them that were no people." They were taught to join 
together what India has seldom joined, religion, 
intelligence and honest labor. Dr. Jno. Buchanan, 
Rev. H. H. Smith and Mr. D. E. McDonald are the 
Church's representatives, and now Miss Bertha Robson 
has come to help as a teacher. The Christian com- 
munity has made long strides forward. They are 
temperate, industrious, zealous for the evangelization 


of their fellow Bheels, ambitious to learn. The "Star 
of Hope" has risen for this people. 

The Government of India has recognized the bene- 
ficent work done, by conferring on Dr. Buchanan the 
. Kaiser-i-Hind medal of the First Class. 


Training the Evangelists. There is no more impor- 
tant work than the training of Indian Helpers. The 
employment of Indian Christians of suitable gifts as 
preachers and teachers of the Gospel, has been a promin- 
ent feature of the Mission's policy, as it is indeed of 
almost every Mission in India. As the question is 
sometimes raised of the wisdom of using "foreign 
money" for the support of Indian Agents, it may be 
well to present the missionaries' point of view. 

The Presbyterian Church in Canada has been 
committed, by the Great Commission, and by the 
Comity of Missions, to the evangelization of the 
millions of Western Central India. It has wealth 
itself a fruit of Christianity, and it has men and women 
to send. The problem is how most effectively and 
speedily to give the Gospel to the people of Central 
India. Experience has shown beyond doubt that 
Indian Christians are themselves the most effective 
agents in bringing their fellow countrymen to Christ. 
As in Apostolic times, so to-day, men and women 
spread the Truth among their fellows while pursuing 
their ordinary avocations. But daily toil and its 
attendant cares, make it almost impossible for them to 


give time to concentrated and systematic study of the 
Truth. Those who are divinely impelled to this 
work, and give evidence of ability to carry it on, 
should be set free from daily toil, as is the foreign 
missionary, to give themselves wholly to this sacred 
ministry. How shall they be supported ? If the 
Indian Church can undertake their support, by all 
means let it do so. But if not, is the foreign Church 
absolved from all responsibility ? The Indian Helper 
without suitable opportunities for study, cannot be 
as effective as he is capable of becoming ; and, when 
held down by secular work, cannot reach the fields 
which invite on all sides. It is assumed of course 
that the worker is worthy. Mistakes in the selection 
of helpers have been made on the mission fields just 
as they have been made at the Home Base. But 
granted ordinary care in the selection of workers, 
both at home and in the Mission field, the question of 
supreme importance is : How is the work to be best, 
and most speedily, accomplished ? The source of 
financial supply is a minor matter. So long as the 
gloom of idolatry hangs over the land, we do not well 
to speak of "Foreign" and "Indian." The Church of 
Christ is one, and in the conflict with sin must use its 
available resources to the best of its ability. The 
ideal would seem to be, send the best procurable at 
Home, those who can be sympathetic and wise leaders 
and helpers of others, and let there be ample provision 
for the employment of Indian workers until such time 
as the Indian Church can assume the whole responsi- 




Methods of Training. There is the further problem 
of the best way to train these workers. In the early 
days of the Mission, each missionary did what he could 
with his own band of helpers. Daily instruction when 
in the station, or gathering in the helpers regularly 
from the outstations for a few days at a time, enabled 
him to give a measure of teaching. When on tour, 
Indian workers accompanied the missionary and many 
opportunities were given to enforce useful lessons. 

Making a Beginning. But, as the preachers are 
constantly confronted with the subtle minds of India, 
, and with false systems of thought, and are ever meeting 
a bewildering medley of religious ideas and practices, 
from the grossest idolatry to the theories of reforming 
sects who talk in Christian phraseology and think 
that they are uttering the sublime truths of Hinduism, 
it was early realized that systematic training of the 
Indian leaders would be a necessary part of the Mission's 
policy. In 1894 a beginning was made. For two 
months Dr. Wilson and Rev. Norman Russell conducted 
theological classes. The intercourse with the students 
in the classes revealed more fully the defects in their 
knowledge and training, and emphasized the need of 
giving more attention to this work than had yet been 
done. The next year a course of study covering 
four years was arranged by Presbytery, which required 
two months' attendance in classes yearly, and the ten 
months were given to practical work. The classes were 
held in different stations wherever suitable accommoda- 
tion could be provided. Thus they continued until 
in 1907 the Presbytery decided more fully to organize 


the work of training, and the "Malwa Theological 
Seminary" came into being. Rev. W. A. Wilson, 
D.D., to whose untiring efforts this step was largely 
due, became its first Principal, a position he still holds. 
The action of the Presbytery was commended by the 
Synod, and the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in India has recognized the Seminary as one of 
those "well-fitted to give Theological instruction in the 
vernaculars of their respective areas."* The classes 
have been held in part of the Arts College building in 
Indore. Since the opening of the Seminary in 1908, 
over fifty students have been enrolled, of whom about 
twenty have received their graduation diplomas. 
Teaching is given for six months each year, there being 
two sessions, and the course of study covers four years. 
It presupposes a good general education. The course 
is adapted to the needs of the field, and, in addition to 
general and detailed Bible knowledge, Theology, 
Church History, Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, 
lays stress on the study of Christian Evidences and the 
non-Christian religions of India. The Presbytery 
has made the best provision in its power for its students, 
but the buildings required are as yet beyond the ability 
of the Indian Church to provide. 

A course of study covering two years, preparatory 
to the Seminary, is provided for by the Mission. For 
two months each year, usually in the rainy season, the 
students of this course, known as "Bible Readers" are 
assembled for training in Bible knowledge and practical 

*In Chap. VI., The relation of the "Mission" to the courts 
of the Indian Church is stated. 


work. Some students whose opportunities for literary 
study have been limited, receive no further training 
than these classes provide. With a growing Christian 
community in the villages, this Preparatory Course 
will become increasingly important. 

For the Bheel Christians, the Presbytery has ar- 
ranged a course of study adapted to the special needs 
of that field. But with the gradual raising of the 
standard of education among these, the time may not 
be far distant when they will hold their own with their 
fellow-Christian students in Malwa. 


Higher Educational Work. There has been steady 
development in Higher Educational work, and the 
present institutions, with such additional equipment 
as the growing numbers of students demand, should be 
sufficient for some time. Higher education for the 
Christian community, which should be always the first 
care of a Mission Institution, is well, provided for. 

In 1904 the "Indian Universities Act" came into op- 
eration, with the result that the Indore College became 
affiliated to Allahabad University, instead of Calcutta, 
as formerly, the arrangement now being territorially 
more convenient. The new Act also imposed more 
stringent regulations regarding the staff and equipment 
of the affiliated colleges. Periodical inspection was 
begun. All this made it more and more necessary that 
the College should be well equipped with a sufficient 
staff. The lines were more clearly drawn between the 
College proper and the High School and Vernacular 


departments. Recently the Government is laying 
more stress on the providing of suitable Hostel accom- 
modation, so that students may be more directly under 
the care of the College authorities. In 1915, 155 
students were enrolled in the Arts classes which, with 
510 in the High School and Vernacular Departments, 
gave a total of 665 young men and boys daily under 
Christian influences and receiving Christian instruction 
in the formative period of their lives. 

Value of Such Work. The value of such Educational 
work is felt in the general work of the Mission, and 
particularly in the work of preaching throughout the 
field. Indian officials who, in the intimacy of the Col- 
lege life, have come to understand the missionary, and 
to receive the impress of Christian ideas, are usually 
friendly and sympathetic, and doors of opportunity 
are opened as the common people see the friendly 
attitude of their officials, which would probably other- 
wise remain sullenly closed. 

In the matter of religious teaching a recent writer, 
Rev. C. F. Andrews, has well said :* 

" The Christian Church has in this matter a record of 
achievement upon which she may look back with thank- 
fulness. It would not be too much to say that but for 
her efforts education in India to-day would be entirely 
secular, as it is in Japan. Having regard to the deep 
religious instincts of the people of the country this 
would have been nothing less than a national calamity. 
But the dual basis of the missionary institutions side 
by side with those of Government saved the situation 

* " The Renaissance in India," page 43. 


at the outset and gradually the principle of religious 
education has come to be widely recognized even by 
those who were ready at one time to abandon it." 

Mission Schools Throughout India. The vastness 
of tne Educational Problem in India may be under- 
stood when it is remembered that, assuming that 15% 
of the population is of school-going age, there must be 
at least 45 million young people of school age in India, 
five-sixths of whom are growing up without any educa- 
tional opportunity. The share which Christian mis- 
sions have in the work of education is important. 
There were in 1912, controlled by Protestant Mission- 
ary Societies, 38 Colleges, with 5,447 students, including 
6 1 women ; 23 of these Colleges prepared students for 
the B.A. Degree, the other 15 having only a two years' 
course of study and finishing with the First Arts 
qualification. All the students were daily taught the 
Christian Scriptures. 92% of the students were non- 
Christian. There were 1,163 Boarding and High 
Schools, with 110,763 students. In the Christian 
Elementary Schools, were about 45o,ooo,pupils, of whom 
146,000 were girls. The Christian children in these 
schools numbered 170,000. In the 160 Industrial 
schools were 9,125 pupils.* 

Shifting the Emphasis. Throughout India as a 
whole, the emphasis is being placed more and more on 
the development of Primary Schools. The base of 
Indian education must be broadened. Not less educa- 
tion for the higher classes, but more for the lower 
classes, the great patient, toiling masses, is what is 

*See " History of Christian Missions " by Robinson, page 128. 


needed to restore the balance which has been so long 
on the side of the privileged classes. 


Indore Girls' High School. Shortly after the great 
famine the Girls' Boarding School at Indore which had 
been affiliated as a High School with Calcutta Univer- 
sity discontinued the Higher classes for a time. But 
in 1908 it was deemed advisable again to seek the 
status of a High School, and affiliation with Allahabad 
University was granted. Two years later the first 
student matriculated, marking one more stage of 
progress in woman's work for women in Central India. 
A suitable working arrangement was made with the 
Indore College, then under Dr. King's Principalship, 
whereby the Girls could attend the science classes 
another innovation to startle conservative India. 
(Previous to this, Dr. Wilkie had opened the Christian 
"Training Classes" to both sexes.) But the proud 
Hindu and Mohammedan students were to learn too 
that the "weaker sex" could be their equals in the class 
room. India, however, is not yet ready for co-educa- 
tion on any extensive scale. It is planned that the 
Girls' High School will soon be accommodated in larger 
and more suitably located premises, and, under the 
experienced principalship of Miss Duncan, with two 
trained university graduates, the Misses Robertson 
and Smillie, to assist, the outlook is bright. 

Primary"Schools for Girls. Thus far in Central India 
the Mission High School for Girls stands alone. Of 
Primary and Secondary Schools for girls there has been 


a striking increase in recent years. In some of the 
smaller places spasmodic attempts to establish schools 
have been made ; some States, Gwalior for instance, 
have issued regulations for the establishing of Girls' 
Schools, but the lack of female teachers and the fact 
that rural India is not yet convinced of the need for 
female education, have retarded progress. The tide 
has not yet risen in its power. When that day comes, 
as come it must, the results will be incalculable. 

Transformation in Public Opinion. A change, grad- 
ual, but sure, is taking place in India in regared to 
female education. "Ten years ago," Miss de Selin- 
court writes, "statements about the ignorance of 
Indian women were often lightly dismissed as the out- 
come of blind prejudice or of well-meaning hysteria. 
Missionaries were told that they were unable to appre- 
ciate the Indian ideal ; that they must not imagine 
culture to be dependent on literacy ; that Indian 
women in their secluded homes stood for a type of 
spiritual beauty impossible of attainment under any 
other conditions. To-day there is little need for the 
missionary to raise the voice of protest ; champions 
of the woman's cause are springing up on every side. 
On every hand in India there are signs of new life stir- 
ring, of a nation shaking off its sleep. In no direction 
is this more evident than in the number of non-Chris- 
tians who desire education for their wives and daughters. 
" In town after town committees of Indian gentlemen 
are being formed to push forward the cause of female 
education. Women's societies are also being founded 
with the same object in view. There is a widespread 


and growing desire to deal with the whole question 
fundamentally and effectively."* 

Work for the Blind. Work for the blind will always 
be associated in the Mission history with the name of 
Miss Jamieson. India has over half a million blind 
persons. In a land of alms-giving they manage to exist 
but in times o'f stress they suffer greatly. A home for 
the blind was opened in 1897, the year of the Famine, 
and it met a pressing need. As many as forty were at 
one time cared for. They were taught basket-making 
and coarse blanket-weaving as well as reading. It was 
a source of constant astonishment to the people to see 
and hear the blind lads sitting by the wayside reading 
the scriptures and explaining them to the groups of 
interested listeners that gathered around. In 1909 the 
Home was closed, the inmates being provided for in 
other institutions. 

Normal Training. Normal training, particularly for 
male teachers, has never received the attention it 
demanded in the Mission. The first systematic efforts 
were made in connection with the Training Classes in 
the College in 1896, Miss White and Miss Ptolemy, both 
Normal graduates, having charge. As early as 1883, 
however, Miss McGregor had organized a Teacher's 
Training Class, but it did not long continue. In this, 
too, the Mission led the way in Central India. But it 
with other work suffered during the lean years of famine. 
Miss White has lately carried on a successful Normal 
Training work for female teachers. There is no more 
important work along educational lines. Knowledge 

*Quoted in "Renaissance in India." p. 231. 

MISS McHARRIE " Inasmuch . . . 






of the art of teaching is lamentably defective. There 
are weary repetitions and memorizings to excess, but 
thought-provoking instruction is rare. 

The latest development in teacher training was to 
give instruction in Primary methods. Miss Sinclair, 
a trained primary teacher, taught the Normal classes 
in this subject. There is a growing demand for teach- 
ers of this kind. Unfortunately, ill-health made neces- 
sary Miss Sinclair's return to Canada. There is an 
open door for a skilled teacher who can adapt primary 
principles to Indian conditions. 


Medical Men Few. During the last twenty years 
the Canadian Church sent out five medical men to 
Central India, and as two of these were needed to fill 
vacant places on the staff, and one has lately retired 
owing to illness in his family, the advance in men's 
medical work is not great. The most satisfactory 
progress is the opening of the Hospital in Rutlam. 
Formerly a dispensary only was carried on there. 
Through the kindness of the State officials, an excellent 
plot of ground, conveniently situated, was given ; and 
Dr. Waters has been permitted to build there, what the 
Mission has long needed, a Men's Hospital. It is 
centrally located in the Mission field, easily reached by 
rail, and is being built in such a way that wards can 
be added from time to time as funds permit and as the 
work requires. 

The Needy Nimar Valley. For three years Dr. Mc- 
Phedran has waited for permission from the Native 


State to build a Hospital in Barwaha. This is a key 
position to the far-reaching fertile Nimar valley. It 
is the distributing centre for miles around. The resi- 
dents have petitioned for the Mission to be allowed to 
open a Hospital there, and still the door remains closed 
to it. Under conditions that sorely try faith and 
patience, he has worked by means of a small dispen- 
sary for the bodily and spiritual healing of the multi- 
tudes of that needy valley. As in the days on earth of 
the Great Physician, so now, His healing servants in 
Central India never lack the open door of service. 
No occasion to seek for patients here. "A great 
multitude of impotent folk" awaits the coming of those 
who are skilled in the sympathetic healing art. 

Medical Ministry Among the Bheels. Among the 
aborigines medical skill has proved a mighty power 
preparing the way of the Gospel. A good central 
Hospital in the land of the Bheels, carried on by a 
missionary who could give his whole time to that work, 
would be a mighty factor in bringing the Bheel country 
to the feet of the Great Physician. Since the mission- 
ary doctor began work in that land the business of the 
witch doctors has greatly diminished. 

Expansion in Women's Medical Work. The growth 
in medical work for women has been more satisfactory. 
Well-built and fairly well-equipped Hospitals in Indore, 
Neemuch, and Dhar, are doing an invaluable work, and 
a Hospital is being built in Hat Piplia, a town of Bagli 
State, which was urgently desired by the local authori- 


In Indore Hospital a missionary ward, known as 
"Jessie L. Forrester Ward," has been provided by 
and Mrs. Campbell, of Rutlam and relatives, in memory 
of Mrs. Campbell's sister, whose brief sojourn in India 
will thus be gratefully remembered. The ward has 
already proved a boon to the Mission staff. 

Testimony to the Value of Women's Medical Work. 
The importance of medical work, both men's and 
women's, is well described in the report of Dr. Margaret 
McKellar in 1909 : 

"Medical Mission work is coming into its own. At 
the recent Pan-Anglican Congress, the Mission Section 
decided that the watchword which should guide the 
future Christianizing efforts in India was to be ' Strength- 
en, reinforce, the Medical arm.' Brigade-Surgeon, 
Lt.-Col. D. F. Keegan, the first medical man whose 
acquaintance the writer made in India, nearly two 
years ago, in commenting on the above watchword, 
wrote: 'The Government of India might well adopt 
the same motto and apply it to their own medical 
service in these days of unrest in their Great Depend- 
ency. There can be no clashing of interests between 
the Indian Medical Service and the Association of 
Medical Missionaries, for charity in its widest accepta- 
tion is the bedrock principle of both. Members of the 
Indian Medical Service know full well what noble work 
the Medical Missionary Association, which now num- 
bers more than 300 fully-qualified medical practitioners 
of both sexes, has done for many years in India, and 
how much this charitable work has tended towards 
inducing the native to view the Great Sarkar with a 


more and more trustful and kindly eye. And the 
Association has done this by the proficiency of its 
members in medicine and more especially in operative 
surgery .... the aggregate number of important surgical 
operations performed in one year by the combined 
members of the Association throughout the length and 
breadth of India is immense. The members of the 
Medical Missionary Association and the Indian Medical 
Service are potent instruments of conciliation between 
the governing Briton and the subject races in our Great 
Dependency, and no strangers in India know the native 
more intimately than they do, for it is their lot to watch 
and tend him when stricken by disease or accident. 
And it is then that his many fine qualities are best seen 
and recognized, and the doctors are amply rewarded 
by the gratitude and implicit trust reposed in them by 
the native.' " 

The report continues : "In comparing our own work 
with a like number of Hospitals for women supported 
by Native States, the administrative medical officer in 
Central India in his last Official Report to hand says, 
'It is to be noted that the first three (Mission Dispen- 
saries and Hospitals in Indore, Dhar, and Neemuch) 
are for women only and show (in the time under review) 
839 in-patients ; this compares favorably with the 346 
in-patients of the separate Women's Hospitals maintaiii- 
tained by the States. Again the out-patients of these 
missionary Dispensaries number 18,804, against 11,748 
of the Women's Hospitals.' ' 

India's Medical Needs. A recent writer says : 
"In spite of all that Government and missionary efforts 




Rev. Mr. Drew (seated) and Rev. Mr. Taylor are members of session 


combined have been able to accomplish, it is computed 
that out of the one hundred and fifty million women of 
India not more than three million as yet are within the 
reach of competent medical aid. The unrelieved 
suffering implied in such statistics is almost unimagin- 
able. At present the shortage of women doctors is so 
great that hospitals have been closed for want of 
qualified workers. It is clear that the increasing needs 
of India in this direction cannot be met without the 
education of Indian women themselves as doctors and 
nurses. Government is fully alive to this fact, and just 
as in the matter of literary education, is ready to 
welcome and support financially Christian Medical 

Ludhiana Medical College for Women. The 

Women's Christian Medical College in Ludhiana is 
doing a valuable work for the whole of Northern India. 
The Women's Missionary Society of Canada through 
one of its medical missionaries is represented on the 
Board of Management. The Panjab Government has 
cordially supported the Institution, recognizing its 
valuable work. 

The report for 1914-15 showed "that 40 medical 
students have already received their diplomas as 
Licensed Medical Practitioners, and are working in 
connection with 19 different Missionary Societies in all 
parts of India. At present there are 41 students in 
attendance ; 18 compounders, 29 nurses, and 16 mid- 
wives are enrolled, making a total of 104 under in- 


The Leper. Medical work for lepers early claimed 
the sympathy and help of the Mission. Dr. Buchanan 
in Ujjain in 1895 inaugurated the first attempts to 
segregate these helpless people. A graveyard was the 
only segregation camp available, and the tithes of the 
little congregation at Ujjain were the only source of 
supply for their needs. Influential people, who had 
probably never given a thought to the danger of so 
many lepers daily mixing with the people in the crowded 
streets, suddenly became alarmed when they saw them 
gathered together in one place. They looked on the 
missionary as one who had brought a pestilence to the 
city. Entreaties, and then threats, were used to pre- 
vent the lepers being gathered together. But the leper 
camp continued. In Ujjain there is now a Leper Asy- 
lum built by the State. In Dhar, another has been 
built with funds raised by Mr. Henderson of Toronto, 
as a memorial to his wife. This latter Asylum is under 
the care of the "Mission to Lepers in India and the 
East," the missionary at Dhar acting as their Super- 
intendent. From the beginning, the leper work has 
never been a charge on the funds of the Canadian 
Church. A goodly number of these poor outcastes 
have been received into the fellowship of the Christian 

Consumptives. No special provision has yet been 
made for consumptives, although there is need among 
the Christians for some such provision. There is a 
sanatorium near Indore on one of the highest points of 
the Malwa plateau begun by an energetic and public 
spirited Hindu gentleman, the medical officer of Indore 


State, and built by the wealthier members of various 
sects, each sect having its own special ward. 

The work is ever widening. The doors of service 
are always wide open. The dark clouds of famine, and 
later the awful ravages of Bubonic plague, came to test 
the faith of the missionaries, but the last two decades 
have seen a growing intensive work, and a widening of 
the range of activity. Fourteen stations are occupied, 
and the mission staff has increased until it now numbers 
seventy-four. But each step forward shows greater 
possibilities of service. Instead of fourteen stations, 
there should be forty-four centres. With such a 
disposal of the forces, and with the training facilities 
now established, growing with the increasing needs, it is 
possible for the eye of faith to see the coming of the 
Kingdom of Christ in Western Central India. 


" Experience has already shown that by far the 
most hopeful way of hastening the realization of true 
and triumphant Christian Unity, is through the enter- 
prise of carrying the Gospel to the non-Christian 
world." DR. JOHN R. MOTT. 

"The simple peasant and scholarly pundit, the 
speculative mystic or self -torturing devotee, the 
peaceful South-man, and the manly North-man, the 
weak Hindoo who clings to others of his caste for 
strength, and the strong aborigines who love their 
individuality and independence ; one and all possess a 
power which could find its place of rest and blessing 
in the faith of Christ and in fellowship with one another 
through Him. The incarnate but unseen Christ, the 
Divine yet human Brother, would dethrone every idol ; 
God's word would be substituted for the Puranas ; 
Christian brotherhood for caste ; and the peace of God 
instead of these and every weary rite and empty 
ceremony, would satisfy the heart. Such is my ideal 
which I hope and believe will one day become real in 
India." DR. NORMAN MACLEOD, (address to General 
Assembly of Church of Scotland). 


The Key to the Problem. An indigenous Christian 
church is the key to the problem of India's Evangeliza- 
tion. At the present time, the Foreign Mission 
organization and the Indian Church exist side by side, 
the Foreign Missionary and the Indian Worker of the 
Mission being in some cases the predominating in- 
fluence ; in others, where the Church has reached 
greater maturity, acting as helpers to the Indian 

What is a Mature Church ? Where ecclesiastical 
maturity has been attained in any community we expect 
to find (i) Pecuniary self-support, (2) Complete self- 
government, (3) Self-propagation. This is the ideal. 
The Indian Church is far from full attainment, but 
there is a growing self -consciousness, the ability to 
control its own affairs is becoming increasingly manifest, 
and its evangelizing activities, when one considers the 
resources of the Church, compare favorably with those 
of Western Churches. 

The Indian National Conference which met in Cal- 
cutta in December, 1912, which was the most represent- 
ative missionary body that has yet met in India, ex- 
pressed itself as follows : 

"This Conference notes with profound thankfulness 
to God that, as the outcome of Christian effort in this 
Empire, there is now an Indian Church firmly estab- 



lished which, not only in its numerical growth, but also 
in the reality and vigor of its spiritual life, in the 
development of its organization and in the growth of 
its missionary zeal, affords great cause for encourage- 
ment. It is the conviction of this conference that the 
stage has been reached when every effort should be 
made to make the Indian Church in reality the most 
efficient factor in the Christian propaganda in this land. 
To this end it is essential that the Church in Western 
lands should continue to co-operate in the further 
development of the Indian Church, that it may most 
effectively accomplish its providential mission in the 
regeneration of India." 

Interesting Figures. According to the last census, 
taken in 1911, the Christian population of India is 
3,876,203, or about 12 per thousand of the population. 
Of these it is estimated that 3,574,000 are natives of the 
country, the balance being made up of Europeans and 
Eurasians, or as they are now called, "Anglo-Indians." 
Not more than 200,000 are Europeans and Americans, 
domiciled, or of pure descent, and these include nearly 
75,000 British troops. What may be described as the 
resident or sojourning white civilian element is little 
more than three per cent, of the Christian population. 

Of the above 3,876,203, the Roman Catholics number 
1,490,864 ; the Syrian Church, 728,304 ; the Pro- 
testants, 1,636,731. Of the Syrian Church more than 
half hold allegiance to Rome and with this addition the 
Roman Catholics number 1,904,006. The following 
table gives the growth of the total Christian community 
during the past 4 decades : 




Increase per cent. 

1881 1,862,634. 

1891 2,284,380 22.6 

1901 2,923,241 27.9 

19113,876,203 32.6 

The comparative percentages of growth in the past 
decade are as follows : Roman Catholics, 25% ; 
Syrian (Protestant), 27% ; Protestants, 41^"%. It 
is estimated that, "at the present rate of increase the 
whole population would be Christian in about 160 
years, which would be faster than the conversion of the 
Roman Empire." 

Within the bounds of our own mission field in Central 
India the numerical increase has been encouraging. 
Since the Mission began in 1877, over four thousand 
have been baptized into the fellowship of the Christian 
Church. The statistics for the year ending Sept. 30, 
1915, show a total Christian commuaity of 3,126, of 
which 1,048 are full communicants. 

A Statesman's Tribute to Christianity. Bare stat- 
istics, however, give but an imperfect idea of the in- 
fluence of the Christian Church. Striking testimony 
in this regard was recently given by one who stands 
outside at least of the visible church. Sir Narayan 
Chandarvarkar in addressing the Y.M.C.A. of Bombay 
used these words : 

"And this message has not only come, but it is finding 
a response in our hearts ; for, as I have already in- 
dicated to you, the old conception of a spiritual worship 
of God has not entirely perished from the minds of the 


people, though it may be buried below a mass of 
ceremony and superstition. The process of the con- 
version of India to Christ may not be going on as rapid- 
ly as you hope, but, nevertheless, I say, India is being 
converted ; the ideas that lie at the heart of the Gospel 
of Christ are slowly but surely permeating every part 
of Hindu society, and modifying every phase of Hindu 
thought. And this process must go on, so long as 
those who preach this Gospel seek, above all things, to 
commend it, not so much by what they say, but by 
what they do and the way they live. 

"And what is it in the Gospel of Christ that com- 
mends it so highly to our minds ? It is just this, that 
He was 'the Friend of sinners,' He would eat and drink 
with publicans and outcasts ; He was tender with the 
women taken in sin ; all His heart went out to the sin- 
ful and needy, and to my mind there is no story so 
touching and so comforting as the Prodigal Son. 
Christ reserved His words of sternest denunciation for 
hypocrites and especially for religious hypocrites whose 
lives and conduct utterly belie the great professions 
that they make. The Gospel of the Kingdom of Christ 
has come to India, and when it is presented in its ful- 
ness and lived in its purity, it will find a sure response 
among the people of the land .... 

"I have no right to speak at all about the Kingdom 
of Christ ; but I believe that it is working amongst us 
to-day ; It is the little leaven that will in time leaven 
the entire mass. The Kingdom of Christ, I say, is 
working out its own ends slowly, silently and yet 


The Church in Central India. The church in Central 
India has undergone a rapid transformation within 
recent years. At first the membership consisted largely 
of the preachers, teachers and other helpers who, with 
their families, formed the nucleus of the Indian Church. 
While this seemed a necessary stage in the establishment 
of the church, it was not a condition of things congenial 
to the growth of a spirit of independence or self-reliance. 
To-day the conditions are far different. A large and 
ever-growing proportion of the membership is entirely 
independent of the Mission, and the Indian Church has 
a goodly number of the Helpers under its own control 
and is responsible for their support. 

There is no work more important, or more interesting 
than to help in the healthy development of the church. 
It is a work which lies near to the heart of every true 
missionary who shares something of Paul's spirit when 
he wrote to the Galatians : ' ' My little children, of whom 
I am again in travail until Christ be formed in you ..." 
(Chap. 4 : 19). The hardest work of the missionary 
begins when the converts are received by baptism into 
the company of the disciples of Christ. Then must 
follow the work of "teaching them to observe all 
things, whatsoever I have commanded you." It has to 
be done patiently, perseveringly and systematically, 
training them in temperance, purity and holiness of life. 
Christian worship, so different from the temple worship, 
has to be exemplified. Some form of organization is 
necessary and indigenous leadership has to be developed. 

How Maturity is to be Attained. As to the ideal 
for the Indian Church, self-governing, self-supporting 


and self-propagating, there is unanimity among all 
missionaries. As to the method of attainment, there is 
considerable difference of opinion. Some place self- 
support as the primary consideration, and powers of 
self-government are held strictly in abeyance until the 
Church has learned "to pay." Others lay the emphasis 
on self-government, believing that when the Indian 
Church is trusted with responsibility, the grace of 
benevolence will more speedily develop and the work 
of propagating the Gospel be stimulated. Others 
again see only the pressing need of India's evangeliza- 
tion and would bend all the energies of Foreign and 
Indian Christian alike to this end. 

The problem of the development of the Indian 
Church is bound up with the work of a well-organized 
and wide-spread, but foreign, missionary propaganda. 
For this reason the problem in one important aspect 
has to do with the relation of foreign missionaries to the 
Indian Church. The ideal which Christians in India 
have before them will largely determine the way in 
which this latter question will be treated. If an 
** Indian Church" be the ideal, there will almost cer- 
tainly be on the part of Indian members a measure of 
dissatisfaction with the place foreign missionaries hold 
in the Church. 

The^ missionary on the other hand may fail to merge 
himself with the Church for whose welfare he toils. 
He may regard himself as belonging to the Mission 
rather than to the Church, as having his Church mem- 
bership at Home rather than on the field, and as being 
himself merely lent to this work until such time as 


his presence is longer required. The Indian Christian 
is led to regard the Church as "for Indians only." 
In such a case, "The ideal of the Church is not the most 
effective organization for the accomplishment of the 
largest work but the attainment of absolute independ- 
ence at all costs, as soon as possible. With such a 
thought constantly in mind, the foreign missionary is 
not looked upon as a desirable element in the Church, 
but one that is to be rendered unnecessary as soon as 
may be." But let the ideal be : "The Church of Christ 
in India," and the distinction of Indian and Foreign 
will tend to disappear. A merely "national" outlook 
is injurious to the true spirit of the Church of Christ. 
Nations tend to mingle more and more. India will 
for long be the home of many Europeans and Americans, 
East and West will meet, and where more fittingly 
than in the Church of Christ which knows neither race 
nor speech, nor color, but all are one in Christ Jesus. 
With such an ideal, "the controlling thought would 
not be, the difference between Indian and foreign 
members or workers, the rights and privileges of the 
one or the other, but the possibility of using both to the 
greatest interest of the supreme work of the Kingdom. 
In such a church the relation of the missionary would 
be that which would enable him to make the largest 
contribution to the enterprise. From his thinking 
would be absolutely ruled out the idea that he is there 
to dominate or control the situation, reserving to him- 
self such rights and prerogatives as belong only to the 
missionary ; while from his Indian brother's mind 
would disappear the thought that the missionary, so 


long as necessary, must be tolerated, but that true 
advance on the part of the Church will render him 
unnecessary, and thus happily remove the one class 
of persons that now prevents the Church from coming 
into its own rightful position and heritage."* So great 
is the work that remains to be done that even a mature 
church in India may well need and welcome the aid of 
the foreign missionary. The attainment of self-support, 
self-government and the spirit and ability to propagate 
itself, does not, as we understand it, absolve all but the 
Church in India from responsibility for India's evan- 

The Mission and the Chaplaincy. Having as its 
aim the wider conception of the Church of Christ in 
India, the mission has, almost from its beginnings, 
shown a practical interest in the work among Anglo- 
Indians and domiciled Europeans including the troops. 
These latter are stationed at Neemuch and Mhow, 
with small detachments also in Indore. At the two 
first-named the Church of Scotland, through its Colonial 
Committee, has held itself responsible for the spiritual 
needs of the Presbyterian troops. In 1890, on account 
of the illness of the regular chaplain, the missionary at 
Mhow, Rev. Geo. MacKelvie, was asked by the Church 
of Scotland to assist in caring for the troops, and part 
of his salary was guaranteed. This was the beginning 
of co-operation with the Church of Scotland in chap- 
laincy work. From that time to the present, except 
a few brief intervals when chaplains were appointed 
directly by the Church of Scotland, the work has been 

*Rev. B. T. Badley, Indian Witness, July 8, 1915. 


entrusted to the Canadian Mission, and its nominees 
have been endorsed by the Church of Scotland, and a 
substantial annual grant has been paid into the funds 
of the Mission. Various members of the staff have 
officiated from time to time, and the Mission thus forms 
a living bond of union between European and Indian. 
The chaplaincy is now under the care of Rev. E. J. 
Drew, who, in recognition of his long and faithful 
service, has been given the status of a missionary by the 
Foreign Mission Board of our Church. Mr. Drew is an 
Englishman who went to India in the Army, but after 
a few years withdrew and engaged in business. For 
over thirty years, first as a voluntary worker, and later 
as an assistant-missionary, he has been closely identified 
with the work of the Mission in Mhow. A man of 
boundless energy and wide experience, he has well 
earned the mark of confidence which the Mission and 
the Foreign Mission Board have bestowed on him. 
He was ordained by the Presbytery in 1905. Two 
years later he was appointed chaplain, and still con- 
tinues rendering acceptable service to the troops as 
well as giving valuable aid in the vernacular work. 

English Services at Rutlam. For the little Anglo- 
Indian and European community in Rutlam, services 
were begun by Dr. Campbell, and missionaries of that 
station have continued to minister to the needs of that 
community for more than 25 years. The maintenance 
of an English service and occasionally of a Sabbath 
School, have been greatly appreciated. 

Church Union in India. One of the most striking 
features in the growth of the Church in India has been 


in the direction of Union. The Presbyterians led the 
way, and in 1902 the "South India United Church" 
was formed by the union of the Churches in connection 
with the United Free Church of Scotland and the 
Reformed Church of America. As a result there was 
co-operation in Theological instruction, in training of 
teachers, in the publication of a joint paper, in bene- 
volent and Home Mission work, and a new impetus 
was given to self-support and self-government. These 
results became still more evident when in December, 
1904, there was formed a larger union of the above 
Church and five other Presbyterian bodies working in 
India. It chose to be called ' ' The Presbyterian Church 
in India." By this union, the Presbytery and its 
congregations in Central India ceased to have organic 
connection with the Canadian Church on the other side 
of the world, and were organically united to their 
Presbyterian brethren throughout India. The Mission 
and the missionaries retained their former connection 
with the parent Church in Canada, but as members 
of an "Indian" Presbytery and its congregations they 
are fully identified with the Church in India. 

A still more comprehensive union movement was in 
the meantime being contemplated in South India, and 
in 1908 the Churches in connection with the London 
Missionary Society, and the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, united with the Pres- 
byterians of the South in "The South India United 
Church." The Synod of South India was, with a 
cordial Godspeed, released from the newly-formed 


Presbyterian Church in India to merge itself in the 
wider union in the South. 

Federation. A strong movement also towards 
Federation is gathering momentum and promises soon 
to be widely adopted. Its aim is that, "The Federa- 
tion shall not interfere with the existing creed of any 
Church or Society entering into its fellowship, or with 
its internal order or external relations. But in accept- 
ing the principle that the Church of God is one, and 
that believers are the Body of Christ, and severally 
members thereof, the Federating Churches agree to 
respect each other's discipline, to recognize each other's 
ministry, and to acknowledge each other's membership 
by a free interchange of full members in good and re- 
gular standing, duly accredited, welcoming them into 
Christian fellowship and communion as brethren in 

The basis of Federation has been accepted by the 
missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the 
English Baptist Church, by the American Marathi 
Mission, the South India United Church, and our own 
Presbyterian Church in India. It is hoped that 
shortly Provincial Federal Church Councils will be 

The Spirit of Union in India. These movements are 
doing much to remove the offence which a divided 
Christendom presents to thoughtful minds in the 
Indian Church. Why should the Church in non- 
Christian lands be made heir to the differences which 
have had their origin, often in strife, in the Church in 
Western lands ? The planting of Churches along 


denominational lines was perhaps inevitable. All the 
more necessary is it that the work of union should not 
be left to the Indian Churches to accomplish alone when 
they reach the stage of maturity, lest the differences 
with which they have Jiad no special concern in the past 
should become fastened upon them for all time ; but 
that the Missions should endeavor to see realized the 
Unity of the Church of Christ. 

The situation in India compels the spirit of unity 
because : 

(1) Indian Christians generally desire the fullest 
possible fellowship. For them the simple confession, 
"One Lord, one faith, one Baptism," stands out in 
bold relief against the dark background of a cruel 
heathenism which has cast them off forever. They 
chafe against denominational barriers which tend to 
hive off the Christians into separate folds. 

(2) The perspective of the missionary himself is 
different when he is on the foreign field. He may 
have gone there with the idea that the particular tenets 
of his denomination its doctrinal statements and forms 
of government should be repeated on the foreign field. 
But he soon finds that he is confronting everywhere 
the same pressing problem the evangelization of the 
countless multitudes. The evangelistic note dominates 
the Church's life, and the emphasis is shifted away 
from the thought of denominational differences. He 
sees that creeds forged in times of controversy and 
directed against errors then prevalent, may be viewed 
differently by his Indian fellow-Christian, who has 
his own controversies with the errors of India. He 



may discover also that forms of Church Government 
need to be adapted to the character of the people and 
their forms of social life. He will discover that his 
work as a foreign missionary is "not to carry moulds 
but to plant living seed" ; to teach the fundamental 
principles of the Gospel, leaving to the growing Church 
freedom to adapt its creed and its form of Government 
to suit the special circumstances. The Living Lord 
is in His Church, and can be trusted to lead it into the 
fullest measure of usefulness and blessing. 

(3) All branches of the Christian Church face a 
common and an implacable foe. As Sir Herbert 
Edwardes long ago said : "differences about bishops, 
etc., seem very small under the shadow of an idol with 
twelve heads." In face of the opposition of the great 
non-Christian world of India, any refusal on the part 
of Christ's followers to co-operate in the fullest possible 
way seems almost criminal. 

Christian Melas. Perhaps no single feature of 
Church life has been so potent in developing the sense 
of unity among Indian Christians as the Melas or 
Conventions which are very common in all parts of the 
land. They are according to the genius of the Indian 
people. Their gregarious instincts find happiest ex- 
pression in these large and enthusiastic gatherings for 
spiritual inspiration and fellowship. These Melas have 
discovered to the Church as a whole not a few men of 
wonderful gifts as preachers of the Word and as leaders 
in spiritual things. The Annual Mela held under the 
auspices of the Presbytery in Central India has been 
invaluable for the development of the corporate life of 


the Church there. Four or five days are spent each 
year in united prayer, the imparting of some definite 
phase of Scripture teaching, and the delivering of 
inspirational addresses. For missionary and Indian 
Christian alike, these days have been times of much 

Indigenous Missionary Activities. With the growth 
of self-consciousness and the spirit of unity in the 
Church in India, there is a growing desire to assume 
responsibility for India's evangelization. The growth 
of indigenous missionary associations, denominational 
and otherwise, has been a feature of recent years. In 
Central India the growth in this respect has been 
gratifying. In 1915, with 13 organized congregations, 
and a communicant membership of 1,048, and a total 
baptized community of 3,015, a total of 3,286 Rupees (3 
Rupees = i dollar) was spent on extra-congregational, 
or specifically Mission work. Congregations were 
responsible for one or more Home Missionaries each, 
and in some cases assumed the entire up-keep of out- 
stations. Some employed Bible women, others were 
responsible for local schools. Three congregations had 
settled pastors. The amount spent on Mission work 
was equal to three-fourths of that spent on congrega- 
tional needs including pastoral support. But apart 
from financial gifts was the gratifying fact that much 
personal work in bazaar preaching, conducting of 
Sunday Schools, etc., was carried on. 

The Banyan Tree. The growth of the Church in 
India is typified in that of the banyan tree. First is the 
parent trunk, which throws out its far-spreading 




branches. From these in course of time rootlets drop 
downwards until they touch the earth, and in a mar- 
vellously short space of time these take firm hold of the 
soil and become strong supports to the branch above. 
The overhead branch extends farther and drops other 
rootlets which also in time become supporting pillars 
to the branches above. The parent trunk is thus soon 
surrounded by a mass of pillars each like the parent 
stem ; and trees may be seen where the original trunk 
has decayed almost entirely away, leaving the wide- 
spreading tree supported by its newly formed trunks. 
Not yet, however, has that time come for the Church 
in India. Co-operation between the Foreign and the 
indigenous Church, is the need of the present. The 
Macedonian cry, ''Come over and help us," is still the 
cry of the Church in India to the Church in Canada. 

Some Indian Leaders. Did space permit it would be 
profitable to the reader to make the acquaintance of 
many who are leaving their impress on the young 
Church in Central India. For instance, the pastors. 
In 1900 the first Indian pastor, Jairam B. Makasare, 
was ordained and settled over the Rutlam congregation, 
which then had 3 elders, 49 communicants, 146 bap- 
tized and 174 unbaptized adherents. The pastors from 
the first were not permitted to be a charge on the 
Foreign Mission Funds of the Church in Canada. Had 
some scheme of augmentation been adopted, the num- 
ber of settled pastorates would doubtless have been 
greater ; but it is questionable if there has been any 
real loss to the Church by insisting on self-support. 
The Rev. Benjamin Ellis, a scholarly minister from a 


neighboring Presbytery, was inducted as first pastor 
in Indore in 1912. Mhow, the same year, called the 
Rev. Samuel Karim, the youngest of our pastors, a 
man who has been trained from boyhood in the Mission. 
To rare gifts as a teacher, there is added the true 
pastor-spirit and zeal in preaching the Gospel. The 
Rev. Bhagajee Gaekwad, after long years of service, 
and having completed the prescribed course of study, 
was ordained as Minister-Evangelist, and given the 
oversight of a District. The Rev. Yohan Masih, grad- 
uate in English of the Theological Seminary, Clerk of 
the Synod, Instructor in the Seminary, and zealous 
evangelist, is a born leader. Mr. J. W. Johory, ver- 
satile, zealous Home-Missionary, first Indian extra- 
mural B.D. graduate of Serampore College, teacher in 
Arts College and Theological Seminary, tutor in the 
Maharajah's household, has his whole life been devoted 
to the Church in Central India. (His picture and that 
of Mrs. Johory are seen on another page.) For these 
able godly men, and many others, we give God thanks. 
The writer recently gathered some personal testimonies 
from leading members of our Central India Christian 
community ; and in answer to the question ' ' Why are 
you a Christian ?" the following among other replies 
were received : 

Personal Testimonies. "I do not know how I can 
live a holy life in this world and be in communion with 
the Divine, without being a Christian. Since accept- 
ing Jesus as my Saviour I have got such a victory over 
temptations and my sins in which I used to fall often. 
The vision of the loving Father through Jesus is so clear 


that there is perfect peace and joy, and love to help 
and save my fellowmen. That's why I am a Chris- 

Another says : "I am a Christian because the love 
of Christ constrains me. He lived and died for me. 
He is now my living personal Saviour. His loving 
presence is all-sufficient for me. He satisfied all the 
cravings of my heart. Without Him I find life to be 
not worth living. I cannot but be a Christian, most 
unworthy though I am to be called so." 

Another replied : 

"Because Christ came to save sinners and He has 
saved me, and because Christ purchased me by His 
own precious blood, therefore now I am not my own, 
but Christ's." 

Another : 

"Because Jesus has bought me with a price and re- 
deemed me with His precious blood. I looked unto Him 
and was lightened. Thanks be unto God for His un- 
speakable gift. The God of Glory was not ashamed to 
pick me up, but called me out of darkness and unclean- 
ness into His marvellous light." 

And still another writes : 

"'I am a Christian because in my own experience I 
have found a personal Saviour in our Lord Jesus Christ. 
He is to me not an abstract, philosophic Ideal nor a 
mere Historical Person, but a Living Presence, realized 
in my every day life, leading and guiding me through 
the vicissitudes of life notwithstanding my weaknesses 
and frailties. I have found Him a ready Helper in 
all my trials and difficulties, and a loving and sympath- 


izing Friend in my life struggles through this world, 
giving me assurance that He will be the fulfilment of 
my hope when this life ends to be resuscitated again in 
the glory of resurrection. In communion with Him I 
have found that peace of mind and spiritual strength 
which enabled me so far to battle through indifference 
and misunderstandings of the world. In the knowledge 
that I am also one of His a Christian, I have felt that 
joy and peace which the world had not given me. I 
am fully convinced that there is nothing in this world 
which can give that assurance of salvation and divine 
life that Christianity can give." 

These testimonials reveal the longings of the heart 
of India for a faith which satisfies and gives power to 
live victoriously. ' ' Show us the Father and it sufficeth 
us " is the cry of earnest souls. Jesus is the only answer 
which will satisfy. It is the confession of men and 
women such as these that gives hope for the Church 
in Central India. So long as our leading Christians 
have a vital experience of the Saving Power of Jesus 
Christ, there need be little fear for the progress of the 
Church. And it is a striking fact that the men of 
outstanding gifts as leaders in the Church in India as a 
whole are men of a deep spirituality. 

Problems of the Church in India. The Church in 
India has special difficulties to cope with, (a) In the 
matter of Sabbath observance. The Day is, of course, 
officially recognized as a Day of Rest. Offices, schools, 
and public buildings are closed as a rule, and many of 
the larger shops in the chief cities. But in the non- 
Christian communities generally, the convert sees all 


about him the people engaged on the Lord's Day in 
their ordinary occupations. Shops open, vendors 
crying their wares, temptations on every hand. The 
Christian has the unique privilege of giving, by his 
reverence for the Day, a marked testimony to his 

" Upholding the sanctity of the Sabbath law is a 
matter of extreme difficulty in a non-Christian commun- 
ity where employers of labor pay no regard to it, and 
where many Government operations of various kinds 
are continued on the Sabbath under the control of 
Europeans, and where many Europeans bearing the 
Christian name pay no heed to the claims of the day. 
The Native Christians, who are poor (as most of them 
are) and dependent for daily bread on their service for 
non-Christian masters, are practically compelled to 
work at least a portion of the day, and so also are those, 
in some cases, in Government offices and in State and 
railway employ."* 

(b) In the matter of polygamous converts. The 
presence of such in the Church is a cause of offence to 
very many ; but the refusal to give the rite of baptism 
until the convert consents to retain the one wife only, 
raises serious difficulties. This is well expressed in the 
report of the Edinburgh Conference as follows : 

"One great difficulty is that in many non-Christian 
lands the practice of polygamy is not contrary to the 
natural and unenlightened conscience. You can show 
a man without great difficulty that an idol is notfiing, 
or a witch doctor an impostor, but you cannot easily 

*Edinburgh Conference Report. 


lead him, as it were from without, into our Lord's high 
and spiritual view of Holy Matrimony. As Bishop 
Callaway remarks : ' It is not so much that polygamy 
hinders conversion, as that it is the converted man alone 
who can see that polygamy is wrong.' Once again, 
when polygamy has been thus entered upon by both 
parties in the times of ignorance, and where there are 
children recognizing the two parties as their parents, 
for the Church to insist on the breaking up of the re- 
lationship is to deprive the children, either on the one 
hand, of the protection of their father, or on the other 
hand, of the care of their mother ; while the woman 
thus put away finds herself, according to many letters 
before us, in the position of gravest moral danger 
' relegated ' as one correspondent bluntly put it, ' to the 
position of a prostitute.' "* 

Times of Refreshing. No account of the growth of 
the Christian Church in Central India would be com- 
plete without a reference to the "Revival" of 1906-07. 
Following the remarkable revival in Wales in 1905 the 
Churches in several parts of India were visited by a very 
wonderful outpouring of the Spirit of God. Like a 
fire, trying the hearts of men, it swept through whole 
communities of Christians. This had been preceded 
by much earnest prayer for spiritual reviving, and the 
answer came in such an overwhelming sense of the pre- 
sence of the heart-searching God, in such a deep sense 
of sin, and open confession, in such agony of prayer for 
the Church and for the unsaved, as few had ever seen 
before. Sometimes whole audiences seemed to be 

*Edinburgh Conference Report. 


moved by some invisible power and the meeting would 
be taken entirely out of the hands of the leader. One 
after another would rise, and sometimes several at once, 
to pray, confess, or read a portion of scripture. The 
deep spiritual intensity, preserved the sense of unity. 
Restitution was made for wrong done, old grudges 
confessed and put away, enemies were reconciled, 
consciences made tender as never before. There was 
deep distress at sin, the sin which caused the death of 
the Divine Saviour. The cry was often heard : "It 
was not the Jews or the Roman soldiers that crucified 
Thee, it was I," or "My sins were the thorns in Thy 
brow" ; "My sins pierced Thee." It was a time of 
gracious ' ' reviving ' ' and particularly in those phases of 
the spiritual life where there is frequently a great lack 
among converts from heathenism. 


"Oriental thought is on the march, and you cannot 
stop it, do what you will. If you ask me what is safe 
for the future if you ask me to indicate a safe and 
expedient policy to the Government, I say an open 
Bible. Put it in your schools. Stand avowedly as a 
Christian Government. Follow the noble example of 
your Queen. Declare yourselves in the face of Ihe 
Indian people as a Christian nation, as Her Majesty 
has declared herself a Christian Queen, and you will 
not only do honor to her, but to your God, and in that 
alone you will find that true safety rests." 


"Many persons mistake the way in which the con- 
version of India will be brought about. I believe it 
will take place wholesale, just as our own ancestors 
were converted." 



There are problems that are ever present and others 
that are peculiar to their time. Some are more in- 
sistent at one time than another. The Living Spirit 
of Christ has been given to His Church for guidance 
to solve the problems as they arise. 


The normal growth of the Christian Community in 
India is generally thought to be by individual acces- 
sions from the non-Christian communities ; and 
ordinarily such converts confess Christ at great sacrifice 
a sacrifice which puts to shame the critic who asks : 
" How much does it cost to convert a Hindu ? " Suffice 
it to say that the cost is negligible compared with what 
it costs a Hindu to become a Christian. The individual 
who confesses Christ by baptism, forsakes all to follow 
his Master. But it frequently happens that whole 
communities, as such, are moved to cast away their 
idols and turn to Christianity. Such are known as 
"Mass Movements." The expression is intended to 
indicate "the movements towards the Church, of 
families, and groups of families, sometimes of entire 
classes and villages, rather than of individuals. The 
impulse that gives rise to such movements is a ferment 
of some kind of new life in the mass, rather than any 



definite aspiration separately realized by each indivi- 
dual."* When such movements occur, it is found that 
caste influence, which destroys individual initiative 
and makes the cross so heavy for the individual con- 
vert, gives added force to the "Mass Movement," for 
such movements usually run along the lines of caste 

The Eastern Type of Mind. A Westerner with his 
strongly individualistic cast of mind, finds it difficult 
to appreciate the way the Indian thinks and acts. 
Mind in India moves in the mass. Life is communal 
in its expression. In the West, each individual counts 
as an integer ; in India, he counts as a fraction. Com- 
munal interests determine all his social ties, his work, 
his whole life. It is not surprising that the Christian 
appeal should be responded to by the community as 

Of the whole Christian population of India, it is 
estimated that nearly 90% has come from the depressed 
classes or the outcaste communities those who are 
considered too degraded to have a place in the Hindu 
social system. There are over 50 million of these in 
the whole of India. They live, as a rule, outside the 
village walls or in districts strictly removed from their 
Hindu neighbors. Mass movements have largely 
characterized the approach of these people to the 
Christian faith. In earlier days in South India large 
numbers were baptized, and latterly work in North 
India has been characterized by widespread movements 

* World Missionary Conference The Church in the Mission 
Field, page 85. 


among the chuhras, chamars, and other depressed 

The Poor of India. These are the poor of India. 
In a land where wealth is but ill-distributed and where 
the average earnings per capita has been estimated at 
2-10-0 to 3-0-0 per annum, the depressed classes 
represent the extreme of poverty. Millions of them 
travel life's journey always hungry and near to the 
border line of death. They are so poor that they are 
not afraid of death, and when the grim shadow falls 
over their path they do not struggle hard but just lie 
down and die as though the gloomy visitor were not 

India Christianized from the Base Upward. The 
history of the growth of Christianity in communities 
is usually from the base upward. In the early days of 
Christianity the reproach was cast upon it that, "the 
new sect was composed almost entirely of the dregs 
of the populace, of peasants and mechanics, of boys and 
women, of beggars and slaves." Paul wrote to the 
Corinthians of his day : " Behold your calling, brethren, 
that not many wise after the flesh, not many mighty, 
not many noble are called, but God chose the foolish 
things of the world that He might put to shame them 
that are wise ; and God chose the weak things of the 
world that He might put to shame the things that are 
strong ; and the base things of the world, and the 
things that are despised did God choose ; yea and the 
things that are not that He might bring to nought the 
things that are ; that no flesh should glory before God." 
(i Cor. i : 28-9 R.V.) And our Lord, when making 


His first announcement of the character of His earthly 
ministry, said : "The spirit of the Lord is upon me 
because He anointed me to preach good tidings to the 
poor. ..." (Luke 4 : 18 R.V.) To the poor the Gospel 
is preached, is the dominant note of Indian evangelism, 
and we may be sure this work is very near to the heart 
of Jesus Christ. The test of a genuine Christianity is 
its attitude to the poor. 

Mass Movements in North India. Of Mass Move- 
ments in the North, with which our Mission is more 
closely related, the growth has been remarkable. The 
Methodist Episcopal Mission of the U.S.A. in 1912 
baptized 30,000, and in 1913, 40,000. In these two 
years as many were received as in the whole of the first 
40 years of their mission in India. In 1914 they had 
to refuse baptism to 40,000 enquirers because of lack 
of helpers to give the needed instruction. The United 
Presbyterian Church of North America has a member- 
ship of over 60,000, and the Presbyterian Church in 
the U.S.A., of over 26,000, very largely drawn from 
the despised classes as a result of mass movements. 

Movement Among Ballais and Others. The Central 
India Mission has touched but the fringe of such move- 
ments as yet, but they are so important and so full of 
possibilities for the future that they deserve careful 
study. The experiences of the Mission in this respect 
in its earlier years have been told in a previous chapter.* 
More recently there has been manifest a widespread 
interest among the Ballais, who are the hired helpers 
of the higher castes and are also the weavers of a coarse 

*See Chap. IV. 


kind of cloth, commonly used by the farmers. In the 
North-Eastern section of our field especially, numbers 
of enquirers have been enrolled. In Kharua station, 
300 families were under instruction in 1914, and many 
have since been baptized. The interest is spreading 
and many more are asking to be instructed. The fer- 
ment of Christian ideas is permeating the Ballai 
community as well as other low castes. The strength 
of the Mission staff will have to be directed more to 
these people, and our greatest problems in the future 
will be those raised by the movements towards Chris- 
tianity among the "untouchables." 

The Motives which Move Them. It cannot be s 
that the motives which actuate these peoples are of a 
high order, if judged by the standards of those who are 
the products of centuries of Christianity. They are 
turning to Christianity from a condition of degradation 
and ignorance. By centuries of oppression they have 
become reconciled to their lot and even speak of them- 
selves, without any sense of the injustice of it, as the 
"untouchables." The preaching of the Gospel among 
them may not strike at once the highest possible 
responsive chord, but the Message of Christ to the out- 
caste calls forth the recognition of their own manhood, 
the hope of social betterment, and of relief from age- 
long oppression. 

From their point of view, these motives may be as 
far superior to those which ordinarily move them, as 
the heavens are above the earth. "The tyranny and 
oppression to which the outcastes are subjected in 
India, as a result of the caste system, is a material 


factor of the whole movement. They find themselves 
admitted to a new fellowship, treated as brothers and 
potentially equals. They find thus offered to them a 
new dignity and a new status. When the members 
of some families have dared to join the Christian 
Church, their friends have at first persecuted them, then 
have learned to watch them with interest, and finally 
have been convinced that these converts were changing 
in character as well as in outward circumstances, and 
changing undoubtedly for the better. Thus family 
ties, which in the beginning formed a hindrance, be- 
came helpful to the growth of the Church. Families 
join themselves to the Christian movements because 
their friends have done so, and in doing so have pros- 
pered. Many come because they see that Christian 
children are cared for and educated, and have in every 
way a better prospect in life than ' children of the non- 
Christian community around them."* 

A Challenge to the Church. These mass movements 
began in South India and have since spread to parts of 
Burmah, the Central Provinces, the United Provinces, 
and the Pan jab. The extent to which these movements 
have grown in the Northern and Central parts of India, 
is challenging anew the faith and consecration of the 
Churches in these areas. A heavy responsibility rests 
on the Church to be ready to cope with such problems. 
She dare not baptize without having a reasonable hope 
of being able to shepherd and educate, as well, these 
masses. The moving of these multitudes is not of man 

'Edinburgh Conference Report, page 87 of " The Church in the 
Mission Field." 


but of God. Prayer for the outpouring of God's Spirit 
on India is being answered by the outpouring of a great 
unrest among these despised ones, and the turning of 
them in thousands to the Christian Church for the 
satisfying of a hunger, the meaning of which they but 
dimly understand. In all the years of work in Central 
India, there never was such a wide-open door for service 
as that which these "poor" now present to us, and yet 
we are but at the beginning of this work. 

These movements are full of hope for the future. 
G. S. Eddy says : "The numbers gained in the mass 
movements alone are greater than in any other mission 
field, and place India among the most hopeful and ur- 
gent mission fields of the world."* 

Effect on the Caste System. They are a fatal blow 
at the whole caste system. The existence of the 
depressed classes, a great army of over 50 million, is the 
degradation of the whole social system of Hinduism. 
In the words of the late Dr. Booker T. Washington, 
"You can't keep a man down in the ditch without 
staying down there with him." The redemption of the 
depressed classes will mean the collapse of the caste 
system in its objectionable features, for it needs them 
to preserve its ceremonial purity. 

But still another influence is at work among the high- 
er castes as a result of the uplifting of the depressed 
classes. It is common testimony that where this work 
has been most successful, there has also been the great- 
est success with the high caste people. They are 

*"The New Era in Asia," page 153. 


drawn by the evident power of the Gospel to uplift 
those for whom Hinduism has no message. The story 
is told of a Brahman, visiting a missionary and seeing 
on the wall a picture of Christ washing the disciples' 
feet, saying, "You Christians pretend to be like Jesus 
Christ, but you are not ; none of you ever wash peo- 
ples' feet." The missionary said, "But that is just 
what we are doing all the time. You Brahmans say 
you sprang from the head of your god Brahma ; that 
the next caste lower sprang from the shoulders ; the 
next lower from his loins, and the low caste sprang from 
his feet. We are washing India's feet, and when you 
proud Brahmans see the low caste and the outcaste 
getting educated and Christianized washed clean, 
beautiful, and holy inside and outside you Brahmans 
d all India will say, ' Lord, not my feet only, but also 
my hands and my head.' ' 

Hinduism Being Aroused. These movements have 
been a stimulus to social service within Hinduism 
itself. The publication of the successive census 
reports has awakened even the orthodox Hindu to note 
the defection from Hinduism of great numbers of low 
castes ; and here and there movements are set on foot 
to lift the depressed, and attach more firmly to the 
Hindu system, the Mahars, Pariahs, and others of that 
type. Whether, when they become educated enough 
to be conscious of their claims to manhood and begin 
to assert their rights to equality of treatment, their 
high caste sympathizers will be so anxious for their 
welfare, is another question. In the meantime we 
welcome every agency that tends to the intellectual 


and moral enlightenment of those whose uplift is long 


Agitation in Regard to Education. The problems 
of education are being discussed in India as never 
before. The great question so ardently discussed a 
generation ago as to whether Mission schools for non- 
Christian pupils were a legitimate Mission agency, is 
now seldom raised. The principle is now generally 
recognized, but new problems as to method or ex- 
pediency constantly arise. There is a growing demand 
for free and compulsory primary education. Just 
recently Indore State has issued Regulations enforcing 
this. Greater efficiency is being demanded by Govern- 
ment in higher educational work. Industrial educa- 
tion has been tardily recognized, but is being given 
its rightful place, and thus the balance is being restored. 
The literary side of education has been unduly empha- 
sized. The neglect of technical teaching and in- 
struction along industrial lines has been to the loss of 
India and the loss of the growing Christian community. 
In the several Native States of Central India, there was 
for years no serious attempt made systematically to 
organize schools. But recently the States are giving 
more attention to this problem, and are raising the 
standards of efficiency. 

In India as a whole, the education of girls is no longer 
treated with indifference. Hindus and Mohammedans 
have established large and prosperous schools for female 


The Effect on the Mission. All this means for our 
Mission greater expense in the maintenance of its 
schools if it is to continue this phase of missionary 
service. In the primary schools the attention of the 
Mission is being increasingly given to the needs of the 
Christian community. State regulations make the 
existence of the distinctively Christian schools for 
Hindu and Mohammedan children, more difficult ; 
and in one State at least schools may be opened only 
on the condition that the Christian religion shall not 
be taught therein. Among the low castes generally 
there is, however, a large field for the Christian school. 

University Regulations, and Gran ts-in- Aid. In the 

higher departments, the work is determined by the 
University regulations, and to that extent is under 
Government control. It must not be assumed that 
this "control" necessarily interferes with the dis- 
tinctively Christian aim of Mission Institutions, 
especially when they receive Government aid. The 
position in regard to the matter of Grants-in-Aid, has 
been expressed thus : "Government, finding it im- 
possible with the funds at its disposal to fulfil what it 
recognizes as its duty to the people in the matter of 
education, and finding voluntary workers in the same 
field devoting to it money and valuable services, aid 
them with Grants whereby they can overtake such 
work more cheaply than Government could." This 
system of Grants-in-Aid is "based on an entire ab- 
stinence from interference with the religious instruction 
conveyed in the schools assisted." This Rule has en- 
abled Missions conscientiously to accept Government 


aid for the secular instruction given in their schools, 
and in this way our Mission has received for some years 
a grant, small, it is true, in comparison with the run- 
ning expenses of the institution, from the British local 
authority for the work of the High School in Indore. 

But the stringent requirements of the Universities, 
with which the Colleges are affiliated, entail so much 
greater expenditure in these aided institutions, such as 
most Mission schools and Colleges are, that for some 
of them the question arises whether some other means 
of influencing the student classes should not be adopted. 
It has been recommended that hostels under Mission 
management be attached to non-Mission institutions ; 
and that there should be co-operation in higher educa- 
tion among Missions so that, at a smaller cost to each 
co-operating Mission, a thoroughly efficient institution 
may be maintained rather than two or three poorly 
equipped Colleges. 

The Need of Strengthening Indore College. So 
far as the Indore Christian College is concerned, there 
is no opportunity for such co-operation. It alone in a 
wide-reaching field stands for higher education along 
Christian lines. The other alternative of using the 
purely "Hostel" scheme is practically unworkable 
in our Central India field. Further, it is recognized 
that nothing can fill the place of an efficiently managed 
Christian School or College. The alternative is either 
to keep the College up to the standard required, or 
retire from the field of Higher Educational work a 
field which has been honorably occupied from the 
beginning, and in which the Mission was the pioneer 


in Central India. Adequate Hostel accommodation 
and a strong staff must be constantly maintained. 

Girls' High School, Indore. All this is equally 
true of Higher Education for women, which at present 
is cared for in the Girls' High School, Indore. What 
it would mean for the future of Christianity in Central 
India to have a thoroughly well-equipped institution 
with adequate accommodation, and a strong permanent 
staff of teachers, it is hard to overestimate. 


Canada's Hindu Problem. Within recent years 
Canadians have been giving not a little attention to 
India because Canada has a Hindu Problem on her 
hands, and the solution is not easy to find. There are 
probably not more than 4,000 Hindus in Canada, 
practically all in British Columbia. The number is 
considerably less than a few years ago. Only 3 Hindu 
women (it is said) have been permitted to enter and 
remain. In 1914 a shipload of over 400 Hindus came 
direct from India on a Japanese boat, the Komagatu 
Maru, but were turned back. As British subjects, 
their coming was an attempt to challenge the right of 
Canada to exclude them. 

Growth of a " National " Spirit. The treatment in 
the "Dominions beyond the Seas" is, for the Hindu, a 
phase of his National problem. He meets it in South 
Africa, in Australia, and in all the Self-Governing 
Dominions of the Empire, and among alien peoples as 


well. What he feels most keenly is being treated as an 
"outcaste" within the Empire. 

In India, this treatment has caused intense feeling* 
for India has been rapidly growing into a sense of 
nationhood. In this respect she has shared in the 
general awakening among Eastern nations. British 
rule has made this possible, or rather has, unconsciously 
perhaps, encouraged it. The freedom of the press, 
the opening the doors for Higher Education on Western 
lines, and the liberty given for free discussion of political 
questions, as seen in the National Congress a de- 
liberative^ body representative of Educated India 
all these have tended to develop the National movement 
in India. Christian Missions have spread abroad ideas 
of man's dignity and worth, and of human brotherhood. 
The Russo-Japanese war was a new revelation of the 
possibilities open to an Oriental people. 

Cause for Anxiety. It is not long since India was 
causing anxiety to her best friends. The freedom of the 
press, as jealously cherished in India as in England, was 
being abused. Sedition was printed and preached. 
A sense of nationhood, it is true, was growing, but there 
were extravagances shown which served no useful 
purpose except to draw attention to India. Foreign 
goods were boycotted to India's loss. Bombs were 
freely used, and the lives of prominent officials were 
often in danger. 

A Change for the Better. But the past four or five 
years have seen a change. A more generous policy 
on the part of the late Liberal Government of Great 
Britain, when Lord Morley was Secretary of State for 


India, did much to change the attitude of Indian 
leaders, and the hands were strengthened of those 
leaders who maintained that India would make surest 
progress toward the goal of self-government, under the 
protection of Britain. Then followed the visit to India 
of the King and Queen, and their triumphal coronation 
as King Emperor and Queen Empress in Delhi, the old 
historic capital of North India, and henceforth to be 
the new capital of that mighty Indian Empire. It was 
a brave thing for their Gracious Majesties thus to 
challenge the loyalty of their Indian subjects, and to 
establish a precedent by going as the first reigning 
British Sovereigns to visit India's shores. The en- 
thusiasm evoked was wonderful. Their personal con- 
tact with the people swept aside the veil of officialdom 
which hung between the people and their supreme ruler. 
India loves a potentate. The "Government of India" 
was now embodied in the person of their King-Emperor 
and their allegiance to him was pledged in a new sense. 
And it must be remembered also that the personal 
conduct of the King and Queen in India won the deepest 
respect. As Christian rulers their example in regard 
to the Christian institutions of the Sabbath Day and the 
public worship of God, was unequivocal. Their 
Majesties left India with the impression strong in the 
minds of the people that they were brave, sympathetic, 
Christian rulers. 

The War A Test of the National Movement. The 

declaration of war was a testing time for the leaders of 
India, and it was a revelation of the heart of our Indian 
Empire. As though moved by a common impulse, 


native princes, leading citizens, and the educated 
classes generally, realizing the tremendous issues at 
stake, were filled with enthusiasm, and there was 
scarcely a note of discord. Every class and every race 
hastened to show its loyalty, and its anxiety to share 
the burdens and duties of citizens of the Empire. 
If a mark of nationhood is the possession of a common 
sentiment, then it would appear that the war has done 
much to make India a nation. Never in the past have 
the diverse races of India been united in the face of 
danger. Internal dissension has always made the way 
easy for invading armies. Never in the past was there 
any common sentiment to bind this nation of nations 
together. The war has brought about this "new thing " 
oneness of sentiment expressed in loyal support of the 
Empire in its great moral struggle. 

The Significance of Indian Loyalty. The full signi- 
ficance of the participation of India's troops and India's 
people in this struggle is not very generally recognized. 
It is epochal in the development of India's place in the 
Empire. India is now asserting its right to be treated 
as a portion of the Empire, not as a mere dependent, 
but as a partner. Nor is it a calculating loyalty that 
is expressed. Indians of intelligence and education 
now recognize that the interests of India are bound up 
with the interests of the British Empire. 

The Importance of the Problem ; Principles of 
Settlement. It is in the light of these facts that the 
Hindu Problem for Canada becomes so important. 
Its solution is a work for Christian statesmen and there 
are some principles which Christian citizens of Canada 


should insist on in its settlement, (i) It must be on the 
basis of mutual respect, and with a recognition of brother- 
hood. When Indian and Canadian armies have fought 
side by side in a great moral cause, no other attitude 
can be permitted. No subterfuge, such as the Continu- 
ous Passage Regulation,* can ever again be tolerated 
in an effort to control immigration. Canada suffers 
more injury than India by such actions. (2) It should 
be recognized that India desires a fair solution of what 
is a difficult Imperial problem, and is not desirous 
simply of overrunning Canada. Is it likely that the 
leaders of Indian public opinion, who themselves look 
forward to the time when India shall be self-governing, 
will entirely ignore the fact that the various Dominions 
of the Empire are self-governing and can control 
immigration as they deem best for their own interests ? 

Some features of India's attitude to the Canadian 
grievance and the Imperial crisis have been worthy of 
all praise. It was at the time when feeling in India was 
growing strong in reference to Canada, when Indians 
were feeling humiliated and aggrieved at the treatment 
received, and at the fact, as they believed, that their 
citizenship in the Empire was being questioned, that 
the opportunity came to show their attitude to the 
Empire. In the same meeting of the Viceroy's Coun- 
cilf when Canada's Exclusion Policy was under con- 

*This Regulation required that immigrants should come by 
continuous passage from their own land. There were no ships sailing 
direct from India, so it meant, without saying so, the absolute 
exclusion of Indians. 

fSept. 1 8, 1914. 


sideration, an Indian member suggested, and it was 
unanimously and enthusiastically approved, that the 
cost of the Indian armies sent to Europe should be. 
borne by the Indian peoples themselves. The Cana- 
dian grievance was forgotten in the thought of India's 
partnership in the Empire's burden. Let not this be 
forgotten so long as Canada cherishes the Imperial tie. 

(3) In any policy of immigration, nothing immoral 
should be tolerated. To exclude the wives of the 
Hindus, while admitting the husbands, introduces a 
grave moral peril. Wherever East Indians have gone 
to British Colonies, e.g., Trinidad, British Guiana, 
Jamaica, etc., and there is a preponderance of males 
over females, there arises a grave moral situation.* 

(4) The off-hand suggested solution of absolute ex- 
clusion is impossible ; or is possible only temporarily 
and at too great a cost. The world is too much a 
neighborhood for such a dog-in-the-manger policy to 
succeed for long. Autonomy has its obvious limita- 
tions. It is vain to say that others have adopted an 
exclusion policy without loosening the Imperial tie. 
Actions which embitter, and provoke resentment, and 
desire for retaliation, cannot strengthen the Imperial 

Lord Hardinge's Suggestions. The suggestions of 
Lord Hardinge in the Vice-Regal Council, of a policy 
of restricted immigration, limiting by agreement the 
number of passports to be issued, commends itself 
to many influential Indians. The following extracts 
are from Indian newspapers : 

*Government of India, Report on Indian Immigration. 


"Sober Indian opinion has perceived the futility of 
pressing the inherent right of the citizen of the Empire 
to go and settle in any part of the Empire, and it will, 
therefore, have no difficulty in agreeing with Lord 
Hardinge, when he says that 'the colonies naturally 
place above all other considerations the interests of 
their own country, as they understand them, just as 
we in India should put the good of India in front of our 
motives for legislation.' It is natural that no colony 
would quietly submit to the prospect of an unrestricted 
Asiatic invasion, leading eventually to its economic 
ruin, which, again, might react upon its political 
integrity and independence. Free movement within 
the empire is also conditional on the exercise by the 
local legislatures of their undoubted powers. The 
colonies enjoy virtual autonomy, and may pass what 
laws they may please, with reference to their internal 
administration. But, as component parts of the 
Empire, this power is limited by moral obligations to 
the Empire, which if the entire fabric were to stand in 
co-ordination and harmony, it would be a grievous 
mistake to ignore."* 

"There is nothing here like a question of rights 
rights which the colonies could admit or be made to 
accept as the basis of negotiations in the matter. 
All that is possible is a working arrangement based on 
mutual interests ; and this could be made for practical 
purposes so satisfactory and advantageous to both sides 
as to ensure every prospect of permanence. And Lord 
Hardinge recommended this to the consideration 

*Bombay Samachar. 


of the country. If there was ever the chance of 
India getting a really honorable and fair settlement of 
this big outstanding question of far-reaching Imperial 
importance, it is this when both England and the 
great self-governing colonies have been so greatly 
impressed by India's loyalty and devotion to the in- 
terests of the Empire. To Lord Hardinge therefore 
belongs the honor of having promptly sought to take 
advantage of the occasion. We are confident that the 
country would approve of his advice ; and by support- 
ing his Government in taking the course he suggested, 
put an end to the ill-feeling which has so long continued 
to grow and to menace the future of the Empire."* 

But so long as Indians are within our gates, our 
duty as Christians is clear. Every effort must be made 
to Christianize them. Every Indian who returns from 
Canada to his native land is a missionary, for good or 
ill, and can have an untold influence on his country- 
men's attitude to the religion of Jesus Christ. It is 
this which gives point to the appeal of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in India.f 

These are some of the pressing problems which India 
presents. The mass movements are God's answer to 
the Church's prayer that the time may come when 
"nations should be born in a day." At the opposite 
extreme of the social scale, the problem of the educated 
classes presses on the Church. And the national 
movement brings the whole question of Missions to our 
very threshold. It relates it to our national life and 

*"Jam. e. Jamshed," Bombay. 
fVide Appendix E. 


ideals, and makes us have some share, for good or 
evil, in the world- wide enterprise of Missions. May 
our Christianity be such that those who come to our 
shores from non- Christian lands shall be drawn to 
seek the Saviour of all men ! 



"And think upon the dreadful curse 

Of widowhood ; the vigils, fasts, 
And penances ; no life is worse 

Than hopeless life, the while it lasts. 
Day follows day in one long round, 

Monotonous and blank and drear ; 
Less painful were it to be bound 

On some bleak rock, for aye to hear 

Without one chance of getting free 

The ocean's melancholy voice. 
Mine be the sin, if sin there be, 

But thou must make a different choice." 

-From Savitri By TORU DUTT, Indian Christian 

The Son of God goes forth to war 

A kingly crown to gain ; 
His blood-red banner streams afar : 

Who follows in His train ? 
Who best can drink his cup of woe, 

Triumphant over pain, 
Who patient bears his cross below, 

He follows in His train. 

REGINALD HEBER, Bishop of Calcutta, 1822-1826. 


Survey Made in 191 1. At the request of the Foreign 
Mission Board the Central India Mission in 1911 
made a careful survey of its whole field with a view to 
finding out what would be necessary to make the Gospel 
Message adequately known there. The Mission then 
had nine Central Stations and a missionary force of 19 
married, and 2 single men, and 19 single women. The 
Survey showed that 35 other centres (44 in .all) should 
be occupied if the people of Western Central India were 
to be given a reasonable opportunity to hear and re- 
ceive the Gospel message. It was estimated that a 
total force of 76 men would be required of whom not 
less than twenty per cent should be medical men, and 
that the number of lady doctors, teachers, and zenana 
missionaries should be similarly increased. 

It was not forgotten that the Mission shared with the 
Indian Church the work of Evangelization ; and it is 
of interest to note that the local Presbytery has since 
decided to undertake the opening of one of the selected 
centres as its special Home Mission field. Thirteen 
centres are now occupied. Another has been tempor- 
arily abandoned, except as an outstation, because of 
the return to Canada through family illness of the 
missionary in charge. 

Almost four decades have passed since the Church 
in Canada began to evangelize Central India, and the 


field is yet largely unoccupied. By the comity of 
Missions this field is left to the care of the Canadian 
Church. More than one generation has passed away. 
For the present generation we have a definite and im- 
mediate responsibility. If they are to be evangelized 
it must be by the forces at present represented there. 

Can It Be Done ? There are those who feel that 
because of the present distress the terrible drain of 
men and money for the war there should be retrench- 
ment rather than expansion in Foreign Mission work. 
Some would even recall missionaries and close up work 
and turn every energy towards the battlefields of 
Europe till the danger be overpast. But what 
would that involve ? Some day the work would have 
to be taken up again, and what explanation of the 
abandonment could be given to the non-Christians of 
Central India ? How could it be explained that the 
fight with sin and Satan, who have been so long en- 
trenched in India, was considered as of only secondary 
importance ? The ground lost would perhaps never 
be regained for there would be a loss of spiritual force 
in Christianity itself. 

Retrenchment Disastrous. Retrenchment would be 
disastrous. It is the lack of those very things for which 
Foreign Missions stand which has brought about the 
world war. How different would the world now be had 
there been in European Christianity a sympathy wider 
than national boundaries, a recognition of human 
brotherhood, an ideal of service such as Christ's who 
came not to be ministered unto but to minister ; and 
a love for fellowmen broad as the love of God ! Besides 


there is the danger, in time of war, of fostering the spirit 
of hate. The Church, for the sake of its own spiritual 
life, should cherish the foreign mission enterprise as 
never before. 

The Lessons of the War. Retrenchment would 
mean that the Church fails to learn the lessons of the 
present crisis. All things are made to yrork together 
for the fulfilment of God's great purpose that the 
Kingdoms of this world should become the Kingdom of 
His Son. The war is teaching men and women the 
meaning of sacrifice. They never knew before, as they 
do now, how to give and how to suffer. It cannot be 
that they will refuse self-sacrifice for a Heavenly King. 
Loyalty to Him will not permit entrenchment in His 
great world purpose to give the Gospel to the nations ; 
rather will it inspire His people to new endeavor. 

And there will , be need of sacrifice in the days to 
come. Some Missionary Societies are already feeling 
the strain. The London Missionary Society is faced 
with the necessity of closing all its work in Calcutta 
unless funds are speedily forthcoming.* When the 
steady drain of war taxation comes, and the enthusiasm 
of the campaign has changed to the quiet but laborious 
work of recuperation after the war, the Church will 
need to brace herself for a sustained effort lest the work 
abroad be hindered. . 

It Can Be Done. Some of our best men in every 
walk of life are giving themselves in a noble spirit of 

*It is gratifying to learn that the remarkably liberal response of 
the Christian people of Britain has averted a crisis in the Society's 


self-sacrifice for the war. They are ready to die, if 
need be, that freedom and goodwill and truth and 
righteousness be not crushed to the earth. And for 
the Mission field men and women are available. The 
Honor Roll' of many a congregation attests the fact 
that they can spare their best when a need sufficiently 
great and impelling is presented. 

There are funds for the work. Millions of dollars 
have been given willingly and enthusiastically to help 
the sick and wounded in the war, and those dependent 
on them. None feel themselves the poorer. There is 
no appreciable change in the manner of living, and no 
serious retrenchment in the use of luxuries. Canada 
is prospering in spite of, perhaps because of, the war. 
In 1914 the savings per capita of the people averaged 
$101.93. When the amounts paid for life insurance are 
added, the average is greatly increased. The Church 
can send, and suitably equip, the men and women 
needed fully to man its Central India field. The cost 
is not great. The whole plant of the Mission at the 
present time, its College and High Schools, its Day 
Schools and Dispensaries, its Hospitals and Industrial 
establishments, its Bungalows and all the equipment 
of the Mission may be approximately valued at $250,000 
which is about the cost of some large modern city 
churches ; and the whole plant is employed every day 
and for long hours. The money invested in Central 
India Mission work is in constant use. The ornamental 
is made to wait on the practical. There is no depart- 
ment where the work and the opportunity is not greater 
than the equipment provided. When vast sums of the 


people's money in the homeland are so lavishly spent 
on works of doubtful utility, and when costly edifices 
are built for the worship of God, to be used for only 
a few hours in the week, it ill becomes us to complain 
of the cost of Missions. 

The Seeming Impossibility of the Task. But granted 
the men, the money and the equipment, the work then 
is just begun. It still seems too great to be accom- 
plished, and well it is if the Church realizes that the 
work is beyond its power. Such a task will drive it to 
lay hold of its resources in God. It will drive it to 
prayer, and continuance in prayer, till the task is 

Divine Help Needed. The Wonderful Opportunity* 
When in the actual work of seeking to win the people 
of India for Christ, one realizes how absolutely neces- 
sary is the Divine help. There is no lack of opportunity. 
Religion is so closely related to every phase of life, 
that not only is there no offense given, but it is the 
most natural thing in the world to engage a chance 
acquaintance in religious conversation. And how 
overwhelming the opportunity ! There are 12,000 
villages and towns, in any one of which the preacher 
can usually secure an audience any day of the week. 
The Weekly Fairs give a still larger opportunity. 
In most of the towns and larger villages, a weekly 
market day is observed, and people come from far and 
near. While there are the distractions of buying and 
selling, there is also a greater sense of freedom felt by 
the hearers than in their own villages where they are 
so well known. They are, therefore, more ready to 


purchase Scripture portions and other literature. 
Then there are the Great Fairs, or Melas, that last for 
a fortnight or more. Thousands come to these, to 
bathe in the Sacred waters, or to worship at some 
particularly famous shrine. 

Feelings of the Preacher. Imagine the feelings with 
which one stands before such audiences. Although 
intent on receiving some spiritual benefit, their whole 
thought of sin and its cleansing is perverted. They are 
dead in earnest, willing to pay handsomely for the 
priests' aid in securing the thing desired. The vile and 
filthy associations of the temple worship are treated 
with levity. They jostle and strive with each other 
to get a glimpse of the god to get the "vision." It 
may be nothing but a shapeless stone, or a vilely sug- 
gestive image. The preacher stands before an audience 
intent on such things. He holds before them another 
"vision," the beauty of holiness as seen in Jesus Christ. 
The story of Jesus is a rebuke to the whole conception 
of religion as seen in the "sacred places." The preacher 
sees the looks of scorn that come over the faces of 
some. In others is a look of hatred, for they realize 
that if this Jesus should come to India to reign in the 
hearts of men, the hope of their gains would be gone 
In other faces there is the look of intense interest, for 
they are hearing what their souls have craved for. 
That which they have sought for in vain, they hear 
now with strange wonder. It is this that sustains the 
preacher. There is an attitude of the human heart 
that makes Divine truth credible as soon as heard, and 
the preacher is sustained by the thought that some of 


God's chosen ones may be receiving the very Bread of 
Life from his discourse. 

India Needs the Vision of Christ. It is the vision 
of Christ which India needs. Idolatry does not help 
the mind toward spiritual realities, as the Hindu claims. 
Idolatry is the concrete expression of a perverted idea 
of God. The idols of India are ugly. They suggest 
a cruel, malevolent God. India needs the vision of 
Jesus that her people may know God. The Holy men 
of India do not help the people toward the knowledge 
of God. They present a perverted view of life and 
religion and service. They are far removed from Him 
who went about doing good, healing the sick, casting 
out devils. He came "not to be ministered unto but 
to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many." 
"Where there is no vision the people perish." 

India needs to see Jesus Christ interpreted in the lives 
of His redeemed followers, living the Christlike life 
in India, and manifesting His love to mankind. And 
India needs to hear as well. "And how shall they 
hear without a preacher ? and how shall they preach 
except they be sent ? even as it is written, how beauti- 
ful are the feet of them that bring glad tidings of 
good things !" (Romans 10 : 14-15). 

The Glory of the Missionary's Task. The comment 
of Dr. Moule on this verse is beautifully appropriate. 

"We take first of what is written last, the moral 
beauty and glory of the enterprise. ' How fair the feet.' 
From the viewpoint of heaven there is nothing on the 
earth more lovely than the bearing of the name of 


Jesus Christ into the needing world, when the bearer 
is one 'who loves and knows.' The work may have, 
and probably will have, very little of the rainbow of 
romance about it. It will often lead the worker into 
the most uncouth and forbidding circumstances. It 
will often demand of him the patient expenditure of 
days and months upon humiliating and circuitous 
preparations ; as he learns a barbarous unwritten 
tongue, or a tongue ancient and elaborate, in a stifling 
climate ; or finds that he must build his own hut and 
dress his own food, if he is to live at all among 'the 
Gentiles.' It may lay on him the exquisite and 
prosaic trial of finding the tribes around him entirely 
unaware of their need of his message ; unconscious 
of sin, of guilt, of holiness, of God. Nay, they may not 
only not care for his message ; they may suspect or 
deride his motives, and roundly tell him that he is a 
political spy, or an adventurer come to make his private 
gains, or a barbarian tired of his own Thule and irresist- 
ibly attracted to the region of the sun. He will often 
be tempted to think 'the journey too great for him' and 
long to let his tired and heavy feet rest for ever. But 
his Lord is saying to him all the while, ' How fair the 
feet.' He is doing a work whose inmost conditions even 
now are full of moral glory, and whose eternal issues, 
perhaps where he thinks there has been most failure, 
shall be, by grace, worthy of 'the King in His beauty.' 
It is the continuation of what the King Himself ' began 
to do* (Acts i : i) when He was His own first Mission- 
ary to a world which needed Him immeasurably, yet 
did not know Him when He came." 



Showing Central Stations marked thus, , and other proposed centres of work 
needed for the adequate evangelization of the whole field 

Specimen of Vernaculars used in Central India. 
(The Lord's Prayer in Urdu and Hindi.) 

J'5 ^ 



<jfMrrr ifl" ft^r 


Will India Be Won ? Will India be won for Christ ? 
Not until the Church of Christ realizes that it can and 
ought to be won. The conquest of India must begin 
in the hearts of God's people, with the conviction that 
it is the will of God ; and then in definite plans for 
its accomplishment. The business of the King should 
be as jealously and systematically pushed forward 
as any commercial enterprise. The Standard Oil 
Company wished to introduce kerosene into a backward 
city in Mexico. They put a lamp, rilled and trimmed, 
in every dwelling. It cost a great deal, but it accom- 
plished its purpose, and the tallow dips disappeared 
forever. The missionary enterprise is worthy of 
similar zeal. There is the promise "Men shall be 
blessed in Him, all nations shall call Him blessed" 
(Ps. 72 : 17). "He shall have the uttermost parts of 
the earth for His possession" (Ps. 2:8), and when the 
Church has lit its lamps it may claim the fulfilment of 
the promises. 

Non-Christian Prophets. Even non-Christians are 
found among the prophets. "None but Jesus ever 
deserved this bright, this precious diadem India, and 
Jesus shall have it" said Keshub Chunder Sen, India's 
noblest spiritual genius, over forty years ago. "I 
want to learn all I can about the Christian religion, 
because in fifty years India will be a Christian coun- 
try," said a Buddhist priest of Southern India. 

The Imperial Side of Missions. It sometimes hap- 
pens that those who are not moved by ordinary mis- 
sionary appeals are stirred to sympathy with the aims 
of the missionary, for Imperial reasons. They are 


interested in the fact that the 315 millions of India are 
under the sway of their own King Emperor, and that 
these make up almost one-fifth of the world's popula- 
tion. They are interested in the welfare of these 
millions. The testimonies to the value of Missions 
from men of wide influence and experience would fill 
many pages. 

Testimonies. The better the work is known the 
more it is approved. "The sending of missionaries 
into our Eastern possessions is the maddest, most 
expensive, most unwarranted project that was ever 
proposed by a lunatic enthusiast," was what the East 
India Company said at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. "Notwithstanding all that the English peo- 
ple have done to benefit India, the missionaries have 
done more than all other agencies combined," was what 
Lord Lawrence the Viceroy of India said near the close 
of the century. 

The King Emperor has on several occasions shown 
his deep interest in the cause of Missions. In a message 
to the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society he 
wrote : "I gratefully recognize the religious and phil- 
anthropic work so universally extended by the Society 
in promoting the noblest aims of Christianity."* 

Sir William Hunter of the Imperial Gazetteer of 
India, writing to the London Times, said, "English 
Missionary enterprise is the highest modern expression 
of the world- wide national life of our race. I believe 
that any falling off in England's Missionary efforts will 
be a sure sign of swiftly coming national decay." 

*See also Appendix D for testimony of "Three Field-Marshals." 


Sir Bartle Frere, formerly, the Governor of Bombay, 
said : "The teaching of Christianity. .. .is effecting 
changes, moral, social, and political, which for extent 
and rapidity of effect, are far more extraordinary than 
anything you or your fathers have witnessed in modern 

Sir Andrew Fraser, late Lieut. -Gov. of Bengal, in an 
address given at Simla in 1903, said : "It has been my 
policy to find out the school from which boys who are 
candidates for Government Service come, and I find 
that the best boys we have, come from missionary 
schools and colleges. That, after all, is not wonderful, 
for our missionary schools and colleges have professors 

of high character and education There is nothing 

that England can give to India, notwithstanding the 
many blessings she has given, to compare with the Gos- 
pel of Christ." 

And the late Governor of Bombay, Lord Sydenham, 
speaking in Calcutta on the "Problem of India," said 
that he went to India with no very great prepossession 
in favor of missionary work. But after five and a half 
years of careful study of the conditions and tendencies 
of modern India, he had come to the conclusion that 
missionary effort was playing a far greater part than 
was generally realized in raising the standards and 
ideals of life among the people, and therefore, fulfilling 
one of the greatest and most sacred of their national 

The Problem of India became more complex every 
year. The work the British people had done there was 
quite marvellous, but it was not nearly finished, and 


perhaps the most difficult part remained to be accom- 
plished. It was only under British rule that there could 
be the least hope of building up out of the varying 
elements of India, a nation capable of standing alone. 
He much doubted whether that could be accomplished 
until the Spirit of Christianity had spread throughout 
the length and breadth of the land.* 

In the light of the above quotations it is not sur- 
prising that a Hindu paper the Amrita Bazar Patrika 
should say : "There is no doubt it would have been 
an act of supreme wisdom on the part of the ruling 
race if they could base British rule in India on the 
precepts of Jesus Christ." 

The Attractiveness of India. This seems almost an 
unworthy motive to present to young men and women 
to enlist them for service in India. The Right Hon. 
Sir Richard Temple, spoke of India as "the fairest and 
finest field in the non-Christian world for Christian 
Evangelization." There is a spirit of religious ferment 
among the influential classes. There is a spirit of 
restiveness under the restraints of caste. Modern 
ideas of progress clash with reverence for the authority 
of caste. There is a Hindu proverb which says : 
"You cannot put two swords into one scabbard." The 
result is an undermining of the moral character. Out- 
ward regard for ceremonies which the heart condemns 
can have no other result. 

The poor and the outcaste are looking to the Chris- 
tian Church for instruction and help as never before. 
Do not judge them too harshly. If you were the help- 

*A quotation from " Young Men of India.' 1 


less victim of a social system which crushed out every 
expression of your individuality, compelled you to give 
'forced labor,' labelled you as 'untouchable' compelled 
you to live apart, and gave you only menial duties to 
perform ; and you discovered that the Christian 
Church was waging a warfare with oppression, and had 
a definite message of Hope for you, which side would 
you choose to be on ? The doors of service for these 
"poor" in Central India are opening wider every 

Land Not Yet Possessed. There remains much land 
yet to be possessed. Why should not a congregation at 
home become responsible for one of the thirty central 
stations that yet await the coming of a missionary and 
his band of helpers ? Such a Central station could be 
opened, with bungalow for the missionary, a small 
school, and building at one or two outstations for In- 
dian helpers, at an initial cost of between four and five 
thousand dollars. There would be of course the ad- 
ditional annual cost of salary for missionary and Indian 
workers. There may be individual Church members 
who would rejoice in such an opportunity. Think of 
the privilege of planting such a work ! In the parish 
would be approximately 300 villages, a population of 
between 60 and 75 thousand. And few of these have 
heard the Gospel except from the lips of a band of 
preachers on tour through their district. Think of the 
joy of building there from the foundations (Romans 
15 : 20). And consider that you, or some one else to 
whom it would mean as great a sacrifice, must occupy 
the field, or it is left untilled. "This Gospel must 


be preached. . . .for a witness," is the Master's charge 
to His people. 

The War and the Opportunity. But will not the war 
among Christian nations make the work difficult or 
impossible ? Is it not an almost insuperable obstacle 
to the messengers of the Gospel of Peace ? The re- 
proach of Christendom at war is no doubt a real one, 
and will long continue to be so. The Church and her 
missionaries will often have to "eat the shame" of it, 
to use a Hindi idiom. But there are other reproaches 
which would be harder to bear. We preach not only 
a Gospel of Peace, but a message of Truth and Faith- 
fulness and Righteousness ; and had our nation stood 
aside from this conflict, how could its messengers of 
Christ have gone forth to preach, from a land which 
treats these things lightly ? Thoughtful minds in India 
see in Britain's participation in the war a justification 
of her profession as a Christian nation, and honor her 
the more for it. There will always be those who cavil, 
but among those Indians who keep themselves informed 
on the causes and the course of the war, there is a 
greater readiness to hear the Christian message than 
ever before. "So far as we have been able to see, our 
work has received no check. The attitude of the people 
to the Christian preacher never has been more friendly. 
The message of the Gospel is listened to with a serious- 
ness such as we have rarely seen before. All the more 
thoughtful of the people know that the cause which 
has led Great Britain into this war is a righteous cause. 
If the war has had any effect at all upon the people, it 
has been a sobering, humbling effect." This report 


from an American Mission is typical of many. It may 
well be, that in ways we dream not of, God will use the 
horrible experience of war to open wider the gates of the 
non-Christian world that the King of Glory may 
enter in. 

God moves in a mysterious way 

His wonders to perform ; 
He plants His footsteps in the sea 

And rides upon the storm. 

Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take ; 

The clouds ye so much dread 
Are big with mercy, and shall break 

In blessings on your head. 

Hands from Across the Seas. Freely ye have re- 
ceived, freely give (Matt. 10 : 18). The Churches in 
Canada in their time of need received help from the 
Mother Churches in the Old Land. The help received 
made it possible to maintain the means of Grace in 
pioneer days. Hands were stretched out across the 
ocean to assist the struggling Churches in the new 
world. Now the situation is changed. "There's a 
cry from Macedonia, come and help us." From India 
hands are stretched out in supplication across the seas 
to brethren and fellow-citizens in Canada. The weak 
struggling Churches in Central India need the help of 
the strong congregations in Canada. It surely cannot 
be that they will call in vain. 

The evangelization of three and one-half millions, by 
three thousand Indian Christians, many of them poor, 


and many illiterate, is a tremendous problem for the 
Indian Churches alone to face. Fourteen Mission 
stations and twenty-one outstations in an area as large 
as Scotland is not enough to lighten the darkness of 
Central India. Indian and Canadian must join hands 
in a mighty effort if the responsibility for this field is to 
be met in any reasonable measure. 

The Essence of the Gospel. The war crisis has made 
a unique opportunity, and the situation it has created 
has made urgently necessary the preaching anew of the 
simple Gospel of Jesus Christ. Many non-Christians 
have come to think that Christianity has failed. They 
looked on it as a magical power which ought somehow 
to have restrained its followers, and prevented the strife. 
Missions had been laying such stress on the ' ' fruits ' ' of 
Christianity in the Western world, as an evidence of its 
truth, that the minds of many confused the essence of 
Christianity with its by-products. It is to be feared 
that sometimes it was Christian civilization which was 
being propagated rather than the faith of the Son of 
God. The Church is brought back to the essentials. 
It will be all gain if the result be that the followers of 
Christ go forth determined to know nothing among the 
heathen but Jesus Christ and Him crucified. It is not 
a civilization but a Saviour that is to be made known. 
To minds perplexed by the apparent failure of Christian- 
ity, its vital truths must anew be faithfully presented. 
It is a unique opportunity to show how everything has 
failed, but vital Christianity, and to make clear the 
world's need of Christ. What an opportunity to press 
home the truth that no other name is given whereby 


men may be saved ! The East will not be regenerated 
by copying the civilizations of the West, but by sitting 
at the feet of Jesus and learning of Him. 

The Investment of Life. Central India presents an 
urgent and definite call to the young men and women 
of the Church. With such an opportunity to invest 
their lives, and with the knowledge that the seal of 
God's blessing rests on the lives that have already been 
given to this needy field, young men and women with 
gifts suited for the work should be very sure that God 
is hindering their going before they refuse the call. 
God does not send a visitation of angels to show us the 
way through open doors. "I am going to China" 
cried Thomas Craigie Hood, "unless God bars my 
way," and through his student days the way for him 
was as clear as noonday. There are those who hesitate, 
saying, "I am willing to go, if God should make the way 
clear to me," and all the time Divine Providence is 
making the way as clear as is possible to an ordinary 
intelligence. Not all can go to the foreign field, but the 
proportion of available workers seems so small, and the 
opportunity and the need seem so great. 

Clear Guidance ; Surrender. There are some things 
that are essential for clear guidance in regard to the call 
to work abroad. (i) A new surrender of life to God 
in the light of the new opportunity. Do not be con- 
tent with the memory of a definite surrender some time 
in the past. You may not then have understood all 
that was involved in it. "The surrender of the life is 
only the beginning of a life surrender" (Jas. H. McCon- 
key). Be absolutely sure that, in the light of all that 


has happened, and from the higher vantage ground, you 
are still at the feet of Jesus, making yourself His debtor, 
and He your Master, for ever and ever. There must be 
no uncertainty about the surrender of the life. 

(2) There must be the sifting out of obstacles. 
Family ties, which are not considered too sacred to 
prevent one from going at the call of country, or for 
commercial gain, to the ends of the earth, should not be 
permitted to keep one from the Service of Christ in the 
foreign field. 

The strength of family affection sometimes proves a 
barrier to foreign service. Loved ones at home "can- 
not bear" to see a dear one go to the foreign field. 
How unlovely and selfish such affection becomes when 
indulged in at the expense of duty ! Such affection 
may be transfigured and deepened, not destroyed, by 
admitting the claims of Christ, and the claims of a 
world that needs the love otherwise selfishly withheld. 
The loving Master makes tremendous demands upon 
the love of His disciples, and He knows well that they 
are always the gainers thereby. 

(3) Be sure you have a positive message for the non- 
Christian world. There may be nothing to prevent 
your going to India. The physical or material hind- 
rances may be taken out of the way ; but remember that 
God removes these only that you may confront the 
greater problems of faith. God rolled away the stone 
that the sorrowing women might face the problem of 
the empty tomb. The greatest problem you will have, 
will be to confront the hungry souls of India. And 
without a positive message you will be utterly helpless ; 


which suggests the last and most important element in 
finding God's will for you in regard to the non-Christian 
world. You must know Christ as a living Friend and 
Saviour. The faith once delivered unto the saints must 
be a vital experience. Communion with the Saviour 
of Mankind in prayer and meditation on His revealed 
will in the Word, will result in the growth of a likeness 
to Him. The needs of men will be seen through His 
eyes. The same mind will be found in you that is in 
Christ Jesus. You will know something of the travail 
of His soul. You will estimate as He does the value 
and possibilities of the soul. You will feel as He does 
about the multitudes scattered abroad as sheep having 
no shepherd. How then would you regard the call and 
opportunity of India ? 

Eating Our^Morsel Alone 

"If I have eaten my morsel alone !" 

The patriarch spoke in scorn ; 
What would he think of the Church were he shown 

Heathendom, huge, forlorn, 
Godless, Christless, with soul unfed 

While the Church's ailment is fulness of bread 
Eating her morsel alone ? 

I am debtor alike to the Jew and the Greek, 

The mighty Apostle cried ; 
Traversing continents souls to seek, 

For the love of the crucified. 


Centuries, centuries, since have sped ; 

Millions are famishing : we have bread ; 
But we eat our morsel alone. 

Even of them who have largest dower 

Shall heaven require the more ; 
Ours is affluence, knowledge, power, 

Plenty, from shore to shore. 
And East and West in our ears have said 

"Give us, give us your living bread," 
Yet we eat our morsel alone. 

"Freely as ye received, so give," 

He bade, Who hath given us all. 
How shall the soul in us longer live, 

Deaf to their starving call, 
For whom the blood of the Lord was shed 

And His body broken to give them bread, 
If we eat our morsel alone ? 









Indore. . . .Rev. W. A. Wilson, M.A.,D.D., and Mrs. 

Wilson December 1884 

. . . .Rev. R. A. King, M.A., D.D., and Mis. 

King, B.A June 1903 

" Rev. A. A. Scott, B.A.,B.D., and Mrs. 

Scott December 1912 

" Rev. Robert Schofield, M.A., and Mrs. 

Schofield, B.A June 1910 

" .... Miss Jessie Duncan November 1892 

" Miss Janet White November 1893 

" Miss Harriet Thompson December 1896 

" Miss Elizabeth McMaster, M.D., C.M.. January 1904 

" Miss Lizbeth Robertson, B.A February 1911 

" Miss Bertha Manarey September 1913 

" Rev. D. J. Davidson, B.A., and Mrs. 

Davidson, M.D.,C.M .January 1904 

" ... .Miss Emmaline Smillie, B.A November 1914 

" Miss Laura I. F. Moodie, M.B , . .November 1914 

" Rev. Harold W. Lyons, B.A., and Mrs. 

Lyons February 1915 

Mhow. . . .Rev. J. T. Taylor, B.A., and Mrs. Taylor . November 1899 

" Miss Jessie Weir December 1896 

" Miss Margaret Brebner November 1912 

" ..Rev. E. J. Drew.. . 



Rasalpura (Mhow) 

Rev. F. H. Russell, M.A., and Mrs. Rus- 
sell November 1893 

" Rev. A. P. Ledingham, B.A., and Mrs. 

Ledingham '. .November 1895 

" Mr. L. D. S. Coxson January 1914 

" Mr. A. R. Graham November 1914 

Neemuch..Miss Margaret MacHarrie January 1910 

. .Miss Margaret McKellar, M.D., C.M.. .October 1890 

" . . Mrs. E. E. Menzies November 1902 

' . .Rev. J. S. MacKay, B.A., and Mrs. Mac- 
Kay (Miss Sinclair) November 1904 

" . . Miss Gwendolen Gardner, B.A November 1914 

" . .Miss Margaret Cameron November 1911 

Jaora Rev. F. J. Anderson and Mrs. Anderson . December 1901 

Rutlam. . .Rev. J. Fraser Campbell, D.D., and Mrs. 

Campbell (Miss Forrester) December 1876 

. . .Mr. J. M. Waters, M.D., C.M., and Mrs. 

Waters November 1903 

" . . .Miss Dorothy Kilpatrick, B.A November 1914 

" .... Mr. Charles M. Scott, B.A.,M.D.,C.M., 

and Mrs. Scott November 1915 

Ujjain. . . .Mr. Alex. Nugent, B.A., M.D., C.M., and 

Mrs. Nugent November 1899 

" .... Miss Jessie Grier November 1893 

. . . .Miss Margaret Drummond November 1911 

.... Rev. Charles D. Donald, B.A November 1915 

Dhar Miss Margaret Coltart November 1911 

" Miss Margaret O'Hara, M.D., C.M December 1891 

" Miss M. S. Herdman March 1903 

" Rev. B. S. Smillie, B.A November 1914 




Amkhut. . . Rev. J. Buchanan, B.A.,M.D., and Mrs. 

Buchanan (Miss MacKay), M.D December 1888 

" . .Rev. H. H. Smith and Mrs. Smith 

..Mr. D. E. McDonald and Mrs. Mc- 
Donald November 1911 

. .Miss Bertha W. Robson, M.A. November 1912 

... .Mr. Harry H. Colwell, B.S.A.,M.B., and 

Mrs. Colwell November 1915 

Kharua. . .Rev. J. R. Harcourt and Mrs. Harcourt. .November 1900 
" . . .Rev. D. F. Smith, B.A.,B.D., and Mrs. 

Smith (Miss Madill) December 1906 

" ... Miss Florence E. Clearihue December 1906 

" . . .Miss Mabel E. MacLean November 1912 

Banswara..Rev. D. G. Cock, B.A., and Mrs. Cock, 

B.A December 1902 

" . Miss Catherine Campbell December 1894 

" .Miss B. Chone Oliver, M.D.,C.M February 1902 

Sitamau. . . Rev. W. J. Cook, B.A., and Mrs. Cook. . October 1910 

Bagli Field Hat Pipliya : 

Miss Ethel Glendinning January 1909 


Designation Retired 

Rev. George Stevenson 1857 1858 

Miss Fairweather 1873 1880 

" Rodger 1873 1891 

Rev. J. M. Douglas - . 1876 1882 

Miss M. McGregor 1877 1888 

Rev. Joseph Builder, B.A 1883 

" R. C. Murray, B.A 1885 

: G. McKelvie, M.A 1888 1891 





Designation Retired Died 

Miss Amy Harris 1889 .... 1892 

" Elizabeth Beatty, M.D 1884 1892 

" E. B. Scott 1888 1890 

" Elizabeth McWilliams 1891 1893 

" W. Grant Fraser, M.D 1890 1896 

Mr. J. J. Thompson, M.D 1895 1897 

Miss I. Ross 1883 1898 

Rev. W. J. Jamieson 1890 1898 

Miss Catherine Calder 1892 1899 

" Mary Charlotte Dougan 1893 1900 

" JeanM. Leyden 1896 1900 

Rev. J. Fraser Smith, B.A., M.D 1888 1900 

Miss Rachel Chase, B.A 1895 1899 

Rev. John Wilkie, M.A., D.D 1879 1902 

Rev. Norman H. Russell, M.A 1890 .... 1902 

Miss S. McCalla, M.D. (now Mrs. W. H. 

Grant, of Honan) 1900 1902 

" M. S. Wallace, M.D 1901 1902 

Mr. C. R. Woods, M.D 1893 1903 

Mr. George Menzies, M.D 1902 .... 1903 

Miss Bella Ptolemy 1895 1904 

" Agnes Turnbull, M.D., C.M 1892 .... 1906 

" Mary E. Leach (Mrs. Addison) 1900 1908 

" M. Jamieson.... 1889 1909 

" Anna M. Nairn (Mrs. K. G. McKay) 1907 1912 

Rev. Alex. Dunn, M.A., B.D 1908 1911 

Miss Marion Oliver, M.D., C.M 1886 .... 1913 

Rev. W. G. Russell, B.A 1901 .... 1913 

Mr. K. G. McKay, B.S.A 1906 1912 

" J. A. Sharrard, M.A., B.D 1907 1915 

Miss Janet Sinclair 1909 1915 

" Bella Goodfellow 1899 1916 

Mr. A. G. McPhedran, B.A., M.B 1908 1915 

Miss Ethel Bredin. . 1915 1915 









1911 I 
217 586 920 

r ariation 
>er Cent. 


2,195 339 

3 014 466 



1 334 148 

1 248 142 


Buddhist. . 

9 476 750 

10 721 453 


Zoroastrian . 

94 190 

100 096 










Jew. . 








Minor Religions 









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C^ OS 

iCt^QOCO'rrOsOSTr 0000 rHici>-' < 3'O ; IOOOO' 

C<1 rH OS OS CO CO OS C TjH C^ 00 ^ O CO C 00 OS rH ' 
COrHlCOICO^ft*- ^rH rHCQ"^OOrH|>rHT^i 

C^ rH CD 1C rH 00 rH C<J rH C<l rH C<l O CO CO IO 00 00 W 



irH 1C !> 

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* g o a 

111 I 


















American and 

Canadian Societies. . 41 







Australian " . . 8 







British " . . 41 







Ceylon " ..3 


. . . 





Continental " ..12 







India " ..7 







International " . . 3 





. . . 

Independent " . . 9 







Indigenous " . . 12 














Total Foreign Missionaries 5,336 

" Indian " 38,458 

An average of one ordained Missionary to about 218,000 people. 



"We hold Ourselves bound to the natives of Our 
Indian Territories by the same obligations of duty 
which bind Us to all Our other subjects, and those 
obligations by the Blessing of Almighty God, We shall 
faithfully and conscientiously fulfil .... 

"Firmly relying Ourselves on the truth of Christianity, 
and acknowledging with gratitude the solace oj religion, 
We disclaim alike the Right and Desire to impose Our 
convictions on any of Our subjects. We declare it to 
be Our Royal Will and Pleasure that none be in any 
wise favored, none molested or disquieted, by reason 
of their religious faith or observances ; but that all 
shall alike enjoy the equal and impartial protection of 
the law : and We do strictly charge and enjoin all those 
who may be in authority under Us, that they abstain 
from all interference with the religious belief or worship 
of any of Our subjects, on pain of Our highest dis- 
pleasure .... 

"When, by the Blessing of Providence, internal 
tranquillity shall be restored, it is Our earnest desire 
to stimulate the peaceful industry of INDIA, to promote 
works of public utility and improvement, and to ad- 
mi nister its Government for the benefit of all Our sub- 
jects resident therein. In their prosperity will be Our 


strength ; in their contentment Our security, and in 
their gratitude Our best reward. And may the God of 
all Power grant to Us and to those in authority under Us, 
strength to carry out these Our wishes for the good of Our 

The above extract is from the Royal Proclamation 
dated, Nov. ist, 1858, announcing the transfer of the 
Government of India from the East India Company 
to the Crown. The words in italics were added by the 
Queen with her own hand, on the suggestion of the 
Prince Consort, to the Draft of the Proclamation 
presented to her by her Ministers. 


Three distinguished Field-Marshals, Lords Grenfell, 
Methuen, and the late Lord Roberts, a little while ago 
addressed a letter to British Army Officers, having in 
mind the large number of Officers who serve from time 
to time in non-Christian countries, such as Africa, 
India, and Egypt. The letter said, among other 
things : 

"You will almost certainly come into contact with 
the representatives of various Christian Missionary 
Societies, whose special work it is to show to non- 
Christian peoples the love of the Christ whom you 
profess to serve. We commend these missionaries to 
you as a body of men and women who are working 


helpfully with the Government, and contributing to 
the elevation of the people in a way impossible to official 

"Some object to Christian Missions in ignorance of 
their real value. We would suggest that you will use 
all opportunities of making yourself personally ac- 
quainted with the work they are doing, and the charac- 
ter of the converts. Most missions will bear looking 
into, and we are convinced that, if you do this, you will 
never afterwards condemn or belittle them." 


Extract Minute of General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church in India at Allahabad, December, 1913, 
in reference to ** Indians in U.S.A. and Canada." 

It was resolved : "That the Assembly send the fol- 
lowing message to the Churches of the U.S.A. and of 
Canada : 

"The Assembly has heard with great concern of the 
great number of people of India, largely from the 
Punjab, who have gone to the United States of America 
and to Canada. Our concern is lest they come under 
influences which will harden their hearts against the 
message of Christ and cause them to return to India 
embittered in spirit and estranged from the Church of 
Christ. In their behalf we are impelled to ask you, 
our Christian brethren, not to forget to put out a help- 
ing hand to these strangers among you. They will 



respond to your sympathy and appreciate your efforts 
in their behalf. It is not for us to tell you in what 
way you may help these strangers, countrymen of ours. 
We write to assure you that any help you give them will 
be a help to the Church of Christ in India. 

"It has been suggested that we send missionaries 
from India who know the language and ways of these 
people to work among them. We are inclined to think 
that more can be accomplished by agencies carried on 
under the sympathetic guidance of Pastors and Sessions 
of the local Churches where these strangers live. 

"We ask that your Boards of Home and Foreign 
Missions bring to the attention of your Presbyteries, 
Sessions, and Pastors, the great opportunity thas offered 
them of uniting with us in winning the people of India 
to love and worship and serve the Lord Jesus. The 
blessing of many ready to perish will come upon them ; 
and, better than this, the blessing of our Lord and Mas- 
ter, who in the days of His flesh dwelt in Asia, will be 
theirs when at last He says, ' I was a stranger and ye 
took me in.' 

"The Assembly resolved that the above message be 
signed on behalf of the Assembly by the Moderator 
and Stated Clerk, and that copies be forwarded by the 
Clerk to the Secretaries of Home and Foreign Mission 
Boards in the United States of America and Canada, 
with the request that they suggest to the Presbyteries 
and Sessions the means by which these strangers may 
be reached and brought to worship Christ as their Lord 
and Saviour." 



The following volumes, the separate price of which is given 
below, may be purchased for $5.00, carriage extra, from the Foreign 
Mission Board of our Church. In these volumes the Social, Politi- 
cal, Industrial, and Religious conditions all find expert treatment : 


Retail Price, $1.00 net. 

The Empire of Christ BERNARD LUCAS 

Retail Price, 80c. 

The Christian Conquest of India JAMES M. THOBURN 

Retail Price, 60c. 

India's Problem Krishna or Christ JOHN P. JONES 

Retail Price, $1.50. 


Retail Price, $1.50. 

Mosaics from India MARGARET B. DENNING 

Retail Price, $1.25. 

India and Christian Opportunity HARLAN P. BEACH 

Retail Price, 50c. 

Wrongs of Indian Womanhood MRS. MARCUS B. FULLER 

Retail Price, $1.25. 
(This set weighs 11 Ibs.) 


1. The Indian Empire SIR WILLIAM HUNTER 

Triibner's Oriental Series, 21 shillings. 

2. Rise of British Dominion in India SIR ALFRED LYALL 

(John Murray, London). Price, 4/6. 

3. The Citizen of India SIR WILLIAM LEE-WARNER 

(MacMillan Co.) Price, 40c. 

4. Short History of India J. TALBOYS WHEELER 

(MacMillan Co.) Price, $3.50. 

5. The Expansion of England J. R. SEELEY 

(Little, Brown, Boston). Price, $1.75. 



1. Medical Missions, Their Place and Power JOHN LOWE 

(F. H. Revell Co.) $1.50. 

2. The Medical Mission, Its Place, Power and Appeal 


(Westminster Press.) lOc. 


1. Pandita Ramabai HELEN S. DYER 

(F. H. Revell Co.) $1.25. 

2. Our Sisters in India E. STORROW 

(F. H. Revell Co.) $1.25. 

3. The High Caste Hindu Woman PANDITA RAMABAI 

(F. H. REVELL Co.) 75c. 


1. Modern Religious Movements in India. . J. N. FARQUHAR, M.A. 

(New York, MacMiUan Co.) 10/6. 

2. The Crown of Hinduism J. N. FARQUHAR, M.A. 

(Oxford Press.) 7/6. 

3. The Great Religions of India. .J.MURRAY MrrcHELL,M.A.,LL.D. 

(Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier.) 5s. 

4. Hinduism and Christianity JOHN ROBSON, D.D. 

(Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier.) 3/6.- 

5. The Renaissance in India C. F. ANDREWS, M.A. 

(London S.V.M. Union.) 2/6. 

6. The Redemption of Malwa W. A. WILSON, D.D. 

(Presbyterian F. M. Board, Toronto.) 15 cents. 

7. Village Work in India N. H. RUSSELL 

(Revell Co.) 3/6. 

8. The Bishop's Conversion ELLEN BLACKMAR MAXWELL 

(Eaton and Mains ; Jennings and Graham.) $1.50. 

9. A Vision of India SIDNEY Low 

(Smith, Elder & Co.) Is. 

10. Among India's Rajahs and Ryots SIR A. FRASER 

(Presbyterian Foreign Mission Board, Toronto.) $1.50. 



ABORIGINAL TRIBES (See Bheels) 10, 49, 63 

AMERICAN MISSION, Pres. Church N 60, 164 

ANDREWS, REV. C. P.. 122 


ARYANS. , 49 , 50/51 

BAPTISM 7 , 73( 161 


BEATTY, DR. ELIZABETH. . . . 74, 76 

BHEELS . . 41, 43, 49, in, 121 

BLIND Work for. . 63, 126 

BRAHM 29, 30 

BRAHMANS 30, 31, 168 

BUCHANAN, REV. DR. 77, 94, 113, 132 

BUDDHISM , 6, 53 

BUILDER, REV. J . . / 113 

CAMPBELL, REV. J. FRASER, D.D 58, 60, 71, 90, 113, 129, 145 

CAMPBELL, MRS. DR. (Miss Forrester 62, in 

CAMPBELL, Miss in 

CASTE 6, 16, 50, 112, 164, 165 

CHAPLAINS 10, 61, 144 

CHRISTIANS Protestant, 5 ; Number of, Indian 151 ff 

CHRISTIANITY Its Intolerance, 6 ; Its Weakness, 5 ; Its Motive, 12 
CHURCH Primitive, 13 ; Syrian, 4 ; Roman, 4 ; Indian, 9, 38, 
63, 135 ; Statistics, 138 ; Influence of, 139 ; Development, 
141, 145 ; Missionary Activities of, 150 ; Relation to 
Foreign Mission, 142, 151, 179 ; Union Movements in, 145 ff, 
Federation, 147; Typified in Banyan Tree, 150; Problems of, 

154 ; Revivals, 156 ; Appeal of 197 


COLLEGE Indore Christian 81 ff, 171 



220 INDEX 




DOUGLAS, REV. J. M 60, 65 

DREW, REV. E. J x 145 

DUNCAN, Miss J 124 


DHAR, 42 ; Opening of, 94 ; Leper Asylum at, 132 

DUFF, DR 12, 59 


EDDY, G. S. 167 


EDUCATION, (See Mission Methods) 21 


EUROPEANS Influence of 9, 155 


FAMINE ! 63, 88, 101 


FRASER, SIR A 36, 193 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY Pres. Church in India 120, 179 


GOVERNMENT BRITISH Religious Toleration, 66 ; Neutrality, 
8 ; Treatment of Aboriginal Tribes, in ; Aid to Medical 
Work, 131 ; Relation to National Movement, 1 73 ; Keeping 

the Peace, 6, 1 1 ; Relation to Native States 44 ff 

GWALIOR 44, 48 

HARRIS, Mis> 84 




HINDU Problem in Canada 172 ff 

INDEX 221 


HINDUISM Opposed to Christianity, 6 ; Defined, 29 ; Character 
of, 6, 31 ; Relation to Aboriginal Tribes, 10, 50, 113 ; Rela- 
tion to Mohammedanism, 6, 53 ; Religious Ideas of 26 





IDOLATRY Its Character, 24, 188 ; Its Stronghold ; The Women 

22, 74 


INDIA AND THE EMPIRE (See also "War") 3, 47 


INDIAN CHARACTER 17, 20, 23, 25 



INDORE 46, 48, 60 ff, 74, 80 ff, 109, 124 



JAMIESON, Miss 126 


JOHORY, MRS 88, in 

JOHNS, Miss 58 


KARMA 26, 53 




KRISHNA 7t 3 1 


KING, REV. PRIN.. 124 




222 INDEX 



LEPERS 63, 85, 132 

LIFE Hindu Belief in Sacredness of 53 

LUDHIANA Medical College 131 


MAcKAY, MRS. (Miss Sinclair) 84 


McKiLViE, REV. GEO 144 


MALWA 37, 41, 64 ; Famine in 101 

MANGS 52, 87 ff 

MARATHAS 43, 73 


MASS MOVEMENTS 10, 85 ff ; Defined, 161 ; Effects of. ... 167 ff 

McCHEYNE, R. M 13 

MCGREGOR, Miss 61, 126 

McKELLAR, DR. M 75, 129 

MCDONALD, D. E 1 16 

McPHEDRAN, DR. A. G 127 

MELAS 63, 149 

MENZIES, GEO., M.D , 56 



MHOW 80, 107, 144 


MURRAY, REV. and MRS 93, 1 13 

MISSIONS Comity of, 184 ; Cost of 186, 195 

Methods of (i) Evangelistic 67, 71, 114, 188 

(2) Educational 78, 169 

Normal Training 63, 126 

Higher Education 121, 169 

Women's (see under " Women's Work ") 

Theological Training 117 

(3) Industrial 63, 88, 105, 169 

(4) Medical Men's 77, 127 

Consumptives 132 

Women's (see under "Women's Work ") 

INDEX 223 


MISSIONS Testimony to 192 

MOHAMMEDANISM 6, 22, 32, 42, 53, 73 

MOTT, DR. J. R 100, 136 

MOULE, DR 189 



NATIVE STATES Defined, 45 ; Administration of, 46 ; Num- 
bers, 44 ; Area, 45 ; Residence in, 89 ; Difficulties Peculiar 

to Work in 64 

NEEMUCH , 80, 86, 144 

NOAH, C. V , 107 



ORPHANS 101, 104 

OUTCASTES 10, 162 ff, 194 








PRAYER 12 ; Answered, 167 ; Need of 187 

PREACHING Methods 22 

PRESS 63, 65, 109 


PTOLEMY, Miss 126 



ROBERTSON, Miss L 124 

RODGER, Miss 59, 84 

RUTLAM Opening of, 90 ; English Services at 145 


224 INDEX 


RUSSELL, REV. F. H 95, 97, 1 13 





SINCLAIR, Miss ". 127 

SMITH, REV. H. H 1 16 

SMILLIE, Miss E 124 

SOCIAL SERVICE Among Hindus 168 





THEOLOGICAL TRAINING (See Mission Methods), Co-operation 

in 146 



UJJAIN 42, 77, 80, 83, 86 ; Opening of, 93 ; Leper Asylum at. . 132 





WAR Effect on India, 3,174 ; Relation to Mission Work, 184, 

196 ; Lessons of, 185 



WHITE, Miss in, 126 

WILSON, REV. W. A., D.D 51,70, 119 ff 

WILKIE, REV. DR 62, 80 ff,i24 


INDEX 225 


WOMEN'S WORK : General 10, 57, 59 

Evangelistic (see also Mission Methods) 72 

Medical , 11, 74, 95, 97, 128 ff 

Educational, 82, 95, 172 ; Primary Schools, 124 

Industrial 88, 106, in 

Need of 22 

WORSHIP Of Fire, 51 ; of Images, 6, 51 ; of Saints, 6, 53 ; of 
Demons 24, 52