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18 8 9. 

F»art I. 







Navy Department, 

November 30, 1889. 
To the President: 

The effective force of the United States Navy, when all the ships 
now authorized are completed, exclading those which by the process 
of decay and the operation of law will by that date have been con- 
demned, will comprise 11 armored vessels, of which only three are 
battleships, and 31 unarmored vessels, making a total of 42. 

The following statement shows the number of war vessels on the 
effective list of the principal foreign powers, built, building, or pro- 
iected, at the present time, and exclusive of sailing and practice ships : 







Spain' * 




Sweden and Norway 






































The table shows that even when the present building program is 
completed, the United States can not take rank as a naval power. 

The purpose for which the United States maintains a navy is not 
conquest, but defense. For reasons of economy and public policy, the 
force should be as small as is consistent with this object. But it ap- 
pears from the above comparison, that with all the additions authorized 
by the legislation of the last seven years, the country, as far as its 
capacity for defense is concerned, will be absolutely at the mercy of 
states having less than one-tenth of its population, one-thirtieth of its 
wealth, and one-hundredth of its area. While the element of defen- 
sive strength is thus clearly deficient, the vulnerable points open to an 


enemy's attack, and the interests liable at all times to injury, are nu- 
merous and important. A coast line of 13,000 miles upon which are 
situated mure than twenty great centers of population, wealth, and 
commercial activity, wholly unprotected against modern weapons, 
nfifords an inviting object of attack, with a wide range of choice as to 
the points to be selected. Any one of the powers named could, with- 
out serious difficulty, even after the completion of our fleet as now 
authorized, secure in a single raid upon our coast, an amount of money 
sufficient to meet the expenses of a naval war; an amount, one-half of 
which, if judiciously expended over a series of years, would be suf- 
ficient to afford this country a guaranty of perpetual peace. 

The defense of the United States absolutely requires the creation of 
a fighting force. So far the increase has been mainly in the direction of 
uuarmored cruisers. These vessels, while useful in deterring commer- 
cial states from aggression and as an auxiliary to secure celerity and 
efficiency in larger operations, do not constitute a fighting force, even 
when it is intended exclusively for defense. To meet the attack of iron- 
clads, ironclads are indispensable. To carry on even a defensive war 
with any hope of success we must have armored battleships. The capt- 
ure or destruction of two or three dozen or two or three score of mer- 
chant vessels is not going to prevent a fleet of ironclads from shelling 
our cities or exacting as the price of exemption a contribution that would 
pay for their lost merchantmen ten times over. We must do more than 
this. We must have the force to raise blockades, which are almost as 
disastrous to commercial cities as bombardment. We must have a fleet 
of battle-ships that will beat off the enemy's fleet on its approach, for it 
is not to be tolerated that the United States, with its population, its 
revenue, and its trade, is to submit to attack upon the threshold of its 
harbors. Finally, we must be able to divert an pnemy's force from our 
coast by threatening his own, for a war, though defensive in principle, 
may be conducted most effectively by being offensive in its operations. 
If the country is to have a navy at all, it should have one that is suf- 
ficient for the complete and ample protection of its coast in time of war. 
If we are to stop short of this, we might better stop where we are, and 
abandon all claim to influence and control upon the sea. It is idle to 
spend our money iu building small, slow-going steamers, that are un- 
necessary in peace and useless for war. It is little better than a repe- 
tition of the mistaken policy that prevailed in our early history, of build- 
ing gunboats that were laid up or sold as soon as war broke out. The 
country needs a navy that will exempt it from war, but the only navy 
that will accomplish this is a navy that can wage war. 

The policy of military aggrandizement is totally repugnant to Ameri- 
can institutions, and is not likely ever to be entered upon. The present 
question has nothing to do with such a policy. It is a practical business 
question of insuring our property and our trade, in which the commer- 
cial cities of the coast, the ports on our lake frontier, and the centers of 
production in the interior are alike interested. The naval force before 


the war, when the population numbered thirty millions, included ninety 
vessels of all classes. Before the completion of the present program, 
which will give a total of less than half that number, the population 
will have more than doubled, and the wealth on our coast subject to 
injury or destruction will have increased tenfold. The annual increase 
of wealth in this country is estimated to equal that of England, France, 
and Germany, and before it can create an effective navy its population 
is certain to exceed that of any two of these powers combined. Such 
a nation can not be indifierent to events taking place in close proximity 
to its own coasts, threatening the freedom of its commerce and the 
security of its sea-port cities. The questions that have arisen and that 
will continue to arise in the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific concern the 
prosperity and development of the United States too closely to be fur- 
ther ignored, and our interests in these localities are too important to 
be left longer unprotected. 

The cost of building a navy casts no perceptible burdto upon a coun- 
try of our vast resources. It is the premium paid by the United States 
for the insurance of its acquired wealth and its growing industries. 
Compared with the Interests that are secured, the rate is low. It is a 
cheap price to pay for safety. We collect in duties in six months at a 
single port a greater sum than we could spend in building a new navy 
in six years. For the past two years the Government has paid its 
creditors for the privilege of discounting its debt before it was due twice 
the sum we have spent in reconstruction. And the fact must be re- 
membered that of the amount which we spend for the construction of 
a ship, only a small fraction, perhaps one-tenth, goes for absolutely 
raw material, while the remaining nine-tenths represents, in one form 
or another, the earnings of American labor. 

It is sometimes asserted that there need be no haste about building 
ships, upon the supposition that our reserve strength is sufficient to 
improvise a force in time of war. This is a fatal mistake. Kaval wars 
in the future will be shorthand sharp. It is morally certain that they 
will be fought out to the end with the force available at the beginning. 
The natron that is ready to strike the first blow will gain an advantage 
which its antagonist can never offset, and inflict an injury from which 
he can never recover. 

Under the n)ost favorable circumstances, with the largest experience 
and the best mechanical appliances, the construction of warships takes 
a long time. In the United States much has been learned in the last 
eight years, and facilities have been greatly enlarged, but much still 
remains t^ be done, and a longer time is required here than in the ship- 
yards of Europe. The design and construction of the innumerable 
and complex details of a modern war-ship can not be hurried. There is 
no branch of mechanical art in which haste leads more certainly to 
wastefulness and imi)erfection. The limited capacity of our establish- 
ments, public and private, is a further cause of delay. If Congress were 
ready today to authorize the construction of all the ships that we need 


it would be a mechanical impossibility for the country, with its present 
appliances, to furnish them within fifteen years ; while the first six 
months of hostilities would not only see our exposed cities forced to 
submit to heavy contributions, but every ship-yard in the country, pub- 
lic or private, destroyed, and thus the last hope extinguished of creat- 
ing a navy to meet the emergency of war. 


The new cruisers are eight in number, the Chicago^ Boston, Atlanta^ 
and Dolphin, contracted for in 1883, and the Baltimore^ Charleston, 
Yorktown, and Petrel^ contracted for in 1886 and 1887. 

In looking back at the work of naval reconstruction, begun seven 
years ago, the country has reason to be congratulated on the success 
of the undertaking. The building of the first four ships was an exper- 
iment in a field hitherto untried in this country, but they have fully 
sustained the high reputation of American mechanics. In 1882, when 
these cruisers were designed, the Department was wholly without ex- 
perience in the construction of modern war vessels. Nothing of the 
kind had been undertaken since 1874, and but little then. Boards and 
bureaus were without precise information as to progress abroad, and 
without the means of acquiring it. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, the results accomplished by the 
earliest cruisers compared favorably with those obtained by foreign 
ship-builders. In 1882 there were but eight war vessels iu existence of 
less than 5,000 tons which were capable of making 16 knots. Our three 
earliest cruisers developed a mean speed of between 15 and 16 knots — 
the Chicago, 15.335 the Atlanta^ 15.54, and the Boston, 15.58. The At- 
lantah highest average for one hour was 16 knots, and the Chicago^s 
16.35, while the Boston, in her best run over the measured mile, on 
September 21, 1889, made 16.33. These figures put an end, fully and 
finally, to all controversies over the speed of the vessels. The Boston 
and Atlanta have made cruises, and their performance at sea shows that 
they are thoroughly stanch and seaworthy vessels in all weathers, and 
although it is possible that the world may have contained, at the time 
they were designed, a ve'ry few swifter cruisers, their high efficiency 
can no longer be called in question. 

The record of the Dolphin, which vessel began with a speed of 15.11 
knots on her contract trial, and which has recently returned from a 
cruise around the world, is not less satisfactory. The results of the in- 
spection of the vessel, after she has been three years and nine months 
in commission, are reported by the Board of lnsi>ection, under date of 
October 2, 1889, as follows : 

The material used in the consfruction of tbis vessel, aud the workmanship, speak 
well for the desij^uers and the builders. Aside from the slight repairs to her bearings 
she is ready for another cruise. By the most liberal estimates the work in the con- 
struction department can be done inside of a month. This, the first of the new Navy, 
makes a splendid showing for structural strength, fine material, and good care. 

Her captain reports that she can average 14 knots an hour for any length of timoi 
and under favorable circumstances she can run 16 at sea. 


In the coarse of her craise the Dolphin has run 58,000 miles in 
twenty months^ and has been under steam 9,000 hoars. In this pro- 
longed ran she has been stopped for repairs but once, and then for only 
two hours. This performance is probably without a parallel in the his- 
tory of naval vessels, and bears conclusive testimony to the high skill 
of American artisans and the excellence of their work. Nor is it the 
less remarkable, in view of the confident predictions with which, at the 
outset of her career, the of&cial condemnation of the vessel was some- 
what prematurely pronounced by expert and by inexpert judges. 

It is therefore proved by the test of actual cruising that these first 
modern experiments of the Department have come close to the highest 
standard of speed which had been reached at the date of their design, 
and that in structural strength, endurance, and workmanship they are 
not inferior to anything now afloat. 

In view of these facts, the extraordinary statement, put forth in the 
Secretary's report for 1886 and never afterwards corrected, that a com- 
parison of these vessels with the Esmeralda and other foreign ships in- 
dicates '' a simple abandonment on the part of the Department of any 
attempt to reach the conditions which should have been attained," must 
be set down as a mere flight of political rhetoric, absolutely without 
warrant or justification. If the Department requires any vindication 
from such a charge, its complete vindication is to-be found in the ves- 
sels themselves. 

At the very time when the first cruisers were being designed the 
Department took steps to supply its want of experience by the sys- 
tematic acquisition of information as to naval progress abroad. The 
establishment of the Office of Kaval Intelligence and the assignment 
of naval attaches to duty in Europe, both of which measures date from 
1882, have been of incalculable assistance in the work of reconstruc- 
tion ; and it is proper to refer especially to the untiring arid successful 
efforts of Commander F. E. Chadwick, the first attach6 sent out, whose 
extraordinary ability and judgment during six years of diflicult service 
in England and on the Continent have had a lasting influence upon 
naval development in this country. The results subsequently obtained 
have shown the wisdom of the policy adopted at the outset. 

The importance of a knowledge of progress abroad was increased by 
the rapid strides which it made during this period. In 1882 the com- 
pound engine was the highest development of marine engineering in 
practice. The first successful example of the triple-expansion engine, 
that of the steam-ship Aberdeen^ was designed about this time. Little 
progress was made in its application until 1884, and not until 1885 did its 
use become general, even in the merchant service. In that year the keels 
were laid of the first ships of war provided with triple-expansion engines. 
These were the English belted cruisers of the Orlando class, in which the 
new type of engine was substituted at the last moment, after tenders 
had been invited and awards made for the old or compound type. 

Of this extraordinary development in ship and engine constmctioni 


by which, between 1882 and 1885, the art was almost revolationized, 
the attainment of high speed made practicable, and the standard ad- 
vanced FROM 16 TO 20 KNOTS, the Department was thus able to reap 
the full benefit. The measures which had been previously taken kept 
it fully informed of the progress of naval science in Europe, while the 
completion of the experimental cruisers of 1882 enabled our construct* 
ers to study the practical application of the problem as they had never 
studied it before. Of the new cruisers which were started about this 
time, the designs of two, the Baltimore and the Charleston^ came from 
abroad. They were provided with the latest foreign appliances, with 
the exception of the Charlestons whose engines, built from plans pur- 
chased in the latter part of 1885, were of the compound type. All the 
other vessels had triple-expansion engines. 

Of these cruisers four have undergone their official trial — the Balti- 
more^ Charleston, Yorktowrij and Petrel. 

The Baltimore^ of 4,400 tons, showed at her first trial 8,977.88 horse- 
power, 19.57 knots average speed for four hours, and 20.2 knots speed 
during the best hour of the four. The horse-power marking a slight 
deficiency (22.12) below the contract requirement, the contractor, at his 
own request, was given another trial. The Department is glad to re- 
port that this trial has proved a brilliant success, the horse-power being 
somewhat in excess of the contract requirement, the average speed 
for four hours being 20.1 , and the highest speed for one hour being 20.39. 
This result is unparalleled by any war ship of the Baifiwore'* displace- 
ment in the world. 

In all respect the Baltimore has proved thoroughly satisfactory. An 
undue vibration about the forecastle during the working of the engines 
has been remedied by heavier bracing, at inconsiderable cost. This 
temporary "structural weakness'' was not the fault of the contractor, 
but of the plan. Material improvements were made in the ship's 
engines during the progress of construction, and she appears to-day a 
sound, strong, and well-built vessel, creditable to her builders alike in 
honest material and honest workmanship, and creditable no less to the 
administration of the Department which adopted the design and carried 
it to successful comjiletion. 

The Charleston^ of 3,730 tpns, shows 6,66G.16 horse-power, 18.2 knots 
average speed for four hours, and 18.3 knots speed during the best hour 
of the four. The Japanese Naniica, of 3,730 tons, built in England 
from the same designs, has made 7,650 horse-power and 18.0 knots 
average speed. 

The YorZrto^rn, of 1,700 tons, has developed 3,398.25 horse-power, 15.0 
knots average speed, and 16.4 knots speed during the best hour of the 
four. At her subsequent steam trial, September 21, 1889, the speed 
obtained was 16.7. The English Archer, of 1,770 tons, has mfide 3,982 
horse-power, and 17.2 knots. The Racoon, also English, of the same ton- 
nage, shows 4,582 horse-power, and 17.6 knots. Both are the average 
results of a four-hours' trial. 


The Petrel^ oi 870 tons displacement, has developed a mean speed of 
11.55 knots, and a maximum speed for one honr of 12.85 knots. The 
English Magpie, of 805 tons, at her four-hours' trial in May last, showed 
a speed of 14.13 knots. 

In reference to the very low average made by the Petrel, as compared 
not only with the M<igpie but with the lower standard that prevailed in 
1882, it should be stated that the trial was managed, as all such trials 
are, by the contractor. It being for the contractor's interest to get the 
best results, it ifi reasonable to suppose that he will take care to have 
all the circumstances such that the vessel will make the best possible 
showing. The ignorance or inexperience of the contractors, however, 
in the case of the Petrel, was such that the trial can not be regarded as 
a fair indication of what the vessel can do. The coal used was of bad 
quality and the firemen were without experience. In the four hours' 
trial the ship began with a collective horse-power of 1,473 and a speed 
of 14 knots, which ran down before the trial was over to a horse-power 
of 640 and a speed of 9.6. These figures prove conclusively that the 
results were caused, not by poor engines, but by poor ei^gineering. 

There is one foreign cruiser, not exactly corresi)onding in size to any 
of the four recently completed, which has sur)>assed all the results that 
our vessels, or any other vessels, have been able to attain. This is the 
Italian cruiser Piemonte, built by the Elswick Works in England, and 
recently completed and placed in commission. In size the Piemonte is 
intermediate between the Yorlctown and Charleston, having a displace- 
ment of 2,500 tons. She has a protective steel deck and an armament 
of quick-firing guns. In a trial on May 14, 1889, she developed 13,000 
horse-power and a speed, for an hour and a half, of 22 knots per hour. 
Her two runs over the measured mile showed an average speed of 22.3 
knots. She is undoubtedly the fastest cruiser now afloat, as the Esmer- 
alda was five years ago; and she bears to the new United States cruis- 
ers about the same relation in comx)arative speed that the Esmeralda 
did to the first three cruisers. 

In reference to the speed results of the Charleston, TorJctown^ and 
Petrel, it appears that among contemporary vessels of the same class 
abroad, some few may be found, as was the case with the cruisers of 
1882, whose recorded trial shows a figure slightly in excess. Upon this 
point, it must be stated that, while the Department and the country 
should never be fully satisfied unless their new vessels actually equal 
the best results obtained elsewhere, the public must not be misled by 
the figures of the foreign trials. The contract trials in Europe are 
carried on by ship-builders of great experience, who understand much 
more fully than those in this country the way to get the highest attaiu. 
able results out of the ship for a short time. Every detail is attended 
to that can contribute to this result, and the forcing of the engine is 
sometimes carried so far that, after it has shown its capabilities in the 
contractor's trial, and been accepted on the strength of that trial, it is 
found by its owners, when put to everyday use, to have become a 


damaged article. From this misfortune we have so far been exempt, 
and we have good reason to be satisfied that it is so, even if oar speed 
results are thereby rendered less sensational. 

It is notorious that the fast war steamers abrop.d, of whose wonder- 
ful performances on contract trials we hear so much, rarely or never 
equal these results when put into actual service, and not infrequently 
commanding ofiOicers, have been instructed not to attempt to obtain 
contractor's results for fear of further injury to the machinery. Thus 
the Naniiva is reported to have made 18.9 knots at the contractor's 
trial, while the TaJcachihOy her sister ship, made only 17.88 on being 
tried by her Japanese purchasers. It is a noteworthy fact that most 
of our new vessels, namely, the Baltimore^ Chicago^ Boston^ Dolphin^ 
and Yorktoicn^ have, at later trials, or in later service, beaten their own 
record on the contract trial; and it is equally a fact that the usual ex- 
perience with European vessels is just the other way. 

The net results of the Department's operations for the last seven 
years are more than satisfactory. The assaults made, with more au- 
dacity than judgment, upon the four experimental cruisers of 1882 have 
been met successfully by the performance of the vessels, and all doubts 
of their efficiency, if such doubts ever really existed, are laid at rest 
forever ; while the four cruisers of 1886, assuming that the Petrel will 
eventually come up to the mark, in their advance over their predeces- 
sors, prove that both designers and constructors have kept themselves 
abreast of the extraordinary development in ship-building since the 
earlier cruisers were laid down, and have taken full advantage of the 
information and experience which they were enabled to acquire through 
the measures adopted at that time by the Navy Department. 


To stop now in the work of reconstruction, is to abandon everything 
we have gained. We have proved that at a time when war-ship con- 
struction had seemed almost a lost art in this country, American me- 
chanics could create it anew and place the United States where it was 
seventy years ago, when the vessels of its Navy were the best of their 
class afloat. We have fostered and developed a branch of industry in 
America which may, if kept up, attract to itself no inconsiderable share 
of the profits that now go to ship-builders abroad. We have secured 
for our Navy a certain number of excellent and useful vessels of the 
unprotected cruiser type, at a fair and reasonable cost. We have thus 
laid a solid foundation. But we must not for a moment deceive our- 
selves by supposing that we have an effective Navy. We have two 
distinct and widely separated ocean frontiers to protect, and there is 
only one way in which they can be protected, namely, by two separate 
fleets of armored battle ships, with coast-defense ships suitably dis- 
tributed to cover the most exposed localities. 

Of the great cities on the Atlantic, and of the long stretch of unpro- 
tected coast on the Gulf, from Key West to the Kio Grande, which is 


faced by the territorial possessions of a multitude of foreign states, it 
is hardly necessary to speak at length. On the Pacific coast there are 
large and growing interests of vital importance, not only to that imme- 
diate neighborhood but to the whole country, throughout its length and 
breadth. Among the enterprising and rapidly growing citie? which 
form the bulwarks of our commercial prosperity in that quarter, there 
are some, like Tacoma and Seattle, which it is physically impossible to 
protect by any land fortifications. To abandon these cities, defensible 
only by the ^avy, to the possible ^attacks of an enemy, and to subject 
to needless risk this coast and the vast region which it borders, a region 
second in importance to no other part of the United States, is to be 
guilty of an almost criminal negligence. 

The necessities of our vulnerable position therefore demand the im- 
mediate creation of two fleets of battle-ships, of which eight should be 
assigned to the Pacific and twelve to the Atlantic and Gulf. They 
must be> the best of their class in four leading characteristics: arma- 
ment, armor, structural strength, and speed. The last is nearly as 
essential to the battle-ship as it is to the cruiser. It may safely be as- 
sumed that, other things being equal, the battle-ship of the highest 
speed will as a rule be the victor in action, for she can choose her posi- 
tion and keep the enemy at a disadvantage. Not only must the speed 
'of our battle-ships be high, but it must be uniformly high, for the speed 
of the fleet is regulated by that of the slowest vessel. 

In addition to the battle-ships, the situation of the country requires 
at least twenty vessels for coast and harbor defense. These vessels, al- 
thougl) restricted in their range of effectiveness, are necessary compo- 
nents of a naval force which has a sea-coast to defend. Their employ- 
ment as floating fortresses requires that they should have a powerful 
battery and the heaviest of armor, combined with moderate draft. At 
the prci^ent time eight vessels of this type are under construction, five 
of which are reconstructed monitors. 

Tlie one problem now before the Government, in the matter of a naval 
policy, is to get these forty vessels built at the earliest possible moment. 
The steps necessary to their completion, namely, legislation, design, and 
construction, can not take less than five years in the case of each one. 
Unless the existing yards, public and private, are enlarged and re- 
stocked with plant, not more than eight could be built at one time, and 
the construction of the others would have to wait for the launching of 
the first. Uifing the utmost promptness, the ships most essential to ef&- 
cient protection could not be supplied in less than twelve or fifteen years. 

It is therefore recommended that the construction of eight armored 
vessels be authorized at the coming session, and that they be of the type 
of battle-shipa rather than coast-defense ships; the former being more 
generally serviceable, and there being only three of them now in pro- 
cess of construction as against eight of the latter. 

In reference to fast cruisers, all modern experience goes to show that 
they are essential adjuncts of an armored fleet, and the proportion of 


three cruisers to one battle-ship is believed to be sound and reasonable. 
. This would make the future navy consist of 20 battle-ships, 20 coast- 
defense ships, and 60 cruisers, or 100 vessels in all, which is believed to 
be a moderate estimate of the proper strength of the fleet. Of the 60 
cruisers required, 31 are now built or authorized. For an increase in 
the number of cruisers, considered simply as auxiliaries to the fighting 
force of battle-ships, we may wisely wait until the latter are in process 
. of construction. 

It must be remembered, however, that cruisers have another and 
equally important function in the attack and defense of commerce. 
Any stanch vessel wilh a good coal papacity and the highest rate of 
speed, armed with a few rapid-firing guns, though built and used prin- 
cipally for commercial purposes, may by certain adaptations in her 
construction be made readily available for this form of warfare. The 
fast transatlantic liners, nationalized in foreign countries, but supported 
and maintained by American trade and American passenger*— many of 
them, even, owned by American citizens — are a powerful factor in the 
naval force of the Governments whose flag they bear and at whose dis- 
posal they must place themselves in time of war. 

It is a matter for serious consideration whether steps may not be 
taken towards the creation of such a fleet of specially adapted steamers 
of American construction, owned by American merchants, carrying the 
American flag, and capable, under well-defined conditions, of \ emporary 
incorporation in the American Navy. The advantages of such an ar- 
rangement, which enlarges the merchant marine and makes it at the 
same time self-protecting, are overwhelmingly great. The diflSculty is 
that American capital will not be drawn into the enterprise unless it 
can be sure of specific compensation for the concessions which it makes 
to the Government, first, in the adaptation of its vessels to the latter's 
needs, and secondly, in the surrender of a privilege to use them when 
the exigency arises. 

In the absence of such an arrangement the naval policy of the 
United States can not neglect to take account of the fleets of fast 
cruisers which foreign states maintain under the guise of passenger and 
merchant steamers. They constitute an auxiliary navy, and must be 
reckoned as a part of the naval force of the governments maintaining 
them. It is difficult to imagine a more effective commerce destroyer 
than the steam-ship City of Paris ^ armed with a battery of rapid-firing 
guns. She can steam over 21 knots an hour, and can average 19.9 
knots from land to land across the Atlantic. No manof-war could 
overtake her; no merchantman could escape her. A fleet of such 
cruisers would sweep an enemy's commerce from the ocean. This fact 
is well understood in Europe, and states that are unprovided with a 
convertible merchant fleet are preparing to meet the possible emergency 
by partly-protected cruisers that are substantially as fast as the City 
of Paris. Of this type the Piemonte is the latest development, and 
others equally fast are now building. 



Oar deficieDcy should be supplied either by a line of fast merchant- 
men, constructed with special reference to use in time of war, which 
will enable the Governmeiit to avail itself of their services at critical 
moments, or we should build a fleet of at least five first-class cruisers 
of the very highest rate of speed, certainly not less than 22 knots. 
The displacement of these vessels shduld not be less than 4,000 tons. 
Even such a fleet will not supply the want of swift merchant-steamers for 
coaling and transport service. Colliers and transports must alike be 
fast, for they can not fight; and the collier can take no chances of cap- 
ture, for she carries the life of the fleet. 

In determining the size of the smaller type of cruisers, one point is 
settled: All steel cruisers mast be large enoagh to admit of a double 
bottom. A vessel like the Yorktown^ which has but three-eighths of an 
inch of steel on her bottom, could hardly escape sinking if she touched 
a rock, no matter how lightly. Such a ship mast not strike. She can 
not run any of the risks which the old-fashioned ships used to run every 
day with comparative safety, for a steel bottom will be penetrated 
where a wooden one woald be merely scarred. Besides the Yorlitown, 
we have the Concord^ the Benningtonj and the three 2,000-ton cruisers 
(Nos. 9, 10, and 11), which are marked by this defect. It is not well 
to add to the number. 

In reference to the gun -boat class, any large increase in it must be 
condemned. This class is now represented by the Petrel and the two 
1,000-ton vessels (gnn-boats Kos. 5 and 6). To make any considerable 
addition to it. is consuming the revenues of the Government without 
any proportionate benefit. It is chasing the shadow and losing tlie 
substance. Such vessels add nothing to the real strength of a naval 
force. A craiser to be useful must be fast enough to overtake any mer- 
chantman and to escape from any more powerful ship of war. These 
vessels have neither the strength to fight nor the speed to run away. 
A limited number of 1,000-ton vessels can be utilized in certain special 
kinds of service on foreign stations, and for this particular x)urpose it 
is recommende<l that three such vessels be constructed. Any larger in- 
crease at the present time would be injudicious and wasteful. 

Apart from the want of battle-ships the most marked defect of the 
present fleet is in torpedo-boats. The number of these boats owned by 
fifteen foreign States is as follows : 







Austria. . 
Turkey. . 













Swo<len and Norway 









The United States has one such boat under construction. This branch 
of defense can not safely be nejflected any longer. It is high time that 
steps should be taken to supply these essential constituents of a naval 
force. ^ therefore recommend that the construction of at least five tor- 
pedo-boats of the first and second classes, in suitable proportions, be 
authorized, as a beginning, at the coming session of Congress. 








"Where bnilt or 




Date of act an- 
tborizing build- 


Texan. ■••..«.*.. t 

Navy.yard, Nor- 
folk, Va. 

Navy-yard. Brook- 
lyn. N. Y. 





$2, 500, 000 
3. 500, 000 

Aug. 3, 1886.. 

.... do a........ 

Cointncnced : keol 

Ifalne ^...... 

partly laid. 
One-fourth com- 

Armored omiser 

Sept. 7, 1888... 

Being designed. 

No. 2. 











Steel oruiaing 

Bam tor harbor 


R o a c h'a Yard, 
Chester, Pa., 
and Brooklyn 

Harlan and Hol- 
Del., and Nor- 
folk navy-yard. 

Navy-yard, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Roach's Yard, 
Chester. Pa.,and 
Brooklyn navy- 

Cramp's, Phila- 
delphia, and 
Brooklyn navy- 

Union Iron Works, 
San Francisco, 







3, 815 






Har. 8. 1883; 

Mar. 3, 1885; 

Aug. 3, 1880; 

ifar. 3, 1887. 
— do ..... 







Half finished. 


Two-fifths com 

1,628,950 Mar. 3, 1887 ... 

1. 500, 000 

Mar. 2, 1880 

Half finished. 


Under oontrftct of 
Juno 14, IHSd. 

Koady for ad- 
vertising in two 

Phins not com- 

* Statutory limit or oontiact prices 

1 1ndicated. 

I About 



^ ^toposals havlDg been invited January 28, 1889, for the machinery 
e TexaSy now in course of construction at the Norfolk navy-yard, 
rv ' were received in due course and opened May 1, as follows-: 

- \ Morris Company, Philadelphia, Pa. (machinery to be constructed ac- 
Dg to Department's plans and specifications, with certain modifica- 

^ ons thereof and changes therein, as proposed by the bidder) $694, 750 

3fco Richmond Locomotive and Machine Works, Richmond, Ya., (machinery 

%o be constructed according to Department's plans and specifications) 634, 500 

« F. Palmer, jr., &. Co., New York, N. Y. (machinery to be constructed ac- 
cording to Department's plans and specifications) 682, 500 

^mthwark Foundry and Machine Company, Philadelphia, Pa. (machinery 
^ to be constructed according to the Department's plans and specifications) 645, 800 
Salaries Reeder & Sons, Baltimore, Md., (machinery to be constructed ac- 
cording to Department's plane and specifications) 718, 900 

The bid of the Richmond Locomotive and Machine Works, of Rich- 
lond, Va., for $634,500, was accepted, and a contract was entered into 
the Department with this company on May 30. The contract pro- 
^des that the machinery, which is to be constructed in accordance 
^^ith the plans and specifications furnished by the Department, shall be 
Oompleted and set up at the works ot the contractor within two years 
and six months from the date of the contract, and be erected and con- 
^nected on board the vessel and ready for delivery within one year there- 

Under the advertisement of the Department of November 20, 1888, 
inviting proposals for the construction of machinery of the armored 
cruiser Maine, now building at the New York navy-yard, only one bid 
w^ received, that of N. F. Palmer, jr., & Co., of New York, for 
$735,000. This proposal was accepted, and the contract was exe- 
cuted April 3, 1889, for the construction of machinery in accordance 
with the plans and specifications prepared by the Department. The 
time allowed for completion is the same as in the case of the machinery 
of the Texas. 

Under the act approved August 3, 1886, authorizing the completion 
of the double-turreted monitors Puritan^ Amphitritej MonadnocJc, and 
Terror, proposals have been received and contracts made during the 
year for the materials required to complete the MonadnocJc and Terror^ 
and proposals have been received and contracts awarded for materials 
required to complete the Amphitrite. Plans for the proposed change 
of the Puritan having been approved by the Bureau of Construction, 
they were submitted to examination by the board of bureau chiefs, and 
after receiving a favorable report were approved by the Department, 
and the work was ordered on June 26, 1889. By these changes the 
armament and armor protection are greatly increased, and the quarters 
for the officers and crew are improved. A similar change was ordered 
August 30 in the Amphitrite. The details of these changes will be found 
in the report of the Chief Constructor. 

The act of Congress approved March 3, 1887, appropriated towards 


the construction of ^^ floating batteries or rains or ofher naval stractares 
to be used for coast and liarbor defenses," $1,000,000, and provided that 
the final cost of ^^ said floating batteries, rams, or other naval structures, 
exclusive of armament, should not exceed $2,000,000." As stated in the 
annual report of the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance for 1888, an adver- 
tisement was issued inviting the submission of proposals, on the 4th of 
January, 1889, for the construction of a submarine boat under the au- 
thority conferred by the act. On February 15, to which date the time 
was subsequently extended, bids for the construction of the boat were 

It had also been decided, as stated in the last annual report of the 
Department, under the authority conferred by the above-mentioned 
act, "to build one light-draft, heavily-armored, harbor-defense floating 
battery or ram." Designs having been prepared by the Bureaus of 
Construction and of Steam Engineering after consultation with the 
Bureau of Ordnance, advertisements were issued inviting bids 
submitted February 15, 1889, which time was subsequently extended 
to April 3. On that date the following proposals were received ; 

Tho William Cramp & Sods Ship and Engine-Building Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. (hilU and machinery to be constructed according to plans 
and specifications provided by the Secretary of the Navy, with certain 
modilicatiuns thereof and changes therein, as provided by the bidder).. $1,614,000 

N. F. Palmer, Jr., & Co., New York, N. Y. (hull and machinery to be con- 
structed according to the Department's plans and specifications) 1, 690, 000 

The Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Cal. (hull and machinery to be con- 
structed according to the Department's plans and specifications) 1,628,950 

On the 4th of April tbe Department appointed a Board, consisting of 
the Chiefs of the Bureaus of Ordnance, Equipment, Construction, and 
Steam-Engineering, to report as to the cost of the vessel, including the 
armament and equipment, in case of the acceptance of one of the pro- 
posals made, and whether within the limitation fixed by the' act, namely, 
$2,000,000, the vessel could be built, and also the submarine torpedo- 
boat before referred to. The Board was further directed to report " a« 
to which of said companies is the lowest bidder,'' and to furnish the 
Department " with such recommendation as the Board may deem proper 
to make in the matter." 

The Board, after careful consideration of the subject, reported that 
the two vessels could not be built within the limitation of $2,000,000, 
and recommended that all the proposals for the submarine torpedo- 
boat should be rejected; and that the proposal of the Union Iron 
Works for the construction of the armored coast-defense vessel, being 
the lowest that conformed to the requirements of the Department's ad- 
vertisement, plans, and specifications, should be accepted. 

In accordance with this report, the Department. April 23, 1889, re- 
jected all the proposals for the torpedo-boat, and on June 14 entered 
into a contract with the Union Iron Works for the construction of the 
armored coast-defense vessel, at a cost of $1,028,950. The contract 


provides that the United States shall furnish the necessary armor, ar- 
mor bolts, and their accessories, trim the armor-plates to size within 
reasonable manufactnring limits, and drill and tap all necessary holes 
therein, and deliver the armor, etc., at the ship-yard of the Union Iron 
Works, who shall fit, fix, place, and secure the armor to the vessel, and 
famish all other materials and labor required. The vessel is to be com- 
pleted in three years from the date of the contract. 

The plans for the three remaining armored vessels authorized by law 
are not yet completed. It is estimated that those of the armored 
cruiser of 7,500 tons will be ready in three months. The plans for the 
steel cruising monitor will be ready in two months, and the plans for 
the harbor-defense ram are not yet begun. 

The Bureau of Construction recommends, with reference to the single- 
tarreted monitors, that some action be taken looking to the reclaiming 
of these vessels from " their present worse than useless condition." In 
view of the fact that the amount necessary for this purpose will reach 
about $-100,000, and that the vessels, with their present ineffective guns, 
will be no material addition to tbe force of the Navy, the Department 
can not concur in this recommendation. The only use to which these 
vessels can be advantageously put is to assign them to service as prac- 
tice ships for the naval reserve in those States which have created such 
a branch of tbe militia, should they be desired for the ])urpose. 








Newark ... 

San Francisco 

Yorktown . . 
Concord .... 



No. 6 
No. 7 

No. 8 

No. 9 

No. 10 
No. 11 

No.5 , 


Steel practice ves- 
Torpedo boat No. 1 



Where built or Imilding. 

Boston do 




Dy namite-gun 
boat Na 2. 







Dyna mite 
Gun-boat . . . 















Hoach's yard, Cheater, Pa . . 


Cramp's yard, Philadelphia, 

Union Iron Works, San Fran- 
cisco., Cal. 

Cramp's Yard, Philadelphia, 


Union Iron Works, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Cramp's Yard, Philadelphia, 

Delaware Kivor Iron Works, 
Chester, Pa. 


1867 Cramp's Yard, PhUadelphia, 

1887 Culunibian Iron Works and 
Dry Dock Company, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Navy-y^rd, Brooklyn. 

Navy-yanl, Norfolk, Va. 

Columbian Iron Works and 
Dry Dock Company, Balti- 
more, Md. 


Uarrison Loring, Boston 


Uerrcshoff's yard, Bristol, 



























to, 066 







tl, 100 


















1. 100, 000 

1, 100. 000 






* Statutory limit or contract price. 

t Indicated 






Date of act 






CoDtract ex- 


Chicago I Aug. 5,1882,' July 26,1883 

'Mar. 3,1883 1 
BoetOQ I July 23,1883 



Dolphin • — do 

Jnly 23, 1863 
July 23, 1883 

Oct. 27,1887 

Newark Mar. 3,1885, 

I Mar. 3,1887 
Charleston , Mar. 3. 1886 ; Dec. 28,188C 

Baltimore Aug. 3, 1886 , Deo. 17, 1880 

Philadelphia i Mar. 3, 1887 i Oct 27,1887 

San Francisco Oct 26,1887 


In commission. 


24 ! Two-thirds completed; nearly ready 
for laonohing. 
Prejwring fur commission. 


Preparing for commission. 

24 Launched ; eight-tenths completed. 

24 ' Do. 


Yorktown Mur. 3,1885 Jan. 31, 1887 12 lu commission. 

Gincord Mar. 3, 1887 ' Xov. 15, 1887 18 Boilers In ; eight-tenths completed. 

Bi-nnington Mar. 3, 1887 Xuv. 15. 1887 ! 18 Boilers in ; eight-tenths completed 


ready for launching. 

Vesuvius Aug. 3, 1886 | Feb. 11, 1887 | 12 Reported ready for delivery. 

Petrel Mar. 3, 1885 Dec. 22, 1886 12 Pn;paring for comm isslon. 

Nu. (cruiser) Sept 7,1888 

Ka7 ' 





Design commenced. 
To be constructed at New York navy- 
yard. Bids for material liave been 
• n^ceived and work commenced. 
To be constructed at Norfolk navy« 
yard. Bids for material have been 
received and work commenced. 
Nov. 2, 1880 30 Contracted for. 

NalO do i do 30 ^ Do. 

No.ll Sept 7, 1888 ! Nov. 11, 18it9 ' 30 ■ Contract awarded Nov. 1 to Harrison 

No. 5 

. Mar. 2, 1889 
. ' Mart 2, 1K8U 
. Sept 7, 18S8 
. Ang. 3, 1886 

. Mar. 2. 1880 

Under advertisement. 

No. 6 (gunboat) 

Steel practice ves^'I 

Torpedo boat Na 1 

Dynamite-gan boat No. 2. . 




Under advortisement 

Mar. 1, 



Completed except boiler. 
Not yet begun. 




Of the unarmored vessels in course of construction, four have been 
completed within the past year, as follows: The Yorlctown^ accepted 
April 4 ; the Petrel^ October 24 ; the Charleston^ November 6, and the 

By advertisement of May 24, 1889, the Department invited proposuls 
for the construction of the three cruisers of about 2,000 tons displace- 
ment each, at a cost of not more than $700,000 each, authorized by act 
approved September 7, 1888; and by another advertisement of June 14, 
invited proposals for the construction of the two cruisers of about 3,000 
tons each, at a cost of not more than $1,100,000 each, authorized by 
the same act. All the proposals were opened at the Department Au- 
gust 22, as follows : 

For the construction of two 3.000-ton cruisers, Nos. 7 and 8 : 

The William Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., for the construction of one of said cruisers (hull and 
machinery to he constructed according to Department's plans and speci- 
fications) $1,225,000 

Same company, for the construction of the other of said cruisers (hull 
and machinery to he constructed according to Department's plans and 

specih cations) 1,225,000 

For the construction of three 2,000-ton cruisers, Nos. 9, 10, and 11 : 

The Bath Iron Works, Bath, Me., for the construction of one of such 
cruisers (hull and machinery to he constructed accordin;;: to Depart- 
ment's plans and specifications) 780, 000 

The William Cramp &, Sons Ship and Engine Building Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., for the construction of one of such cruisers (hull and ma- 
chinery to be constructed according to Department's plans and speci- 
fications) 875,000 

Same company, for the construction of another of such cruisers (hull and 

' machinery to be constructed according to Department's plans and 

specifications) 875,000 

Same company, for the construction of the other of such cruisers (huU 
and machinery to bo constructed according to Department's plans and 
specifications) 875,000 

As the amounts for which these several proposals offered to construct 
the vessels were in excess of the limit fixed by Congress all of them 
were rejected. The Department then decided, as authorized by the act 
to build the two 3,000 ton vessels in the navy-yards, and on October 1, 
1880, advertised for proposals for steel required for the construction of 
cruiser No. 7 at the New York navy-yard and for cruiser No. 8 at the 
Norfolk navy -yard. On the 5th of October another advertisement in- 
vited proposals for materials for use in the construction at the New 
York navy-yard of the machinerj^ for both these cruisers. Proposals 
have been received under both these advertisements, and contracts 
have been awarded for 2,284 tons of steel for the hulls of these vessels. 

It was decided to readvertise for proposals for the construction of 
the three 2,000- ton vessels, and the advertisement was accordingly is- 
sued August 24. The law having directed that in the contract for these 
vessels such provisions for increased speed and premium should be 


made as in the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy might be deemed 
advisable, the conditions of the previous advertisement were so far 
modified as to reduce the required speed from 18 knots to 17 knots, and 
to fix the premium for increased speed at $25,000 for each quarter-knot 
in excess of the guarantied speed of 17 knots. A penalty of $25,000 
was afllxed for every quarter-knot that the vessels failed of reaching 
the guarantied speed ; and in case of failure to develop and maintain 
for four consecutive hours a speed of 16 knots, the vessels could be re- 
ected. The time fixed for completion was also extended from two years 
to two years and six months. 
The following proposals were received : 

Tbe UDion Iron Works, San Francisco, Cal., for the construction of oue of 
said vessels (hnll and machinery to be constructed according to Depart- 
ment's plans and specificatioDs) 8775,000 

Same company, for the construction of two of said vessels (same plans 
and specifications) l,4r)0,000 

Same company, for the construction of three of said vessels (same plans 
and specifications) 2,054,001 

N. F. Palmer, jr., Sl Co., New York, N. Y., for the construction of one of 
said vessels (same plans and specifications) 674,000 

Columbian Iron Works and Dry Dock Company, Baltimore, Md., for the 
construction of one of said vessels (same plans and specifications) . . . 625, 000. 00 

Same company, for the construction of two of said vessels (same plans 
and specifications) 1,225,000.00 

Tbe Bath Iron Works, Bath, Me., for the construction of one of said 
vessels (same plans and specifications) 675, 000. 00 

Same company, for two of said vessels or three of said vessels at same 

Harrison Loring, Boston, Mass., for the construction of one of said ves- 
sels (same plans and specifications) 674,000.00 

October 28 the Department awarded to the Columbian Iron Works 
and Dry Dock Company of Baltimore, Md., contracts for the construc- 
tion of two of these cruisers for the sum of $612,500 each, and on the 
first of November awarded to Harrison Loring the contract for the 
construction of the other cruiser for the sum of $074,000. 

The Department, on November 19, invited proposals for the construc- 
tion of the two vessels (gun-boats Nos. 5 and 6) of 1,000 tons, authorized 
by the act of March 2, 1889, and of the steel practice vessel of 800 tons, 
authorizeii by the act of September 7, 1888. These proposals will be 
opened in January. 

The dynamite-gunboat Vesuvius^ authorized by the act of February 
11, 1887, has been completed but not yet accepted. 

Of the two remaining unarinored vessels authorized by law but not 
yet completed, the most im portant is the cruiser ot 6,300 tons (cruiser 
No. 6). The designs of this vessel are begun. The second vessel is the 
dynamite gunboat No. 2, of the Vesuvius type, which was authorized by 
the act of March 2, 1889, under the proviso that the Secretary of the 
Navy should be satisfiecl, after official tests made with the Vesuvius and 
her guns, as to the efficiency of the armament of that vessel. Action 


has therefore been deferred until the final decision as to the Vesu- 

The appropriation for the fiscal year now current provided for the 
construction or purchase by contract of four steam-tugs. One of these, 
the Triton^ has been purchased, and another is under consideration. 
Bids for the two remaining tugs have been received within the statutory 



Of equal importance with the construction of suitable vessels is the 
creation of an efficient personnel. A ship is worth what her captain 
and crew are worth. She is of no use unless her officers and men have 
the qualities to fight her. To insure the thorough efficiency of the 
corps of enlisted men in the ]N"avy, three things are necessary : first, 
that it should be composed of American citizens or of those who have 
declared their intention to become citizens ; secondly, that they should 
have adequate training for their work; and, thirdly, that the system ol 
enlistment and discharge should be so regulated as to secure the reten- 
tion of good men in the service 

At the present time the crews of our naval vessels are in large part 
composed of foreigners, or of men whose nationality is uncertiiin, and 
who are ready to serve any government that will pay them. It can 
not be expected that crews so composed will be a safe reliance for the 
country if their services should be needed in war. Such men are held by 
nothing but their contract of enlistment, and subject at the first tempta- 
tion to desert the flag of a country in which they have never resided, 
and to which they are bound by no ties of birth or allegiance. To them 
the flag represents nothing. The American who deserts must expatri- 
ate himself, but the foreigner who deserts the American service goes to 
his own home. For a man so i)laced desertion has no penalties. 

In the matter of training, the altered conditions of naval warfare and 
the exceptional character of the implements now employed have made 
great changes necessary'. In the old sailing frigate any mariner could 
in a short time be converted into a good man-of-war sailor, and ships 
were manned chiefly and successfully by men of this class both in our 
own country and in Europe. Even at that time training was of great 
importance, above all, training in the handling and fighting of guns ; 
and it was to the superior skill of our American seamen in this respect 
that the victories of the war of 1812 were largely due. At the present 
day the necessity of training has greatly increased. It is not to be 
supposed that men taken at haphazard from the sea faring class can 
suppl}', after a little practice and drill, as was formerly the case, efficient 
crews for such complicated structures as the modern ships of tiie ^avy 
armed with modern guns. The training required to make good seamen 
can only be given by taking them in their youth and putting them 
through a thorough course of practice. Even then they will hardly 
reach a fair standard of efficiency until after some years of experience. 


To meet the want of trained American seamen, the naval-apprentice 
i^stem was established. The Department, at great labor and consid- 
erable exi>ense, has steadily improved this system, nntil at the present 
time it turns out apprentices of excellent quality. From all this, how- 
ever, the Kavy derives little benefit. All terms of enlistment of ap- 
prentices now expire at twenty-one years of age. When they reach 
this point the majority of them leave the service forever. They have 
received an education at great expense to the Qovernment, and yet 
have been too short a time in the service to have formed an enduring 
attachment to it. They carry off with their discharge the benefits of 
the Government's outlay, and apply them to the pursuit of other careers. 
The Qovernment educates them as boys to lose their services as men, 
and the result is that while we have provided an elaborate system of 
training, we are forced to dei)end for seamen on an untrained service 
largely composed of foreigners. 

The plain remedy lies in a statutory extension of the term of enlist- 
ment to twenty-four years of age. During the additional three years, the 
formation of associations and a mature judgment will lessen the in- 
clination for change, and the Government will get the services of those 
whom it has trained, for at least one full cruise. In the English navy, the 
adoption of a rule retaining those who enl ist as boys u n til the age of twenty- 
eight or thirty has completely changed the character of the enlisted force. 

It is further recommended that the number of apprentices be in- 
creased from 750, as now allowed bylaw, to 1,500, making the total 
enlisted force 9,000. At the same time, the course in the training-ships 
should be extended by the formation of a special class for training in gun- 
nery on board a ship devoted exclusively to this purpose. The incalcu- 
lable importance of giving to enlisted men this train ing, especially in view 
of the change in naval armaments that is now in progress, has induced 
me to set apart the Lancaster as a gunnery-ship ; and I strongly urge 
that authority be given to procure for her at once a modem battery. 

To perfect the system of manning theNavy,afurther reform is needed 
in the method of enlistment. Under existing law (Eev. Stat., sec. 
1418) men " may be enlisted to serve for a period not exceeding five 
years, unless sooner discharged by direction of the President." Al- 
though this law was enacted as long ago as 1837, the custom of the 
Department has been to enlist men as a rule for three years, and the 
statutes relating to honorable discharges have been conformed to this 

The duration of a naval cruise is, in general, three years. The crews 
of vessels preparing for sea are necessarily brought together in re- 
ceiving-ships before she sails, frequently several months before, as 
the completion of her outfit may be delayed. As the crews are en- 
listed for exactly three years, in the majority of cases the time of the 
men expires several months, sometimes even a whole year, before the 
ship retnmSi and the advance of 25 per cent, additional pay, to which 


those holding over are entitled under the law, is a heavy addition to 
the cost of maintenance. To remedy this defect the Department pro- 
poses to adopt a fonr-years' term of enlistment, and it recommends that 
the laws (Rev. Stat., sections 1426, 1573) relating to honorable dis- 
charges after three years' service, and to allowances upon a three-years 
re-enlistment, be amended accordingly. 

The lengthening of the term of enlistment, although an important 
measure, will not secure a character of permanence in the corps of en- 
listed men. In order to obtain a body of trained American seamen upon 
which the Kavy and the country can rely, it is absolutely necessary tliat 
the whole system of temporary enlistment should be replaced by a con- 
tinuous-service system, the four years' term being retained only to meet 
necessary emergencies. This system should be based upon the principle 
of retaining the services of the enlisted man for life. We shall never 
get the crews that wo need until wo make the navy a career for the sea- 
men as well as for the officers. To accomplish this the continuous-serv- 
ice man should be permanently enlisted, and be entitled to retirement on 
three-fourths pay after thirty years of service, as provided by law, (Act 
of February 14, 1885) for the Army and Marine Corps. There is no 
reason for a distinction between the Army and Kavy. Ko alien should 
bjB accepted for continuous service, and no man above the age of thirty- 
five, unless he has had previous naval experience. At the end of the 
first four years of service he should have an option of taking his dis- 
charge or remaining, but failing to take it at that time, his connectioii 
with the service should thenceforth be permanent, unless the Depart- 
ment should, in its discretion, grant his application for discharge, or 
unless he should be removed by sentence of a court-martial. Discharges 
in any case should work a forfeiture of all prospective benefits of pay and 
retirement. Continuous-service men should be entitled to one month's 
leave for each year of service, to be granted at the convenience of the 
ITavy Dopartm'ent, and to be cumulative up to four months, which 
will be equivalent to the three months' leave now granted for re-en- 
listment, and which may be similarly commuted, and a small addition, 
of $1 per month or thereabouts, should bo made to the pay of the 
various ratings for each completed term of four years' service. 

The reform proposed above has been carefully considered, and is be- 
lieved to be indispensable to tlie eflicien(*y of the corps of enlisted men. 
In no other way will it be possible to obtain for the Navy American 
seamen of the required exi)erience and qualilications. The service is 
now entering upon a new era, in which the obsolete fleet of eight years 
ago is to be replaced by modern constructions, whic^h have been ac- 
quired at considerable cost, and arc the produirt of the highest pro- 
fessional intelligence and skill. To risk this new lleet in the hands of 
mongrel crews, and to diminish, if not destroy, its elllriency for service 
by a bad system of manning the Navy, is a shortsighted and foolish 
I>olicy that can only result in loss and disaster. 


Under existing law (sections 4810, 4813, Eevised Statutes) pensioners 
who become inmates of the Naval Home, formerly known as the Naval 
Asylam, are obliged to relinquish their pensions during their residence 
at the Home. A similar provision formerly existed with reference to the 
Soldiers' Home, but it was done away with by the act of March 3, 1883, 
which provided that pensioners therein should continue to draw their 
pensions under certain regulations. As there is no reason whatever for 
this discrimination, which works great injustice to naval pensioners, the 
Department recommends the passage of a law placing them on the same 
footing with their comrades of the Army. 


The question of the creation of a naval reserve demands the early 
attention of Congress. This reserve should be composed of ships, 
officers, and seamen. I have spoken elsewhere of the necessity of mak- 
ing arrangements by which the owners of merchant steamers may be 
induced to adapt their vessels to naval use, so that the Government 
may employ them as an auxiliary force* in time of war. During the 
civil war the number of ships in the Navy increased from 90 to 700, 
and the efficiency of this force would have been incalculably strength- 
ened had provision been made beforehand for adapting vessels to war 

The necessity for a trained reserve of officers and seamen is equally 
great. In accordance with the wise policy of American institutions, 
the force maintained constantly in the service is small. Any sudden 
demand upon this force would compel immediate expansion. Arrange- 
ments should be made beforehand to meet this demand. 

The numerical strength of our Army is not measured by the standing 
force, but by the trained militia behind it. The same should be true 
of the Navy. The necessity is even greater in this branch of the serv- 
ice, because a naval militia must have a special training to render it 
efficient in case of emergency, and it must be drawn from a limited por- 
tion of the population. 

The subject has already received considerable attention, both in Con- 
gress and in the State legislatures. Congress has as yet failed to pass 
any law on the subject, but the legislatures of several States, taking the 
initiative, have made arrangements for the creation of a naval militia. 
In so far as these measures require the co-operation of the United 
States Government, I am heartily in favor of giving it. Where station- 
ary vessels are desired for puri)oses of gunnery training, I recom- 
mend that the Department be authorized to furnish such vessels as 
are now laid up, unfit for sea service, to States making provision 
for a naval militia, upon their request. Authority should also be given 
for the issue of arms, and such legislation should be adopted by Con- 
gress as is necessary to give the new system vigor and efficiency. 



On the broad question, which arose in the case of the two 3,000ton 
cruiHcrs, of the comparative advantages of the two systems of naval 
construction, the first in the Government yards and the second by con- 
tract with private firms, the Department is firmly of the opinion that 
the latter is the best method. The importance of encouraging private 
enterprise in this direction and of creating and developing one of the 
most valuable and useful industries to which American labor and capi- 
tal can be devoted is sufficient to turn the scale, provided that the re- 
sults obtained are equally good. The success of the experiments made 
thus far in constructing modern ships by contract proves conclusively 
that our private works and workmen have the skill and talent to give 
the !N"avy as good ships as the world affords. 

The recent growth aud extension of the ship-building industry is a 
gratifying evidence of the benefits that have come from this encourage- 
ment by the Government. The builders have met the demands of the 
Department in a large and enterprising spirit. Additional capital has 
been invested, workmen have been trained, and materials have been 
improved to answer the requirements of the official inspectors, new 
processes have become familiar, and one difficulty after another has 
been overcome. It may reasonably be expected that as ship-building in 
America is gradually improved and cheapened, additional private busi- 
ness will be attracted to these growing establishments, until in time 
the world's market for ships will be divided between this country and 

All these advantages are lost by a policy that confines the construc- 
tion of vessels exclusively to the navy-yards. Still, it is advisable that 
the Navy should build some of its ships. The number of private con- 
cerns is so small that circumstances might readily arise which would 
place the Department at the mercy of combinations. To prevent this 
it must itself enter the field and become at least a possible competitor 
with other bidders. Apart from this danger, and supposing that there 
were room enough at private yards, which there is not at the present 
time, for them to undertake all the large vessels that we need, the Gov- 
ernment should have at its command the skill and the plant for build- 
ing its vessels occasionally, and for repairing them at all times. For 
this purpose its own officers must have practice in carrying out their 
designs through all the stages to the finished product. 

It is therefore believed that, while the great majority of our new ves- 
sels should be constructed by private builders, the Government yards 
should also be utilized to a limited extent. If they fail to produce as 
satisfactory results as the private buildervS, either in workmanship, in 
cost, or in time, those in whose charge they are should be held to a 
rigid responsibility. If this is exacted there is no inherent reason why 
building in the navy -yards should not be as well done as by any other 
process, and at approximately the same cost 


The only naval stations now in ase as constrnction yards are Brook- 
lyn, iSTorfolk, Mare Island, and Portsmouth, the last for wooden ves- 
sels only. The other navy-yards were closed, as far as construction 
and repair were concerned, by order of the Secretary, June 23, 1883, 
under the provisions of the act of August 5, 1882. 

The Department having taken this action in pursuance of law, the 
yards referred to must remain closed uatil the law shall re-open them. It 
rests with Congress to decide whether the steps that have been taken 
shall be retraced, and the number of places at which vessels may be 
constructed and repaired shall be increased. At some future time such 
an increase will certainly become necessary. Whether it is needed now 
depends primarily upon the rapidity with which Congress desires to 
construct an effective navy. At present there are building sites for 
eight ships at Brooklyn and jSTorfolk, and for three at Mare Island. 
Of the former, five are now occupied. Provision has been made for 
supplying these yards with a working plant, which is now in part de- 
livered. A further appropriation of $50,000 is required for tools at 
Brooklyn. The three construction yards will then have a working outfit 
If additional facilities are needed to hasten the construction of the 
navy, they may be provided either at Boston or League Island, each of 
which presents considerable advantages of situation. 

The Boston navy-yard was fitted out several years ago with an ex- 
cellent plant for building the old wooden ships. It has the necessary 
tools for making boats, furniture, blocks, spars, and other articles of 
outfit. It has facilities for building machinery and large tools. The 
yard is capacious and possesses substantial buildings, a stone dry-dock, 
three ship-houses, and three building slips. The harbor is a fine one 
with deep water, and the surrounding population affords an ample 
supply of good mechanics. A modern plant for building steel vessels, 
sufficient for work on an extensive scale, can be set up at moderate 

The League Island yard has remained since its transfer to the ISTavy 
Department largely in an undeveloped state. It has no ship-houses or 
building slips, and a considerable part of its acreage, though not over- 
flowed, is below the level of high water. Nevertheless the fact is rec- 
ognized that it has exceptional advantages of site. It is in the center 
of the steel and iron produciug and manufacturing district. In its im- 
mediate neighborhooil are some of the largest ship-buildiog establish- 
ments of the country. Finally, and of the'greatest importance, it has 
fresh water in which to lay up iron and steel ships. In this last respect 
it stands alone, and this consideration is of itself sufficient to warrant 
its gradual improvement. The yard should therefore be put in such 
order as to make it available at least for purposes of repair. The ap- 
propriations made at the last two sessions, for a protecting wall and 
landing wharf, for filling in and dredging, and above all for a timber 
dry-dock costing half a million, which is now in process of construction. 



clearly indicate that the last Congress had sach an intention. A farther 
outlay with the same general object would supply the necessary fur- 
naces, tools, and other plant, at a reasonable figure. At some .future 
time, as the steel vessels of the l^avj are completed, the use of this yard 
with its fresh-water anchorage will become a necessity, and a compre- 
hensive plan of development should then be considered. 

With a view to determine plans for the gradual improvement of the 
League Island yard, a board of officers was appointed jto consider the 
question in detail and to make a report to the Department. A second 
board was appointed to make a similar report in reference to the 
Brooklyn yard, the latter being the most extensive, and on the whole 
the best equipped of all the navy-yards: The reports of these boards, 
transmitted, respectively, October 14 and November 9, 1889, favor a 
large and expensive scheme of development, involving an outlay of 
$14,000,000 in the case of League Island and $8,000,000 in that of 
Brooklyn. There is nothing at the present time to warmnt such an un- 
dertaking. The views of the Department in reference to League Island 
have been already stated. All that it now recommends for the ferook 
lyn yard is a sufficient appropriation to prevent the destruction of the 
property. The insufficiency of appropriations in recent years has per- 
mitted the cob-dock to go to ruin, and the wharves and buildings to be- 
come dilapidated. According to the report of the board on permanent 
improvement, many of the buildings have fallen into decay, and a few 
show signs of ultimate collapse. 

The same state of things exists at other yards, and has existed for 
some time. The Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, Commodore 
(now Rear- Admiral) D. B. Harmony stated in his annual report for 1886: 

Scarcely a week has passed since I assamed control of this Bureau that reports have 
not been received of buildings tumbling down or liable to do so at any moment, roofs 
leaking to such an extent as to involve destruction of property, wharves rotting and 
falling into the water, and others so defective that they can not be used, water service 
defective on account of worn-out pipes, and a complaint of decay that implies gen- 
eral destruction. 

The small appropriations for the past year have been expended with the greatest 
economy, and as much done as was possible with the limited amount to arrest this 
deterioration of the Government property, but being so inadequate it has had but 
little effect. 

The present Chief of Bureau, in his report of the 14th of October last, 
tells the same story. He says : 

The general condition of the buildings, wharves, and other Government property 
is lamentable, and Congress should make sufficient appropriations to arrest the decay 
and deterioration. 

As stated by my predecessor in his last annual report, in a compari- 
son of the naval expenditures for the fiscal yeiirs 1882-84 with those 
forl886-'88, considerable reductions were effected bv him in the run- 
ning expenses of the Bureaus. Among these reductions was one of 
$550,000 for yards and docks. The appropriation referred to by Com- 


modore Harmony as being so inadeqaate as to have little effect in ar- 
resting deterioration is one of the three in which the redaction was ac- 
complished. The result is that the present administration of the De- 
partment finds itself handicapped by this tumble-down condition of 
navy-yard property. In accepting this responsibility it is proper that 
the facts should be made known. I propose to adhere rigidly to a policy 
of economical administration ; but I do not propose to shirk the task 
of keeping the navy-yard property in a decent state of repair merely 
for the sake of showing a creditable balance-sheet. The state of things 
should be remedied at once, even if it costs money to doit. It will cost 
more now than it would have cost if it had been done earlier, and a fur- 
ther delay will only involve he&vier expenditure. There is no economy 
in such a policy. 

The plan which I would recommend is a simple one and involves no 
drain upon the Treasury. I shall have occasion to speak elsewhere in 
this report of the vast quantity of stores which have been allowed to 
accumulate at the navy-yards. These stores amounted in nominal value 
on June 30, 1888, to $15,000,000. A large part of them are useless. 
So far from decreasing during the fiscal year 1888-'89, the stock on 
hand at its close showed a net increase of over $189,000. I recommend 
that these useless stores, which are only a source of expense, be sold, 
and that out of the proceeds of sales the sum of $550,000, being the* 
amount by which the expenditures of 1886-'88for yards and docks were 
reduced below those of 1882-'84, be re-appropriated for the preserva 
tion of Government property in the navy -yards. It is believed that this 
sum, in addition to the regular appropriation, will be sufficient, for a time 
at least, to arrest the xieterioration that has been reported by the 
Bureau for the last four years. 

In compliance with the act approved September 7, 1888, two com 
missions were appointed, one ^' to report as to the most desirable loca- 
tion on or near the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the south Atlantic 
coast for navy-yards and dry-docks," and the other " to examine the 
coast north of the forty-second parallel, * * and select a suitable 
site • • for a navy-yard and dry-dock." 

The conclusions of the first board, of which Commodore W. P. McCann 
is president, have been submitted as this report is going to press, and the 
Department has not been able to consider the subject sufficiently to 
make the recommendation required by law at the present time. The 
board visited and carefully examined all the available sites on the 
South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and recommends the establishment of 
a navy -yard at Algiers, on the Mississippi River, opposite the city of 
'Sew Orleans. The Navy unquestionably needs a station on the Gulf 
or its tributary waters, and the only question is the selection of the 
most suitable site. As soon as the subject can receive the attention 
.which its importance deserves, the report will be transmitted to Con- 
gress with the Department's recommendations. 


The suggestion thp.t the naval station at Pprt Eoyal, S. C, be pro- 
vided with a dry-dock and other necessary facilities for docking ves- 
sels is heartily approved. 

The second commission, of which Capt. A. T. Mahan was president, 
presented, September 15, 1880^ an able and exhaustive report, which is 
transmitted herewith. The commission narrowed down their selec- 
tion to the shores of Paget Sound ; and among the various sites in that 
neighborhood there were two that seemed entitled to special considera- 
tion. One of these was upon Lake Washington, a' large sheet of water 
lying back of the city of Seattle. The other was at Point Turner, on the 
opposite side of the sound. The commission, while stating their opinion 
that " a suitable site can be found on the lake," decided in favor of Point 
Turner, mainly on strategic grounds. 

As Lake Washington has no natural navigable outlet, it could only 
be made available by the construction of a canal of some 4 miles in 
length. The Commission believe that such a canal can be built, the 
only questions being those of cost and expediency, on neither of which 
did they feel called upon to express or form an opinion. The Depart- 
.ment is therefore without information on this important point. The 
advantages of the lake site are a fre^h- water basin, immunity from at- 
tack, aud convenience of access to the center of population and of com- 
hiercial and manufacturing activity. The second of these advantages 
the Commission find equally present at Point Turner. The first and 
third are entirely absent, but the Commission consider their force to be 
outweighed by the disadvantage, from a military point of view, of a 
canal as the only means of ingress and egress. 

The Department, in presenting the report, is not satisfied as to the 
finality of its conclusions. Upon the military problem involved some 
difference of opinion exists among experts, and it is doubtful whether the 
strategic side of the question has not been considered too much at the 
expense of the industrial. On the other hand, the Department is not suf- 
ficiently advised as to the proposed canal to make any recommendations 
in reference to it. If, as would seem to be the case, it will be largely used 
for commercial purposes, and thus be of great benefit to the city of 
Seattle, the cost of its construction should not be borne wholly by the 
general Government. In any case, the Department can notj^ecommend 
that the canal should be built solely for the benefit of a possible navy, 
yard on the lake. 

The olyects of a navy -yard are threefold : it may be a construction 
yard, a repair yard, or a naval station, or all combined. For a new con- 
struction yard the Navy Department has no use. A repair yard in the 
Northwest will be necessary at some future time, and the time is not 
very far off. Vessels in those waters must not be under the necessity 
of going 2,000 miles, to San Francisco and back, to clean their bottoms 
or to have slight repairs made. The site for such a yard is unquestion- 
ably in Puget Sound, which has all the advantages of favorable posi- 


tion, great extent of navigable waters, freedom from dangers and from 
obstraction by ice, a temperate climate, a promise of extraordinary de- 
velopment, and great natural resources in coal, iron, and timber. A 
naval station there is needed now. Apart from the c^nal, the lake site 
would probably be the most desirable and also the cheapest, in view of 
the possibility, in fresh water, of substituting wood for masonry in the 
construction of wharves and docks. Until the Department sees some 
prospect of such a canal, however, it can not recommend this site, and 
if the canal should not be built, the station should be established at' 
Point Turner. 

Whatever policy may be adopted by Congress in reference to new 
nav3'-yards, or to the reopening of those that are now closed, any ex- 
tension of the existing system should be made with caution. The object 
of tbe Government at the present time is to get efficient ships and guns, 
and every expenditure for material development should be retrenched 
unsparingly, unless it tends directly to this result, or is necessary to 
keep in an efficient state the working establishment and the Govern- 
ment property ashore and afloat. The reduction adopted in 1883 was 
a wise policy. The changed conditions of to-day may modify that pol- 
icy to a limited extent, but development should come slowly. Navy- 
yard officials tend naturally to a magnified view of their wants in the 
matter of improving the property in their charge, and do not feel the 
restraints which a close margin of profits imposes on a private manu- 
facturer. The double character of the yard as a workshop and as a 
military post promotes this tendency, and the demands of the surround- 
ing community strengthen it and give voice to it in Congress. 

The number of military posts for naval purposes is none too large, 
but the number of work-shops should be limited strictly to actual neces- 
sities. Every increase of this kind draws after it an annual series of 
long bills for maintenance. If the door is once opened to large schemes 
of so-called improvement, upon official recommendations ably seconded, 
perhaps in part induced, by local influences, the Government will soon 
find that instead of maintaining its yards for the benefit of the fleet, it 
is maintaining its fleet for the benefit of the yards; and enough mill- 
ions will in a short time have been spent to build the best navy in the 
world, with nothing to show for it but a large number of imposing but 
adnecessary shore establishments. 


In February last the Department purchased and shipped to. Pago 
Pago 1,912 tons of coal. This coal was discharged and stored on the 
land leased by the Government. 

In pursuance of the act approved March 2, 1889, the Department has 
caused surveys of the harbor to be made with a view to the selection 
of a Bite for a coaKng station and for the location of the necessary 
wharf and store-houses* Bear- Admiral Eamberly , under whose direction 


these sarveys were made, has selected a suitable site, consisting of 121 
acres of land. The necessity of establishing foreign coaling stations, 
and the increasing commercial importance of these islands, render it 
desirable to place this station as soon as possible on a permanent basis* 


The number of high-power steel cannon for the Favy completed 
to date includes two 5-inch, forty-eight 0-inch, eight 8-incb, and 
three 10-inch. During the past year twenty-one 6-inch guns have been 
finished at the Washington navy-yard, three at the West Point Foun- 
dry, and three at the South Boston Iron Works. Besides these, nine 
guns are in course of construction. 

The material for several guns has been received from the Bethlehem 
Iron Company, and the Bureau has begun the manufacture of four of 
them for the Baltimore and two for the Charleston, These are the largest 
and most powerful guns ever made from steel produced wholly in the 
United States. Two lOinch guns bave been completed, making three 
now ready for the armament of the Miantonomoh, Designs have been 
made for the 12.iiich guns, of which four are to be mounted on the Puri- 
tan and two on the Texas, 

Experiments continue to be made with promising results with a view 
to peilecting carriages, fuzes, primers, and the various classes of pow- 
der. The question of projectiles is still in an unsatisfactory state. The 
cast-steel common shell so far furnished fail to show sufficient resist- 
ance to disrupting strains caused by their passage through steel plates 
such as are used on the sides of unarmored vessels. In armor-piercing 
shells we are far behind foreign manufacturers, the projectiles breaking 
up after striking or entering the target. In order to induce American 
manufacturers to produce better results, proposals have been invited 
for projectiles to the amount of $200,000. 

Of the ninety-four Hotchkiss guns contracted for, seventy-seven bave 
been delivered, all of which, together with their ammunition, have been 
manufactured in the United States. The Maxim automatic machine 
guns having undergone a satisfiujtory test, negotiations with the com- 
pany have been entered into for the supply of sixty-six guns of this 
type of American manufacture. The domestication of their manufact- 
ure in the United Stat«is is now assured, and thus an important gain 
has been made to the producing capacity of the country. 

The Bethlehem Iron Works have completed their gun-forging plant, 
and the 120-ton hammer to be used in forging armor-plates has made 
good progress. The plant erected at the works is of 8ui)erior character 
The first gun-forgings were delivered in June last, and it is thought 
that every endeavor will be made by the company to hasten all the 
forgings contracted for. 

The gun-factory at the Washington navy-yard, under the direction of 
Commander William M. Folger, has made extensive progress during the 
year. The 25-ton and 40-ton cranes are working satisfactorily, and 


have shown their gi*eat nsefalness. The 110-ton crane is nearly com- 
pleted. All the boilers, and the engines, with one exception, are in 
place, and a large number of the machine tools are erected and run- 
ning. The powerful tools for the manufacture of the heaviest guns are 
still to be procured, the offers thus far made on bidders' designs having 
been excessive in price, and the Department having therefore decided 
that it would call for new bids on its own designs. The completion and 
installation of the extensive plant for the gun-factory have somewhat 
exceeded the original estimate, and a further appropriation of $145,000 
is asked for. The importance of this work justifies the expense, and it 
is believed that whto the plant is completed, the United States will 
have a gun-factory as well equipped and as efficient as any in the world. 


The laws relating to the naming, rating, and command of vessels 
(llevised Statutes, sections 1529-1531) should be amended to conform 
to modern conditions. The classification in the statutes relates to the 
types of thirty years ago, and not only does not apply, but is impossi- 
ble of application, to modern ships. According to section 1530, which 
prescribes the ratings, steam-ships of forty guns or more are classed as 
first-rates; those of twenty guns and under forty, as second rates; and 
all those of less than twenty guns, as third rates. We have not now, 
nor are we likely ever to have, a first-rate ship, as described by the 
statute, and it is doubtful whether such a vessel can be said to exist in 
any of the navies of the world. The only classification which can prop- 
erly be applied at the present day is that made on the basis of dis- 

The law limiting details for command to certain specified grades is 
also nnsuited to the conditions now prevailing. It .is therefore recom- 
mended that the la^ be repealed and that the war ships of the Navy, 
of whatever type, be hereafter classified as follows : First class, of 5,000 
tons displacement and over ; second class, of 3,000 or more and below 
5,000 ; third class, of 1,000 or more and below 3,000 ; fourth class, under 
1,000 tons. 

It is recommended that the following rule be adopted for the naming 
of vessels: 

Battle-ships, after the States of the Union; cruisers, after the cities; 
coast defenders, armored, after important events or names connected 
with the history of the United States ; coast defenders, unarmored, 
after rivers of the Union. Vessels of special classes should be given 
names appropriate to the service for .which they are intended. 


The North Atlantic Squadron is commanded by Kear-Admiral Ban- 
croft Gherardi, who succeeded Rear- Admiral S. B. Luce February 13. 
The squadron at present consists of the OaknUj Kearmrge^ Dolphin^ and 



Tantie^ the Atlcmta having for a short time been employed with it, the 
Pensacola having been detached for other dnty, and the Ossipee pat out 
of commission. The Kearsarge was detailed to this squadron upon her 
return from the South Atlantic Station, with the crew of the Tallapoosa. 
The Yantio recently sailed for the West Indies, conveying Lieatenant 
I^orris and party, who will be engaged in the telegraphic determination 
of longitudes. 

Owing to the unsettled condition of affairs upon the Isthmus, and to 
the Hay tian revolution, these vessels have been stationed during most of 
the year in West Indian waters. Their presence at Port-au-Prince upon 
several occasions brought about a prompt and equitable arrangement 
of misunderstandings which might otherwise have resulted in long and 
tedious controversies, the principal of these occasions being the seizure 
of the steamer^ Haytian Republic and Ozama for alleged violation of 
the blockade. The negotiations which resulted in the release of the 
vessels reflected credit upon the oflBcers concerned. 

A riot having been reported on the guano island of Kavassa, where the 
Navassa Phosphate Company, an American concern, is operating, the 
flag-ship Galena was dispatched to that place and secured nine of the al- 
leged ringleaders, who were brought to Baltimore and turned over to 
^ the Federal authorities. 

The Pensacola sailed in October for St. Paul de Loando, on the west 
coast of Africa., taking out the expedition for the observation of the 
total eclipse of the sun, December 22, 1889, in pursuance of the act of 
March 2, 1889. 

The Department having been advised that three men had been left by 
the American schooner Anna on the uninhabited island of Arenas Gay^ 
and were likely to perish by starvation, the Ossipee was sent there and 
rescued the two survivors. 

The South Atlantic Squadron continues under the command of Act- 
ing Eear- Admiral James H. Gillis, and consists of the flag-ship Bich- 
mond and the Tallapoosa, the former having been assigned to this sta- 
tion within the year. The Sicatara was detached and ordered to the 
Asiatic Station via Madagascar, where she assisted in procuring the 
arrest and trial of the master i>f an American schooner, who was 
charged with the murder of the TJ. S. consular agent at Andakab6. 

The Alliance^ having completed her cruise, was detached, ordered 
home, and put out of commission. 

The Asidtic Squadron is commanded by Eear-Admiral George B. Bel- 
knap, who assumed command April 4, his predecessor, Eear-Admiral 
llalph Chandler, having died suddenly at ilong-Kong, February 11. 
The vessels composing the squadron are the flag-ship Omaha, the Marion^ 
Monocacy, Palos, and Sicatara, the Essex having returned home upon 
completing her eomniission. 

The Pacific Squadron continues under the command of Kear-Admiral 
L. A. Kimberly, and consists of the Mohioany the Adams^ Alerty Nipsie^ 


Pintay IroquoiSj and the store-ship Morumgahejfl. The Trenton and Va/f^ 
dalia were wrecked in the harbor of Apia on the 16th of March. The 
Nipsic was beached at the same time, but afterwards got afloat^ and 
although she had lost her rudder and smoke-pipe, and was otherwise 
badly injured, she was repaired and fitted for the voyage to Honolulu* 
Here permanent repairs were made and the ship rendered fit to con- 
tinue her cruise. Much property was saved from the wrecked ships by 
their crews, who were thus given occupation until they could return to 
San Francisco. The correspondence relating to the disaster at Samoa 
will be found in the Appendix. 

The political uueasiuess in the Hawaiian Islands renders the presence 
of a ship at Honolulu a necessary precaution, and one has therefore 
been kept at that point. 

The European Squadron was under the command of Acting Bear- 
Admiral James A. Greer until the 24th of June, when he was ordered 
home. The Lancaster and the Quinnebaug were detached upon the 
completion of their commissions, leaving the Enterprise^ under Com- 
mander B. H. McCalla, the only vessel on the station. The Enterprise 
was temporarily employed on the east coast of Africa, to investigate 
the case of the American schooner Solitaire^ alleged to have been en- 
gaged in the slave trade, and to protect the lives and property of Amer- 
ican citizens npon that coast, which were thought to be in danger from 
the natives. 

Squadron of evolution, — The completion of a snf&cient number of new 
ships enables the Department to form a squadron of evolution. The 
squadron, composed of the Chicago^ Boston^ Atlanta^ and Yorktown^ 
sailed from New York November 18, for Europe, under the command 
of Acting Bear- Admiral John G. Walker, and with the addition of the 
Enterprise will constitute the United States naval force on that station. 

The Training Squadron consists of the Jamestoton and Portsmouthjhotli 
of which have made the usual summer cruise, the latter having also 
made a cruise to the West Indies last winter. The Saratoga has been 
thoroughly refitted, in pursuance of the acts of June .20, 1874, and July 
26, 1886, and turned over to the State of Pennsylvania for use as a naut- 
ical school ship at Philadelphia. • 

Special aiui detached service. — The Despatch^ Banger ^ Michigan^ and the 
Thetis continue on the same service as during last year. The Thetis has 
made a cruise to the Arctic, rescuing three of the survivors of the Amer- 
ican whaling bark Little Ohio^ and one of the crew of the bark Ohio 
Second^ the former wrecked on Point Hope on October 3, 1888, and the 
latter at Nanwak Island, Behring Sea, on June 6, 1889. 


The severest disaster which has befallen the Navy in recent years 
took place at Apia, Samoa, on the 16th of March, 1880. During a hur- 
ricane on that date, two vessels, the Trenton and Va/ndalia^ were totally 


wrecked, and the Nipsic \wii8 run on shore to save her from destrao- 
tion. Capt. 0. M. Schoonmaker, Paymaster P. H. Arms, Lieut. P. E. 
Sutton, U. S. Marine Corps, and Paymaster's Clerk John Boche, and 
46 enlisted men lost their lives in the performance of duty. The re- 
port of Eear- Admiral Kimberly, commanding the Pacific station, shows 
that nothing that skill or experience could suggest was left undone 
to avert the catastrophe, but the vessels, with old-fashioned engines 
and defective steam-power, were wholly unable to withstand the fury 
of the hurricane. The loss of the Trenton and Vandaliaj two of the best 
of the old wooden fleet, is a serious blow to the I^avy in its present con- 
dition. They were abandoned on the 7th of July, after much of their 
armament and equipment had been saved. The ^ip^io proceeded to the 
Sandwich Islands, where she has since been repaired and fitted for act- 
ive service. The escape of the British ship Calliope, by steaming out to 
sea in safety during the hurricane, illustrates the value of high-power 
engines in war vessels. ^ 

The gallantry and fortitude displayed by Eear- Admiral Bamberly, 
his officers and men, at the time of the disaster, were such as to call 
forth the warmest commendations of the Department. 

The natives of Samoa rendered valujible assistance in the rescue of 
life and saving of property, and their efforts have been suitably re- 
warded. Much suffering was caused among them by the destruction of 
their crops by the storm, and Eear-Adniiral Kimberly was authorized 
to issue rations to them from the store-ship Monongahela^ thea at Pago 

The Department authorized the charter of a steamer in Australia to 
convey the survivors to San Francisco, where they arrived on the 20th 
of May, with the excei)tion of a few ofiicers and men who were detained 
at Apia to look after American interests until the arrival of another 

The heavy expense involved in the transportation home of the 
wrecked crews, amounting to about $50,000, should be made the sub- 
ject of a special appro))riation, instead of being charged as a deficiency 
against the miscellaneous and contingent funds. 


Kecent legislation and administrative re;^ulation have so complicated 
the situation of the Naval War College at Newport, R. I., that the 
Department does not i'oel justified in undertaking the construction of 
the building authorized March 2, 1889, until Congress shall have ex- 
pressed itself more definitely on tlie (luestion of* site. 

The Dei)artmont feels no doubt, however, as to what that site should 
be. Goat Island lias a restricted si)ace, whic^li is already sufliciently 
taken up. The Navy has only a ri^ht of temporary occu])ation on the 
island, which may determine at any time. Under these circumstances, 
it is recommended that no additional buildings be jJaced there. On 


the other hand, Coaster's Harbor offers an excellent site, with abandanc^ 
of room, and it can be i*eached by land. It belongs to the Navy, and 
it should ultimately be the headquarters of all the consolidated nava 
establishments at Newport.^ 

The present condition of things, in which the college is made a sort 
of appendage to the Torpedo Station, under the Bureau of Ordnanoe, 
should be corrected. It is attaching the greater to the less. The work 
of the Bureau of Ordnance has no connection with that of the War 
College, and uo reason can be assigned for placing the college under 
that Bureau. Torpedo instruction should be a part of the training 
given in the science of war, but the school at which this training is 
undertaken should not be a torpedo school with a subsidiary course in 
naval strategy. Ultimately, all the educational establishments at 
Newport should be placed under a single officer, and the consolidated 
establishment, like all others pertaining to education, should be under 
the Bureau of Navigation. 

For the present, the Department has only to recommend that the 
building for which appropriation was made at the last session be placed 
on Coaster's Harbor, and that the appropriation be made under the 
head of '* Bureau of Navigation." 

The War College is unquestionably one of the most important institu« 
tions connected with the Navy. Its establishment, in 1884, represented 
a marked advance in naval development. Its work, even in the re- 
stricted sphere to which it has hitherto been confined, has been of im- 
mense benefit to the service, and it is of the highest importance that 
nothing should be done that will in, any v^ay interfere with its efficiency. 


Under the authority conferred by section 419 of the Eevised Statutes, 
which provides that " the business of the Department of the Navy 
shall be distributed, in such manner as the Secretary of the Navy shall 
judge to be proper and expedient, among the following bureaus : First, 
a Bureau of Yards and Docks," etc., I judged it proper and expedient 
to distribute anew certain branches of Navy Department business 
among the bureaus, and to that end issued a general order June 25, 
1889, which order has subsequently undergone certain slight modifica- 

At the time of my entry into office, and until the date of this order, 
the Navy Department, while it had the supervision of eight bureaus 
chargetl with special branches of manufacture or of supply of materials, 
contained no single office upon which devolved the detailed administra- 
tion of the working establishment. The details of construction of ships 
and engines, of accounts, of the care of health, of the manufacture of 
guns and other articles of equipment were fairly provided for, but the 
details of administering the Navy, as an existing force, its vessels in 
commission, its officers and its crews, were scattered, without system 


or coherence, among a variety of offices, bureaus, and boards. The as- 
signment of officers to duty and, to a limited extent, the movements 
of shipsin commission, were in charge of an J^ office of detail,^ at the head 
of which was the chief of the Bureau of Navigation, which Bureau was at 
the same time supplying compasses, chronometers, and navigating in- 
struments, electric-light plant, ship's libraries, and other miscellaneous 
articles. The enlistment and assignment of seamen belonged to Equip- 
ment, which was also engaged in the supply of another list of miscel- 
laneous articles, and in the manufacture of cordage, galleys, chains, 
and anchors. The direction of gunnery i>ractice by sliips in commis- 
sion was in charge of Ordnance, whose all-important duties in provid- 
ing the Navy with a modern armament left little opportunity for super- 
vising the occupations of vessels at sea. The examination of these 
vessels on their return from a cruise was the duty of a board of inspec- 
tion which was not associated with any bureau. The training of of- 
ficers and men was in part conducted independently by the Naval 
Academy, and in other parts assumed by Navigation, Equipment, and 
Ordnance. To all these fragments of authority there was no central 
Unity of direction, except such as could be given by the personal atten- 
tion of the Secretary, to the exclusion of that broad and general super- 
vision over all executive business which is required by a department as 
comprehensive as the Navy; and cases were not infrequent where a 
ship received simultaneous orders from three separate bureaus which 
were so directly contradictory that it was impossible to execute them. 

With the obsolete vessels that until recently composed the whole 
naval establishment, the need of reform was not so apparent, since no 
mere syst^em of administration could secure efficiency in a worthless 
fleet ; and in view of the coming reconstruction of ships and armaments, 
any new regulations would be largely provisional. For this reason, 
the main eflfort of the Department for some time past has wisely been 
directed to supplying its most pressing wants. With the acquisition 
of modern ships and guns, however, as was pointed out by my pre- 
decessor, reform became an administrative necessity. 

The plan adopted is that which would be dictated by common sense 
In the management of any business concern, namely, to put the details 
of the working establishment in one office, and to separate from that 
office the details of construction, manufacture, and supply. The fleet, 
including vessels, officers, and seamen — training, assignment, enlist- 
ment, inspection, and practice — falls under the Bureau of Navigation, 
while miscellaneous branches of equipment, and the supervision of sub- 
ordinate offices connected therewith, or engage<l in investigations not 
pertaining to administration proper, fall under the Bureau ot Equip- 
ment. The llydrographic Office, which would naturally be grouped 
under the latter class, is placed by the statute under the Bureau of 
Navigation, with which it has no logical connection, and it is therefore 
recommended that the law (section 431, Kevised Statutes) be so amended 


as to admit of its transfer to the Bnreaa of Equipment. Incidentally, 
the order also included the consolidation of branches of similar 
work which had grown up in diflerent bureaus. Thus, electric lighting 
in general was under Navigation, and the supply of electric search- 
lights under Ordnance — a manifest absurdity, which has been corrected 
by placing all electric lighting where it properly belongs, under Equip- 
ment. The change has already produced the most beneficial results, 
and only requires this slight modification of existing law in reference 
to the Hydrographic Office to become a complete and homogeneous 

Another change of equal importance was made by this order. As 
already suggested, the work of the Navy Department for some time to 
come must consist largely in the design and construction of modern 
vessels. Upon assuming charge of the Department I found that this 
work, so important, so complex, and involving such heavy expenditure, 
was conducted in much the same manner as the management of the 
working establishment — by separate bureaus acting independently and 
with no unity of direction except what was given by the Secretary him- 
self. In the old days of sailing ships the constructor was rightly placed 
in charge of the whole vessel, for he built the whole vessel. There were 
no engines, and the battery had no influence upon the construction of 
the ship otherwise than as an article of heavy furniture. Now the con- 
structor builds only the hull. The vital forces of the ship are given to 
her by the engineer. The hull can not be built until a definite conclu- 
sion has been arrived at as to the weight and disposition of the machin- 
ery, and that in turn, as well as the design of the hull, must be con- 
sidered with reference to the weight and disposition of the guns. To 
attempt to reach a conclusion by means of three co-ordinate bureaus 
working independently, without unity of direction, and without any 
established organization by which differences may be harmonized and 
an agreement reached, must produce delay, confusion, changes of plan, 
and additional expense. 

To remedy this serious defect the only plan which the law admitted 
was adopted ; and it was provided in General Order No. 372 that the 
chiefs of the Bureaus of Yards and Docks, Ordnance, Equipment, Con- 
struction, and Steam Engineering should constitute a board having 
general supervision over the designing, constructing, and equipping of 
» new ships for the Navy. The order brings together for consultation all 
the chiefs of bureaus who are concerned in the design and construction 
of the ship, her engines, battery, and equipment. Th^ general plan of 
such designs must be agreed upon and a harmonious conclusion thus 
arrived at by all the independent agencies concerned before the detailed 
work is undertaken. Eesponsibility for delay can be placed at once 
where it belongs. It Is not possible to say any longer that one bureau 
is waiting for another to reach a conclusion. Conclusions must be 
reached, and promptly reached, by the board. 


In this connection I would suggest the propriety of a change in the 
name of the Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, which designation 
represents very imperfectly the functions of the Bureau. It i^iight 
properly be called the " Bureau of Supplies and Disbursements.'' The 
words " and Eecruiting" should also be dropped from the designation of 
the Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting. 

It is recommended that authority be given for the appointment of 
assistants to all chiefs of Bureaus, in the manner now provided for the 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (Rev. Stat., sec. 1376). 

The reports of the Bureaus, and of the Naval Academy, Naval Obser- 
vatory, and Hydrographio Office, annexed hereto, will be found to 
contain many important and valuable suggestions. 



As was predicted by the Secretary in the annual report for 1883, the 
policy adopted at that time of discontinuing repairs on the old wooden 
vessels, and removing them gradually from the list, has brought about 
a material reduction in the ordinary expenses of the Bureaus of Con- 
struction and Repair, Steam Engineering, and Equipment. The extent 
of this reduction is reported by my predecessor. In furtherance of the 
policy of retrenchment thus initiated, it has been found possible to re- 
duce the estimates for the support of the naval establishment, which 
are transmitted herewith, $1,168,023.95 below those ])re8ented by the 
Department last year. 

As appears from the report of the Bureau of Equipment, the general 
appropriation of that Bureau was practically exhausted on the 1st of 
March last. All work on equipment of vessels fitting out was therefore 
stopped, and a large proportion of requisitions for necessary supplies 
was disapproved, great embarrassment to the service resulting. Not- 
withstanding these retrenchments, the necessary expenditures, many of 
which, being for vessels on foreign stations, were beyond the control 
of the Department, resulted in a deficiency of over $100,000. 

The practice of appropriating an amount too small to keep up the 
work of the Department, and then working off in advance the appro- 
priations of the next year by a provision in the annual bill that they 
"shall be immediately available'' to cover deficiencies in the current 
year, will place the Department under the disagreeable necessity of ask- 
ing for a new deficiency appropriation before the year is ended. The , 
general appropriation for the Bureau of Construction, under the head of 
" Preservation and repair of vessels," for the year now current, was 
reduced in this manner $150,000 before the year began, and it must 
therefore be supplemented by a new appropriation early in the ses- 
sion, unless the current work is to come to a stop. 

A deficiency for the past fiscal year also exists in the appropriation. 
" Pay of the^avy," which is stated by the Fourth Auditor of the Treas- 
ury to have been " partially caused by the payment out of that fund 


of claims settled, under recent decisions of the Supreme Court, for lon- 
gevity and for service on board receiving-ships." 

There will also be a small deficiency in the appropriation " Pay mis- 
cellaneous, 1889," due to the causes which produced a similar deficiency 
last year, and which were thus explained by my predecessor in his an- 
nual report : 

The expend it nres nnder this head pf appropriation can not always be controlled 
and kept within the amount specifically appropriated, as from it are paid all travel- 
ing expenses of officers or others on public duty, and the travel performed is depend- 
ent upon the necessities and requirements of the service. 

The Department would call attention to the disadvantages of limit- 
ing, by act of Congress, the cost of vessels of specified requirements. 
It may be suitable in theory, but it works badly in practice. The sum 
named is necessarily conjectural to a large extent, and may be wide of 
the mark. After the type has been decided on, some particular feature 
of the design, involving a small excess over the limit, may make the 
difference between the efftciency and the ineflftciency of the ship. An 
improvement not in itself expensive, yet which may be enough to turn 
a second-rate into a first-rate ship, may thus be prevented by the fixing 
of a limit. If the limit is too high it draws bidders np to it, if too low 
it postpones the contract to the next 'session of Congress. The con- 
struction of the Newark was delayed a year and a half pending a refer- 
ence to Congress for an increased limits More recently, in the case of 
the two 3,000-ton cruisers (Nos. 7 and 8) the cost had been limited to 
$1,100,000, and the act authorizing them required that they should de- 
velop a speed of 19 knots. The lowest bid was $125,000 in excess of 
the prescribed limit, and the Department being thus compelled to delay 
the work, or to do it in the navy -yards, adopted the latter alternative. 
It is therefore desirable that the act should appropriate for a certain 
number of ships, aiiid Indicate their type and general characteristics, 
leaving the Department to award contracts to the lowest responsible 

In considering the economical administration of the Navy Depart- 
ment, a distinction must be drawn between the fixed charges, such as 
the pay of the Navy and Marine Corps, the charges for improvements 
authorized by statute, and the running expenses. The first are practi- 
cally outside of departmental control. The second class includes appro- 
priations based to a certain extent upon the Department's recommenda- 
tions, but fixed in amount by Congressional action, prescribing certain 
specific works. These are the appropriations for the increase of the 
Navy, which are kept distinct from all others. A similar distinction, 
which has not hitherto been very carefully made, should set apart the 
expenses foi: permanent improvements at the navy-yards, and put them 
under this head. The third class includes the ordinary expenses of the 
eight bureaus and the miscellaneous and contingent funds. It is in this 
class, amounting to something like five millions a year, that careful 
administration is most necessary to secure economical results. 


In the last class of charges, most of which are under the detailed admiu- 
istratiou of the bureaus, the Department intends to limit expenditures to 
the actual necessities of an efficient navy ; but it believes that a navy, 
to be efficient, must be, to a reasonable extent, in a condition of readi- 
ness for war. The reduction in expenditure which followed the adop- 
tion of a fixed limit of repairs on wooden vessels may be maintained, 
in nearly all directions, until the wear ^nd tear of service shall make 
repairs necessary to the new fleet, which it is to be hoped will not be 
for some time to come. On the other hand, one important item, that of 
coal, will necessarily show a large increase, as many of the new ships 
have little or no sail power, and all will be heavy coal consumers. This 
is a drain that must be met. A modern navy requires fuel no less than 
a railroad. It is the life of the cruising ship, and the cruising^ ships are 
the life of the whole establishment. Without a considerable increase, 
and that at no distant day, in the supply of coal, the new navy will 
stop running. 

The following is an exhibit of the estimates of the Department proper 
and the several bureaus : 

Department proper: 

Pay of the Navy - §7,656,312.00 ' 

Pay, misceUaneous 240,000.00 

Contingent, Navy 7,000.00 


Bureau of Yards and Docks 1,796,836.32 

Bureau of Navigation : 

Proper $164,900.00 

Naval Academy 281,617.45 

446. 517. 45 

Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting.... 1,128,625.00 

Bureau of Ordnance : 

Proper $279,224.00 

Increase of the Navy 3,971,500.00 

Gun plant, Washington navy-yard 145,000.00 

Submarine torpedo-boat 150,000.00 

4, 545, 724. 00 

Bureau of Construction and Eepair : 

Proper $1,194,972.50 

Increase of Navy .4,000,000.00 

5, 194, 972. 50 

Bureau of Steam Engineering : 

Proper $1,000,070.00 

Increase of Navy 1,120,000.00 

2, 120, 070. 00 

Bureau of Provisions and Clothing 1,350,392.53 

Bureau ot'Mcdicine and Surgery 159,500.00 

Marine Corps : 

Pay department 8607,492.27 

Quartermaster's department 2r>5, 811. 72 

953, 303. 99 

Total 25,699,253.79 


Appkopeuatioks, kxpendituses, and balakcks, fiscal ybar KNt>iMa Jusic 30, 1889. 

Hsadi of ■pproprUtlnD. 




T»y ortlie Harin* Carpi 

Ksrlor Corpat 





TruupoTtAtiDQ uid nemitlD^, . 

Kejuln oflwmoki 

Bira of qnuton 

QoDtlbgCDt ------- _---.... 

f 17, Ninl Acadnnj 

Kaval AodviBT: 

Sperlal oouTss 



Uabriila , 



ClvU «Ubllihidrtii.iHTteKK»i 

Bb™1 Vtx CnUeae 

Ordnance iDd orduuma sMna . 


CUII mlablUhiDsit 

Torpada L'oip* 

EqiiipBii'iilaf vunrli 

BqulpmrDt anrl neruiUDff: 

TraoipoTtadon aad rvonitlnc.*' 

LiTJI C!itAUi»hmtDt 


Kvnl UbIbUiK "lalloo, OouUtr** 

Ttarbn lalAud, K. I 

JfaJBlmaDfc, j aula and dock* 


Ciril MUlilIabmaBl 


Xfpalra ami ptnariBtkn at saTy- 

VaTal Aayluni. PhUaddpbia, Pa---. 

Modiinl DgpaitmenC 

Kara) Boapltal fund 


18. MO. 00 

I!. ML 00 


10. 000.00 







Del. 371. 42 


10, 733- SO 


B, 900. 00 

M, 1.80. 09 


16, 4M. °0 


770. Z3 


20. 110. W 



11. 000.08 

47. US. SO 










Appropriations, expexditurks, and balances, etc. — Continned. 

Heads of Appropriation. 


for flRcal year 

endlDg June 80, 


Medicine and Snrgery : 



Provisions, Navy 

Provisions and Clothing : 

Civil establishment ..,...» 


Construction and, Repair 

Civil establishment, construction 

and repair. ; 

Steam machinery , 

Steam Engineering : 

Civil establishment 


$25, 000. 00 





825, 000. 00 



12, 028, 624. 58 

Amount drawn, 

fiscal year 
ending June 30, 



undrawn, June 



19, 33L 60 








16; 923! 18 


$8 588.86 





70, 734. 01 




undrawn Octo- 
ber 81, 1889. 







1,027, 344.09 

As will be seen from the foregoiog exhibit — 

The amoant of appropriations for the fiscal year 1889, ii^cluding |2,500 
bj appro]i>riatioii warrant No. 10, for transportation and recruiting 
Marine Corps, 1889 ; also $117,000, which was by appropriation war- 
rant No. 13 transferred from ordnance and ordnance stores of said 
year; $12,000 to "ammunition for the Vemviu^^ and |105,000 to 
** modern guns and ammunition," was $12, 928, 624. I>8 

Drawn by requisition to June 30, 1889 10,437,902.57 

Balance undrawn July 1,1889 2,490,722.01 

In hands of disbursing officers, June 30, 1889 307.034.37 

2, 797, 7.56. 38 
Drawn by requisition from July 1 to October 31, 1889 1, 463, 377. 95 

Drawn by requisition from November 1 to November 21. 1889, 

Due from p«iy of the Navy to oflicers and men. $680,482. 19 

Due from pay of the Marine Corps to officers and men ... 47, 200. 64 

1, 334, 37a 43 
171, 192. 34 

1, 163, 186. 09 


Available balance 

435,503.26 • 

This baljftice will be decreased by liabilities incurred during the fiscal 
year 1889. 


As will be seen from the detailed statement given in the appendix, 
the total amount deposited in the Treasury from November 1, 1888, to 
November 1, 1889, fus receipts from the sale, at public auction, of con- 
demned property pertaining to the Navy and Marine Corps, from sales 


to other departments of the Government, from rents, interest, and pre- 
miams on exchange, was $87,372.18, inclading $16,000 proceeds of the 
sale of condemned vessels, which was covered into the Treasury by my 
predecessor. Of the total amoant, $27,835.06 were carried to the credit 
of the proper appropriations and $59,537.12 covered into the Treasury 
in pu^rsuance of law. 

The sales at Norfolk in September last of old materials condemned 
by statutory board, under the provisions of the second section of the 
act of August 5, 1882, have not yet been reported, and are therefore 
not included in the above total. They will net about $15,000. 

Ko sales of old vessels have taken place during the year. In pursu- 
ance of the act of August 5, 1882, the Juniata and Quinnebaug have 
been stricken from the Navy Register as " unfit for further service,'^ 
and in pursuance of the act of March 3, 1883, have been appraised. 
The sum of $940.47, being the balance on hand of -proceeds of sales of 
old vessels, transferred to me by check on my entry into office, has 
been covered into the Treasury. 

The tug Pilgrim which was condemned and offered for sale in 1886, 
but for which no bids were made, was re-appraised July 6 last, and will 
shortly be re-advertised for sale. 

Of the other wooden vessels the Lancaster has been recently sur- 
veyed and ordered to be repaired for use as a gunnery ship. The Brook- 
lyn was also ordered to be repaired, but upon opening her up was found 
to be badly decayed, and a resuf vey has been ordered which will prob- 
ably result in her condemnation. The Osaipee has been surveyed, and 
as it will cost $100,000 to repair her, including new boilers, it has been 
decided to remove the old boilers and use her as a sailing ship for the 
instruction of apprentices. 

On the 1st of March last the Department had directed the sale of the 
Monocacyy in accordance with the recommendation of a board of survey. 
The sale was advertised to take place May 13. On May 7 the Depart- 
ment suspended the sale and ordered a resurvey. The board found 
the vessel was worth repairing, and that the repairs could be made at a 
^^asonable cost As a vessel of this class is indispensable for river 
service on the Asiatic station, and as the repairs, amounting to a little 
over $10,000, would put her in condition for three years, the necessary 
order was issued, and the work is now completed. 

The returns annexed to the report of the Paymaster-General show 
that the stock on hand at shore stiitions of articles belonging to the Navy 
June 30, 1889, amounted in value to $16,486,885.24. The largest items 
in the list are: Guns and carriages, $4,624,047.23; ammunition and ex- 
plosives, $2,292,120.05;, oak timber, $1,721,485.03; paints and chemicals, 
$909,558.61, of which about $800,000 is represented by a stock of niter 
acquired during or subsequent to the war for prudential reasons ; gun 
equipment and implements, $802,214.25; brass, copper^ etc., $541,070.69; 
chain, $503,881.03, 


These stores, which take up valuable space atnavy-yards, and involve 
expense for preservation and custody, and a large part of which will 
never in any contingency be used, ought to be condemned under the 
act of August 5, 1882, section 2, not being such as " can be profitably 
used by re-working or otherwise in the construction or repair of vessels, 
their machinery, armor, armament, or equipment.'^ The act requires 
that all such sales shall be at public auction, a method which is well 
adapted for small sales, but which gives opportunities for combinations 
of bidders against the Government, where the amounts involved are 
large. I recommend that this statute be amended so as to provide for 
sales in the discretion of the Secretary, either by public auction as at 
present, or by public advertisement inviting sealed proposals, in the 
manner now prescribed by law for sales of condemned vessels. • 

A copy of the statement of the Fourth Auditor particularizing the 
several deposits on account of sales during the year will be found in 
the appendix. 


The report of Col. 0. 6. McOawley, commandant of the Marine Corps, 
advocates an increase in the number of privates now appropriated for. 
The full strength of the force as prescribed by law is 2,500, but the 
appropriation allows only 1,600. This number is not large enough for 
the work to be done, and as a result the men are overtasked and deser- 
tions are frequent. An additional difficulty is caused by the insuffi- 
ciency of the appropriations for transportation and recruiting, which 
makes it impossible to open recruiting offices in the interior, and thus 
to fill up the ranks of the corps. A small addition to the amounts al- 
lowed would correct these evils. 


At the request of the State Department, Lieut. Adolph Marix was 
detailed for duty at the Centennial International Exhibition at Mel- 
bourne, Victoria, as disbursing officer and secretary of the United States 
Commission. He also served as superintendent of the United States 
court at the exhibition, and from January 15 until the close of the ex- 
hibition, March 31, 1889, he was in charge of the Commission, the Com- 
missioner having returned home. The services rendered by Lieutenant 
Marix are favorably referred to by the Commissioner. 


Tlie recommendation is made by the Board of Visitors at the IS'aval 
Academy, that the officers of the Eevenue Marine Service should be 
taken from the graduates of the Academy. This suggestion is sound 
and timely, but does not go far enough. The extravagance of main- 
taining in the United States what are practically two uavies, one for 


ocean service and the other for coast service, supplied by two naval 
academies, one of which discharges half of its papils at graduating, 
has at different times been pointed out, and nowhere more forcibly 
than in the reports of the Secretary of the Navy for 1882 and 1883. 
The report for 1882 says: 

In the interests of economy the cbanj^ce snggest^d is desirable. While the Navy- 
proper is being reduced the Grovernment is keeping up a revenue navy of 34 cap- 
tains, 86 lieutenants, and 65 engineers; in all, 185 officers. Two training-schools are 
maintained to do the work of one. The Naval Academy at Annapolis is supplied with 
a full corps of instructors/ and every appliance for the training at all times of 335 
naval cadets. At the same time, another school is maintained at New Bedford for 
the training of Revenue Marine cadets, covering the same ground, only in a limited 
degree, and with imperfect appliances. The Revenue Marine cadets receive |900 a 
year during their service at the school. 

Recent legislation has provided that only apart of each graduating class at Annap- 
olis shaU enter the Navy, while the remainder shall be given a year's pay, and 
remanded to private life. All these young men, upon whom the Crovemment has 
bestowed a gratuitous education, are well fitted for their profession, from which 
they are thus excluded ; and by opening the cruising cutter service to these graduates 
of the Naval Academy the Gk>veniment will save, at a single ^oke, the whole cost 
of a duplicate establishment. 

The Department therefore strongly recommends a consolidation of 
the coast-guard navy and the ocean navy. It is believed that no prac- 
tical diflBculties lie in the way of its accomplishment. The present 
Bevenne Marine, composed of some two hundred officers, should be 
taken bodily into the naval service and organized as a separate corps, 
to be known as the Eevenue Marine Corps of the Navy, subject in all 
respects to the laws, and entitled to all the privileges which attach to 
the naval commission. 

The interests of the existing Eevenue Marine officers being thus 
carefully guarded, their employment and emoluments will continue as 
at the present time. As vacancies occur at the foot of the list they 
should be filled, not by special appointment, but by the temporary de- 
tail of junior naval officers, thereby diminishing the number of cadets 
discharged each year from the gra<luating class at the Academy. As 
the numbers of the Revenue Marine Corps decrease, the number of 
junior officers of the Navy employed on the duty would increase, nntil, 
in the course of time, the corps would pass away by the operation of 
natural causes, such as retirement, death, and resignation. 

As to employment, the officers of the Revenue Marine Corps, as long 
as it lasted, and those of the Navy supplying the places made vacant 
in the cori)S, would perform the duties now incident to the Revenue 
Marine. The harbor boats now used by the inspectors of customs, 
which do not require a special corps of officers, should remain, as at 
present, exclusively under the customs service, as the light-house ten- 
ders are under the Light-House Board The cruising cutters, however, 
should be officered and manned by a force fully incorporated in the 
naval organization. 



The duties of the Navy and Kevenue Marine are identical in general 
character, and differ only in their administrative objects. One polices 
the ocean, the other the coast. The seizure of smugglers, the only duty 
of the Revenue Marine that has direct relation with the collection of 
customs, is precisely similar to the duty of naval officers in seizing ves-. 
sels engaged in contraband trade in time of war. Other duties of the 
Revenue Marine, such as the enforcement of the neutrality laws and 
the suppression of piracy and of mutinies in merchant vessels, are now 
actually imposed on and performed by the Navy in common with the 
sister service. 

The rescue of distressed vessels and seamen on our coast is as much 
the duty of naval as of revenue officers, and the only reason why the 
former do not perform it is because they are not on the coast, or have 
no suitable vessels for the service. For the other miscellaneous duties 
of the Revenue Marine, such as the enforcement of the laws applicable 
to shipping, the prevention of unlawful traffic in fire-arms in Alaska, 
and the protection of the seal fisheries in Behring sea, naval offi($ers 
are perfectly well fitted. Finally, in time of war both law and custom 
sanction the employment of the Revenue Marine in naval operations. 

The practical identity of the services lies in the fact that both are 
nautical, and both are military. There is absolutely no reason for a 
distinction between them, and a consolidation would inure equall3'^ to the 
advantage of both ; and it is believed that the officers of both services 
would regard the change with favor. The Revenue Marine would be 
placed on a substantial footing, absolutely the same as that of naval 
officers, and could not fail to find satisfaction in being connected 
with the past traditions and future development of the Navy, The 
junior naval officers, who would gradually obtain employment in the 
cutters, would find the service of great practical benefit, and the knowl- 
edge they would thus obtain of the pilotage of our own coasts and har- 
bors would be an overwhelming advantage to the Government during 
their whole professional career. Finally, in the interests of a sound 
economy, the consolidation must sooner or later take place, and the 
sooner it comes the better it will be for the country, for the Navy, and 
for the Revenue Marine. 

It is now eight years since the Navy entered upon its present course 
of development. The sixteen years that preceded this period v^re 
marked by the reaction and relaxation that naturally follow a costly 
and haid-fought war. The turning-point was reached with the begin- 
ning of the year 1882, and it is now possible to estimate at their true 
value the successive steps by which this eight years' development has 
been accomplished. The first was the rigorous limitation of repairs on 
the old wooden ships to a small fraction of their cost, and the removal 
from the list of those that could not be made serviceable within the 
limit. Without this bold and judicious measure the new navy would 
not yet have been commenced. The construction of efficient cruisers folt 


lowed at once. The closing of anuecessary yards and the concentration 
of work at those remaining in operation was another act of retrench- 
ment which opened the way for a more profitable outlay. Ont of it has 
grown the Washington naval gnn-factory, a working establishment 
second in its way to no other in the world. 

The investigations of the Gun Foundry Board of 1883-'84, of the Board 
of Fortifications of 1885-'86, and of the special committees of the Senate 
and House, combined with the efforts of the Department and the man- 
ufacturers, contributed to the same result, and brought about the do- 
mestication in the United States of the manufacture of steel armor and 
gun forgings, and of machine and rapid-firing guns. The Bureau of 
Ordnance, in whose work these converging influences united, has now 
begun the supply of high-power cannon of its own design and make, 
which are fully equal to similar guns abroad. The construction of war 
ships has been continued successfully, the designs increasing in efficiency 
with every advance in the science of naval architecture. 

A like progress has been made in naval administration. The estab- 
lishment of the Office of ^aval Intelligence and the employment of trained 
observers abroad in connection with it ; the foundation of the War Col- 
lege, which has developed the study of problems of modern warfare in 
a manner at once scientific and practical ; the consolidation of stores 
and accounts; and, it may be hoped, the introduction of unity of admin- 
istration into the management of the fleet and of unity of purpose into 
the bureaus concerned in ship design, armament, engineering, and equip- 
ment, are important steps in the direction of reform. To these meas- 
ures Congress, the Department, and, by no means least, the professional 
talent of the service itself, have all contributed. It is a work in which 
both the administrations covering the period have had their share, and 
the citizens of this country should congratulate themselves that its po- 
litical parties, instead of attempting to detract from and belittle each 
other's contributions to naval development, are engaged only in a geun 
erous rivalry to see which can do the Navy the most good. 

Notwithstanding the progress of the last eight years, it must not be 
forgotten that the fleet has still only a nominal existence. During the 
past year four ships have been added to the list, and seven have been 
or will shortly be removed. At no previous time in the present cen- 
tury has the country been relatively so powerless at sea. The wooden 
ships are a makeshift, and will soon cease to be even that. The old 
monitors are worse than useless. The force actually available at the 
present time comprises eight modern vessels, of no great fighting power 
because of their weakness for defense. The main force has yet to be 
authorized. Until the United States has a fleet of twenty battle-ships 
with coast-defenders, cruisers, and torpedo-boats in suitable proportions 
for efficient defense, and an establishment in such working order, as 
to administrative machinery, officers, men, reserves, and vessels, that it 
can be brought without delay into effective action, the country can not 
jf A 89 i 


consider that it possesses a Navy ; and a Navy it can never afford to 
be withoat. 

The true principle for ns to follow is that laid down by President 
John Adams in his message of 1800, when he said : << Seasonable and 
systematic arrangements, so far as oar resources will jastify, for a Navy 
adapted to defensive war, which may in case of necessity be quickly 
brought into use, seem to be as much recommended by a wise and true 
economy as by a just regard for our future tranquillity, for the safety of 
our shores, and for the protection of our property committed to the 

B. F. Tbaoy, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



EsHmaiea of appropriations required for the service of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, 

hy the Navy Department, 

Detailed objecta of expenditure, akid explanations. 


Secretary CFebmary 28, 1889) 

Chief clerk. Navy l>epartinent (same act) 

Clerk to the Seoretarv (submitted) 

DisbnrsinfT clerk (Febraary 20, 1889) 

One clerk of class four, in charge of files and records (same 


Two dlerks of class fonr (same act) 

One stenographer (same act) 

Two clerks 01 claM three (one additional, in lien of one 

derk of clasn two dropped) (same act) 

One clerk of class two tor Inspection Board (same act) . . . . 
One clerk of class two, one dropped as above, and one ad* 

ditional (in lion of one of class one dropped) (same act) . . 
Tout clerks of class one, one dropped as above, and one 

transferred from Office of Judge Advocate General (same 


One clerk of class one for Examining and BeUring Board 

(same act) 

One clerk (same act) 

One telegraph operator (increase of f200, submitted) (same 



One carpenter (increase of $100, submitted) (same act) 
Three messengers, at |840 each (one additional, in Hen 

one assistant messenger droppj^) (same act) 

Two assistant messengers, at f720 each, one dropped as 

above (same act) 

Two messenger boys, at $420 each (same act) 

One messenger boy (increase of $120, submitted) (same act) 

One laborer (same act) 

One laborer for Inspection Board of Vessels (name act) 

Oie laborer for Steel Inspection Board ( submitted) 

NoTB. — The following clerks, appropriated for the Secre* 
tary's office for the current fiscal year, have been trans* 
ferred and estimated for under other bureaus for the next 
fiscal year : Three clerks of class four to Bureau of Navi- 
gation; two clerks of class three to Bureau of Navigation ; 
two clerks of class two, one to Bureau of Navigation, one 
to Offloe of Jtulge Advocate General; one clerk at $1, 000 
per aanom to Bureau of Navigation. 


Stationery fbmitare, newspapers, plans, drawings, draw- 
ing materials, horses, carnages, freight, expressage, 
pottage, and other absolutely necessary exipenses of the 
Navy Department and ita various bureaus and offices. 
(Approi^ated February 26, 1880) 

NoTB.~This estimate is proportioned as follows : 
Office of the decretarv of the Navy, including the 

offloa of the Judge> Advocate-General $6,000 

Bareaa of Ordnance 1,000 


will be re- 

qnired for 
each detailed 

object of 










Total amount 

to be 
under each 

head of 




for the 
onrrent fiscal 
year ending 
June 30, 1890. 





Eitimates of appropriatwne required for the service of the fiscal year, cio.-r-Continued. 

I>etailed objects of ezpenditare, and explanations. 


Bnreaa of Yardsand Bocks $750 

Bareaa of Provisions and Clothing 1, 800 

Bnreaa of Constmction and Kepair 1,000 

Bnreaa of Steam Engineering 800 

Bareaa of Medicine and Surgery 300 

Bnreaa of Navigation, inclnoing the Hydrographic 
Office. Navy Department libran^. office of Naval 

"War Records, and office of Naval Intelligence 5, 350 

Bnreaa of Eqaipment and Recmiting. including the 
Nantioal Almanac office. Compass office, and office 
of Inspector of Electric Lighting 1, $00 

Tbereconstmctionof the Navy necessarily afifects almost 
every bareaa and office of the Navy Department, and 
creates additional demands npon the contingent f and. An 
hicrease of employ68 involves additional outlay for farni- 
tore, stationery, and other items of a contingent nature. 
The appropriations heretofore for this purpose have been 
totally inadequate, not meeting prdssing needs. 


For the pay of officers on sea dnty; officers shore and other 
duty; officers on waiting orders ; officers on the rotired- 
list; Admiral' t« and Yice-Admirars secretaries; clerks 
to commandants of yards and stations; clerkH to pay- 
masters at yards and stations; inspections ; rcceiving- 
sbms and other vebsels ; extra pay to men re-enlisting 
anoer honorable discharge ; pay of petty officers, seamen, 
landsmen, and boys, including men in the engineers* 
force, and for the Coast-Survey Service and Fish Cora- 
mission, 7,500 men and 750 boys, at the pay prescribed by 
law (March 2, 1889) 

Note.— The foregoing estimate is made np as 
follows : 

Pay of ] .615 officers on the active-list $3, 466, 250 

Pay of 270 naval cadets under instruction 135, 000 

Pay of 846 officers on the retired-list 801, 762 

Pay of 2 secretaries and 92 clerks 121, 300 

Pay of petty officers, seamen, landsmen, and 

boys 3,000,000 

Extra pay of petty officers and seamen re-enlist- 
ing under nonorable discharge (1,200, at an 
average of $110) 132,000 

Total 7,650,312 


Por commissions and interest ; transportation of funds ; ex- 
change: mileage to officers while traveling under orders 
in the united States, and for actual personal expenses of 
officers while traveling abroad under orders, and for 
traveling expenses of apothecarie?*, yeomen, and civilian 
employes, and for actual and ne«'essary traveling ex- 
penses of naval cadets while proceeding from their 
homes to the Naval Academy for examination and ap- 
pointment as cadets ; for rent and furniture of buildincs 
andofficesnotin navy-yards; expeuHosof courts-niarlial, 

{)risoners and priaona. and courts of inquiry, boarda of 
nvestigation, examining boarda, with clerka and wit- 
nesses' fees, and travel in gexyjenaea and coata; atationcry 
and recording ; expenses of purchaaingpaymastera' olh- 
ces of the various cities, including clerlta, furniture, fuel, 
stationery, and incidental expenaea : newapaporaand ad- 
vertising ; foreign posta;:© ; tele^ra piling, foreign and 
domestic; telephones; copying; caro of library, includ- 
ing purchase of booka, printa, manusoripta, and periodi- 
cals; ferriage, tolls, and expreaa fee^; coata ot suits; 
commissions, warrant*, diploraaa, and diaehargoa; relief 
of vessels in distress ; canal tolls and pilotage ; i-ecovery 

will be re- 
quired for 

object of 


Total amount 

to be 


under each 

head of 



for the 

current fiscal 

year endinjz 

June 30, 1690. 




Eaiimaiea of appropriationa required for the service of tJie fiscal year, etc, — Continned. 

Detailed objects of expenditure, and explanationn. 

will be re- 
quired for 
each detailed 

olvject of 

Total amoant 

to be 


under each 

head of 



fnr the 
current fiscal 
' year ending 
June 30, 1890. 

PAT, mscsLLANicouB— continned. 

of valnables from shipwrecks ; quarantine expenses ; re- 
ports, professional investigation, cost of special instruc- 
tion at homo or abroad in maintenance oi students and 
attaches, and infonuation from abroad and tho collection 
and classification thereof, and other uecesnary incidental 
expenses (Appropriated March 2. 1889) 










For all emergencies and extraordinary expenses arising at 
home or abroad, but impossible to be anticinated or class- 
ified, exclasive of persomil services in tho jTavy Depart- 
ment or any of its subordinate bnrcaus or oflices at 
Washington, D. C. (March 2, 1889) 



Printing and binding for the Navy Department, inblnding 
$28, 000 for the Ilydrographic OMce, to be executed under 
the direction of the Public Printer. (March 2. 1889) 




11 i-. 


Iliiili'iS Siill 

IHilM II siHS 



ilSI! i!l I! 

:SI IS sSIlS! 

il! ii !!!!!§ 


-«.«»»sjg g« gsjag!2 -= »a -"sssa "a" 

Il lllll 

i iiitf 

■4 -silf 





§ii : i II i ': :i I :$l 11 : :§ 11 i i : ! i : i i illll! 

Si U] 


ii! illSS i 
is-' sS5-!f a 

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ii ! 

SI niu ! 

lil !i! itUUn 

lllii! Ill 


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ISiSI I : 

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llill lit 

iihI lis 

ill! ais II I i ill! 




I a h 


















a, ton 













10. son 




















Asitilim t paFmuW r 


rmneil flMittaDteiigintors. 


LifutM»nMo.n«wu.ler. .... 

I>av»l conglruvtiura 



) pagniattera of yard*, to intpectort, and i 

Wliere employed. 






(J»Ty-r^ League IbI^, ip». . . . 

OnBClerli lo uayiiiiineruf yiird 






Number of 8coretarie8 and clerkSy and their pay ^ etc. — Contiuned. 

Number and designation. 

One clerk to paymaster of receiving-ship 

One clerk to paymaster of vessels on James River 

One first clerk to commandant 

Two second clerks to commandant, at $1,200 each 

One clerk to paymaster of yiurd 

One clerk to inspection of provisions and clothing 

One clerk to paymaster of receiving-ship 

One second derk to commandant 

One clerk to paym^wter of yard 

One first clerk to Commandant 

One second clerk to commandant 

One clerk to paymaster of yard 

One clerk to inspection of provisions and clothing 

One clerk to paymaster of receiving-ship 

One clerk to commandant 

One clerk to paymaster of station 

One clerk to commandant 

One clerk to paymaster of receiving-ship 

One clerk to paymaster of station 

One clerk to superintendent 

One clerk to com mandan t • 

One clerk to paymaster of station 

One first clerk to commandant 

One clerk t>o cadets' store- keeper 

One clerk to general store- keeper 

One clerk to commissary 

Ono clerk to paymaster of Academy 

One (ilerk to paymaster of ships 

One clerk to commanding officer 

One clerk to paymaster 

One clerk to general inspector pay corps 

Ten clerk i to paymasters of flag-ships, at $1. 100 each 

Seven clerks to paymasters of second-rate snips, at $1,100 

Twenty-one clerks to paymasters of third-rate training 

and store ships, at $1,000 each. 


Where employed. 

Navy -yard, Norfolk, Va 


Navy-yard, Washington, D. C 





Navy-yard, Pensacola, Fla 


Navy-yard, Mare Island, Cal 




do , 

Naval Station, New London, Conn . 

do , 

Training Station, Newport, B. I. . . 

do , 

Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I . . . 

War College, Newport, R I 

Naval station. Key West, Fla 

do , 

Naval Academy, Ax^napolis, Md . . 

, do 





Naval Asylnm, Philadelphia, Pa. . 
do * 




1, 300 




Total pay for 1.518 officers on the active list $3,466,250 

Total pay fur27U naval cadets under instructions ..^ •• 135,000 

Totalpay for 346 officers on the retired list 801,762 

Total pay for2 secretaries and 92 clerks 121,300 

Total 4,624,812 



Schedule of hide and statement of contracts awarded and entered into to furnish stationery 
for the Secretary's Office and Bureaus of the Xavy Department for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1890. 






















William H. Teepe 







P. P. Kellocff & Co 



WyckofC; ibeomans & Bene- 

V. G. Fisher, manager 

K. Morrison 



1, 110. 18 



*1C8. 82 




Bo wland iL Bobbins 

Arrastronc Craiir & Co. .... 


*$l, 055. 11 





William BaUantvne &■ Son.. 









William H. 

P. KolloKK & Co. 

Wyckotf, Sha- 
mans &. Bene- 

V. G. Fischer, 

E. Mon'ison 

Bowlond A. Bob- 

Craig & Co. 

William Ballan- 
tyno & Son. 



$275. 94 

♦149. 07 

153. 97 








$270. 58.*$429. 00 ^$90. 45 






Date of ad- 

May 28, 1889 



— do 


Date of con- 

July 12, 1889 
Jnly 11, 1889 

July 13,1889 
Joly 5,1880 

July 3,1889 


1, 143. 61 



*A warded the contract. 

t Altered schedule. 

X Informal, and thrown oat. 

Schedule of bids and statement of contracts awarded and entered into to wash toweiU and 
furnish ice for the Navy Department during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890. 





Mrrt. Cliarlotte Smith. 

('at.liarinc (>. Lee 

Olivia Wost 

Luoinila Smith 

M. A. Weiivt-r 

Mary E. Thomas 

Lucy Cook 

Date of ad- 

Muv 28, 1889 


Amount of bid. 

Per hundred. 

$1. 50 







Date of con- 

July S, 18>» 


Independent Ice Comi)any, J. K. Yorke.s, superin- 

Mav 17,1880 

*3fi* cents per 
100 pounds. 

June 26,1880 

* Awarded. 


Tabular Statement of Proposals Received and Opened in the Office op 
THE Secret AHY of the Navy between December 1, 1888, and December 1, 

[A * marks each sncoeufiil bid.] 

Tabular statement of proposals received and opened February 15, 1889, for the consiruoiion 
of a submarine torpedo-ltoatA under autharitu conferred by the act approved March 3, 

The Columbian Iron Works and Dry-Dock Company, Baltimore, Md., for 
the constmction of such boat, complete, according to bidders' plans 
and specitications $150,000 

Same company, for the construction of said boat, complete, according to 

other and different plans and specifications of the bidders 115, 000 

Same company, for the construction of said boat, complete, according to 
a third and dillerent set of plans and specifications of the bidders 100, 000 

George C. Baker, Des Moines. Iowa, for the construction of such boat, 

complete, according to bidder's plans and specifications 75, 000 

(No awards were made under the above-mentioned proposals.) 

Schedule of proposals for machines and tools required for use at the Navy- Yard, Mare 

Island, Cal, 


Class 1. Plate-planing machine : 

Niles Tool Works $7,397.00 

•Bement, MUes & Co '. 5.30t>.00 

a C. Forsalth Machine Company j^ [""" e^SOoioO 

Class 2. Plate-pi aning mach ine : 

NUes Tool Works 2,274.00 

Bement, Miles «fc Co 3,300.00 

aC. Porsaith Machine Company 2,817.00 

Class 3. Planing machine: 

'Detrick d& Harvey 3,520.00 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 3,961.50 

Class 4. Punching and shearing machine : 

Niles Tool Works 4,550.00 

Bement, Miles dt Co 7,450.00 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 5,365.00 

Dunham, Carrigan & Haydeu Company 4,190.00 

Class 5. Punching and sheanng machine : 

•Niles Tool Works .- 3,287.00 

Bement, Miles & Co 4,170.00 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 2,995.00 

Dunham, Carrigan Sl Haydeu Company 3,480.00 

Class 6. Punching and shearing machine : 

NUes Tool Works 2.296.00 

Bement, Miles & Co 3,800.00 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company ^ 2, 125.00 

Dunham, Carrigan A, Haydeu Company 2,760.00 

Class 7. Punching machine: 

NUes Tool Works. 2,047.00 

Bement, Miles dt Co 2,425.00 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 1,899.00 

Dunham, Carrigan & Haydeu Company... 1,675,00 

Classes 8 and 9. Punching machines : 

NUee Tool Works...... 2,758.00 

Bement, MUee^bCo 3,200.00 


Cliuuiefi 6 anil !). Piindiinj; maehiikCii^Cniiti lined. 

K. C. F(n«il[fj MocliiiK-'Coniiiuiiy t2,:e6.00 

Danbftm, Carriftitii &. Ha;duu Compaay 2, lUV. 00 

Cla«a 10. FnDcbiiiu; iiisoliioo: 

Miles Tool WurkM 1,126. 00 

•Boinecit,Mi1(w*Co 1150.00 

8. C ror«nitIiJluthini'Cor.ii.nny 941.00 

Duiihani, CarriKnuA Hay Uoh Company 760.00 

CIms 11. Beam-lH'nilingBnd horizoutul pancbiug machiiie; 

'NIleaTool Works 3,560.00 

Rement, HUps & Co , 3,6^0.00 

8. C. Forsaith Machiue Company 3,1113.00 

C1m8 Vi. Horiznntol puDcb : 

*NileH Tool Works 1,836.00 

Bemunt, Miles A. Co 2,l>7fi. 00 

8. C. Forsailh Machine Company a, 765. 00 

Class 13, DoLihle an^lu. bar shearing machine : 

Nile* Tool Works 2,447.00 

JiBment, Miles <&. Co 2,700.00 

S.C.Fontaith Machine Company 3,439.00 

Class U. Ikiam and angle setting and bending machine : 

Niles Tool Works ,- 3,576.00 

Deiii.'m, MUwiarCo 4,000.00 

8. t'. Fonuith Machine Company 3,453.84 

Class V). AtiKle-baror beam-straightening mnchino: 

•Nil»sT..,il Works 625.00 

B.C. Furnailh Machine Coinpany 627.00 

Clam 16. s.-i of hirudin g rolls : 

•Niles ToulWnrka 40,207.00 

8. C. lV.rn:ii(liM..i-l.incromp.iny 24,838.00 

Class 17. Set of bending rolls : 

■ """■'«■'*»'-!$":;;;:::::::::;":;::;:::::::::::;::::;:::::: SiSSS 

Joseph J. White fi, 100.00 

*Beni«nt, Hilen & Co 5,ori0,00 

S. C. Forsiath Haohine Company 5,706.00 

Class la. S«t of bending rolU : 

Niles Toot Works I,!i84.00 

C. Ritteiibon»e&8o»sJ^ i'toi'm 

Joseph J. Whito '...........'.'.'........'. i^Hryi, 00 

Dement, Mili-s ik Co 1,1(10,00 

8. C. Fonuiitb Machine Couiii;inv 1,»56.00 

Ctaasltf. rhit.>.i.ttaiuhioniNU machine: 

NilcsTool Works ._ 3,7'.I2.00 

'Buuicnt.M ].>!>& Co 3,'.t00.00 

8. U. roMiiiili M.i. liiin'Couipanv 3,398.00 

Claas20. 1< .:.... umulalor: 

Nile* ' ■ 2,935.00 

•BuLlihira' Iron Koiinilry 2,700.00 

Joseph J. While 3,A')0.00 

8. c. Fo™.i,i,™ co.„.a,„- j * :;::;::;;:;:::;::;:;;:;:::;;;; 'Si.Z 

Class 21. Dnplcx pn-iuiure-pnmp : 

NilHsTool Worka IjOTu'y.OO 

A. ],. Fixb , . 7'jr.,00 

Jom-jdi J. Wiiite 3,(NHI.O0 

8, C,F«r«iiiihMncliine Company 887.50 

•H. 1', CJrt'Korv A Co 1,27.1.00 

William t-Coild 890.00 

K.A.Kobhins I.ISIT.OO 

ClaHH^J. Portable hyilraulic riveting-machine: 

SileHTiH.! Works 2,72r..0O 

Jiwpb J. White 1,600.00 

8. C.Foreaith Machine Company?^ 2'^'oo 

Class 23. Portable hydiaDllcriTeting-iuachine: ~ 

Niles Tool Works 2,294.00 

Josoph J. White _ 1,400.00 

a CForsaith Machine CorapanyJ^ IKslw 


CltMWB 24 »nd 23. Portabla bydraulic rivcting-iiiiiiihiDeH: 

Miles Tool Works KOfia.OO 

Jowpb J. White U,450.00 

" .,,..„ (A 4;38a.0O 

8.C.PuTsaitb MdohineConipunyJ jj 3,5(W.OO 

ClawtiG. VerticahWlliiiemacliine: „.„ ^ 

KUmToo! Works , 925.00 

JosephJWhit* 1.0«-00 

•Beiuei.t,MileH&Co.— - ' ^-»0 

S.C. FotanitliMachiDfiOoniiHiDy 891. IW 

Claee«a^ and 2>i. auspuuded drilling inncliint-s : 

Nile*. Tool WorkB ^'^-^Si 

-Joseph J White.. 87U.00 

Bement. Miles*. Co l.bOO.OO 

S.C.FoMaitUMaohineCorapauy 1,820.00 

UniverBftl Kadlal Drill Company 820.00 

CIbm -29. Portable drilling inuohine : • o,= », 

•8.C. Foraaitli Miuliine Company - Mb.W 

R.A.Koll.inB..-. vv- V- ^■'^*' 

ClaBsesSO and A\ SiiHpended coaDteniinkinK macliiiien : 

KiiestoolWnrks '^'SSS 

Bemeiit.Milet.iCo 'W.OO 

d.C.Foraaith Machine CoinjiaDy 9.I-I.0O 

•tTniYerBalBailial Drill Company 6d0.00 

C1kw32. Conntfrainkiugiaaohine: 

•B«meiit,Alik-.&Co .- mOO 

S-CroraaithMocyne Company 7S7.0O 

UnivetMl Radial Drill Company I,ai5.00 

Claaa St. MillinR machine : 

S.C. Foraaith Maoh ins Company 1,084.00 

Brown & SharpoMauiil'actnriug Company 1,165.00 

E.A.Hulhiiia 1:307.00 

ClHa34. Port aide trnne „ ™. ™, 

Hil«T..olWf.r!-. ?'^:-?2 

6. C. Foisiailli Miicliiiifi Company l.Sfti.M 

•JameiW. 8op«r 1,700.00 

CIbm 35. Cold-Bawing moahine: i ooo nn 

"fl, C-ForeaitliMacliino Company J b!'^"! !...,! '*I"!i.."^^i"!"! slsfioloo 

B.C,rorfliii11iMacliiiie Company 534,40 

JwnesW. Sopor 630.00 

K. A. Bobbins '«■«> 

Claw 37. Emery wbeel tool grinder: „„ ^ 

•8. C. ForsHilh M nob in e Company Ifii9.00 

JaraeaW Soper 1(77. 00 

E. A. Eobbins 324.00 

ClftMSS. Snirtevantblowec: 

George Place J'?£'SS 

"8. C.ForsaiihMaohioo Company }'£-'Sn 

H. P. Gregory and Company 1, !i8:j. 00 

B. F. atlirfevant '■'f^'^S'' 

E.A. Robbiua 1,4,J.OO 

01aM39. Fonndry rfttllec! 

8. C, PorsnitliMachhifl Company 27:1.00 

brown dt Sharpe Uauufaoturing Company 2tH).O0 

-JftmesW Soper «;<>■<>" 

E. A.KoU.l]i« *^-W 

Claaa 40, l'iir(,T.Me riv«t (orgea : 

"a C. Komnitb Macbino Company 272.04 

Danbam, Carrigan & Hayden CompanyJ jj|""^| """"""m"|' 4(id 00 

."w c codd 'fy}^ 

AlbeMGallalin aw4. 00 

CIb»41, ■Ratchet drillH: 

a. C. Fowaith Machine Company '.m i nn 

Dunham, Carrigan and Hnydtin Company ^t'^. 

William C. C.«ld 347.00 

AlbertG^llafin \f.-^ 

-James W Soper »«^-"l> 

E.A.Kobbin9 •MS-"" 



ClaaB42. Ratctiet dtilla! 

8. C. Fonaitb Maobine Company $205.00 

Dunham, Oarrisan oiid Hayden Compooy 150.00 

W.C. Codd 148.50 

Albert Gallatin 123.75 

•Jamea W. Boper „ 110,00 

E. A. Hobliins 874.35 

Claas A:t. Batohet drilla : 

a. C. Forsaith Machine Com nany 236.00 

Dnnbatn, Carrigan aod Haydeu Company aso. 00 

W.C. Cod>l ; .*. 154.75 

Albert Gallatin 131.25 

•Jamea W. Bopec 125.00 

R. A. Robbins , 310.00 

Ctaw44. ['[jlli>y blocka: 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company - 245.00 

Dunham, Carrigan amd Hay den Company 27)4.25 

W. C. Ccwld 251.30 

■Albert Oaliatin 192.50 

JaueaW Soper : 196,00 

E.A. Robbias 273.00 

CloN 45. Pullev blocks: 

5. 0. Forsaiih Machine Company 165.00 

Dunham, CarrigBnand HajdenCompMiy 17.=;. 00 

W.C. Codd 174.00 

'Albert Gallatin 119.00 

JomeaW^per 120,00 

B. A. RttbinH 194.00 

Claaa 46. Pnllev blocks 

8. O.Fonaltb Machine Company 220,50 

Dunliam. Carrijan and Hayden Company 220.50 

W.CCodd 210.00 

•Albert. Oallatin 14.1.50 

Jamea W. Soper 147,00 

R. A. Rol)bin8 327.60 

CUaa 47. Moaxncing tools : 

Gocr-i^ riu.,. 435.00 

6. C. fursiiiTli Machine Company 442.50 

Rrown aud-t^liarpeMannfactarlnfc Company 515.25 

Diinbam, Catriganand Hayden Cumpauy 431. S> 

'Albert Gallatin 414.50 

JameaW Sopsi 423,00 

H,A. Hobhins^ 447.70 

Claw m. Corlissenicine 

•Gcorjte PlaoB 16,900.00 

TJuiou Iron Work 20.500.00 

Tulouu Iron Works 34,793,00 

Claaa 411. Sbikftin^: 

C ffitlenhoiiBe & Sons 696.00 

Oeorpo Place 379.52 

•B.C. Forsaith Machine Company 227.60 

TJniouIrou Works 688.00 

Viilc?aii Iron Works 1.008.00 

W.C. Codd 40.<t.57 

H, A. Rohbins 309.60 

Machinerij for the United State* armored emUtr Maine. 

'. Diirjoo $1,303,75 

wgan 1,617.60 


Class 7. Yellow-pine logs : 

•J. W. Duryee $13,038.88 

J.Cregan 14,758.01 

L. H. Ross 13,928.88 

Class 13. White-pine plank boardB : 

J. W. Daryee 5,903,75 

•Watson dt Pittinger 4,773.60 

J. Cre^^^an - 5,943.00 

L. H.Ross 6.086.25 

Class 15. White ash ! 

J. W. Dnryee -. : 1,284.*60 

J.Cregan 1,346.00 

•L. H.Ross 1,235.00 

Class 16. White-ash oars : 

•J. W. Soper 95.16 

E.J. Griffith & Co 99.05 

R. A. Rohbins 97.55 

J. W. Duryee 158.70 

A. Flagler 99.05 

J.Cregan 125.75 

Class 18. Black walnut, mahogany, maple, cherry, etc. : 

J. W. Duryee 1,796.50 

• Watson & Pittinger 1,525.00 

J.Cregan 1.773.50 

J. J. Donovan y 1,732.00 

L. H. Ross 1,715.00 

Class 22. Cypress cedar : 

•C. F. Hodsdon 588.70 

J. W. Duryee 599.00 

Class 24. White-oak staves and headings : 

•R. A.Robbins 109.25 

J. W. Duryee 111.25 

J. Cregan 148.00 

Class 26. Furniture: 

•Wechsler d& Abraham 123.93 

R. A. Robbins 128.60 

J.Cregan 155.00 

J. J. Donovan 159.00 

Class 32. Wrought-iron : 

•R. A. Robbins 1,376.07 

C. H. Tucker, jr 1,470.02 

T.N.Motley 1,474.12 

A. R. Whitney 1,425.35 

Class :iS), Stve\ : 

•R. A. Robbins 20.00 

C.H. Tucker, jr 29.97 

T.N.Motley 31.95 

Class 37. Bolts and nuts : 

B. A. Robbins 571.00 

C. H. Tucker, jr 738.74 

*Donegan & Swift .537.25 

J.J. Donovan 762.13 

Class 39. Iron cut nails : 

R. A. Robbins 166.10 

C.H.TuckerJr 166.71 

•F. T. Witte Hardware Company 148.38 

A. Flagler 171.71 

T. N. Motley 148.76 

Class 43. Zinc : 

E. J. Griffith dtCo 85.00 

R. A. Robbins 57.00 

C. H. Tucker.jr 61.00 

Donegan & Swift 59.00 

•T. N.Motley 52.00 

Class 44. Tin: 

E. J. Griffith & Co 780.00 

R. A. Robbins 711.90 

C. H. Tucker. Jr 699.00 

Donegan & Swift 705.00 

A. Magler 840.00 

•T. N. Motley 696.00 


Class 48. Locks, hingos, bolts, of brass and iron: 

E. J. Griflith & Co $344.20 

R. A. RobbiDS 346.29 

C. H. Tucker, jr 319.03 

F. T. Witte Hardware .Company 357.00 

•A. Flagler 311.19 

Class 49. Screws of brass and iron : 

J. W. Soper 491.12 

E.J. Griffith & Co 454.57 

. R. A. Robbins 480.16 

C. H. Tucker, jr 4:W.79 

F. T. Witte Hardware Couipauy 459.76 

A. Flaffler 446.59 

»T. N. Motley 42S.^ 

Class 54. Hardware : 

E.J. Griffith & Co 4,360.95 

K. A. Robbius 4,215.94 

C. H. Tucker, jr 3,885.78 

F. T. Witte Hardware Couipany 3,956.66 

Donegan & Swift 4,810.72 

A.Flagler 4,124.32 

•T.N. Motley 3,260.53 

J. J. Donovan 4,434.69 

Class 56. White lead : 

E. J. Griffith & Co 448.50 

Pleasants & Wootl worth 458.85 

R. A. Robbins 462.30 

•C. H. Tucker, jr 431.25 

A. Flagler 445.05 

T.N.Motley 469.20 

J.J. Donovan 469.20 

Class .57. Zinc paints: 

Pleasants & Woo<iworth .*... 297. 15 

R. A. Robbins 241.50 

C. H. Tuckt-r, jr 224.00 

A. Flagler 227.50 

•T.N. Motley 189.00 

J. J. Donovan 234.50 

Class 58. Colored paints, driers: 

E.J. Griffith & Co 9(59.40 

Pleasants & Woodworth 848.78 

D. J. Isaacs , 846.40 

R. A. Kobbins 9:»>.:^ 

C. H. Tucker, jr 888.35 

A. Flagler 844.05 

•T. N. Motley 756.75 

J. J. Donovan 925.85 

Class 59. Linsred oil : 

•E. J. Griffith &, Co 369.60 

PleasantH & Woodworth 385.34 

R. A. Robbins 405).20 

C. H. Tucker, jr :«)6. 00 

A. Flagler 42i».00 

T.N. Motley 382. HO 

J. J. Donovan 396.00 

ChiMstJO. Varnish, HpiritH f>f turpentine: 

Pleasants & Woodworth 306.00 

I). J. Isaacs 306.20 

R. A. Kobbins 301. :tf> 

•C. H. Tuekrr, jr 295.75 

A. Flagler 342.60 

J. J. Donovan 316.50 

ClasHGl. Ah'oliol : 

^Pleasants A- Woodworth 99.00 

H. A. Kol.bins 135.00 

T. N. Motley 110.25 

J. J. Donovan 121.50 

Class f)'). Fish oil : 

Pleasants & Woodworth 1^24 

R. A. Robbins 16.96 



Cliws 65. Fish oil — Continued. 

•T. N. Motley $12.80 

J. J.Donovan 19.20 

Class tW. Glass: 

Pleasants & Wood worth : 17.50 

K. A. Bobbins 17.00 

•A. Flagler 14,50 

J. Cregan 27.90 

J. J. Donovan 19.00 

Class 69. Brnshes : 

E.J. Griffith & Co 139.00 

Pleasants & Woodworth 173.10 

•R. A. Robbins 93.41 

C. H. Tucker, jr 163.85 

A. Flagler 167.90 

J.J. Donovan 152.00 

Cliiss 70. Dry goods for upholstering : 

Wcchsler & Abraham 343.11 

•R. A. Robbins 199.96 

J. J. Donovan 343.12 

Class 73. Ship chandlery : 

•Pleasants «fc Woodworth 35.80 

R. A. Robbins 38.80 

J.J. Donovan -.. 125.50 

Class 75. Rosin, pitch, crude turpentine: 

E. J. Griffith & Co 76.50 

-Pleasants & Woodworth 28. rj 

R. A. Robbins 28.90 

J. J. Donovan 85.00 

Class 78. Leather: 

•R. A. Robbins 71.20 

T. N. Motley 160.00 

J. J. Donovan 96.00 

Class A. Steel plates : 

Temple & Lockwood 5,430.33 

A. R. Whitney 4.384.28 

•Linden Steel Company 4,001.31 

Chiss B. Bulb T-bars, steel : 

A. U. Whitney 926.30 

Class C. Stool angle^bars: 

Temple & Lockwood 1,165.00 

A. R. Whitney 992.84 

Class D. Steel rivets: 

Temple & Lockwood 607. 50 

R. A. Robbins 729.00 

•C. H.Tucker, jr 627.73 

J. J. Donovan 641. 25 

Class E. Steel plates : 

Temple & Lockwood 9, 247. 59 

A. R. Whitney 7,466.21 

'Linden Steel Company 6,814.01 

Class F. Bnlbl-bars: 

Temple & Lockwood ; 299.70 

A. R. Whitney 23L75 

Class G. Steel T-bars: 

A. R. Whitney 10.97 

Class H. Steel angle-bars: 

Temple & Lockwood 2.070.36 

A. R. Whitney 1,764.41 

Class I. Steel rivets : 

Temnle & Lockwood 501.57 

R. A. Robbins 601.88 

•C.H.Tucker, jr 518.25 

J. J. Donovan 529.44 

Class K. Steel plates: 

Temple & Lockwood 324.04 

A. R.Whitney 261.62 

'Linden Steel Company '. 238.77 

Class L. Steel T-bars: 

Temple A Lockwood 47.56 

A.R. Whitney 37.62 

NA 89 5 


ClaBs M. Steel angle-bars: 

Temple & Lockwood $38.88 

A.R. Whitney 33.13 

ClaAs N. Iron castings: 

Robert Wetherill & Co 1, 170. 00 

Class O. Steel castings : 

•Standard Steel Casting Company 8,826.00 

Class P. Composition castings : 

•C. H. Tucker, jr 2,627.84 

Sohedule of proposals for materials required for vse in the oonstruction of the United State9 

Monitor Monadnook, at the Navy^Yard, Mare Island, Cak 

Class 6. White oaK : 

•A. Powell 12,720.62 

A. S. Carman 3,114.50 

James McCnddeu j 3,348.&0 

Class 7. Oregon pine logs : 

A. Powell. 15,099.99 

A. S. Carman 15,980.74 

James McCndden 14,490.00 

•William Walker 11,118.61 

Class 13. Redwood plank, boards : 

A. Powell 3,977.50 

A. S. Carman 4,035.70 

James McCudden 4,074.00 

•William Walker 3,109.30 

Class 15. White ash: 

A.Powell 2.9H6.50 

A. 8. Carman 3,0<)7.5O 

James McCudden 3,0(>5.0O 

•William Walker 2,262.00 

Class 16. White-ash oars : 

A Powell •. 169.80 

•A.Crawford 110.74 

Albert Flagler 138.75 

James W. Soper 127.29 

A. S. Carman 179.80 

James McCudden 180.20 

Class 18. Black walnut, mahogany, maple, cherry, etc. : 

A. Powell 3,037.00 

A. S. Carman 3,176.00 

James McCudden 3,206.00 

•William Walker 2,713.20 

Class 22. Cypress, cedar : 

A. Powell 1,600.00 

A. 8. Carman 1,700.00 

James McCudden 1,750.00 

•William Walker 1,000.00 

Class 24. White-ouk staves and headings : 

A.Powell 213.75 

A. S. Carman 237.60 

James McCuddon 2:^0.00 

•William Walker 194.75 

Class '-iH. Furniture: 

-WiUiam V. Whittier 162.00 

Rowland A. Kobbins 163.35 

Class 32. Wrought-iron, round and sciuare: 

•George W. Gibbs & Co 1,302.86 

Dunham, Carrigau & Hay don Couipany 1,894.60 

Class 3r>. Steel : 

J. H. Walker 40.00 

\V. U. S. Fove 16.22 

•George W. Giblw& Company 14.58 

Class 37. Bolts and nuts : 

J. TI. Walker 906.99 

W. K. S. Foye 1,053.50 


Class 37. Bolts and nats — Continaed. 

Danhani, Carrigan & Hayden Company $2,153.40 

•Rowland A. Robbins •. 867.50 

Class 39. Iron oat nails : 

J. H. Walker 251.48 

A.Crawford 269.68 

W. R. 8. Poye 25i?.64 

*Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden Company 250.75 

Class 43. Zino : 

J. H.Walker 100.00 

•Anstin & Phelps 70.00 

Danham, Camgan & Hayden Company , 77.50 

Rowland A. Robbins... ^ 90.00 

Class 44. Tin: 

J. H. Walker 885.00 

Austin d& Phelps 780.00 

'Dunham, Carrigan A, Hayden Company 780.00 

Rowland A. Robbins 861.90 

Class 48. Locks, hinges, bolts, of brass and iron : 

J. H. Walker : 481.80 

•W. R 8. Foye 385.55 

AU)ert Filler 721.40 

Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden Company 713.00 

Rowland A. Robbins 455.05 

Class 49. 8crews of brass and iron : 

T.N. Motley 599.50 

J. H. Walker 529.04 

Austin & Phelps 589.34 

W. R. 8. Foye 487.97 

•Albert Flagler 468.96 

James W. Seper 469.87 

Dunham, Carrigan A Hayden Company 474.40 

Rowland A. Robbins* 546.70 

Class 54. Hardware: 

T. N. Motley -. 6,029.85 

J. fl. Walker 4,410.85 

W. R. 8. Foye 5,078.12 

Albert Flagler 4,450.98 

*Dnnham, Carrigan &. Hayden Company 2,670.56 

Rowland A. Robbins 5,662.66 

Class 56. White lead: 

J. H.Walker 614.00 

Pleasants & Wood worth 427.80 

•WiUiam F. Whittier 407.10 

Danhara, Carrigan d. Hayden Company 483.00 

Charles M. Yates 474.37 

Class 57. Zinc paints: 

J.H.Walker 297.50 

Pleasants & Woodworth 178.50 

•William F. Whittier 227.50 

Charles M. Yates 262,50 

Class 58. Colored paints, driers : 

J.H.Walker 1,210,54 

Plea8antsand Woodworth 830.80 

•William F. Whittier 861.05 

Charles M. Yates 903.78 

Class 59. Linseed oil : 

A. Crawford 475.20 

Pleasants d& Woodworth 379.50 

•William F. Whittier 412.50 

Charles M. Yates 422.40 

Class 60. Varnish, spirits of turpentine : 

Pleasants d& Woodworth 293.00 

William F. Whittier 318.76 

•Charles M. Yates 316.65 

Class 61. Alcohol: 

Pleasants d& Woodworth 98.65 

•William F. Whittier 101.25 

Charles M. Yates 103.60 



CliiBS 65. Fish oil : 

A. Crawford $16.00 

Pleasaut8& Woodworth ia§J4 

•William F. Whittier 13L60 

Charles M. Yates 14.40 

Classes. Glass: 

Pleasauts «& Woodworth 17.50 

•William F. Whit tier 12.25 

Charles M. Yates 18.00 

Class tJ9. Brushes : 

T.N.Motley 200.00 

J.H.Walker 203.00 

Pleasants & Woodworth i. 120.90 

WUliamF.WMilttier 130.00 

•Charles M. Yates 128.35 

Class 70. Dry goods for upholstering : 

T.N.Motley 316.06 

Rowland A. Robhms 306.52 

Class 73. Ship chandlery : 

T.N. Motley 49.50 

•A. Crawford 39.20 

Pleasants & Woodworth 35.80 

William F. Whittier 41.50 

Rowland A. Robbins .49.50 

Class 75. Rosin, pitch, crude turpentine : 

A. Crawford 68.90 

Pleasants & Woodworth 38.73 

•WilliamF. Whittier 54.00 

Class 78. Leather, pump, rigging, lacing: 

T.N.Motley 144.00 

•W.R. S. Foye 96.00 

Rowland A. Robbins 99.90 

Class A. Steel plates — hull : 

•Park, Brother (fc Co 4»835.89 

Danham, Carrigau & Hayden Company 6, 001. 96 

Linden Steel Company, limited 5, 887. 63 

Class B. Bulb T-bars, steel— hull : 

^Danham, Carrigan &, Hayden Company 1, 258. 84 

Class C. Angle- bare*, steel — hull: 

•Austin & Phelps 1,190.89 

Dunham, Carrigau &, Hayden Company 1,359.17 

Class D. Rivets, steel — hull : 

J. H. Walker 940.85 

Austin & Phelps 877.50 

•Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden Company 810.00 

Rowland A. Robbins 999.00 

Class E. Steel plates — turret : 

•Park, Brother & Co 8|104.17 

Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden Company 10,058.37 

Linden Steel Company, limited 9,866.78 

Class F. Bulb T-barH— turrets : 

•Dunham, Cairigan& Hayden Company 349.66 

Class G. T-bars, stiiFeners, steel — turrets: 

•Dunham, Carrigau &, Hayden Comi)any 28.88 

Class H. Angle-bars, steel — turrets: 

Austin & Pbrlps 1,363.99 

•Dunham, Carrigan db Hayden Company 2,415.42 

Class L Rivets, Kte«*l —turrets : 

J. H.Walker 778.79 

Austin «&. Phelps 724.49 

•Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden Company 668.76 

Rowland A. Robbins 824.80 

Class K. Steel plates for military masts : 

*Park, Brother <fc Co 288.68 

Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden Company 3r>8.15 

Linden Steel Company, limited 351.33 

Class L. T-bars, stiffeners, steel — militarv mast : 

•Austin & Phelps * 55.50 

Class M. Angle-bars, steel — militarv mast : 

^Austin & Phelps %).74 



Class N. Castings, iron — tnrret : 

♦* Robert WetheriU & Co $1,560.00 

Class O. CavStings, steel — tnrret : 

•Standard Steel Casting Company 11,032,50 

Class P. Castings, composition — turret: 

J. H. Walker 3,:«8.64 

Crown Smelting Company 2,452.80 

•B.H. & H. Cramp 2,321.40 

Tiibular atatement of proposals received and opened April 3, 1889, for the construction oj 
an armored coast-defense vessel, authorized hy the act approved March 3, 18b7. 

The William Cramp &, Sons Ship and Engine Building Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. (huli and machinery to be constructed according to plans 
and specifications provided by tne Secretary of the Navy, with certain 
modifications thereof and changes therein, as proposed by the bidder) $1,614,000 

N. F. Palmer, jr., & Co., New York, N. Y. (huil and machinery to becon- 
stmcted according to the Department's plans and specifications) 1, 600, 000 

•The Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Cal. (hull and machinery to be 
constructed according to the Department's plans and specifications) . . 1, 628, 950 

Machinery for the United States armored hattU-ship TexoB, 

I. P. Morris Company, Philadelphia, Pa. (machinery to be constrncted 
according to Department's plans and specifications, with certain modi- 
fications thereof and changes therein, as proposed by the bidder) $694, 750 

*The Richmond Locomotive and Machine Works, Richmond, Va. (ma- 
chinery to be constructed according to Department's plans and speci- 
fications) 634,500 

N. F. Palmer, Jr., & Co., New York, N. Y. (machinery to be constrncted 
according to Department's plans and specifications) 682, 500 

Southwark Foundry and Machine Company, Philadelphia, Pa. (ma- 
chinery to be constructed according to the Department's plans and 
specifications) ^. 645,800 

Charles Recder &, Sons, Baltimore, Md. (machinery to be constructed 
according to Department's plans and specifications) 718, 900 

Tabular statement of proposals received and opened Auffust 22, 1889, for the construction of 
the tvDO cruisers of about 3,000 tons each, in displacement, and of the three gun-boats or 
cruisers of about, but not exceeding ^ 2,000 tons each, in displaoementf authorized hy the 
aet of September 7, 1888. 

For the construction of the two crnisers of about 3,000 tons each, in dis- 
plHcement,cruisers No. 7 and No. 8. 
The William Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., for the construction of one of said cruisers (hull and 
macliinery to be constructed according to Department's plans and 

specifications) $1, 225. 000 

Same company, for the constrnction of the other of said crnisers (hull 
, and machinery to be constrncted according to Department's plans 

and specifications) 1,225,000 

For the constrnction of the three cruisers of about, but not exceeding, 
2,000 tons each, in displacement, cruisers No. 9, No. 10, and No. 
The Bath Iron Works, Bath, Me., for the construction of one of such 
cruisers (hull and machinery to be constructed according to Depart- 
ment's plans and specifications) 780,000 

The William Cramp &, Sons Ship and Engine Building Company, PI ila- 
delphia, Pa., for the constrnction of one of such cruisers (hull and 
machinery to be oonstfucted according to Department's plans and 
specifications) 875,000 


For the cojistrnction of the three cruisers, eto. — Continned. 

S*ine compaDy, for the construction of another of such cruisers (hull ^ 

and macninery to b^ constructed according to Department's plans and ^ 

specifications) $875,000 

Same company, for the construction of the other of such cruisers (hull 
and machinery to be constructed according to Department's plans 
and specifications) 87&,000 

(No awards were made under the above-mentioned proposals.) 

Sohedule ofpropoaaU for materials required far ihe United States monitor Ampkitrite, at 
the Navy-iard, Norfolk^ Va.^ under the Department's advertisement of August 6, Idt^. 

Class 5. White oak: 

*J. Kenny $331.25 

R. A. Bobbins , 371.75 

Class 7. Teliow pine logs : 

•J. W. Gaskill & Sons 11,589.62 

Class 13. White pine plank boards: 

•J. W. Gaskill & Sons 4,798.10 

J.Kenny 4,916.00 

R. A. Robbins 5,725.00 

Class 15. White ash: 

*J. W. Gaskill & Sons 1,082.10 

J. Kenny 1,227.00 

R. A. Robbins 1,220.00 

Class 22. Cypress cedar: 

•J. W. Gaskill & Sons 900.00 

Class 24. White oak staves and headings : 

•R. A. Robbins 106.00 

Class 32. Wrought- iron: 

T.N.Motley 1,006.60 

J. R.Michael 7,838.37 

R. A. Robbins 744.61 

•E. J. Griffith & Co 543.04 

Class 35. Steel : 

T.N.Motley 32.00 

J.R.Michael 40.00 

•R. A. Robbins laOO 

K.J. Griffith & Co 43.75 

Class 37. Bolts and nuts: 

•T.N. Motley 467.50 

R. A. Robbins « 613.20 

E. J. Griffith <fe Co 792.00 

Class :)9. Iron cut nails : 

T.N.Motley 181.16 

J. W. Soper 172.40 

•R. A. Robbins 154.35 

A. Flagler 178.04 

E.J. Griffith &Co.... 179.75 

Class 43. Zinc: 

T. N.Motley 62.00 

R. A. Robbins 61.25 

•E.J.Griffith & Co 69.00 

Cliis.s44. Tin: 

T. N. Motley 696.00 

•R. A. Robbins 681.90 

E.J.Griffith & Co 727.60 

Class 49. Screws : 

T. N.Motley 556.87 

J. R. Michael 640.01 

J. W. Soper 581.32 

R. A. Robbins 569.49 

C. H.Pleasants 600.21 

*A Flagler 552.80 

E.J.Griffith & Co 575.93 


Class 54. Hardware: 

%T.-N. Motley * 12,102.79 

. M. W. i$oper i,896.'43 

R. A. Robbins 1,992.62 

A.Flagler 1,89a 89 

E.J. Griffith & Co.. , . 1,975.89 

Class 58. Colored paiuts : 

T.N. Motley 705.00 

R. A. Robbins 701.00 

C. H. Pleasants 713.00 

•E. J. Griffith & Co 637.00 

Class 59. Linseed oil : 

T. N. Motley 126.00 

R. A. Robbins 138.00 

C.H.Pleasants....: 132.00 

•E. J. Griffith & Co .' 119.50 

Class 60. Varnish : 

•T.N.Motley 47.00 

R. A. Robbins 69.00 

C. H.Pleasants 61.00 

E.J. Griffith & Co 63.50 

Class 61. Alcohol : 

J. R. Michael 79.80 

. *C. H.Pleasants 43.80 

Class 65. Fish-oil : 

: T. N. Motley i - 290.50 

R.A. Robbins 267.30 

•C.H.Pleasants 236.44 

E.J. Griffith & Co 275.60 

Class 69. Brnshes : 

J. R. Michael 106.42 

•E.J. Griffith & Co 72.00 

Class 73. Ship chandlery : 

•J. W. Soper 66.50 

R.A. Robbins 57.00 

C. H. Pleasants 60.19 

E.J. Griffith & Co 68.00 


Sdiedule ofpropoaaUfar mttchinei and tooU required far ueeai the Navy- Yard, Brooklyn, 

New York, 

Class 1. Bolt-cutter : 

George Place |734.00 

•The Pratt and Whitney Company 660.00 

R. A. Robbins 674.40 

Class 2. Screw-machine : 

Bridgeport Machine Tool Works j ^ 1*180*00 

•The Pratt and Whitney Company 1*275.00 

R. A. Robbins , 1,298.90 

Class 3. Screw-cutting engine lathe : 

Niles Tool Works 405.00 

George Place 449.00 

Class 4. Screw cutting engine lathe : 

NilesTool Works 376.00 

George Place 429! 00 

*Browu and Sharpe Manufacturing Company 740.00 

Class 5. Planer: 

Niles Ttxil Works 490.00 

•The Pratt and Whitney Company 710.00 

R. A. Robbins 720. 50 

Class 6. Toolmaker's engine lathe : 

•The Pratt and Whitney Company 770.00 

R. A. Robbins *. 772.40 

Class 7. Shell-reamers : 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 627.80 

•8. C. Forsalth Machine Company 544.97 


Class 8. Head punches : 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore •$777.00 

J.W.Soper i 678.09 

*R.A.Robbins 3(55.15 

B.C. Forsaith Machine Company 856.15 

ClaHsQ. Stock and dies: 

The Pratt and Whitney Company 858.50 

*R. A. Robbins 815.00 

S.C. Forsaith Machine Company 1,028.65 

ClaHs 10. Pipe wrenches : 

Manning, Maxwell <& Moore 758.45 

J. W. Soper 734.93 

•R. A. Robbins 694.52 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 845.98 

Class 11. Milling cutters : 

"Brown and Sharpe Manufacturing Company 229. 10 

R. A. Robbins 288.49 

Class 12. Ratchet-drills : 

Manning, Maxwell &, Moore 858.80 

•S.C. Forsaith Machine Company 846.00 

Class 13. Twist-dnlls : 

Universal Radial Drill Company ; 1,080.00 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 930.00 

•J. W. Soper 904.20 

R. A. Robbins 950.40 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 970.20 

ClaHs 14. Chain-tongs : 

"Manning, Maxwell & Moore 194.75 

J.W.Soper 197.70 

R. A. Robbins 202.00 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 202.97 

Class 15. Bolt-heading and rivet-making machine: 

*Nilo8 Tool Works 1,340.00 

George Place 1,399.00 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 1,:^95.00 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 1,495.00 

Clans 16. Planing-machine: 

•J. W. Soper 2,040.00 

Class 17. Riveting-machines: 

•Manning, Maxwell & Moore 450.00 

J. W Soper 510.00 

Class 18. Steam-hammer :* 

Niles Tool Works 1,900.00 

William Sellers & Co 2,319.00 

•Bemeut, Miles & Co 1,845.00 

Class 19. Fittings for pnnches and shears: 

The Pratt and Whitney Company 246.46 

•R. A. Robbins 245. b2 

Class 20. Fittings for punches and shears : 

Niles Tool Works 1,092.00 

The Pratt and Whitney Company 546.02 

•R. A. Robbins , 544.47 

Class 21. Pulley stand : 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 1,042.60 

•J.W.Soper 930.66 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 1,031.17 

Class 22. One ** G " special grinder : 

J. W. Soper 981.89 

•S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 935.65 

Class 23. Twist- drill grinding-machine : 

The Pratt and Whitney Company 468.00 

•R. A. Robbins 467.80 

Class 24. Knife-grinding attachment : 

•J. W. Soper 347.41 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 376.68 

Class 25. Drop- lever scales : 

•Manning. Maxwell & Moore 388.00 

R. A. Robbins 394.80 

8. 0. ForsAith ICaohine Company 475.00 


Class 26. Otto gas engiDes : 

•J. B. Morrell&Co , |1,348.00 

S. C. Forsaith Macbino Company 1,400.00 

Class 27. Fnruishing and placing a system of transmission of power by 
wire rope : 

R. A. Robbins 1,986.00 

•N. B. Cnshing _ 900.00 

Class 28. Forges : 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore &56.00 

J. W. Soper 550.75 

R. A. Robbins 502.00 

*S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 454.88 

Class 29. Inspirators : 

•Manning, Maxwell & Moore 290.00 

R. A. Robbins 298.40 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 364.24 

Class 30. Anvils : 

'Manning, Maxwell & Moore 384.00 

R. A. Robbins 404.40 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 432.00 

Class 31. Oil cabinets, etc. : 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 124.00 

•J. W. Soper 122.09 

R. A. Robbins 125.00 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 184.45 

Class :I2. Magnesium covering for tops and steam-drams : 

•R. A. Robbins 378.00 

Class 34. Hoists : 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 146.40 

•J. W. Soper 131.45 

R. A. Robbins 203.00 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 150.48 

Class 35. Boring-bar: 

'Manning, Maxwell & Moore 366.00 

R. A. Robbins 402.00 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 415.00 

Class 36. Feed pomp : 

Manning. Maxwell & Moore 406.00 

R. A. Robbins 444.90 

•8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 366.17 

Class 37. Miscellaneous : 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 158.60 

J. W. Soper 159.85 

•R. A. Robbins 149.24 

i;, C. Forsaith Machine Company 178.99 

Class 38. Planing-machine : 

KUes Tool Works 1,369.00 

D.F.Walker 249.98 

Manning, Maxwell db Moore 1,195.00 

B. A.Robbin8 1,148.00 

•8. JD. Forsaith Machine Company 1.120.00 

Class 39. Saws : 

•Niles Tool Works 739.00 

Manning, Maxwell &. Moore 1,110.00 

E. A. Robbins 868.90 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 900.75 

Class 40. Circular-saw mill: 

*Iiane Manufacturing Company 2,150.00 

a C. Forsaith Machine Company 2,367.80 

Class 41. Baud sawing-machine : 

•J. W. Soper 1,690.00 

Class 42. Log-canter, etc.: 

•NUes Tool Works 370.00 

George Place 608.00 

B. A. Robbins 409.40 

8.C. Forsaith Machine Company 416.50 

Clata 43. Timber planer : 

Nilea Tool Works 1,997.00 

D. F.Walker 1,499.93 


Class 43. Timber planer — Continaed. 

George Place $1,350.00 

GoodeH & Waters * ;.. 1,550.00 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 1,615.00 

R. A. Robbins 1,823.00 

*S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 1,537.50 

Class 44. Mast roll : 

•Niles Tool Works 3,790.00 

William Sellers & Co 5,330.00 

Bement, Miles & Co 4,875.00 

The Universal Radial Drill Company 3,750.00 

Class 45. Molding machine : 

Niles Tool Works 256.00 

George Place 429.00 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 395. 00 

R. A. RobbioB 389.00 

•S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 384.50 

Class 46. Portable balancing voltnieter, etc.: 

•Electro Dynamic Company 499. 17 

Class 47. Edison lamps, etc. : 

*£lecti^ Dynamic Company 865.08 

R. A. Robbins , ^ 948.10 

Class 48. Supplying and placing two electric- wiie circuits : 

•Electro Dynamic Company , 1,480.00 

Class 49. Shunt wound-drill motor : . • 

•Electro Dynamic Company 1,550.00 

(Mass 50. Edco shunt wound-drill motors : 

•Electro Dynamic Company 2»520. 00 

Class 51. Shunt wound drill motor : 

•Electro Dynamic Company 350.00 

Schedule of proposals for tools required for ihe United States Xavy-Yardy Norfolk^ Fa., 


Class 1. Ben ding-rolls: 

•Niles Tool Works $21,527.00 

William Sellers & Co 29,923.00 

Bement, Miles & Co 29,870.00 

Class 2. Jib-cranes : 

Bement, Miles & Co 1,200.00 

•A. Box &Co 600.00 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 1, 250. 00 

S.C. Forsaith Machine Company j f^ l'l50*0O 

GeorgePlacej^;;;— -;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; }J24aoo 

Class 3. Band-saw mill : 

D. F.Walker 4,799.90 

Niles Tool Works 5,8a5.00 

•Bass Foundry and Machine Works 5,534.00 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 5, 775. 00 

George Place 5,849.00 

Class 4. WeHtinghouse automatic compound enuiine : 

D. F. Walker 2,000.00 

•Manning, Maxwell & Moore 2, 168. 00 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 2, 187. 00 

Class r>. C u t- off sa w : 

Nilos Tool Works r)21.00 

•S. C. Forsaitb Machine Company 487.50. 

George Place 549.00 

ClasH 6. Sand-papering machine : 

D. F. Walker 41>9.93 

Niles Tool Works 5:i5.00 

•George Place 569. 00 

Class 7. Portable hydraulic ship-riveter : 

•Niles Tool Works 4,250.00 


CI118S 8. Hand-taps : 

J W SoDer i $204,000 

J. w. soper ^ 255.000 

The Pratt and Whitney Company 294.00 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore * 1('9. Oq 

*K. A. Robbing 68.70 

s. C. Porsaith Machine Company 2:35.24 

C1ji8.s 9. Nine- wheel grinder : 

•J. W. Soper 244.92 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 245.00 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 254. 40 

Class 10. Morse taper twist-drills : 

J. W. Soper 94.78 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 105.95 

•R. A.Robbins 103. tM) 

S. C. Forsaith Machine Company 115.90 

Class 11. Miscellaneous: 

•R. A.Robbins 256.90 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 291.50 

Claas 12. Westingbonse standard automatic engine: 

D. F.Walker 480.00 

*Manuing, Maxwell & Moore , 480. 00 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 499.00 

Cla.HH 13. Shafting, hangers, couplings, collars, pulleys: 

NileH Tool Works 1,392.21 

•WilUam Sellers & Co 1,201.63 

AFlaj^ler 1,524.17 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 1,631. 88 

R. A. R<»bbins 1,481.54 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 1,440.95 

George Place 1,417.41 

Schedule of propoaaU recHved far steeh about 611 tana of proteotiverdeck plates, required 
for u8e in the coMtruction of the United States armored battle-ahip TexaSf under the 
DcpartmenVs advertisement of August 6, 1889. 

Linden Steel Company $116,970.56 

Carnegie, Phipps & Co 125,854.40 

Schedule of proposals for steel plates for use in the construction of the United States arm- 
ored cruiser MainCy at the Navy-Yard^ Brooklyn^ N. F., opened at Navy Department, July 

8, 1889. 

•Linden Steel Company $34,753.60 

Carnegie, Phipps&Co 38,348.80 

Proposals for furnishing or for constructing hy contract four steam-tugs for the United 

States Navy. 

Tug for Navy- Yard, Washington, D. C. 
For Aimishing : 

A. Booth Packing Company, for one tug $23,500.00 

P. Dougherty & Co., for one tug 33,000.00 

"Same company, for one tug 35,000.00 

Same company, for one tug 31,000.00 

For constructing: 

Neafle & Lev^, for one tug 32, 990. 00 

The Hohenstein Manufacturing Company, for one tug 34,000.00 

The Atlantic Works, forone tug 32,978.00 

Tog for Navy- Yard, League Island, Pa. 
For constructing: 

Neafle& Levy, for one tng 32,490.00 

The Hohenstein Manufacturing Company, for one tug 34, 000. 00 

Same company, for one tug " 34,000.00 


Schedule of propoaaU for steel required for use in Ihe construction of cruiser Ifo. 7, opened 

at the Navy Department^ October 31, 16^9. 

Class A. — Steel plates: 

* Carnegie, Phipps & Co |fi5, 856. 00 

Linden Steel Company 71,500.80 

Class B. — Steel plates : 

Carnegie, Phipps & Co 30,856.00 

* Linden Steel Company 27, 664. 00 

Class C. — Wrought steel : 

* Bethlehem Iron Company 7, 476. 00 

Class D. — Steel shapes : . 

* Carnegie, Phipps ife Co 20,160.00 

Class E, — Steel rivets : 

•Oliver Iron and Steel Company 7, 840. 00 

Class F. — Steel castings: 

* Standard Steel Casting Company 31, 606. 40 


Schedule of proposals for steel required for use in the construction of erniser No, 8, 

opened at the Nary Dtpartment^ October 31, li:J89. 

Class A. — Steel plates : 

•Carnegie, Phipps & Co $65,856.00 

Linden Steel Company 71,600.80 

Class B. — Steel plates : 

Carnegie, Phipps & Co 30,856.00 

•Linden Sieel Company : 27,664.00 

Class C. — Wrought steel : 

•Bethlehem Iron Company 7,476.00 

Class D, — Steel shapes: 

•Carnegie, Phipps & Co 20,160.00 

Class E. — Steel rivet*: 

•Oliver Iron and Steel Company 7,840.00 

Class F. — Steel castings : 

• Standard Steel Casting Company 31,606.40 

Schedule of proposals for materials required for use in the oonstructioUf at the Navy^ 
Yard, Brooklyn, N, Y., of the machinery for two cruisers of about 3,000 tons displace- 
ment each; opened at Navy Department, November 6, 1889. 

Class 35. — Pattern-maker's lumber : 

•Watson APittenger $2,006.00 

John Kenny 2,189.00 

J.W. Duryee 2,150.00 

Class 38, A. — Finished steel shafting : 

Midvale Steel Company 75,018.60 

• liethlehem Iron Company 31 cts. per lb. 

Same class. — Rough-turned steel shafting : 

Midvale SteelCompany 62,232.30 

Bethlehem Iron Company 2d J cts. per lb. 

Class 38, B. — Corrugated steel furnaces: 

•Continental Iron Works 36,080.00 

Class :^, C. — Condenser tube sheets and packing: 

•D.B.Cobb 4,900.00 

B. H. Cramp & Co 7,000.00 

Class 39, A. — Anti-friction metal: 

•J.J.Donovan 900.00 

R.A.Robbin8 1,095.00 

B. H. Cramp & Co 1,245.00 

Deoxidized Metal Company 1,200.00 

Class 39, B.— Pig_Tin : 

William A. Wheeler 2,700.00 

•R. A. Robbins 2,390.00 

Class 39, C. — Steel Castings: 
'Standard Steel Casting Company 35,840.00 


Class 44, C— Steel rods, shapes, and forgings for boiler bracing: v 

Midvale Steel Company $31,360.00 

Class 44, D. — Steel engine forgings : 

• Midvale Steel Company 65,577.60 

( 35 cts. per lb. 

Bethlehem Iron Company < 20 cts. per lb. 

( 36 cts. per lb. 
Class 53, A. — Boiler tubes : 

• William A. Wheeler 15.489.33 

George A. Taylor 16,718.33 

8. C. Forsaith Machine Company 21,886.21 

Class 53, B. — Condenser tubes : 

Waiiam A. Wheeler....' 13,206.69 

American Tube Works 11,405.35 

Benedict & Bumham Manufacturing Company &iVir ots. per ft. 

Ansonia Brass and Copper Company 6^- cts. per ft. 


Class 56. —Steel rivets : 
•Oliver Iron and Steel Company .' 5,040.00 



The sqaadroD on this station is now under the comuiaud of Bear- 
Admiral Bancroft Gherardi, who succeeded Bear- Admiral Stephen B. 
Luce. The vessels composing it are the Qalena^ Kearsarge^ TantiCy and 
Dolphin. The Kearsarge and Dolphin have been added to the command 
since last report, the Atlanta and Pensacola detached for other duty, and 
the Ossipee put out of commission. 


The Oalena (flag-ship), after undergoing repairs at the navy-yard, 
New York, sailed from that place, accompanied by the TantiCy for Port 
au Prince, Hayti, December 12, 1888, to recover the American steamer 
Haytien EepubliCj which vessel had been seized by the Haytian authori- 
ties for alleged violation of the blockade. The Oalena arrived at Port 
au Prince December 20, and a few days later the Haytien Republic was 
suirendered to the force under Bear- Admiral Luce. The Oalena sailed 
for Port Boyal, Jamaica, January 1, 1889, and arrived at that port the 
next day. Left January 12, and returned to Port au Prince on the 14th. 
Sailed again January 16, and arrived at Key West three days later. 
She remained at this port until the 17th of February, when she sailed 
for Cape Haytien, where she arrived February 2i, From this time 
until May 18 following she was actively employed in Ilaytian waters, 
visiting at different times St. Marc, Gonaives, St. Nicholas Mole, and 
Port au Prince, upon which date she sailed from Cape Haytien for Key 
West, where she arrived May 21. Sailed thence May 24, and reached 
New York on the 29th of that month. She remained at New York until 
August 25, when she again sailed for Haytian waters. She arrived at 
St. Nicholas Mole September 4, and sailing thence the next day visited 
Cape Haytien, St. Nicholas Mole, Port au Prince, and arrived at Gi3- 
naives September 21. A riot having occurred on the island of Navassa, 
she left for that place October 4 and arrived IIktc two days later. Hav- 
ing investigated the cause of the riot, and after securing nine of the 
ring-leaders, she proceeded thence to Ijaltiuiore, Md., via Kingston, 
Jamaica, and reached Baltimore October 25, where the nine men were 
turned over to the custody of the United States inarslial. Left Balti- 
more October 29 and arrived at New York on the 31st of that month. 


The Kearsarge arrived at Porto Grande, Cape de Verde Islands, Decem- 
ber 25, 1888. Sailed December 29 for Montevideo, and arrived January 
24, 18)89. Left for the United States February 15, and arrived at 
Hampton Boads A])ril 12, having touched at Barbadoes en route. 



Sailed April 18, and arrived at New York the following day. Jane 12, 
1889, she was assigned to duty on the North Atlantic station. She 
sailed from New York on the IGtb of that month, and arrived at Cape 
Haytien June 25. From this date until the 11th of 8ei>tember she re- 
mained in Ha^ tian waters, visiting and revisiting the following-named 
ports: St. Nicholas Mole, Port an Prince, Gonaives, and Cape Haytien. 
Sailing from the latter port September 11, she arrived at New York 
September 17. Sailed for Port an Prince October 1 with Mr. Douglass, 
the Unite<l States minister to the Haytian Republic, and party on board. 
Arrived at Port an Prince October 8. Sailed the same day and arrived 
at the Delaware Breakwater October 22 and New York October 27. 


The Yfintio sailed from New York December :^2, 1888, for Port au 
Prince, where she arrived December 20. Sailed thence December 23, 
and reached Santiago de Cuba the next day, where she remained until 
December 27, when she again sailed for Port au Prince and arrived at 
that place December 28. Yellow fever having made its appearance on 
board she left January 1, 1889, for New York, and reached the quaran- 
tine station, that port, January 12, and the navy yard January 22. 
After being thorojighly fumigated and disinfected, she left New York 
May 11 to destroy certain derelicts on the Atlantic coast. She touched 
at Delaware Breakwater May 13, and left the next day. She returned 
to New York May 24, having lost her fore, main, and mizzen top-mast, 
jibboom, and four boats in a cyclone encountered May 21. After 
undergoing repairs at the New York Yard she sailed from that place 
September 5 for Baltimore, to participate in the ceremonies attending 
the centennial anniversary of the bombardment of Fort McHenry and 
battle of North Point. She arrived at Baltimore September 9, remain- 
ing at that port until the 15th, when she sailed for Norfolk, where she 
arrived on the 17th, leaving there for Hampton Roads November 4. 
She sailed November 6 for Santiago de Cuba with expedition for deter- 
mining certain longitudes in the West Indies. 


The Osfiipee having completed her repairs left the navy-yard, Nor- 
folk, January 6, 1889, and sailed for the West Indies the following day; 
arrived at Port au Prince January 14, and left on the afternoon of the 
15th for Port lioyal, Jamaica, with the steamer Haytien Republic in 
tow, arriving there January 17. On the 19th of January the Haytien 
Republic was formally turned over to the agent for her owners. The 
Onaipee sailed for Aspinwall January 23, and arrived at that port on 
the 28th. ^he remained at Aspinwall until March 3, when she left for 
Port Royal, where she arrived March 7. Leaving on the 11th, she vis- 
itetl Kingston, and returned to Port Royal March 12. Sailed the same 
day for Cape Ilayiien, and reached that port two days later. She re- 
mained in Uaytian waters until A))ril 24, visiting at diii'erent times the 
following-named ports: St. Marc, Gonaives, St. Nicholas Mole, Port 
Paix, and Cape Haytien. She left the latter port April 24 for Hava- 
na, where she arrived April 28. After a visit of two days she left for 
Key West, arriving May 1. Leaw^ing the latter port May 9, she arrived 
at Hampton Roads May 14. Left the 19th, and arrived the same day 
at Norfolk, Va. Left Norfolk May 25, and arrived at St. Nicholas 
Mole June 2. From this date until the 2d of August she was actively 
employed in Haytian waters, when she sailed from Port au Prince for 


Port lloyal, and reached the latter place August 4. After a stay of 
two days at Port Royal sl.e left for Cay Arenas, and reached that 
place August 11, and rescued two of the survivors left on the Cay by 
the American schooner Anna. She left the same day, and arrived at 
Key West August 16. Sailed on the 16th, and arrived at Hampton 
Boads August 21. Went to Norfolk August 23, remained in that i>ort 
until August 30, when she returned to Hampton Roads. Left Septem- 
ber 4, and arrived the next day at Baltimore, Md., to participate in the 
centennial ceremonies of the bombardment of Fort McHenry and bat- 
tle of North Point. She remained at Baltimorer until September 23, 
when she left for Norfolk, and arrived at that port September 26. Was 
put out of commission November 12, 1889. 


The Dolphin sailed January 22, 1889, from Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, 
for the United States, via the Asiatic and European stations, and ar- 
rived at Yokohama on the 13th of February following. Leaving that 
port on the 2(>th of that month she visited Kobe, Chemulpo, Nagasaki, 
Chin-Kiaug, Wu Hu, Hong-Kong, Singapore, Colombo, Bombay, Aden, 
Suez, Alexan<lria, Naples, Leghorn, Genoa, Villefranche, Toulon, Mar- 
seilles, Barcelona, Gil)ralta'r, Plymouth, Funchal, and Bermuda, and 
arrived at New York September 27. She was assigned to the North 
Atlantic station November 19, 1889. 


The Atlanta having been again temi)orarily assigned to the North 
Atlantic station sailed from New York January 21, 1889, for Ilaytian 
waters and arrived at (>ape Ilaytian on the 28th of that month. Sailed 
thence February 1 ; visited Port Royal, Jamaica, and arrived at Aspin- 
wall February 6. She remained in this port until April 9. Leaving on 
that day she visite<l Kingston, St. Marc, (Jonaives, and Cape Ilaytian, 
which port she left April 21 and arrived at New York April 28, and 
reached the navy-yard at that ])laee the next day. Sailed August 3 for 
New])ort, arriving there the next day. Left August 7 and returned to 
the New York yard on tlu* 11th. Leaving again September 9 she went 
to Newport and returned to the N(?w York yard October 5. 


The Pemacola rc^mained at the navy-yard, Norfolk, undergoing re- 
pairs until September 7, 1889, when she sailed for Baltimore to partici- 
pate in the centennial ceremonies attending the bombardment of Fort 
McHenry and battle of North Point. She arrived at Baltimore Sep- 
tember 8, left on the 10th of the same mouth, and arrived at New 
York two days later. She sailed tor St. Paul de Loando, west4*,rn coast 
of Africa, October 16, with expedition to observe the eclipse of the sun 
December 22. 


The South Atlantic station remains under the command of Acting 
Rear-Adminil James 11. Gillis, and at present consists of the Richmond 
and Tallapoom. The Richmond has been added to the command since 
last report. The Alliance has returned home and been put out of com- 
mission, and the ISwatura detached from the squadron and ordered to the 
Asiatic station* 



The Richmond left the navy yard, New York, December 26, 1888, 
arrived at Hampton Eoads two days later, and went ap to the navy- 
yard, Norfolk, December 31. She left the yard January 2, 1889, aud 
anchored the same day at Hampton Koads. The following day she 
sailed for the South Atlantic station. She arrived at St. Vincent, Cape 
de Verde Islands, January 31, where she remained until Februarys, 
when she left for Montevideo, arBiving at that port March 8. Sailed 
March 23, arrived at Maldonado the same day and returned to Monte- 
video April 4. She again visited Maldonado April 24 and returned to 
Montevideo May 8. Left May 20 and arrived at Buenos Ayres the next 
day. She remained at this port until August 9, when she saile4 for La 
Plata, where she arrived August 12. After a visit of five days she 
proceeded toColonia, and reached that place August 18. Sailed August 
30th and arrived at Montevideo on the 31st. Left September 11th and 
arrived at Buenos Ayres on the 13th of that month. 


The Alliance sailed from Montevideo October 8 and arrived at Eio 
de Janeiro October 14. She remained at this port until November 22, 
when she left for Pernanibuco, arriving there December 4. Sailed 
December 6 and arrived at Bahia December 9. Left the latter port 
December 10 and arrived at Montevideo the 27th of the same month. 
She remained at this port until February 27,* 1889, when she sailed for 
M;ildonailo, aud arrived there the same day. Keturned to Monte- 
video March 2, and after remaining at this port until the 2d of April, 
she again left for Maldonado, and reached that place the next day and 
Montevideo on the l>th. Left April 25, visited Colonia aud Buenos 
Ayres and returned to Montevideo May 14. Sailed again May 18 and 
arrived at Pemambuco June 6, and on the 20th of that month left for 
Hampton Koads, arriving at that place July 18. Went up to the navy- 
yard, Norfolk, Va., August 9, aud was put out of commission August 
20, 1889. 


The Tallapoosa sailed from Montevideo October 16, 1888, and ar- 
rived at Maldonado October 20, Sailed thenctiOctober 24 aud arrived 
at Montevideo October 29. Left December 20 and arrived at Oolonia 
the next day. She remained at that port until January 14, 1889, 
when she sailed for Montevideo, arriving there the next day. Left 
again March 1 and arrived the same day at Maldonado, from which 
port she sailed on the 5th and returned to Montevideo the same day. 
Went to Maldonado again on the 10th and remained there until the 
23rd, when she left for Lobos Island, where she arrived the same day, 
returning to Maldonado on the 20th of March. After remaining there 
until April 3, she left for Montevideo and arrived the next day. 
Sailed April 20 and visited Buenos Ayres, Martin Garcia, Dos Herma- 
nos, Rosario, Anna Maria, La Paz, Bella Vista, Corrientes, Asuncion, 
SanUi Elena, San Nicolas, and arrived at Buenos Ayres July 8. Left 
August 1 and arrived the same day at Moutevideo. Leaving that 
port August 8, she visited Buenos Ayres, La Plata, Colonia, New Pal- 
myra, Fi-ay Bentos, New Berlin, Conception, Paysandu, and arrived at 
Buenos Ayres September 21. Left on the 26th, and arrived at Monte- 
video the next day. 


82 eeport op .the secretary of the navy, 


The titoatara sailed from Maldonado November 27 and arrived at 
Montevideo the same day. She remained at the latter port until De- 
cember 19^ when she left for Sandy Point, Straits of Magellan, arriving 
there December 29. On the 2d of January, 1889, she proceeded to the 
Falkland Islands and arrived at Port Stanley on the 8th of the same 
month, and after a visit of one week she left for Montevideo, where she 
arrived January 21. February 27 she left for Maldonado, and reached 
that place March 2, returning the same day to Montevideo. She re- 
mained at this port until March 11, when she sailed for the Asiatio 


The Pacific squadron continues under the command of Rear- Admiral 
L. A. Kimberly, and consists of the Alerty Adams^ Mohieatij IroquaiSj 
Nipsic, Pinta, and store-ship Monongahela. Since last report the JVen- 
ton and Vandalia have been totally wrecked, the Dolphin detached from 
the squadron, and the Iroquois added. 


The Alert left Honolulu February 22, 1889, for a cruise aroand the 
Hawaiian Islands, stopped two days at Hilo, and returned to Honolnla 
March 2. April 18 she sailed for Apia, Samoa, where she arrived May 3. 
She remained at this port until May 9, when she sailed for Auckland, 
as convoy to the Nipsic, Both vessels, however, returned to Apia May 
15 and sailed the same day for Pago Pago, reaching that place May 16. 
Sailed again, in company with the NipsiCy May 31. Touched at Fannin^^ 
Island June 14, leaving the Nipsio at this port, and arrived at Honolulu 
June 25. Sailed again on the 8th of July and arrived at Fanning 
Island July 14. Left this port in company with the Nipsic and reached 
Honolulu August 2. 


The Adams continued in active employment in Samoan waters until 
December 6, 1888, when she sailed for San Francisco. Touching at 
West Cape and Honolulu, she arrived at San Francisco January 30, 1889. 
Went up to navy -yard. Mare Island, and was put out of commission 
March 25. She was again commissioned April 22, at the navy-yard, 
Mare Island, and left that place for San Francisco June 14, and the 
latter port on the 18th for Honolulu, where she arrived July 4. She 
sailed for Apia August 4 and arrived there on the 2()th of the month. 
Sailed the same day for Pago Pago and returned to Apia August 22, 
having towed the Monongahela out of port and into Apia. Sail^ again 
for Pago Pago August 25, and returned to Apia September 8, 


The Mohican sailed for Panama February 7, 1889, and arrived there 
March 4, having touched at Acapulco en route. I^eaving Panama 
April 18 and stopping at Cape Pasado, Bahia de Caraquez, Salango 
Island, Manta, and Point St. Elena, reached Payta, Peru, May 3. 
Sailed thence and arrived at Callao July 8, which port she left Septem- 
ber 12 and reached Honolulu October 14, 



The Nipsio arrived at Apia, Samoa, November 7, 1888. She was 
beached during the harricane in that harbor March 16, 1889, and sus- 
tained severe damage. She left for Auckland for repairs May 9, con- 
voyed by the Alertj but returned to Apia May 15, after an unsuccessftd 
attempt to reach that port. She sailed the same day for Pago Pago,, 
reaching there the 16th and leaving May 31 for Honolulu under convoy 
of the Alert. She arrived at Fanning Island June 14 and at Honolulu 
August 2, where the vessel has been repaired and put in condition to 
continue her cruise. 


The Iroquois was put in commission at the navy-yard. Mare Island 
California, June 19, 1889. Went to San Francisco September 5, and 
sailed from that port for Honolulu on the 16th of that month. She ar- 
rived at Honolulu October 14. 


The Finta was employed in Alaskan waters until April 10, 1889, when 
she sailed for the navy.yard, Mare Island, for repairs, and reached 
that place April 29. Left again for Alaskan waters October 6, and ar- 
rived at Sitka October 17. 


The Monongahelaj after receiving stores and supplies for the Pacific 
squadron, sailed from the navy-yard, Mare Island, for the Samoan 
group, February 21, 1889, and arrived at Apia April 6. Sailed the 
next day for Pago Pago, and arrived there April 8. She remained at 
this port until August 21, when she sailed for Apia, reaching that place 
on the 22d. Sailed for San Francisco September 13 ^ arrived at that 
port October 28. 


The Dolphin left Oorinto November 28, 1888, and arrived at Panama 
December 1, having touched at Punta Arenas en route. Sailed De- 
cember 18 and arrived at Acapulco December 25, which port she left 
on Uie 28th for Honolulu, where she arrived January 12, 1889. She 
sailed for New York, via the Asiatic and European stations, January 22. 


The Trenton left Payta, Peru, December 2, 1888, for Panama, where 
she arrived December 7. Sailed January 13, 1889, for the Samoan 
Islands. Arrived at Tahiti February 22. Left that place March 1 and 
arrived at Apia, Samoa, March 10. She was totally wrecked in that 
harbor March 16, 1889, during a severe hurricane. 


The Vandalia sailed from the navy -yard. Mare Island, for the Samoan 
Islands January 20, 1889. Arrived at Honolulu February 2. Left that 
port on the 7th, and arrived at Apia February 22. She was totally 
wrecked in that harbor March 16, 1889, during a severe hurricane. 



Bear- Admiral George E. Belknap assumed command of the squadron 
on this station April 4, 1889, succeeding Kear- Admiral Balph Chandler, 
who died at Hong-Kong February 11, 1889. The vessels composing this 
command are the Omahay Marion^ Palo8, Swatara^ and Monocacy. The 
Brooklyn, Juniata^ and Essex have returned to the United States and 
been put out of commission. 


The Omaha sailed from Shanghai, China, January 29, 1889, visited 
Nagasaki, and arrived at Chemulpo February 8. Left that port the 
next day and arrived at Shanghai on the 19th, having touched at 
Chin Kiang en route. Sailed March 5, visited Nagasaki and Kobe, and 
arrived at Yokohama on the 27th of that month. She remained at that 
port until August 3, when she went to the dock-yard at Yokosuka and 
returned to Yokohama August 8. Left September 6, arrived at Kobe 
September 7 ; sailed September 19 and arrived at Nagasaki two days 


The Marion sailed from Shanghai February 4, 1889, and arrived at 
Hong-Kong February 10. Leaving February 23 and touching at Amoy, 
she arrived at Shanghai March 4. She left that port on the 22d of that 
month and arrived at Nagasaki two days later. Bhe remained at that 
port until April 4, when she sailed for Yokohama, where she arrived 
April 7. Left April 24, arrived at Kobe on the 2Gth, and reached Na- 
gasaki May 3. From the latter port she sailed June 8, and arrived at 
Yokohama on the 12th of that month. Leaving this port July 15, she 
visited Kobe, and arrived at Nagasaki July 27, from which port she 
sailed August 3 and reached Chemulpo August G. 


The Palos arrived at Tien Tsin October 24, and went into winter 
quarters at that place. Sailed March 7, 1889, upon the re-opening of 
navigation, and arrived at Chefoo March 11. Sailed from that port on 
the 14tb, and arrived at Chemulpo March 16. She remained at that 
port until August 8, when she sailed for Nagasaki, where she arrived 
August 11. Sailed thence on the 17th of the same month, and arrived 
at Kobe August 20, having touched at Nak-Sima and Yarumi-no-Ura 
en route. Kemaining in this port until September 19, she sailed that 
day for Nagasaki, where she arrived September 24, having touched at 
Matsuhama and Gogo Sima. 


The Monocaeif has remained at Yokohama since last report. She has 
recently beiMi thoroughly repaiivd and refitted and is now again in 
condition lor active service on the station. 


The Swatara sailed from Montevideo for the Asiatic station March 
11, 1889 ; visited Cape Town, TuUear Bay, Morondava, Mozambique, 
Johanna, Tamatave, Zanzibar, Singapore, and arrived at Hong-Kong 
October 30, 1889, 



The Essex left Chemulpo October 20, and arrived at Tung-Chan-fu 
October 22, Sailed thence October 27, and arrived at Shanghai Oc- 
tober 31, having touched at Chefoo en route. Sailed January 3, 1889, 
for New York ; arrived at Hong-Kong January 7, Singapore January 
15, Colombo January 25, Aden February 9, Suez February 20, Port 
Said February 26, Malta, March 7, Gibraltar, March 18, Madeira, March 
20, and reach*jd New York April 24. Was put out of commission May 
11, 1889. 


The Brooklyn arrived at St. Thomas, West Indies, March 31, 1889. 
Sailed thence April 7, and arrived at New York April 24. Was put 
out of commission at that place May 14, 1889. 


The Juninla sailed from Alexandria, Egypt, December 3, 1888; ar- 
rived at ViUefriinche December 13, having stopped at Naples en route. 
Leff December 17, arrived at Gibraltar December 23, Madeira Decem- 
ber 31, St. Thomas January 22, 1889, and New York February 4. Was 
put out of commission at that place February 28, 1889. 


The force on this station has been under the command of Com- 
mander B. H. Mc'Calla, commanding the U. S. S. Enterprise^ since the 
detachment of Acting Rear, Admiral James A. Greer, June 24, 1889. 

The Enterprise is now the only United States vessel of war on the 
station, the Lancaster iind Quinnebaug have been detached from the 
squadron since last report. 



The Enterprise sailed from Rouen November 2, 1888, and visited the 
following ports : Le Trait, Plymouth, Paulliac, Bordeaux, Lisbon, Cadiz, 
and Gibraltar, arriving at the last-named place December 23. She re- 
mained at Gibraltar until January 8, 1889, when she sailed and visited 
Negro Bay, Morocco, and Malaga, and returned to Gibraltar January 
19. Sailing again on the 23il, she arrived at Yillefranche January 
29. She remained at that port until March 7, when she sailed for 
Naples, en ronte to Zanzibar and Madagascar. She arrived at Naples 
March 10. Proceeding thence three days later she touched at Port 
Said, Suez, Aden, and arrived at Tamatave, Madagascar, April 11. 
Leaving the latter place, she visited Nosi Vei, Belo, Morundava, and 
Mozambique, and arrived at Zanzibar May 1. She remained at this 
port until May 18, when she left for the European station; arrived at 
Aden May 26, Suez June 4, Port Said June 5, Leghorn June 13, and 
Yillefranche on the 25th of the same month. She sailed the next day, 
and arrived at Gibraltar June 30. Lett July 1, touched at Cher- 
bourg, and arrived at Southampton July 9. She remained at this port 
until Augusts, when she sailed, visited Cowes, and returned to South- 
ampton August 13. Proceeding thence on the 24th, she visited Port- 
land, Plymouth, Carrickfergus, Greenock, Wemyss Bay, and Inver- 


aray, and arrived at the Mull of Galloway September 26, Iieft 8^ 
tember 30, visited Holyhead and Bristol, and arrived at Brixbam 
Boads October 31. 


The Lancaster sailed from Yillefranche December 24 and arrived at 
Genoa the following day. She remained at this port antU January 1, 
1889, when she left and retarned to Yillefranche. Sailing from this 
port May 4, she again visited Genoa, arriving there May 5. Sailed 
thence for New York May 13 j arrived at Spezia May 14, Leghorn May 
22, Gibraltar July 2, Madeira July 10, and reached N^ew York August 
8. Was pat out of commission at that place September 7, 1889. 


The Quinnehaug sailed from Constantinople November 15, 1888, vis- 
ited Smyrna, Beirut, and arrived at Alexandria November 27, at which 
port she remained until April 10, 1889, when she sailed for Malta, 
arriving there April 16. Left April 21 and arrived at Yillefranche 
April 24. Sailed for Gibraltar May 1, and arrived at that port May 6. 
Sailed thence for New York May 9 ; arrived at Madeira May 12, and 
reached New York June 17. Was put out of commission at that place 
July 3, 1889. 



The Jamestown was put in commission at the navy-yard, Norfolk, 
Ya., April 13, 1889, and sailed for New York on the 22d of the same 
month, arriving there on the 25th. Sailed for Newport May 7, arriving 
there May 9. She remained at Newport until the 5th of June, when 
she proceeded to sea for the usual summer cruise. Arrived at Cher- 
bourg, France, July 1, 1889 ; sailed thence for Cadiz, and arrived at 
that place August 2 ; sailed August 7 ; visited Tangiers on the 9th, 
sailing the same evening for Gibraltar, where she arrived the next day. 
Lefc August 14, and arrived at Madeira August 19. From this port 
she sailed direct for Newport and reached that place October 6. 


The Portsmouth was put in commission at the navy-yard, Portsmoaib, 
N. H., July 10, 1889, and sailed from that port August 6 for her summer 
cruise. Arrived at Fayal, Western Islands, August 22, where she re- 
mained until the 27th of that month, when she sailed for Funchal, 
Madeira, reaching that port September 5. After a visit of two weeks 
she sailed for Newport, and arrived October 28. Left for New York 
November 11 in tow of the tug Nina^ and reached that place the next 


The Constellation arrived at Barbadoes December 2, 1888. She re- 
mained at this port one month, when she sailed for Port of Spain, Trin- 
idad, arriving January 8, 1889. Left February 18, arrived at Basse 
Terre February 28, and sailed thence March 11, and arnved at St 


Thomas on the 13th of that month. On the 20th of March she sailed 
for Hampton Boads, arriving April 4, and at the navy-yard, JSTorfolk, 
April 9. Here she transferred the majority bf her officers and crew to 
the Jamestown^ and sailed for Annapolis April 25, and arrived at that 
port April 30, when she was turned over to the Superintendent of the 
Naval Academy. 


The vessels on special service are the Ranger^ Despatchj Michigan^ and 


The Ranger returned to the navy-yard, Mare Island, California, June 
26, 1889, and, after undergoing slight repairs, sailed from that place 
November 6 to resume her work on the coast of Lower jOalifornia. 


The Despatch has been employed during the year on the North Atlan- 
tic coast, and has visited at different times the following-named ports: 
Norfolk, Washington, Annapolis, Philadelphia, New York, Elizabeth- 
port, Newport, Boston, Portsmouth, and Bar Harbor, and is at present 
at the navy-yard, Washington, D. C. 


The Michigan has been employed during the past year on the north- 
western lakes. 



The Thetis sailed from the navy-yard. Mare Island, California, April 
20, 1889, and arrived at Sitka June 2, having touched at Tacoma, Port 
Simpson, Fort Tongass, Port Chester, and Wrangell. She remained at 
Sitka until June 8, when she sailed for Ounalaska and ports to the 
northward ; arrived at Ounalaska June 17. Sailing thence on the 24th 
she visited St. Paul Island, St. Matthew's Island, Plover Bay, Cape 
Tchaplin, St. Lawrence Bay, Point Hope, St. Michael's, Port Clarence, 
Cape Tichiboukak, Cape Prince of Wales, Cape Blossom, and arrived 
at Point Barrow July 29. She left this place August 8, touched at Cross 
Island, CoUenson Point, Uerschel Island, Mackenzie Bay, and returned 
to Point Barrow August 24. Left on the Slstof that month; visited 
Point Lay, Icy Cape, Point Hope, and arrived at Ounalaska Septem- 
ber 2G. She left that i)ort October 3, and arrived at Sitka October 10. 
She is now under orders to the navy-yard. Mare Island, California. 


This squadron, created under the Department's order of Septem- 
ber 30, 1889, is composed of the Chicago^ Boston^ Atlanta^ and Yorlc- 
town, and is under the command of Acting Rear- Admiral John G-. 


The Chicago was put .in commission at the navy-yard, New York, 
April 17, 1889. Sailed for Newi>ort September 4 for speed and turning 


trials, and returned to New York September 23. Sailed for Bostou, 
accompanied by the vessels of the squadron, November 18. Anchorecl 
at Sandy Hook and Provincetown, and arrived at Boston November 22. 


The Boston remained at the navy-yard, New York, until May 15, 
1889, when she sailed for the navy-yard, Norfolk, Va., reaching that 
place May 17. Left on the 18th, with tbe Monitor Puritan in tow, and 
arrived at the navy-yard. New York, May 21. Sailed July 4, arrived 
at the navy-yard, League Island, the next day, and, taking the Amphi- 
trite in tow, left July 6 and arrived at Norfolk on the 8th of that month. 
Leaving the next day, she arrived in New York July 10. From thence 
she left, July 29, for Newport for speed and turning trials, and 
returned to New York August 5. She was assigned to this squad- 
ron, September 30, 1889. She sailed for Boston with the other vessels 
of the squadron November 18, and reached there November 22, having 
touched at Sandy Hook and Provincetown. 


The Atlanta was assigned to this squadron September 30, 1889, and 
accompanied the other vessels of the command from New York to 


The Yorictown was put in commission at the navy-yard, League 
Island, Pa., April 23, 1889, and left for New York two days later, 
arriving there April 28. Went to sea for final trial July 27, and re- 
turned to New York July 29. Sailed August 13, and arrived at New-* 
port on the 16th, having visited New London en route. Ilaving com- 
pleted her speed and turning trials, etc., she sailed from that port Sep- 
teuiber 25, and reached New York the next day. Left October 2 ; 
arrived at West Point the same day, and returned to New York Octo- 
ber 5. She was assigned to duty with tliis squadron September 30, 
1889, and accompanied the other vessels of the command from New 
York to Boston. 















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Apia, Samoa, March 19, 1889. 

Sib : It becomes my paiufal daty to report to the Department the 
disastrous injury and loss sustained by the vessels under my com- 
mand in the harbor of Apia during the hurricane which swept these 
waters March 15 and IG. When the gale commenced there were in the 
harbof the following menot'-war: TJ. S. ships I^enUm^ Vandalia^ and 
NipHc; H. B. M. ship Calliope, and H. I. G. M. ships Adler, Otga, and 
EUer. There were also a few merchant vessels and small craft. The 
Nipaic had the inner berth, and the Trenton (last to arrive) had the 
outer berth. 

Indications of bad weather appeared during the forenoon of Friday, 
March 15, and at 1 o'clock on that day I commenced preparations to 
meet a gale by sending down the lower ysurds and housing topmasts. ' 
Fires were lighted and steam raised. By 3 o'clock the gale had developed. 
It blew hard during the evening, and about 8 p. m. we parted our port 
bower cable. During the night it blew with great violence, but with 
aid of steam the vessels kept in good shape till morning. At daylight 
we had hoped for a moderation of the wind, but were disappointed. 
The gale set in with renewed fury, and early in the forenoon it was evi- 
dent that some of the inner ships were ashore and those nearer to us 
were riding uneasily. The flag-ship lost her wheel about this time. It 
carried away with a crash and seriously injured some of the helmsmeh. 
Relieving tackles and spare tiller were applied promptly, but it was dis- 
covered that the rudder was broken, and soon it was entirely useless. 

The wind by this time was blowing with hurricane force and the seas 
were very heavy. The ship had begun to make water during the early 
morning. The hand pumps were manned and all bilge pumps in the 
engine-room put on. The water gained and threatened to put out the 
fires 'f the greater part of it seeming to come in through the hawse pipes 
which are situated on the berth deck. Every effort was made to stop 
the entrance of water at this i>oint, by jamming in bedding, and by 
putting wonlding on the chains, and veering into the hawse pipes. It 
could be checked in this way but not stopped ; for the violence of the 
seas was so great that it would force back everything that opposed it. 
All hands were set to bailing, and the handy billy rigged, but by 9.30 
a. m. the fires had been put out and the men driven up from the fire- 
room. Work at the hand pumps and with the buckets continued from 
this time throughout the gale, with the hope of being able to relight the 
fires and keep the ship sSoat. 

A little before noon the Calliope was seen to be very uneasy at her 
moorings, and soon she steamed towards us, having parted or slipped 
her cables, and making an effort to go out the harbor she came near 
colliding with us and steamed out in the face of the hurricane. In the 
afternoon, the wind having hauled a little, the flag-ship was more un- 
steady at her moorings and parted two chains, one soon after the other. 
We then drifted over towurds the eastern r^^ escaping the wreck of a 



merchant bark by the mere chance of her dragging as we approached 
her. We drifted until our stern was almost against the reef. Destruc- 
tion seemed imminent, as tlie vessel was within a few feet of the reef 
for a long while and pitching heavily. We drifted in this i>08ition 
along the reef for a considerable distance until we came to where it 
turned more toward the eastward. Here we fotind smoother water and 
our remaining anchor seemed to hold quite well for a time. This posi- 
tion, however, put us directly in the hawse of H. I. G. M. S. Olga^ 
which vessel had one of the smoothest berths in the harbor at this 
time. She was riding well and had control of her engines. Efforts 
were at once made to heave over the 8-inch rifle-gun from the fore- 
castlCy to assist in holding, but it could not bo done in time. We 
slowly drifted upon her, and she avoided us twice by skillful use of 
helm and engines, but soon after cut into our quarters, first one 
side, then the other, carrying away boat's rigging and quarter galleries, 
but not essentially injuring the hull. 

During all this time the officers of the flag-ship made every effort to 
manage her by the storm sails and putting men in the rigging. We 
drifted by the port side of the Olga^ and across to the western reef, 
dragging the anchor and tailing now on the western reef as we had be- 
fore done on the eastern. Some of the wrecked vessels were now in 
plain sight; Nipsic well inshore on good bottom, stern to the seas; Van- 
dalia sunk against the reef, masts standing and tops and rigging filled 
with men ; spray and surf flying to their mastheads. Eber nowhere to 
be seen. Adler on her aide, high on the reel*. The Olga had turned for 
the shore and going ahead under steam and vsail was beached on good 
bottom and in a good position, stern to the seas. 

All this time the gale was blowin*^^ with unabated fury. About 6 
o'clock we were expecting to strike the- reef momentarily. It was di- 
rectly under our stern ; but, as on the eastern si(h», an under tow or 
current seemed to carry us along the reef and keep us just clear of 
striking. Thus we came on to where the VandaUa was lying, and it 
was evident that our stern would soon strike against her port side. As 
we approached her rockets were fired, carrying lines, with the hope of 
rescuing the people on her masts. This proved Tery successful, and 
the men from the main and mizzen were rescued first. Soon after we 
struck the Vandalia with violence, and her main and mizzen masts 
went by the board. We then swung gradually and settled into a x)osi- 
tion alongside of her, just touching the bottom, and our stern grazing 
a sniiiU wreck and the reef. The men were niscued from the foremast 
of the Vandalia^ and thence on during the night we continuetl to beat 
upon the bottom and a;^ainst the VandaUa with great force. 

The wind durin^r this (Saturday) night blew with hurricane force, 
squall following scpiall with hardly any iipj)reciable interval. The seas, 
however, wercs not so high as they wi^n* further out, and we got through 
the night without additional serious misfortune. 

Just before daylight the llag-sliii> was visited by two boats manned 
entirely by natives, who (tarried lines to the shore. This was danger- 
ous work, owing to X\\i\ darkness, to the sea and current, to the reefis 
and wreckage, and to the difficulty of ai)proaching the Trenton on ac- 
count of tln^ Vandalia's wreck. 

The men were kept at the pumps andbuckets without cessation, with 
a view to hauling ott'the ship, if possible, and keeping her afloat when 
the gale abated. In the morning the wind moderated. It was then 
ascertained that the propeller was missing. The ship had settled hard 
on the bottom, and the water could not be reduced ; it was up to the 
engine-room platform and rising. Under these circamstances, and in 


the absence of auy docking facilities or marine railway a[ipliance8 and 
powerful pumps, the abandonment of the ship became necessary. 
Stores were gotten up as rapidly as possible, and the people got their 
effects ashore. Immediately thereafter tUe crew was set to work getting 
out and saving from her everything possible. On Monday the water 
was up to her gun deck, and she had settled a little on her port side. Oa 
Tuesday she had settled more to port and was still lower in the water. 

The Vandalia is completely submerged, only her foremast and head- 
l)ooms showing above the water. The Nipsic is lying in about 7 feet 
of water at low tide (rise and fall about 4 feet). She would probably 
have to be hauled astern some 500 feet to float her at high tide. She 
has lost her smoke-pipe, also her rudder, and her x^ropeller is badly 
damaged. Her crew remain on board, and she keeps her bilges free of 
water by the steam-pump. I have ordered a board to investigate at 
once the possibility of saving the Nipsic^ and to further investigate 
and report upon all circumstances connected with the loss and damage 
of the vessels by the gale. The report of this board will be forwarded 
by the first opportunity after its receipt by me. The crews of the Van- 
dalia and Trenton a;e in barrack on shore. The Calliope steamed into 
the harbor this morning, showing signs of having experienced heavy 
weather. She goes to Sydney as soon as possible for repairs, and 
through the kindness of Captain Kane her diving outfit has been 
turned over to us, and it will be of the greatest assistance in saving 
stores. 1 commend his services to the Department, and trust that they 
will be regarded as worthy of recognition. 

Lieutenant Wilson goes to Auckland to report the catastrophe to the 
Department by cable, and to charter a steamer to take to San Fran- 
cisco the Vtindalia^s cvevf and others of the squadron who are sick and 
disabled. By the Calliope 1 send a dui)licate dispatch to Sydney to be 
lorwarded by the United States consul to the Department. 

I have received the most valuable assistance from MalietoaMataafa, 
who has sent a large number of his men to help in getting stores and 
public property froni the ships. 

The CaUio2)e when she went out the harbor carried 90 poundsof steam, 
making seventy four revolutions, and then wasjust able to make head- 
way against the gale; and when outside, duriug the period of four hours 
she made no headway, engines running at full speed. 

I regret to rei)ort the following loss of life: 

On the Vandalia^ four officers and thirty-nine men, viz : 

Capt. C. M.Sehoou maker. | Frank Lissman, sergeant. 

£. M. Hammer, eeamau. 
George Gorman, carpenter. 
M. Crai;^n, captain after-guard. 
WiUiam Brown, tirst quarterinastfT. 
T. G. Downey, payraajiter^s yeoman. 
Michael Cusben, corporal. 
Nicholas Kinsella, corporal. 
II. C. Gt'hrin^, private marine. 
Aclolph Gohluer, private marine. 
Frank JoncH, private marine. 

Paymastirr Frank H. ArmH. 

First Lieut. F. E. Sutton, marine 

Pay Clerk John Roche. 
George Murray**, baynian, 

B. F. Davis, en^ineer'rt yeoman. 
M. H. Jos<*ph, engineer's yeoman. 
N. B. Gre«'n, havman. 
H. P. Stalinan. hay man. 

C. H. Hawkius, steerage steward. 

C. E. G. Stanford, landsman. • Georg«? Jordan, private marine. 

W. Brisbane, cabin steward. ' John Willford, private marine. 

Joseph Grithu, first-class iiieman. I Henry Wixted, private marine. 

M. Erickson, ordinary seamau. Aylmer Montgomerie, private marine 

Thomas Kelly, second-class Areman. John Sims, private marine. 

W. Howat, c<»al heavei. ; G. H. Well.s, private marine. 

C. P. KnitztT, ordinary seaman. 

Thomas Kib\v, landsman. 

John Kelly, ordinary seaman. 

Henry Baker, landsman. 

John Hantchett, sergeant* 


Charles Kraus. private marine. 
Ah Kean, cabin cook. 
Ah Pack, seamen's cook. 
Pen Dang, landsman. 
Yee Hor, ward-room cook. 


On t\n} Xipsie^ seven men, viz: 

Joshuji Heap, a])prpntice. 
C»e()rj;<) W. CaHau, ajiproutico. 
*I<*ury Pont seel, coxswain. 
William Watson, lirst-class fireman. 

David Patrick Kelleher, coal beaver. 

John Gill, seaman. 

Tbomas Johnson, cabin steward. 

On tlie Trenton., J. Hewlett (landsman) was struck on the head by 
the broakinj? in of a port, and died soon after. 

Diiiin<iC the entire time Caj)tain Farquhar showed great care and 
ffooil judfjment iu handling the ship through this terrific gale and never 
Irit the bridge. lie was ably seconded by his executive and navigating 
ofiicers, wlio did all in their power to save the ship. In fact, so far as I 
could observe, all the olllcers behaved extremely well under the trying 
circumstances and jjcrformed their duties cheerfully, effectively, and as 
well as could be desired. 

This disaster I classify among the incidents and accidents inse])arable 
from the prosecution of duty. Its magnitude, however, gives it a dis- 
tinguishing feature which, fortunately, the service is rarely compelled 
to witness. 

Captain Farquhar has demanded a court of inquiry. No disinter- 
ested oflicers are available here. 1 therefore respectfully refer the entire 
matter to the Department, and if further investigation is deemed neces- 
sary I should be pleased to have a court of inquiry ordered. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Rear- Admiral., U, 8. Navp, 
Commanding U. 8. Naval Force on Pacific 8tation, 

The Secretary of the Navy. 


Apia Samoa, March 19, 1889. 

Sir: T have the honor to inform you that the U. S. flag ship Tren- 
/ow, under my command, was driven ashore in a hurricane on Saturday, 
iMan*h 10, about tS p. m., alongside the wreck of the U. S. S. Vandalia 
in this harbor. 

The ship has since* filled with water and, in my opinion, has broken 
in two places — abreast, the mizzcMi mast and near the smoke-stack. 

it is possil)U>i the shi]) mi<>ht 1h^ floated to dock with the assistance 
of ))oweif'ul j)nin|»s used by wrecking compai^ies, but, as there are no 
facili(i<*s of this kind, she will be a total loss. 

On Thursday, .Mareh 1 1, the wind <*ame out approximately from the 
southwanl, with much rain, the barometer slowly falling, being 29.70 
at noon, 29.(Jt) at midnight ; the force of tin* wind from 2 to 4. l)uring 
the mid-watch, March h"*, got up steam, wind remaining in the same 
dire<^tion and varying from i) to -t, the baiM)m(»ter falling from 29.(>() to 
29.o<). At 4 a. m. tin* wind, and until 8 a. m., was from 2 to G in force, 
the barometer at 8 a. m. luMug 29.42. 

J5y noon, though the barometer fell to 29..'U), the wind had not in- 
creased, or practically changed in direction. 

During this watch i)repared to send down lower yards and housetop- 
masts. From meridian to 4 p. in. sent down lower yards, boused toj)- 


mast, and made preparations for bad weather. At 1 p. m. the wind was 
east, force 1 to 2, barometer 29.24 ; at 2 p. m. wind variable, force 1 to 
2, barometer 29.20 ; at 3 p. m. wind northeast, force 2 to 4, barometer 
29.20 ; at 4 p. m. wind north, force 4 to 7, barometer 29.29. 

This seemed to indicate that the gale had broken and that the wind 
would haul to the west. Instead, however, it backed to the northeast 
barometer, rising at 8 p. m., being 29.36, wind northeast, force 4 to 8. 

Up to this time the ship was moored with 62 fathoms on port bower, 
45 fathoms on starboard bower, with starboard sheet under foot. At 
7.57 parted port bower chain, let go port sheet, steamed ahead, veer- 
ing to 60 fathoms on it and starboard bower. 

The barometer during this watch, 8 p. m. to midnight, was steady 
about 29.40, wind northeast by north to north-northeast, force 7 to 8. 
Midwatch of March 16, barometer 29.36 to 29.38, wind north-northeast, 
force 7 to 8, steaming ahead slowly to relieve strain upon anchors. At 
6 a. m. barometer fell to 29.23, wind north by east, force 6 to 9, tre- 
mendous sea. About 7 a. m. wheel ropes carried away, rudder broken 
in two pieces, so as to be useless. About 9 a. m. wind came out from 
north, force 8 to 10, barometer rising to 29.30 at 11 a. m. At 9.30 fires 
were extinguished by water in fire-room, which came from hawse 
pipes, notwithstanding every precaution in the way of jackasses, ham- 
mocks, etc., having been used to keep the water out, but being on the 
berth deck, low down^ and a full bowed ship, it was impossible to keep 
thie water out. The hand as well as steam pumps were going, with 
men bailing besides, and the hatches battened down. 

I attribute the loss of the ship primarily to the location of the hawse- 
pil)es. I have several times reported officially against their location to 
the Navy Department. 

Up to noon the ship had dragged very little, if any ; at noon, barom- 
eter 29.29, wind blowing hurricane from the north. 

At 1 p. m. the barometer fell to 29.19, the lowest reading, the hurri- 
cane continuing with the same force till about midnight, the barometer 
rising slowly, reaching 29.52 at that hour; wind north-northwest. 

From 4 to 8 p. m., dragging slowly at times, set storm, mizzen, and 
mizzen-stay sail, with sheets amidships to prevent any sheering of the 
ship. About 3 p. m. parted ])ort sheet chain, and shortly after star- 
board bower veered to 90 fathoms on remaining anchor. 

Shortly after 8 p. m. dropped alongside the Vandalia^ took off her 
crew from the tops and rigging, and made fast to her. Pounding ter- 
ribly all night, but the wreck of the Vandalia kept us off the reef. 
Notwithstanding every effort could not keep the water down in the 
holds. About midnight the wind had somewhat abated. At daylight, 
the morning of the 17th, a line was sent to us from the shore. 

As much of the provisions as could be handled were gotten on the 
spar deck. In the afternoon of the 17th, the water still gaining, it was 
deemed advisable to land the officers and crew. 

Permit me to express my most heart-felt thanks to you for your most 
valuable counsel and for keeping us in good cheer, particularly when 
in our greatest danger, by your good example. 

During these trying days the officers sustained the reputation that 
our Navy is prouil of. The crew generally worked well. 

Lieut. li. M. G. Brown, the navigator, was by my side the whole time, 
and to his excellent judgment, one time at least, the ship was cleared 
of a reef. Had we struck it I fear few of the four hundred and fifty 
people on board of the Trenton would be alive to-dav. 


Several officers and many men were injured, but only one man killed, 
J. Hewlett, landsman, whose skull was broken by the sea. His remains 
were interred there. 
1 respectfully demand a court of inquiry. 
Very respectfully, 

N. n. Farquhab, 
CaptaiUj TJ. 8. Navy^ Commanding U. 8. F. 8, Trenton. 

Bear- Admiral L. A. Kimbebly, 

U. 8. Nary, Commanding U, 8. Naval Forces on Pacific Station. 



XJ. S. S. Trenton (2d bate), 

Apia, Samoa, April 22, 1889. 

Sir : It may happen that I will not have an opportunity, before a 
court of inquiry, to brin^ to the jiotice of the Department the good 
conduct of Lieut. Commander EL. W. Lyon, U. S. Navy. 

I therefore take this means of testifying to his excellent service dar- 
injjf the hurricane of March IG and 17, 1889, and since then, in savin^^ 
valuable property from the wreck. 

During the gale he intelligently carried out my orders: personally 
supervising the many plans to keep out water, getting lines to the 
Vandalla to prevent the total destruction of the Trenton, and many 
other dutieu besides. Since leaving the ship he has, under most un- 
favorable circumstances, succeeded in getting all the battery on shore 
without accident or loss. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. II. Farquhab, 
Captain, Commanding. 
The honorable Secretary op the Navy, 

Navy Department, Washington, 7>. 0. 

U. S. Flag-ship Trenton (2d bate), 

Apia, ApHl 22, 1889. 
Approved and forwarded. 

L. A. Kimberly, 
Bear-Admiral, Commanding U. S. Naval Force, Pa^Jic Station. 



Washington, 1). C, October 20, 1889. 

Siu: It has retrntly vxnxw to my knowkMl^uv that when the crew of 
the H. 8. S. Trenton^ during the rrciM thurriciinc in Samoa, were ordered 
into the mizziMi ri^jj^^iii^ to act as a sail to l)rin^ the ship head to wind, 
>'aval Cadet l{. 11. Jackson. jnmpcMl into the ri^.uin<jr, leading the way, 
thus setting a ^'ood examph* to the men. 1 be,!*' to bring this gallant 
conduct on his j)art to the notice of tiie Kavy l)ej>artment^ 
Very respect tally, your obedient servant, 

N. 11. Farquhae, 
Captain, IL 8. Navy, Lately in Command of tits U. & 8. Trenton^ 

' . JJo;j. B. l\ TUACV, 

*: :}ikcretary of the Navy. 



the 8ecbetaby of the navy to b. h. jack son, late n a fal cadet. 

Navy Department, 
Washington, October .28, 1889. 

Sir: Ttake pleasure in furnishing you with a copy of a communica- 
tion addressed to the Department on the 26th instant by Capt. N. H, 
Farquhar, late commanding officer of the U. S. S. Trenton, in which he 
brings to its notice an act of gallantry on your part, on the occasion of 
the wreck of that vessel, which recently came to his knowledge. 

He reports that when, during the hurricane at Samoa, the crew of 
the Trenton were ordered into the rigging co act as a sail to bring the 
ship's head to the wind you led the way, and set a good example to 
to the men. 

The foresight and promptness exhibited by you on the occasion in 
question belongs to that class of gallant acts and deeds under trying 
emergencies which reHect honor on the naval profession and lead to 
good results. 

The Department is pleased to place on its files Captain Farquhar's 
tribute to your gallantry. 
Yery respectfully, 

B. F. Tracy, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Mr. E. H. Jackson, 

Late Cadet, U. S. Navy, 

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

gallant conduct of fugi hacuitaboy cabin stewabd of the 

u. s. s. trenton, 

Naval Examining Board, I^^'avy Department, 

Washington, July 3, 1889. 

Sir: The Naval Examining Board, to wliom was referred the dupli- 
cate report, dated May 11, 1889, of Lieut. John C. Wilson, U. S. Navy, 
of the late U. S. IS. Vandalia, and a supplementary report dated July 1, 
1889^ and a sketch from the same officer, together with a report of in- 
vestigation by Lieut R. M. G. Brown, U. S. Navy, dated May 11, 1889, 
a letter from the Japanese consul at San Francisco, Oal., and one from 
Capt. N, H. Farquhar, U. S. Navy, commandiiifi: the late U, S. S. Tren- 
ton, dated June 24, 1889, have carefully consi(h5rod the facts set forth 
in these reports, and are of opinion that the act of Fu^ Hachitaro, 
cabin steward of the U. S. S. Trenton, in goin<? to the assistance of 
Lieotenant Wilson, under the circumstances described, was one of ex- 
treme and heroic daring. 

We therefore resi>ectfully recommend that he be awarded a life-sav- 
ing medal of the Urst class, as provi<led for in section 7, jm^e 127, vol.18, 
Statutes at Large, and that his conduct be commended in general orders. 
The letters and reports in the case are apj>ende(l to this rej>ort. 

A. \V. Weaver, 
Commodore, U, S. Nary, ]*residcnf. 
li. K. Wallace, 
Captain, U. 1^. Navy, Member. 
Silas W. Teruv, 
Commander^ U. S. Navy^ Member. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Tracy, 

Secretary of the Navy, Navy Department. 


Charter Steamer Eookton, 

At Sea, May 11, 1889. 

Sir : • • • Fugi Hacbitaro (cabin steward), of the TT. S. fla£^-8hip 
Trenton, is the man wbo came down over tbe stern of the Trenton and 
helped me out of tbe water, putting a rope about me by which I was 
hauled on board tbe Trenton. 

Tbis be did at tbe imminent risk of his life, as tbe sea was raDDing 
bigb, tbe ships rolling violently, and the mainmast to which I was* 
clinging in danger of being carried away at any moment, and was act- 
ually carried away verv soon after I was rescued. • • • 

I consider tbe act of Fugi HacbiUiro particularly worthy of commen- 
dation, as be voluntarily placed bis life in great jeopardy to a^ist me, 
when 1 most likely would have drowned without such assistance. 
Very respectfully, 

J. C. Wilson, 
Lieutenant, V. 8. Navy. 

Kear-Admiral L. A. Ktmberly, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. IS, Naval Forces, Vavific Station. 

May 11, 1889. 


J. W. Carlin, 
Lieutenant, U. S. Nary, Commanding. 


N. IT. Farqtthar, 
Captain, Commanding V. 8. 8. Trenton. 

Washington, July 1, 1889. 

Sir : I beg to submit tbe following 8ui)plementary statement con- 
cerning tbe conduct of Fugi Hacbitaro therein referred to. 

About 9 o'clock on tbe nigbt of March IG, during the hurricane at 
Apia, Samoan Islands, in wbicb tbe U. S. S. Vandalia was wrecked, in 
attempting to get from tbe Vandalia to tbe Trenton I fell from the rig"- 
ging of tbe Vandalia into tbe water, but succeeded in catching hold of 
tbe Jacob's ladder, running up and down tbe after part of tbe mainmast, 
to wbicb I clung, but found myself too weak to get any higher than 
with my bead just above tbe surfaee of tbe water. Had 1 been left 
tbere I would probably bave drowned, as tbe water was continually 
breaking over me. Tbe sbip at tbis time was entirely submerged and 
tbe waves breaking over ber from side to side. 

Tbe main yard wa>; secured across and on tbe rail, being swept from 
time to time l)y tbe lieavy seas. Tbe bnrricane was at its height and 
tbe sbip was rolling violently. Tbe Trenton bad drifted down until 
ber stern was pressing bard against tbe main-yard, wbicb might be 
carried away at any moment, and tbe mast must soon follow. 

My position was very i)erilous, and it seemed as if no aid coald 
reacli nie. Fugi Hacbitaro (cabin steward), of tbe Trenton, bad observed 
me falling and aiterwards clinging to tbe ladder. He climbed over the 
stern of tlie Trenton aird succeeded in getting on tbe main yard of the 
Vandalia, along wbicb be made bis way until be got within reach of 
me. Lie tben assisted me onto and along tbe yard till we reached the 
rigging, when a line was sent down, wbicb be passed around me, and 


by which I was baaled on board the Trenton. He remained until the 
line could be sent down again for him. 

The fact that the seas were breaking over the yard, that the ship was 
rolling, and that the yard and mast were in danger of being carried 
away at any moment (and were actually carried away a few minutes 
after I left it), made this act of Hachitaro's one of great bravery, by 
doing which he voluntarily risked his own life and was undoubtedly 
the means of saving mine. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

J. C. Wilson, 
Lieutenant, V. S. Navy. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Tracy, 

Secretary of the Navy, Navy Department. 

]S^AVY Department, 
Washington, August 6, 1880. 

SiB: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of the report of a 
board of three officers of high rank in the Navy, who were directed by 
this Department to consider the facts reported in the case of Fugi 
Hachitaro, cabin steward, late of the U. S. S. Trenton, who went to the 
assistance of Lieut. John C. Wilson, U. S. Navy, who was clinging to 
the wreck of the late U. S. S. Vandalia when that vessel was lost 
in a hurricane at Apia, Samoa, March 16, 1889. 

You will observe that this board has found that the act of Fugi 
Hachitaro referred to was one of extreme and heroic daring, and that 
it recommends that he be awarded a life-saving medal of the first class 
as provide<l for in section 7, page 127, volume 18, Statutes at Large, 
and that his conduct be commended in general orders. 

I inclose herewith for the files of the Treasury Department the evi- 
dence in this case, together with the recommendation of the board, 
which has my approval. 

Very respectfully, B. F. Tracy, 

Secretary of the Navy. 


Treasury Department, 

November 18, 1SG9. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you, by messenger, a gold life- 
saving medal, which has been awarded Fugi llachitaio, under author- 
ity of section 7 of the act of June 20, 1874, and section 9 of the act of 
May 4, 1882, for signal heroism in rescuing an officer of the U. S. S. 
Vomdalia from drowning March 10, 1889. 

I will thank you to cause the medal to be forwarded to Lieut. 
John C. Wilson, U. 8. Navy, to be delivered to Mr. Hachitaro, with the 
accompanying letter. 

Kespectfully, yours, 

Geo. S. Batcheller, 
Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 





Apia^ Samoaj March 21, 1889. 

Sir: I regret to report that I was compelled to beach this vessel in 
Ai)ia Harbor on the morning of March 16, 1889, in order to save her 
from total destruction and to save the lives of those under my commancl. 
Tbe necessity was occasioned by the severe hurricane raging on that 
day and the parting of all the chains. During this hurricane the ves- 
sel had three anchors down and veered to their full scopes as far as j>o8- 
sible in order not to collide with either of the German men-of-war Olga 
or ajbevj the former on the port beam and the latter astern and close 
aboard. During the height of the hurricane and at about 5 a. ni. of 
March 16, the German war vessel Olga fouled this vessel, carrying awa,y 
the whale-boat, dinghy, and i)ort railing of poop deck, bending davits, 
etc. About 6 a. m. the Olga again fouled this vessel, this time cutting 
away the port hammock rail from the bridge to the gangway, and the 
upper and a portion of the lower section ot the smoke-stack, the after 
ventilators, the port main yard arm, the steam launch, and second cutter. 

Having lost the smoke stack and there being no draft, I found it nec- 
essary to use pork in the furnaces. 

During the morning watch three men were washed overboard and 
swam safely to the sliore. The seas wx»re breaking over the ship so 
rapidly that some of the gun ports were let down and the water baled 
through them overboard. At this time an elfort was made to get the 
forecastle gun overboard as an additional anchor, when at 6.30 a. m. the 
starboard bower chain parted and the ship continued to drag towards 
the reef astern the ship. Finding it impossible to keep steam up and 
there being every probability of the ship going ashore on the reef, I de- 
cided to beach her in order to save life. At 6.50 a. m. the port chain 
was slipped and the ship was beached in front of the United States con- 
sulate. Prior to slipping, all the prisoners were released. As soon as 
the ship was beached all the sick were sent on shore. In attempting to 
lower the gig in ordc»r to run a line on shore she was capsized, and the 
following-named men, I regret to re])()rt, were lost, viz : Henry Pont- 
seel, seaman; John Gill, seaman; George W. Callan, apprentice; 
Joshua Heap, apprentice, and Thomas Johnson, cabin steward; D, P. 
Kelleher, G. II , and William Watson, oiler, jumped overboanl and 
were also lost. Lin«*s wen* run from the forecastle by means of which 
all hands aban<l()ned shi]» on the aforesaid morning. During the aban- 
donment the kSamoans did excellent work. The casualties of the ship 
during the hurricane are as follows: Cut-water gone;. both Iwwer an- 
chors gone; jibhoom sj)rung; starboard fore toj)sail sheet bitt gone: 
mainmast broken at si'cond band from spar deck ; port hammock rail 
carried away from bridge to gangwr^y ; jmrt main chains carried away ; 
four shrouds of port main rigging carried away; port mizzen chains 
carried away; stt*ani launch, second cutter, whale-boat, and dinghy all 
gone; sailing lauMch badly damaged ; deck-seams opened on quarter- 
deck ; rudder-ijost and rudder gone; main-yard gone; upi)er section of 
smokestack cairied away and lower section ba<lly damaged; both after- 
vent ilat(U-s gone. 

In the ordnance departnuMit many articles, such as priming wires, 
cartridge-boxes, bi^lts, lock strings, etc., were either damaged by salt 
water or washed overboard. 

REPORT OP 'the secretary OP TItE i^AVY. 105 

In the navigation department such articles as deck lamps, log-lines, 
and leads were swept overboard.. The three working chronometers and 
comparing watch have been rendered useless by being filled with salt 
water, the seas coming down the wood-room hatch. In examining the 
magazine 4 inches of water were found therein, but it is now compara- 
tively dry. More or less water was found in the storerooms of the 
paymaster, containing provisions and clothing. 

In the engineer's department boilers Nos. 6 and 6 have spread about 3 
inches, bending the tie-rods and lugs attached to after side. The forward 
cylinder of main engine appears to be raised about 2J inches. The after 
blinker, starboard side, is carried away along the lower edge. The en- 
gines can not be jacked a full revolution, showing that they are con- 
siderably out of line. From an examination by a diver it is found that 
the three blades of the propeller are bent attd a portion of the fourth 
gone ; a portion of the false keel gone ; also a portion of the stern post. 
The planking on the port side from abreast the smoke-stack to break of 
forecastle is slightly chafed. Several sheets of copper are off. There 
are some sails and hawsers now foul of the propeller. The rudder and 
rudder-post are gone and the shoe is carried away. The ship is at pres- 
ent making no water. 

In conclusion I will say that everything was done that could have 
been done to save the vessel from a total wreck and the lives of those 
attached to the ship. Regretting this sad occurrence, 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Commander J Commanding. 

Rear- Admiral L. A. Kimbebly, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U. S, Nat^il Force on Pacific Station, 



Apia, Samoa, March 21, 1889. 

Sir: On the 15th and 16th of March a violent gale swept over Apia, 
wrecking and beaching every craft in the harbor except 11. B. M. S. 
Calliope^ a powerful steamer, which saved herself by going to sea. 

The gale was long foretold and the Vandalia was prei)ared for heavy 
weather, having sent down lower yards, housed topmasts, and got up 
steam in obedience to signals from the flag-ship. We were moored with 
our anchors northeast by east and southwest by west, 45 fathoms on 
each chain, starboard anchor well over to the eastern reef. The shifts 
of wind i>revions to the final blow i)ut an elbow in the hawse. When 
the strength of the gale came upon us we were directly in the hawse 
of the Calliope^ rendering it injudicious to veer. 

All the vessels in the harbor were to leeward of us except the Tren- 
ton. About midnight of tin* 15tli we began to drag and commenced to 
steam up to our anchors, and continued to steam with but few inter- 
missions until we struck, the speed varying from 18 to 42 revolutions. 
The engines worked well, with the exception of a short time when the 
steam ran down to 25 pounds, caused by an accident to one of the boil- 
ers. We had on seven lK)ilers of the eight, and they furnished all the 
steam the engines could use. 


We had bnt one sheet-anchor, and the stock of that was broken in the 
last gale. This anchor was held in reserve as long as possible, in ex- 
pectation of the wind coming out from the northward and wedtward, 
but was let go about 2 a. m. of the 16th as near the weather reef as pos- 

At daylight we saw that the vessels in the inner harbor were in 
trouble. The JBber soon disappeared entirely, and the Adler struck the 
reef, the seas heaving her on top of it and capsizing her. The Calliope 
was our nearest neighbor, and from daylight until 9 a. m. we were in 
imminent danger of getting foul of each other, and also of striking the 
reef, being frequently within 50 feet of it and sometimes within 20 feet. 
The current was so strong that spanker, helm, and two anchors oh 
weather bow were not sufficient to bring the ship's head to wind. The 
seas were of immense force, and the steering gear was carried away 
about 8 a. m. The ship was steered thereafter by the relieving tackles. 

The Calliope put to sea about 9 a. m., and one obstacle was removed 
from our path. Feeling that we must go on the reef if we remained 
where we were, wo made every exertion to get into the inner harbor, 
hoping to escape the extraordinary current we had heretofore encoan- 
tered. In doing so, we passed between the Olga and the lee reef with 
but a few feet to spare on either hand. 

We slipped the sheet-chain to avoid fouling the Olga^s ground tackle, 
and veered on both bowers to clear the ship herself. After passing the 
Olga we made strenuous exertions to bring her head to the wind, bat 
they were of no avail, and the stern took the inner point of the reef at 
10.45 a. m. The engines were kept going until we were convinced that 
the ship was hard and fast. They were then stopped, safety valves 
opened, and the firemen called on deck. The ship's head swung slowly 
to starboard, she began to fill and settle, and the rail was soon awash, 
the seas sweeping over her at a height of 15 feet above the rail. We 
were within 200 yards of the shore, but the current was so strong aud 
the seas so high that swimming was a reckless undertaking. 

We found the Nipsic beached and abandoned just inside of us. A line 
was got on board her, but more were drowned than saved. It was im- 
possible to get a line to the shore. There is no apparatus for tbrowiug 
a line and our buoys floated to seaward. E. M. liammar, seaman, at- 
tempted to carry a line, but was swept back against the ship and killed. 
Many men attempted to swim, but so many were drowned that the 
remainder were deterred. 

The commanding oillcer was washed overboard from the poop aboat 
half an hour after striking, his strength had been exhausted by cou- 
stant work for so long a time and he was unable to sustain the shock of 
the heavy seas. Ue was surrounded by ofiicers and men and had been 
rescued s(n'eral times, when a sea of unusual violence swept him, and 
all in his immediate vicinity, overboard. The crew then deserted the 
poop and forecastle and took refuge in the tops and rigging, where they 
remained until about H j). m., eight hours. The Olga was driven on shore 
about i) ]K m. 

About dark the Trenton draggc^l down on us, and we expected her to 
carry away our masts and throw us into the sea, but she came down so 
gently and was so ex])ert in throwing us lines that nearly all our men 
oscaj»ed Ironi tiieir j)erilous position in the rigging to the comparative 
saiVty of the Trcnton^n decks. The mizzen-mast ami the mainmast soon 
went by the board. In tliii morning the seas had gone down consider- 
ably and the crew was sent on shore in boats. 



The following is the list of the lost: 

Capt. C. M. Schoonmaker. 
Pavmaster Frank H. Arms. 
First Lieut. F. E. Sutton, U. S. Ma- 
rine Corps. 
Pay Clerk John Roche. 
George Murrage, B. M. 
£. M. Hammer, seaman. 
George Gorman, carpenter. 
M. Craigin, captain after-guard. 
William Brown, Ist quartt^rmaster. 
T. G. Downey, paymaster's yeoman. 
B. F. Davis, engineer's yeoman. 
Thomas Riley, landsman. 
John Kelly, ordinary seaman. 
Henry Baker, landsman. 
John Hanchett, sergeant. 
Frank Lissman, sergeant. 
Michael Cashen, corporal. 
Nicholas Kinsella, corporal. 
H. C. Gtohring, private marine. 
Adolf Goldner, private marine. 
Frank Jones, private marine. 

N. B. Green, bavman. 
H. P. Stalman, Dayman. 
C. H. Hawkins, st. steward. 
G. H. Wells, private marine. 
C. E. G. Stanford, landsniau. 
W. Bransbane, cabin steward. 
Joseph Griffin, first-class fireman. 
M. Erickson, ordinary seaman. 
Thomas Kelly, second-class fireman. 
W. Howat, C. H. 
C. P. Kratzer, ordinary seaman. 
M. H. Joseph, eq. yeoman. 
George Jordan, private marine. 
John Willford, private seaman. 
Henry Wixted, private marine. 
Aylmer Montgomerie, private marine. 
John bims, private marine. 
Charles Kraus, private marine. 
Ah Keau, cabin cook. 
Ah Pack, seamen's cook. 
Ten Dang, landsman.. 
Yee Hor, wardroom cook. 

The VandaJia is a total loss. Her rail is awash and she is filling with 
sand. There is nothing standing except the foremast. The safe has 
been brought on shore, but aside from that the articles recovered will 
bo insignificant. The crew is at work doing everything possible in the 
way of wrecking. 

All records having been lost, this report is devoid of data concerning 
wind, weather, barometer, etc. 

The loss of the Vandalia was doe to the extreme violence of the gale, 
the great height of the seas, the extraordinary strength of the current, 
poor holding ground, and the unprotected condition of a small harbor 
Ciinged with coral reefs and crowded with vessels. 
Very respectfully, 

J. W. Carlik, 
Lieutenant^ U. b. Navy^ 
Executive Officer U. 8. Yandaliay Commanding Survivors. 

Bear- Admiral L. A. Kimberly, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding U, S. Naval Force on Pacific Station. 


Apia, Samoa, March 20, 1889. 

Sir : In obedience to your order of the 18th instant, herewith ap- 
pendeil, marked A, we have the honor to report as followd : 

The cause of the losses of the Nipsic, Trenton, and Vandalia^ by being 
driven on shore and the sinking of the Vandalia and Trentony was the 
hurricane of March 16 last. 

The Vandalia is sunk so that her poop and forecastle are at the water's 
edge at half tide. Her foremast is standing. The ship is well broken 
up, as evidenced by the divers finding the wardroom filling with sand. 
The rigging of foremast, the foretop-sail yard, and the foreyard can be 
saved. So also might her battery and stores, in a damaged condition, 
provided there were divers and wrecking facilities. As it is, it is proba- 


ble that she will continue to go to pieces, so that another gale or time 
will shortly finish her destruction. 
Her loss in officers and men is as follows, viz : 

Capt. C. M. SchooTimaker. 
Paymaster F. H. Anns. 
Paymaster's Clerk Jobn Roche. 
First Lient. F. E. Sutton, U. S. Ma- 
rine Corps. 
John Hantchett, first sergeant. 
Frank Lissman, sergeant, 
Michael Cashen, corporal. 
Nicholas Kinsella, corporal. 
H. C. Gehring, private marine. 
Adolph Goldner, private marine. 
Frank Jones, private marine. 
George Jordan, private marine. 
John Will ford, private marine. 
Henry Wixted, private marine. 
Aylmer Montgonicrie^ private marine. 
John Sims, private marine. 
G. H. Wells, private marine. 
Charles Kraus, private marine. 
George Murrage, boatswaiu^a mate. 
E. M. Hammer, seatuun. 
G. Gorman, carpenter. 

M. Craigan, captain after-guard. 
Wm. Brown, first quartermaster. 
F. G. Downy, paymaHter^s yeoman. 
M. H. Joseph, eq., yeoman. 

B. F. Davis, engineer's yeoman. 
N. B. Green, baymau. 

H. P. Stalman, bay man. 
Pen Dang, landsman. 
Y<*e Hor, wardroom cook. 
Ah Keau, cabin cook. 
Ah Pack, seamen's cook, 

C. H. Hawkins, steerage steward. 
C. E. G. Stanford, landsman. 
William Brisbane, C. S. 
Thomas KUy, lirst-class fireman. 
JoHopli Grithn, first-class fireman. 
M. P>icks(m, ordinary seaman. 
W. Howat, coal heaver. 

C. P. Kratzer, ordinary seaman. 
Thomas Riley, ordinary seaman. 
John Kelly, ordinary seaman. 
Henry Baker, landsman. 

Statement of her commanding oflicer aj)]>onded, marked B. 

The Trenton is sunk to her gun deck. JStatemoiit of her commanding 
officer api)ended, marked O. 

With proj)er wreckiijg facilities almost everything could be saved. 
As it is, everything above the gun-deck will probably b(^ unless' a gale 
should break her up. It is hoped that, with the aid of our divers, a 
diving suit having been obtained from II. M. S. CnUiope^ a greater i)art 
of her stores will be save<L The Trenton seems to be broken in two 
places, one abreast of the mizzen-mast, the other near the smoke-stack^ 
and can not be saved. 

The Nipsic is now afloat, with the following damages, as per state- 
ments of commanding officer, navigator, and chief engineer, marked 
D, E, and F. Forefoot gone: port main chains carried away; port 
mizzen-chains carried away; mainmast head sinung; steam-launch, 
second cutter, whale-boat, and dingliy all gone. Sailing launch badly 
damaged ; deck seams opened on (|uarter-deck ; stern-post and rud<ler 
gone; main-yard gone; upper section of suioke-stack carried away 
and lower section biully damaged ; both after ventibitors gone. In the 
ordnance department many articles, such as priming- wires, (jartridge- 
boxes, belts, lock strings, etc., were either damaged by salt-water or 
washed overboard. In the navigati(m departmewt, such articles as 
deck-lamps, log-lines, and leads were swei)t overboard ; the three work- 
ing chronometers and couij){iring watch have been rendered useless by 
being filled with salt- water, the seas eomiiig down the wardroom hatc'li. 
In examining the magnzine 4 inches of water were found therein, but 
it is now comjKiratively dry. More or less water was found in the 
store-room? of the paymaster, containing i)rovisir)ns ami clothing. 

In the engineer's de]>art!nent boilers Xo. o and 6 have spread about 
3 inches, bending the tie-rods and lugs attached to after ends ; the for- 
ward cylinders of main engines appear to be raised about 2J inches; 
the after bunker (starboard side) is carried away along the lower edge. 
There is now every indication that between the turn of the bilge, star- 
l)oard side, and keel, from about boiler No. 3 to center line of main en- 
gine, it has raised from 3 to 4 inches. The engines can not be jacked 
a full revolution, showing that they are considerably out of line. The 


fiteam-pnrops are iu ^ood couditioD, and also the distilling apparatus. 
No. 6 boiler leaks badly; side rods of low-pressure engines bent op; 
deck beams of after smoke-pipe carried away; auxiliary piping above 
boilers broken off; safety valve ^o. 4 boiler bent; floor plates in fire/ 
room will not go into their proper places; jacket of high-pressui*e cyl- 
inder cracked across ; forward cylinder raised 1 J inches. The rudder 
and rudder-post are gone; three propeller-bla^les twisted and one 
broken; connection (shoe) between sterii-|>ost and rudder-post carried 
away ; stern post damaged at after end ; fiilse keel broken off, and cop- 
per strips, two sheets wide, gone to after end of mizzenchains on star- 
board side. The planks are in good condition, but have the copper 
stripped off in places. 

We are of the opinion that it would be unsafe to send the Nipsio in 
her present condition to either Honolulu or San Francisco, as these 
l)orts are distant and to windward. We are, however, of the opinion 
that when good weather sets in she might be towed or convoyed to some 
leeward port, as Auckland, to be docked and repaired. 
Very respectfully, 

N. H. Fabquhar, 

Captain, U. 8, Navy. 


Commander^ TJ. 8. Navy. 
J. W. Carlin, 

Lieutenant^ U. 8. Navy. 


Apia, Samoa. March 18, 1889. 

Sir: Yoa aro appointed tho senior member of a board to inveHtij^ate and report on 
the causes and comlition of losses nud present cimdition of the NipniOf Trenton^ and 
Vandaliaf driven on shore, and in two cases sunken, respectively, the Fandalia and the 

You will also state your opinion in re<:^ard to the Xipsio, as to whether she can be 
got into deep water and as to whether she can be rendered seaworthy to proceed 
either to Honolulu or San Francisco. 
Very respectfully, 


Hear- Admiral J U. S, Nartf^ 
Commanding U, S, Naval Force on Pacific Station, 
Captain Fakquiiak, 

i'. a, yavy. 


statement ok LIEUT. J. W. CAKMN, U. 8. NAVY, EXECUTIVE OFFICER, U. 8. 8. 


Apia, Samoa, March 19, 1H89. 

On tho I'lth and Kith instant a t<»rrilil(? gjjilo swept over Apia, wrecking; or beaching 
every craft in th«^ harbor except II. B. M. S. Calliope^ a powerful steamer, which put to 
sea at tlio li«'i};ht of tho ^alo 

The Vdiidiitia was ]»rfpart'd for heavy weather, with steam up, lower yards down, 
topmasts housed, and «v«Tytliin«x sccnred for tvr.i. 8he was moored with her anchors 
northeast and east and southwest and west, 4o fathoms on each chain. The shifts of 
wind before the tinal blow cam«» on put on elbow in the hawse. There was but one 
sheet anchor and that had a broken stock, the resiilt of tho gale a week before. It 
was held in reserve as long as ])0!isible in expectation of the wind coming out from 
northward and westward. It was let go about 4 a. m. well over to eastern reef. It 
waa about that time that we began to drag the anchors and begafi to steam up to 
them. From G a. m. till U a. m. we were a dozen times in danger of fouling tho Calliope, 
the nicest calculation being reciuired to keep clear cf her and the western reef. We 
were frequently within half a snip's length of that reef and several times within 50 


feet. We conld not bri ng her head to the wind anct sea on account of a Tery strong car- 
rent coming in alons; the western reef. We could not go to sea, because we were too 
close to the reei to clear it when the chains were slippef All our chains were tending 
on starboard bow. 

When the Calliope went t-o sea we attempted to get into the inner harbon dragging 
the three anchors after us, and passing between the Olga and the lee reef, with but 
a few feet to spare on either hand. We slipped the sheet-chain to avoid fouling the 
Olga*8 anchors and veered both bower-chains to clear the ship herself. 

It was found impossible to get into the middle of the channel or to bring the ship 
head to wind, and at about 10.45 the ship struck on the western reef. She began to 
fill and settle, and in a short time the rail was awash, with the seas washing over 
her at a height of at least 15 feet above the rail. The boats were all gone except 
steam-launch and second cutter. The state of tbe sea forbade an attempt to lower, 
though there were volunteers for the hazardous task. 

Several officers and men were washed overboard from the poop, among them the 
commanding officer about half an hour after she struck. All the people then took 
refuge in the rigging, and from time to tim ^ many attempted to swim to the shore, but 
the greater portion were drowned in the attempt. A few reached the Nipaic by means 
of a line, though more were drowned than saved. Tbe natives and other shore people 
were of infinite assistance in rescuing swimmers from the surf. 

The Trenton dragged dowu on us about dark, which was regarded as an additional 
calamity, but which proved to be our salvation, as the men escaped, from their danger- 
ous position in the rigging to the comparative safety of the Trenton^ b deck. The main 
and mizzen masts went by the board half an hour or so after tbe Trenton came down 
on us. The next morning the seas having gone down all the people were transferred 
to the shore. A muster showed four officers and thirty-nine men missing and pre- 
sumably dead. The officers were Captain Schoonmaker, Paymaster Arms, First Lieu- 
tenant Sutton* U. S. Marine Corps, and Pay Clerk John Roche. 

The Vandalia is a total wreck, nothing standing except the foremast. Her rail is 
under water and she is filling with sand. Tbe safe has been recovered and our men 
are doing what they can in the way of wrecking. 

All our records were lost and the above statement is therefore devoid of data re- 
garding wind, weather, barometer, etc. The lowest point of barometer was 29.17, 
on the forenoon of the 16th. 
Very respectfully, 

J. W. Carlix, 
Lieutenant, U, S. Navy, Comtnanding Survivora. 



Apia. Samoa, March 19, 1889. 

The Trenton dragged alongside the U. S. S. VandaliUf which vessel was alongside a 
reef in the harbor of Apia, in a hurricane on March 16, 1889. During the gale rud- 
der and rudder-post were carried away, and the fires put out by water taken into the 

The ship is sunk and her back is broken ; in my opinion for want of docks and 
other facilities can not be saved. A properly equipped wrecking company could save 
everything in her. 

The small arms and ammunition, field and UotchkiHs guns have been landed, as 
well as all of the provisions that conld be taken from the holds. Such boats as were 
not carried away, and in general everything on and above the guu deck, will be 
saved by ns. 

The only loss of life was J. Hewlett, landsman, who was killed by a sea when the 
bridle port was stove in. , 

The rudder, rudder-post, and wheel were carried away early in the day ; the pro- 
peller is also gone. The German corvette Olga collided with us, carrying away both 
quarter galleries, the Hotchkiss guns that were mounted on them, as well as com- 
pletely destroyiupf the barge gig and first cutter. The head-booms were carried 
away by the sea; both bowers and starboard sheet-chains parted. 
Very respectfully, 

N. H. Farquhak, 
Captain, XJ, S, Navy^ Commanding. 








as bis experience daring the night and his extreme coolness made him 
a most vahiable assistant. 
C. W. Johnson (seaman) made a gallant attempt to.take a line to the 

Apostola Callarito (2 of.) swam to the Nipsic^ got a line from her to 
the VandaUa^ and saved the lives of about a dozen men. 

After several failures to swim to the shore with a line, one of which 
resulted in the death of the swimmer, William Fooye (seaman) came 
to me quietly and we talked over the situation while watching the cur- 
rents, swimmers, and driftwood. He then offered to take a line on 
shore but the attempt w'as forbidden. Fooye is the subject of General 
Order No. 3G8. 

Sergeant Jolin Coleman and Private Carroll, XJ. S. Marine Corps, 
volunteered for duty in the fire-room, and remained in the coal-bunkers 
when the danger appalled the stoutest heart. . Coleman has a medal 
for valor already. Ah Kee, a Chinese wardroom boy, weighing about 
100 pounds, was seen dragging Paymaster Arms from the overwhelming 
waters, and afterwards holding or trying to hold him to the standard 
of a compass. 

George Merrage (boat's mate), William Brown (quartermaster), B. 
M. Hammar (seaman), and William Howat, (coal heaver), who were 
drowned during the gale, were conspicuous for skill and valor, and will 
live forever in the hearts of their comrades. 

This does not complete the list of gallant acts and brave men. 
Danger and suffering have effaced from the memory many deeds of 
valor, and it is claimed for the men in general that their conduct be- 
fore, during, and after the gale, will bear the closest inspection, and 
now that the lips of their gallant commander are closed forever, the 
executive officer raises his voice in their behalf, with the earnest hope 
that, as they have left a clean wake, they may have a fair wind in all 
time to come, and that they may encounter only the waves of prosperity 
iu their course. 

Very respectfully, 

J. W. Carlin, 
Lieutenant U, S. Navy^ Executive Officer of the 
U. 6'. S. Vandalia^ and Commanding Survivors, 

Hon. B. F. Tracy, 

Secretary of the Navy^ Washington^ D. C 

Commandant's Office, 
Nary- Yardj Mare Iisla/ndj Cal.j May 22, 1889. 

A. E. K. Benham, 
Commodore, Commandant. 

Lieutenant Carlin showed himself a worthy leader of brave men. 

additional repout of rear-admiral l, a, eimrerly; condition 

of vessels, 

United States Consulate, 

Apia^ Samoa, March 21, 1889. 

SiB: The Nipsic was off* last night, and is now afloat without rudder 

or rudder-post, and her crew is engaged in trying to get up her chains. 

The Trenton is sunk, the water coming over the port side of her guu- 

HA 89 8 


dock at hi^li water. I think her back is broken. She might possibly 
be treed from water if we had the ])roi)er appliances' — powerful steam- 
pumps, etc. She has no rudder, rudder post, or propeller, and lies with 
her deck slightly inclined to seaward. She lies alonji^side of the wreck 
of the Vandalia, which is shoreward of her. The latter vessel is a total 
wreck and broken in two. At hi^h tide the water rises over her top- 
gallant forecastle; only her foremast is standing. We are eugag^ 
securing moorings for the Nipsio and in wrecking the Trenton and Van- 
dalia, A good deal of what we save mi^ht be sold at public auction, 
to save exi)ense of storing and transportation. Our sick and injured 
are doing well. It would i)erliai)s be well to send a wrecking vessel 
here later in the season, to save the Trenton^s heavy guns, ammunition, 
etc. I have received from Capt. lienry C. Kane, Koyal Navy, a diving 
suit and ai)paratus, and will use for all it is worth, but we ought to have 
another in case of accident to this. 

I hope the Dei^artnient will not forget Cai)tain Kane's kindness tons 
in our distress; he commands II. B. M. S. Calliope^ which vessel having 
but one boat, I gave to her one of our ten-oared cutters. As she did not 
consider it safe to lie here at this season of the year, she has sailed 
this morning for Sydney, where she will be repaired, as she was consid- 
erably damaged by the OU/a colliding with her. Almost every vessel 
was at one time or another in collision with some other vessel, and a 
great deal of the damage which occurred was owing to this cause. 

If 1 can save the JSijmc^ which can be done if the weather permits, 
I will send her under convoy to Auckland to be docked and repaired. 
Another ship should be sent here for the purpose of convoying her, as 
the risk of an improvised rudder is too great to send her there alone. I 
have stdl to learn of the condition of her machinery and propeller, but 
shall be informed in the course of a few days. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Rear-Admiral^ U. S. Navy, 
Commanding U. S. Naval Force on Facific' Station. 

The Secretary of the Xavy. 


Apia, Samoa, March 19, 1889. 

Sir : I have to commend to the Government of the United States the 
very great assistance we have received, in saving the public proi>erty 
from our wrecked vessels at this place, from Mataafa Malietoa, who, 
without any retpiest on my ])art, called on me personally and sent some 
hundreds of his men to assist our peoi)le in saving stores and materials 
from the wrecked vessi'Ks. 

Also when the Nipaic an<l Vandalia went on shore the natives risked 
their lives to save those of our men who endeavored to reach the shore 
by swimming, and two of them lost their lives in tbese attempts. 

Jf sonu^ recognition of these services could be made I think it would 
be appreciated very highly by the Samoans, particularly as they have so 
generally ^iven their si'rvices an<l in two cases their lives to befriend as. 
Very resi)ectfully, your obedient servant, 


BearAdmiralj U. aV. Navy^ 
Commanding U, IS. Naval Force on Pacific Station. 

Hon. W. C. Whitney, 

Secretary of tlie Navy. 


Apia, Samoa, March 20, 1889. 

Sir: 1 have the honor to report that, at my request, Captain Kane, 
of H. B. M. S. Calliope^ kindly gave me the complete diving apparatus 
belonging to his vessel, and I trust the Department will take the 
necessary steps to replace it. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Rear- Admiral^ U. S. Navy^ 
Commanding U. 8. Nuval Force on Facific Station. 

Hon. W. C. Whitney, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Apia, Samoa, March 26, 1889. 

Sir: Seumanu, Tafa, chief of Apia, was the tirst to man a boat and 
come to the Trenton after she struck the reef; he also rendered invalu- 
able assistance in directing the natives engaged in taking our people 
and public property on shore on the 17th and 18th of March, and was 
of great service in many ways to all of us. 1 most sincerely wish that 
for his services the Department will reward him, as 1 believe that in the 
future he may prove of great service to shipwrecked sailors. 

As a suitable present 1 would suggest a double-banked whale-boat, 
with its fittings, for Seumanu, and a suitable sum of money or other 
])resent for the following men, who composed his boat«' crews, viz: 
Seumanu, chief of Apia, understands and speaks English; Muniaiga, 
generally known as "Jack,'' speaks English very well; Anapu, son of 
Seumanu; Taupau, Chief Manono; Mose, Fuapopo, Tete, Pita, lonia^ 
Apiti, Auvaa, Alo, Tepu. 

Very respectfViUy, your obedient servant, 


Rear- Admiral U. S, Navy^ 
Commanding U, S, Naval Force on Pacific Station, 

The Secketary of the Navy. 

secretary of the navy to rear-admiral klmberly— acknowl- 

eogment of assistance rendered, 

Navy Department, 

Washington J ApHl 27, 1889. 

Sib : The Department is in receipt of your letters of the 19th and 26th 
of March, describing the great assistance rendered to you by Mataafa 
Malietoa in sending a large force of his own men to take part in saving 
Htores and materials from the wrecked vessels, and also informing the 
DejMirtment of the courage and self-devotion of the Chief Seumanu 
Tafa and his l)oat\s crew, in risking their lives to rescue the officers and 
crew of the Trenton. 

I have to inform you that the Department has addressed letters to 
the Secretary of State requesting him to express through the proper 
channel its high sense of the bravery and generosity of the Samoans in 
bringing succor to the shipwrecked officers and men of your squadron, 
and that it has adopted your recommendations that some substantial 
recognition of these services should be made by the United States Gov- 


The Department has also to acknowledge the receipt of your letter ol 
the 20th of March, stating; that at your request Gapt. Henry C. Kane, 
Koyal Navy, commanding Her Majesty's ship Calliope^ generoasly placed 
at your disi)osal the diving apparatus belonging to that vessel, thereby 
materially assisting you in your effort to repair the damages caused by 
the recent storm and to recover x>i^operty lost in the wreck of the 

I have to inform yoa that the Department has addressed a letter to 
the Secretary of iState upon this subject, expressing its desire to repay 
the cost of the Calliope^H diving apparatus, and requesting that a tender 
of the amount may be made on its behalf to the Admiralty. It 1 
further requested that the thanks of the Department be conveyed w 
Her Majesty's Government, and through it to Captain Kane, for the 
assistance so generously rendered by him to the United States squadron 
in distress. 

Very respectfully, 

B. F. Teacy, 
Secretary of the JN'ary. 

Rear- Admiral L. A. Kimijerly, U. S. Nary, 

Commanding U. S. Naval Force on ilw racijic Station^ Apia, Samotju 




Watfhingtony May 24, 1889. 

Siu: Upon the recommendation of Kear- Admiral Kimberly,aud as a 
mark of appreciation of the valuable assistance rendered by Chief Seu- 
niaiiu to the «hip\vn»ck(Ml v<»ssels at Apia, the De])artment proposea to 
j)resent him with a double-banked whale-boat, with its fittings, and has 
to direct that you will take the necessary steps to have a suitable boat 
prei)ared in California for this purpose. 

Very resiiectfully, B. F. Tracy, 

Secretary of the Navy^ 


Navy Department^ Washington^ 2>. (7. 


Navy Department, 
Washlnntou, IK C\ April 27, 1889. 


The Department desires to repay the cost of the diving apparatus of 
the Calliope, and request that the United States minister at London 
may be directed to ascertain from the Admiralty its value, and to tender 
the amount on behalf of the Navy Depjirtment ; and it further asks that 
the grateful- acknowledgments of this Department may be conveyed to 
Her Majesty^s Government, and through it to Captain Kane, for the 
assistance so generously rendered by him to the United States squadron 
in distress. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

B. F. Tracy, 
Secretary of the Navy, 

The Secretary of State. 

secretary of the navt to the secretary of state^acknowl- 

edglsa assistance by natives of samoa. 

Navy Department, 
Washington, D. C.^ April 27, 1889. 

SiB: In a report dated Apia, Samoa, March 26, 1889, from Rear- 
admiral L. A. Kimberly, U. S. Navy, commanding the United States 
naval force on the Pacific station, the Navy Department is informed 
that invaluable assistance was rendered by certain natives of Samoa to 
the shipwrecked vessels at Apia, during the storm of Saturday, the 
16th March. Hear- Admiral Kimberly calls particular attention to Seu- 
manu Tafa, chief of Apia, who was the first to man a boat and go to 
the Trenton after she struck the reef, and who also rendered material 
aid in directing the natives engaged in taking our people and public 
property on shore on the 17th and 18th. Special commendation also is 
given to the men composing his boat's crew, as follows : Muniaga, 
Anapn, son of Seumanu, Taupau, chief of Manono, Mose, Fuapopo, 
Tete, Pita, Ionia, Ai>iti, Auvaa, Alo, Tepu. 

The Department has the honor to request that you will express to 
the authorities of Samoa, through the proper channels, its high sense 
of the courage and self-devotion of Chief Seumanu and his fellow- 
countrymen, in thus risking their lives to rescue the shipwrecked 
officers and crew of the Trenton from their position of peril and dis- 
tress ; and that you will, at the same time, inform them of its intention 
to send to the Chief Seumanu, in accordance with the recommendation 
of Rear- Admiral Kimberly, and as a mark of its appreciation, a double- 
banked whale-boat, with its fittings, and to reward suitably the men 
composing his crew, for their brave and disinterested services. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

B. F. Tracy, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

The Secretary op State. 

secretary of the navy to the secretary of state acknowi^ 
edging assistance by mataafa malietoa. 

Navv^ Department, 
Wanhington, D. C, April 27, 1880. 

Sir: T have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a report of 
Bear- Admiral L. A. Kimberly, U. S. Xavy, commanding the United 
Stated naval force ou the Pacific station^ dated Apia, Samoa, March 19| 


1889, describing the very great assistance in saving thepablic pro t 
after the wreck at Apia received by him from Mataafo Malietoa, \9 
without any request on the part of Rear- Admiral Kimberly, called apa 
him personally and sent some hundreds of his own men to assist 
United States forces in saving stores and materials from the wreckec 

Hear* Admiral Kimberly further states that when the Nipsio and Fat 
dalia went on shore the natives risked their lives to save those of oa 
men who endeavored to reach the shore by swimming, and two of thei 
lost their lives in these attempts. 

I have the honor to request that the cordial thanks of the Depart 
ment for the valuable and generous services of Mataafa and bis i 
may be conveyed to him through the ])roper channels ; and I w( d 
further add that the suggestion of Eear-Admiral Kimberly tbat 8< 
substantial recognition of these services should be made by the XJni 
States Government is favorably regarded by this Department and ■ 
submitted to the Department of State for its consideration and for si 
action as it may deem wise to take in the matter. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant^ 

B. P. Tbaoy, 
Secretary of the Nav^. 

The Secretary of State. 



Apia, Samoa, April 16, 1889. 

Sir : T take pleasure in calling the attention of the Department to ■ 
efficient and indefatigable services rendered by the following oflBceiii 
who were on shore or who reached the shore during the recent harrii 
at Apia, which was so destructive of life and property: 

Ensign John L. rurcell, U. S. Isskvy. 

Lieut. John A. Shearman, XJ. S. Navy. 

Ensign I r. P. Jones, U. S. Navy. • 

Ensign n. A. Field, U. S. Navy. 

These ofticers WM)rked incessantly, doing all that it was possible to dc 
saving the Xipsic^ in (efforts to launch boats and get lines to the Vandahmi 
and in ])at rolling the beach and saving life. They all worked untfl 
overcome by ])hysical exhaustion. Ensign Field was in ill health 
he left the ship and worked until 4 p. m., when he succumbed. 
since been on the sick-list and nigh unto death. Ensign Pnrcell 
Lieutenant Shearman did not yield until after midnight and wen 
]noniptly at hand early the following morning. Ensign Jones, in addi- 
tion to his services on the shore, is highly commended by his command- 
ing 4)llicer in a letter to me of March 20. of which the following is an ex- 

I hv^ to rail yonr attention particularly to the valuable servicwi of Ensign H. P. 
.Jones, jr., whowaH oiliccr of tlu) dock of tho morning watch and who snperiDtendfld 
thf Ntrrrin^ of this hhi]) ]ir()]i(»rly and oarofuUy for two lung honrs to prevent tlM 
()I(/a frnni rnttin;; us down. He stood bravely at his post by my side on the poop 
tlirou;:h all till' .storm, rain, and volumes of smoke, wlien at times we could see botA 
few feet ahead, as tlir blinding smoke and ]n>at were sim]dy terrible. Mr. Jones lift 
young otlieer of great. ]>romise, and bids fair to be of vuluo to the service snd Ul 

Kiisipi C. S. Kii)leyan(l Pay Clerk S. T. r>rowne are worthy of notiea 
for their active ell'oru and the valuabh* aN.siistance they rendered. 


Teoteo, a Samoan of Apia, made a desperate attempt to swim off to 
the Vandalia with a line while the gale was at its height. The heavy 
surf, the jagged reef strewn with wreckage and swept by sti*ong cur- 
rents, through and over which he attempted to pass, made this effort 
one of exceeding danger, and in the futile attempt he nearly lost his 
life. I have learned of no greater risk of life for others being accepted 
by any one on this occasion, and I commend him to the favorable con- 
sideration of the Department, trusting that his bravery will be recog- 
nized in so enduring a manner that his example will be kept in memory 
and the spirit that animated him fostered and developed wherever jicts 
of courage and sacrifice are cherished. In his intrepid effort Teoteo 
was assisted in the management of the line by Toga, a native of Sa- 
moa, whose father was a Tongan. 

Charles Fruen, sr., a native of Apia, saved the life of Surgeon E. Z. 
Derr, of the Nipsic^ and in doing so risked his own. 

Seumanutafa, chief of Apia, and Selu Ledu^nae did excellent serv- 
ice in saving life, and took the lead in directing the work of the natives. 
They organized boats' crews and carried out the suggestions of the offi- 
cers. Seumanutafa took charge of and steered the boat which was 
the first to carry lines to the wrecks in the early morning of the 17th, 
while it was yet dark, and the passage across the reef and the ap- 
proach to the Trenton beset with difficulty and danger. 

All the Samoans were faithful, alert, and diligent in their efforts to 
save life and assist the unfortunate people. Conspicuous among them 
were the following: 

Tatopaii. 8ofa. 

Pauiola. ^ Tnalagi. 

Sigito. * Papalii. 

Fauala. Mtiniaiinnfa. 

Folau. William Hunkln. 

Charles Frenn, Jr. Neaniea. 

Of the foreign residents of Apia, the United States vice-consul, Mr. 
W. Blacklock, was pre-eminently conspicuous for his energy and good 
services, not only in saving life, but in caring for the immediate and 
])re8sing wants of the survivors of the Vandalia^ the most of whom 
were taken to the consulate. Too much can not be said in justice to 
his exertions and hospitality on this occasion. 

Mr. J. P. Dunning, correspondent of the Associated Press, and 
Messrs. H. J. Moore, Albert Vicking, Peter Paul, and J. S. Pike, of 
Apia, were conspicuous in the work of saving life and property, and 
deserve particular mention in this regard for most praiseworthy serv- 

From a letter by Commander Mullan, of the NipsiCy dated April 26, 
I quote as follows : 

Among my own crew those who rendered services and set examples were John 
Callahan (i|iiart4^rma8ter), wlio had the mid-watch on the night of March 16, and 
who was stationed on the quarter to watch the movements of the EbeVf which vessel 
was close under our stero, and to report her approach to the officer of the deck, who 
was watching the 0/^a, close on our port beam; also Quartermaster R. H.Taylor, 
who was at the conn from 4 a. m. to the time the vessel was betvchod, never leaving 
it once, 1>ut conning the vesM*! auiid the volumes of smoke and soot ^'hich were 
sweeping aft after the smoke-pipe had been carried away. We were 8tea ruing ahead 
through the night watches. James Lane and Henry Pontseel, seamen, were at the 
wheel from 1 a. m. till the vessel struck and daring the collisious with the O/z/a, and 
remained there without flinching. I regret to say that Poutseel was drowned. 
Chief Boatswain's Mate Jolm Hra<lley and Boatswain's Mate William Cosgrove wero 
very conspicuous during the night in doing all possible. Bradley has been a most 
valuable man to the IflpBio, and ou more occasions than one has ho shown himself a 



thorongh Roainan. I would bo pleasod to see him fiox a boat8wain*8 warrant, for 
which I now recorninend him. He in our loading H]>i"'t. iu times of danger. Brooks 
CaHon, qiiartormaHter gunner, acted as my messenger during a good part of the oight 
and assisKid me greatly. He is a brave lad and always at the pnmer place in time 
of need. I would recommend the above-named men for medals of honor. 

• • « . « • • • 

Sergeant Grupp and Private William Campbell, U. 8. Marine Corps, 
were conspicuous in worthy and earnest efforts along the beach, aiding 
the officers and assisting in every undertaking to save life and property. 

I commend to the notice of the Navy Department, Lieut. John M. 
Ilawley, the executive oflicer of the Nipsie, for his zeal and energy in 
getting the Nipsic afloat after she beached. He had the entire char|]^ 
of this work, and to his efforts in a large measure is due the fact that 
the Nipsic is now afloat without more serious injury, and with the possi- 
bility of future service to the Government. 

Naval Cadets J. A. Le Jeunc, L. A. Stafford, and U. A. Wiley, serv- 
ing on the Vandaliiu are commended as follows, by Lieutenant C3arliii, 
commanding the survivors: 

Tlie gale wa8 terrific and the danger extreme, the ship being on the brink of de- 
struction for lifteen hours. These young olhcers did their duty in the m06t com- 
mendable manuor, distinguishing themselves for coolness, zeal, and plack. 

I have in previous letters to the De])artment called its attention to 
the important services rendered me by Malietoa Matnafa, and to tbo 
exceeding kindness of Cai)tain Kane, of IT. B. M. S. Calliope. These 
services are fully described in my report dated March 19, Nos. 21 and 
25; March 20, No. 22; and March 21, No. 23; but the subject-matter 
of the present letter would be fatally deticient without a marked refer- 
ence to them. 

I have endeavored in the foregoing to make a just statement of the 
worthy efforts made by the persons mentioned, my chief source of in- 
formation being the written report^s of eye-witnesses; and I now re- 
spectfully refer the matter to the Department with the statement of my 
conviction that prom|)t recognition and reward, commensurate with the 
character of the services rend(»red, will be but a simple act of justice, 
and in the cases of our own otlicers and men will operate to the great 
advantage of the service. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Rear Admiral U, 8, iVary, 
Commanding U. S. Naval Force on Facijic Station. 

The Skcketary of tiik Navy. 



Navy Department, 

Washintjton. April 27, 1889. 

Sir : The Department is in receipt of your cable dispat<*ii of March 
30, from Auckland, and also of your letter of March 11) trom Samoa, 
with aecompiniying reports from Captain F:n<|nhar, Commander Miil- 
lan, and Ijieutemmt Carlin, liarrating the cinMunstances of the over- 
whelming disaster which has recently befallen your squadron in Apia 


I need not say to you that this event has caused the Department pro- 
found sorrow, which, as the appalling extent and character of the catas- 
trophe became known, was reflected throughout the country. EveU' if 
the Navy were possessed of an adequate number of ships to supply the 
necessities of the service, the loss of three at one blow would be a seri- 
ous diminution of the available cruising force. To a Navy passing, 
as is that of the United States, through a stage of transition, when 
most of its previously existing vessels have disapi)eared aud its new 
fleet is only on the threshold of existence, the blow comes with crip- 
pling force. 

The Department learns with the deepest pain that the wreck at Sa- 
moa resulted in the death of four officers. Captain C. M. Schoonmaker, 
Paymaster Frank H. Arms, First Lieut. F. E. Sutton of the Marine 
Corps, and Pay Clerk John Roche, and thirty-nine men of the Yanda- 
Hay seven men of the Nipsic, and one man of the Trenton. However 
severely the destruction of the vessels may be felt by the Navy, the 
loss of so many valuable lives is a far greater and more irreparable 
misfortune. Captain Schoonmaker died, as he had lived, at the post of 
duty, a gallant and generous officer, and a devoted servant of his coun- 
try to the last. Weakened by long ettbrt, he was swept by the sea from 
the deck of his vessel, soon after she had drifted tq her final resting- 
place. The hurricane at Samoa has brought affliction to many Ameri- 
can households, which will receive the deepest sympathy of the Gov- 
ernment, yet it cannot be said that those who died thus manfully, 
facing danger in the execution of their duty, have died in vain. 

The Department, having closely examined the reports of the circum- 
stances under which the disaster occurred, learns that on the 15th of 
March, when indications of bad weather first appeared, every prepara- 
tion was made to meet the coming gale. The ships were strii)ped and 
steam was raised. The force of the approaching storm could not be 
foreseen, and there was every reason to hope and believe that the ves- 
sels would ride it out at their moorings in safety. The extraordinary 
violence of the gale rendered this impossible, while the crowded condi- 
tion of the harbor, where the vessels lay exposed to the full force of the 
wind and sea, yet shut in on both sides by the sharp edges of coral reefs, 
made their position one of extreme danger. The Nipsic^ Commander 
Dennis \V. Mullan, the innermost vessel of the fleet, was enabled to reach 
a place of comparative safety on the beach, where her gig's crew were 
lost while gallantly attempting to run a line to the shore. The Vayi- 
^a/iVi, commanded by Capt. C. M. Schoonmaker, and upon his death by 
Lieut. J. W. Carlin, after skillfully avoiding a collision fis she dragged 
into the inner harbor struck the point of the reef not far from the Nipsic. 
Here she remained, exposed to the fury of the storm, her officers and 
men taking refuge in the rigging, while the seas swept over her and the 
spray and surf were flying to her mast-heads. Many of her crew were 
lost in the attempt to swim ashore, and one man, E. M. Hammer (sea- 
man), met liis death in a brave but fruitless eflbrt to carry a line to the 
JSlpnic. The survivors, after remaining for eight hours in momentary 
expectation of death, were finally rescued through the efforts of the 
Trenton, The latter vessel, Capt. Norman H. Farquhar commanding, 
had the misfortune early on the morning of the 16th to lose her wheel 
and break her rudder. Soon after the heavy sea, forcing its way into 
the hawse-holes in spiteof obstructions, tilled the fire-rooms and put out 
the fires. The flagship, now without steam or rudder, her anchors drag- 
ging, drifted almost at the mercy of the gale along the edges of the east- 
ern reef, at times not more than 20 feet from total destruction. Every 



endeavor was made to control her movements, and her commaDdiDg 
officer states in his rei)ort that upon at least one occasion it was throu£rH 
the excellent judgment of Lieut. R. M. G. Brown, the Davigating- officer, 
that the shij) cleared the reef and the four hundred and fifty lives on 
board were saved. The Department notes with satisfaction your com- 
mendation of Lieutenant Brown and also of Lieut. Commander Henry 
W. Lyon, the executive officer, for their effi)rts to save the ship. After 
a collision with the Olga the Trenton passed over to the western reef, 
where she drifted with the current until she struck the ground near the 

From your own report, and from other accounts that have reached 
the Deptirtment, it appears that the conduct of those under your com- 
mand evinced throughout that courage, resolution, and fortitude which 
the United States has learned always to expect from the officers and 
seamen of its Navy. When her Britannic Majesty's ship Calliope, for- 
tunate in the possession of more powerful engines, succeeded in her 
gallant effort to pass the Trenton and steam out of the harbor against 
the hurricane, the ringing cheer from the American flagship, as her crew 
were standing in the face of death, showed a spirit alike generous and 
dauntless. During the whole of Saturday, when the Trentmi was help- 
lessly dragging her anchors on the verge of destruction, the officers pre- 
served their composed and heroic bearing, and directed her movements 
with consummate skill ; the crew were thrown into the rigging as a sub- 
stitute for sails, and through the cool and exact judgment of those 
charged with her guidance, she was enabled to escape the extremity of 
peril. Finally, at the close of the day, when she brought up alongside 
of the Vandalia^ her officers and men, notwithstanding the suffering 
through which tliey had i)assed, and the dangers by which they were 
still surrounded, thought only of doing their utmost to Jissist their com- 
rades of the Vandalia^ whose distress was greater than their own, and 
by tiring rockets with life lines over the masts and rigging of the sunken 
vessel, tliey succeecUMl in rescuing all those who had taken refuge there; 
while under the insi)iration of a sentiment which hjis awakene<l a re- 
sponse in every American heart, the band of the ilagship, to encourage 
those who, dazed with fatigue and weakened by exposure, were still 
clinging to the rigging, played the national anthem. 

In reply to your reciuest and that of Captain Farquhar for a court of 
in«iuiry, the l)(»i)artnient has to say, that it deems such a court uuueces* 
sary. it is satisfied that the officers in command of the ships at Apia 
did their duty with courage, fidelity, and sound judgment, and thattbey 
were zealously and loyally seconded by their subordinates; that the 
hurricane which caused the destruction of the vessels and the loss of so 
many lives was one of those visitations of Providence in the presence 
of which human efforts are of little avail; that the measures actually 
taken by yourself and the officers under you were all that wisdom and 
prudence couhl dicttate, and that it was due to these measures that ho 
large a i)r<)p4)rtion of the crews were saved; that the one step wiiich 
might have averted the catastroidie, namely, to have put to sea before 
the storm had dev<d()iMMl, couhl oidy have been justified, in view of the 
grave responsibiliti<»s resting ui)on you at ISamoa, by the certainty of 
overwhelming danger to your fleet, which could not then be foreseen; 
that you rightly deeid<Ml to remain at your jxist, and that the Depart- 
ment,' even in the face of the terribh* disaster which it involved, ap- 
])roves absolutely your decision, which has set an example to the Navy 
that should never be forgotten. 


To convene a court of inquiry under tbese circumstances would seem 
to imply a doubt on the part of the Department where no doubt exists; 
and instead of ordering an investigation, it tenders to you, and throngh 
yon to the officers and men of your command, its sympathies for the ex- 
posures and hardships you have encountered, and its profound thanks 
for the fidelity with which you perlormed your duty in a crisis of appal- 
ling danger. 

Very respectfully, 

B. F. Tbaoy, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Rear Admiral L. A. Kimbebly, XJ. S. Navy, 

Commanding V. 8. Naval Force on the 

Padfio Station^ Apia^ Samoa. 


Navy Department, 
Washington^ I), C, September 15, 1889. 

Hon. B. F. Tracy, 

Secretary of the Navy: 

Sir: The Commission for selecting a site for a navy-yard on the Pa- 
cific coast of the United States, authorized by act of C'ongress ap]>roved 
September 7, 1888, and appointed by the Department's order of Novem- 
ber 30, 1888, having com[)Ieted the work assigned to it, submits, respect- 
fully, the following report: 

The text of the act of Congress above referred to, directing the ap- 
pointment of the Commission, reads as follows: 

For the ex])CMisoH of a ConniiisHioii of tliroo ofticorH, to bo appointed by th« Secre- 
tary of the Navy, to rciport as to tho most desirabh' location on or near the coast of 
the GnU' of Mexico and the South Athmtie coast for navy-yards and dry-docks, and 
for the expens<'s of soiindinjj^ an<l Hnrvcyin<jj and estinialin*; expenses, fifteen thou- 
saud dollars. And tlio Secretary of the Navy he, and Im is hen*hy, re(|nired to ap- 

Eoint a CoHunission composed of three competent naval oflicers, whose dniy it shall 
eto examine the coast north of the forty-secotid parallel of north latitude, in the 
State of Oregon and Territories of Washinj^ton and Alaska, and select a suitable 
site, having <luo regard to the commercial and naval necessities (»f that coast, for a 
navy-yard and dry-docks; and having: selected snrli site, shall, if upcui ])rivate 
lands, estin)ate its value and ascertain the i)rice for which it can be purchased, and 
of tln;ir proceedings and action make full and detailed reptn't to theSecretary of the 
Navy; and the Secretary ot the Navy shall transmit such report, with liis recom- 
mendations, to Congress. That to defray the expetiH«'s of such Connnission thc^ sum 
of tive thousand dollars of the abovtwinu)unt, or as much thereof as may be neces- 
sary, may be usetl. 

The order of the Navy Department appointing the Commission, and 
directed to the senior ofticer, is as follows : 

Navy Department, 

Sik: You are liereby a])point4'd presidiMit <»f a Commission, under the act of C'on- 
gress a]»proved September 7, 1K«^^, to select a site for a navy-yard on the Pacifu- coast 
of the I'nited States north of the forty-second parallel of north latitude in tlie State 
of Oregon and Territories of Washington and Alaska. The Commission will can-fuUy 
examine the coast of the State and Territories mentioned, and select a suitable site 
for » navy-yayd and docks, having due reganl for the commercial and naval ne(;essi- 
ties of that coast. Having selected a site, the Commission will, if it be upon private 
lands, estimate its value and ascertain the pri<'e for which it can be purchased. The 
Couimission will make a full and detailed repoTt upon the subject to the Secretary of 
the Navy as s»)on as ])racticablo. Commander (J. M. Chi'ster and Li<Mitenant-Com- 
niander C. II. Stockton wiU be associates^ it h you as meniluTs of the Commission. 
The ConiniiHsiou will meet at the Navy Nrtment on the *dd of December next, and 



yon will accordingly proceed herte for that pnrpose. After organizing, the CommiB* 
hiou will visit the localities mentioned, and carry ont these instructions. 

A copy of the act of Congress, above referred to, is inclosed herewith for your in- 

Very respectfully, 

W. C. Whitney, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Capt. A. T. Mahan, TJ. 8. N„ 

President Naval War College^ Nettport, B,L 

Received December 7, 1888. 

A. T. Mahan, 

Captain, tl,18,N, 

. Owing to a delay in issuing this order, the Commission did not meet 
until Monday, December 10, when the members assembled at the Navy 

Immediately after organizing, the president of the Commission laid 
before it the following letter of instructions from the Secretary of the 
Navy, summarizing, for the guidance of the Commission, the requisites 
essential to be found in the proposed yard: 

Navy Department, 
Washington, D, C, November 30, 1888. 

Sir : Ah president of the Commission to select a site for a navy -yard npon the north- 
westei-n Pacific coast, the following instructions are herewith furnished you for the 
information and guidance of the Commission : 

Thf cIdusc of the naval appropriation act which requires the appointment of the 
Commission states that its duty ** shall be to examine the coast north of the forty-sec- 
ond parallel of north latitude in the State of Oregon and Territories of Washington 
and Alaska, and select a suitable site, having due regard to the commercial and naval 
nec<'ssities of that coast, for a navy-yard and docks; and having selected such site, 
shall, if upon private lands, estimate its value and ascertain the price for which it 
can be purchased ; and of their proceedings and action make full and detailed report 
to the Secretory of the Navy." 

In discharging your duty attention should be given to the following special require- 
ments for a naval station: 

First. A situation upon a good harbor, of sufficient size, depth, and accessibil- 

ity for vessels of the largest size and heaviest draught. 
Second. A favorable position with respect to the principal lines of defense. 
Third. A local security from water attack due to position and natural sur- 
Fourth. Ample water frontage of sufficient depth and permanence, and with 

currents of moderate rapidity. 
Fifth. A favorable position with respect to the lines of interior communication 

(by rail or otherwise) with the principal sources of supplies. 
Sixth. That the character of the ground shall be suitable for the construction 

of excavated docks and basins, and for heavy structures. 
Seventh. Proximity to centers of labor and supplies of material. 
Eighth. Healthiness of the climate and its suitability for out-of-door labor. 
Ninth. The existence in the vicinity of an ample supply of good potable water. 
Before leaving for the Paciti<* coast the Department desires you to place yourself in 
commnnicatifMi with the Chief of* Engineers of the Army in order to ascertain the 
principal lines of defense for these waters as far as they are formulated; and also the 
works that are in progress, or under consideration, for the improvement of any har- 
bors or waters that come within the scope of your examination. 

It will also be advisable to obtain from the Coast Survey Office any hydrographic or 
other information which vould be pertinent, and which is not to be found in the 
charts or i)uhlications of that office. 

The ^'onniiaiidant of the navy-yard, Mare Island, California, will be instructed to 
afford you all necessary awsistance, autl a vessel will be detailed for the purpose ot 
performing any hydrographic work re(|!iired an<l also for affording such transporta- 
tion to the Conniiission as may be deemed necessary or advisable. 
I am, verv respecMuIlv, vour obedient servant, 

W. C. Whitney, 
Secretary of the Navy, 
Capt. A. T. Mahax, U. S. N. 


Having this letter before it, the GommisAion proceeded at once to an 
iDRpectiou of the Coast Survey aud other charts, in order to familiarise 
the members with the characteristics of the coast which they were to 
examine, to determine what portions of it, or what harbors, offered 
probable advantages, and to eliminate such as, from their hydrographic 
features, were evidently unfitted for the establishment of an important 

At the same time there was addressed to the officials of the principal 
cities in the region to be visited, or to persons of reputation residing at 
smaller centers near possible sites for a navy-yard, a list of questions, 
twenty in number, as to the resources of the localities, the object being 
to aiibrd them time to prepare as full a statement as they saw fit, for 
the information of the Commission when it should arrive. This list of 
questions is appended to the report and marked A. 

While thus in Washington the Commission had several interviews 
with the Chief of Engineers and other officers of the Corps of Engi- 
neers, U. S. Army, with reference to works now in progress to improve 
the navigable waters of the Northwest coast, and to the fortifications 
contemplated for that coast. The Office of the U. S. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey was also consulted for the latest and fullest topograph- 
ical and hydrographical datii, and the Geological Survey for information 
'as to the general character of the geology, as bearing upon foundations 
of buildings and excavation for docks. 

On December 20 the president of the Commission went to New York 
to confer with the Army Fortification Board and obtain its present 
views as to the principal lines of defense. While there he was taken 
ill, aud the departure of the Commission was thereby delayed nearly a 
month. It finally left for the Pacific coast January 22, 1889, aud re- 
assembled in San Francisco February 1. 

After obtaining some further information and making some arrange- 
ments about work, unnecessary to particularize, the Commission left 
San Francisco for Portland, Oregon, arriving there on February 8. 

It had been the intention of the Commission to proceed at once with 
a personal examination of the Columbia Kiver, but, after deliberation, 
this ])urpose was now changed for the reason that the Commission, 
while furnished with the fullest and most precise information as to the 
hydrography of the whole coast, including the Columbia Biver as far 
as the Willamette, on which Portland is, had been unable to oittain any 

6 miles from Paget Sound, has been prominently discussed and advo- 
cated as the best site lor a navy-yard. It was j)ossil>le that the proper 
decision of the qiu*stiou might depend ui)on a close survey, determining 
accurately the (lei)lh of water and character of the shores over a great 
part of the lake ; and if so, siieli survey should be begun with the least 
j)ossible delay. The Commission therefore decided to i)roceed at once to 
Seattle and make a reconnaissance of the lake. Accordingly, after an 
interview with a committee of citizens of Portland and visiting some 
l)oints of interest in the neighborhood, it started for Seattle February 
12, rea(thing there February 13. 

The following live weeks were spent in a minute examination of all 
the waters colleetively known un<ler the name of Puget Sound, together 
with the more important parts ot the ooast from Port Angeles, on the 
Straits of Juan de Pu(;a, eastward to and including, lU^lliugham Bay; 
also the Haro Archipehigo, or San Juan group of islands. 


The light-house tender Manzanita had been placed at the disposal of 
the Commission by the Light-House Board, and through the cordial co- 
operation of Lieutenant Sebree, U. S. Navy, the inspector, the exami- 
nation was made under the most favorable conditions and in the most 
thorough manner. 

During this time all points of interest indicated by the citizens of 
the different places were visited, when they seemed to have any bear- 
ing upon the object of the Commission. 

On the 20th of March the Commission returned to Portland, received 
a visit from the citizens of Vancouver, Wash, (on the Columbia Eiver, 
6 miles from Portland), who desired to press the claims of their eity 
as a proper site ; and afterwards, having been furnished by the presi- 
dent of the Portland Board of Trade with a list of places on the Co- 
lumbia which might be found suitable for a navyyard, proceeded to 
Astoria. Here some other possible sites were suggested by the citizens 
of that place ; and later the works for straightening and deepening the 
channel over the bar of the Columbia were visited, under the guidance 
of Major llandbury, of the U. S. Engineers, who is in charge and kindly 
consented to accompany the Commission from Portland. The follow- 
ing day the Commission returned to Portland in the Manzanita^ which 
hawl been sent round from Puget Sound for that purpose by Lieutenant 
Sebree. The banks and islands of the Columbia were thus viewed by 
daylight, in the same manner as the shores of Puget Sound had been. 

The Commission did not think it necessary to visit personally 
Alaska, nor any parts of the coast north of the forty-second paral- 
lel other than those already mentioned, for the reasons which will be 
hereafter set forth in the report, and which will also be found in the 
detailed record of proceedings hereto appended (marked F), which the 
Commission, by the terms of the act, was directed to submit, along 
with its report, to the Secretary of the Navy. 

On the 24th of March the Commission, having finished its personal 
examination of the ground, selected the site it intended to recommend, 
and agreed upon the leading features of the report to be submitted, 
left Portland for the East. 

Having given thus briefly a summary of its proceedings, which will 
be found more in detail in the appended record, the Commission now 
presents its conclusions upon the whole matter and its reasons for fix- 
ing on the site selected. 

Neglecting for the moment^Alaska, the coast-line of the United States 
on the Pacific from 42° N. to Cape Flattery, its northernmost point, 
may be stated at 600 nautical miles — 550 statute miles. From San 
Francisco to 42^ N. the distance following the shore line is 285 nautical, 
or over 300 statute miles. The distance from San Francisco to Cape 
Flattery is therefore close upon 900 miles.* 

In this long distance the character of the coast is most inhospitable. 
There are few harbors, and the shore is lashed by a sea so heavy as to 
break in the almost unexampled depths of 40 to GO feet. With one 
exception, such harbors as do exist are unimportant from a commercial 
and naval point of view, on account of the shoalness and difficulty of 
their entrances. The one exception is the mouth of the Columbia 
Kiver, which, while at times impassable, will generally admit the en- 
trance and departure of ships of heavy, though not the heaviest, burden. 
Being the natural outlet of tlie great valley of the Columbia and of the 
extensive region tributary to it, this harbor possesses great commercial 

* The diHtance by rail from San FranciHco to Tacomai the termiuus of the Northern 
Paclflo Bailroad on Paget Sonnd, U 891 mUe«. 

■ ' - - > - '*- 


iuiportauce aiul couhl undoubtedly coutribute to the naval stren^h of 
the uorthwest coast; but it is not accessible to war ships of the heavier 
classes. The mouth of the Columbia is distant 140 miles from Cape 
Flattery and over 7U0 miles from San Francisco. 

At Cape Flattery a broad arm of the sea, known as the Straits of 
Juan de Fuca, divides the United States from British Columbia. These 
straits have an averaj^^e width of ten or twelve miles for a distance of 
fifty ; alter which they rapidly widen into Washington Sound and the 
Gulf of Georgia, the ibrmer of which belongs to^the United States aud 
contains the San Juan group of islands. These waters form a natural 
boundary between the United States and the British possessions until 
the i)arallcl of 49 N. is reached, beyond which all belongs to Great 

Kighty five miles within the entrance of the Straits of Juan deFuca, 
on the south side, is the opening to Paget Sound, a very exteursive 
water aiea belonging wholly to the United States. The numerous 
ramitications of the Sound, tbe depth and quietness of its waters, the 
rich and extensive country surrounding it, and its rea<ly access lo the 
ocean, at all times, by channels both wide and clear, all combine to 
indicate it as a great commercial center of the future. The terminus 
of one of the great transcontinental lines is already on its shores j it is 
connected by rail with Portland and San Francisco; and branch lines 
of road will doubtless soon extend all along its eastern shore to the 
boundary of Canada, and open communications with the interior of 
Washington and Oregon. 

The Straits of Fuca, IHiget Sound, the Gulfs of Washington aud 
Gi'orgia, form by nature a single water system, between all parts of 
whirli exists easy and rapid communication, and which is easily sicces- 
sible from the* ocean. Such conditions would render such a water 
system of great military importance, even if it lay wholly within tbe 
territory of a single nation ; but when the o]»posite shores of the main 
entrance are held, as iu this case, by independent powers of the first 
class, when the interior waters are also divided between the two powers, 
and the termini of two great transcontinental railroads belonging to the 
one and the otlM»r are found there, the natural strategic situation is 
doiil)ly emphasized. 

The conditions imposed by nature are such as to make the naval 
forces tin* most imi)ortaTit element in the control of the region in ques- 
tion. The Straits of Fuca, l)eing over 10 miles wi<le and from 2(H) to 
(300 feet deep, can not be <*losed by either stationary fortiticatioiis or 
suomarine mines. Farther in, the San Juan islands divide the ap- 
proaches to the (iriilf of (reorgia into num(»rous comparatively narrow 
channels, and the entrance to Pnget Soniwl is only .*i miles wide; but 
in both cases thu d«*pth of water continues too great to admit of torpedo 
defenses, and it is cm i lessee! ly ini|)ossible to hold a. passage against a 
modern tleet nnh'ss obstructions of some kind can be ]vlaced to impede 
Its progress and <lerain it under tlie lire of the hatteiies. 

There is Ibund, therefore, in Pug(»t and Washington Scmnds and in 
the Straits of Juan de l*'uca a great center and (Hitlet of commercial 
activity, l)e!(Migii;g to llie United Si;ites, dependent entirely upon ade- 
(|uate naval force lor its juoteclion against an enemy. The ColumbicL 
J^iver |)iesents another such center, which vmu indeed receive passive 
defense a;::ainsi atta<*k by torts and torpedoes, but in the absence of a 
naval force strong enough lo prevent an enemy from holding his ground 
olf the river its (roinmercc* by sea would be paralyzed. 

These two regions aie near enough to eaijh other to be embraced in 


the 8ame schema of uaval operations, offensive as well as defensive. 
They are too far from San Francisco for such operations to depend 
upon its yard for repairs and supplies. No vigor can be sustained nor 
success expected when ships have to steam fifteen hundred miles, go- 
ing and returning, in search of repair and supply. It may indeed be 
conceded that the shipping of ©very foreign power, save one, would be 
ill this respect under a disadvantage greater than our own if attempt- 
ing to operate in these regions ; but the existence of one upon the strait 
imposes upon us the military necessity of having near at hand a ycird 
in which necessary repairs, even if extensive, can be made without re- 
quiring the distant voyage to San Francisco. Such a voyage could not 
be made by a single disabled ship if our fleet were confronted by an 
equal, or nearly equal, enemy in the straits or on the coast. It must 
be remembered, too, that a slight injury, and easily remedied, may un- 
.fit a modern war-ship for a place in the order of battle until it is re- 
paired. Thisis not a guestion of building ships; ships must now be 
built in time of peace.' It is a question of establishing a base.of oper- 
ations, without which our military position on the northwest coast can 
not be maintained. 

The situation of the outlying Territory of Alaska lends additional 
force to all these considerations. It can only be held by control of the 
sea, and such (control can not be based on San Francisco. It would be 
a <lrawbiick to a fleet to fiave to traverse the distance which separates 
Alaska from the nearest possible naval base in the United States, but 
it. would therein be under no thsad vantage as compared with its enemy, 
except that a British fleet could use, for great part of the way, a pas- 
sage interior to its own dominions. It must not be forgotten, as an 
element of the military situation, that by holding Vancouver Island 
Great Britain has two approaches to the Gulf of Georgia and the ad- 
jiicent continent, while the United States has but one. 

For the i)urpo8es of further and more detailed discussion the Pacific 
coast of the United States, north of the forty-second parallel (see Map 
I), will be divided under the following heads: 

I. The Pacific sea-board from the forty-second degree north to 

Cape Flattery, 
n. Alat^ka. 

III. The coast line on the straits of Juan de Fuca, from Cape 

Flattery eastward, to the frontier of British Columbia. 

IV. The San Juan Islands, or Ilaro Archipelago. 

V. Pugt^t Sound ; under which name is comprised all the exten- 
sive water area inside the headlands of Point Wilson and 
Admiralty Llead, and the narrow in<lei)end^nt entrance at 
Deception Pass. 
VI. Lak(» Washington ; for although this fresh-water lake does 
not communicate with the sea by waters navigable, in the 
strict sense of the word, it has been too prominently men- 
tioned in official papers as a fit place for a navy -yard to be 
overlooked in such a discussion as the present. 

I. The Pacific sea-hoard, — The harbors or inlets of the sea on the 
Pacific coast south of Cape Flattery fall under two classes. First, the 
harbors with very shoal entrance, of which Koos Bay, Ya<iuina River, 
ShiKil water Bay, and Grjiy's Harbor are the most favorable examples; 
second, tin* Columbia River. 

First. — Of the first class it is to be said that the water on the bar is 

NA 89 9 


shoal, the channels shifting, and that the sea often breaks completdj 
across the entrance. The improvements now in progress do not promi« 
the entire .removal of these defects, to which are probably due 
slight development of these places and their imperfect comDQunicatii 
witii the interior. The bad hy drographic condition^ and scanty resooroei 
of the ])oints in question being perfectly well established, the Co i 
sion did not think it necessary to make a personal ezaminatiou \m x 
rejecting them as possible sites for a yard. 

Second. — The Golambia Eiver presents^ though to a much less deg: , 
the same difficulties which characterize the harbors just mentio 
The depth of water on the bar varies ; by the statement of a pilot ii> u 
now 20 feet at mean low water, the same given by the Coast San 
charts as obtaining in September, 1887. The mean rise of the tide 
7 feet; and as allowance must be made for the rise and fall of sb 
pitching in the heavy sea that is met during a great part of the y , 
the underwriters do not accept risks on draughts over 22^ feet, even anaa 
the most favorable circumstances of weather. Ships with that dranght 
are frequently detained for many days by the state of the bar. The 
natural channel, which still remains the main ship-channel, has be 
subject to extensive variations. The sea at times breaks heavily acrosi 
and outside the bar ; and while the regular mail steamers are rarely de- 
tained by it, they are so at times, though they draw only 18 to 20^(eet 
of water, a draught which can not be accepted as approaching the maxi- 
mum required for largo sliips-of-war. 

By the works now in progress for the improvement of the bar of the 
Columbia Kiver the engineer officers expect to substitute, for the present 
indirect and variable channel, a new one that shall be straight and per- 
manent, and maintain a constant depth of 30 feet at mean low water. 
The Commission accepted this estimate to the same extent as the 
engineers ; that is, as an expectation, not as a certainty. Aside, how- 
ever, noni the uncertainty, the depth hoped for can not be considered 
sufficient, in view of the extraordinarily heavy seas which mark the 
Piujific coast of the United States from San Francisco north. It is well 
established, by the testimony of many competent witnesses, that the 
sea along this coast frequently breaks in from 40 to 60 feet. Despite 
the improvements, therefore, the sea may be expected in the future to 
break on, or outside, the Columbia bar, and war-ships which nothing 
else could detain may be bar-bound at a time when the utmost expedi- 
tion is required ; a danger in military operations which should not be 
incurred when it can be avoided, as on the northwest coast it can. If 
nothing better than 30 feet eouhl be had, the defect would have to be 
made the most of; but as far better hydrographic conditions, yielding 
perfect accessibility at all times to the heaviest ships, can be found not 
far away, the inadequate *lepth on the Columbia bar determined the 
Commission to reject tliat entrance, and consequently all i>ositions 
within the river, as unsuitable lor a navy-yard. 

II. Alaska. — With respect to Alaska, the Commission decided that, 
as the (iharts show no probable site for a navy -yard ; as the territory 
is separated from the rest of the United States by foreign territory, so 
that in case of hostilities a yard there would be cut off by a temporary 
loss of naval Hupremacy ; as the resources in ])opulation and manofact- 
ure are so slight; and as the coumiercial and naval necessities of the 
nortliwest coast do not admit of a navy-yard being placed there, a navy- 
yanl in that territory would be undesirable. The Commission, there- 
iorcj did not make a personal visit to Alaska. 


III. The coast line from Cape Flattery eastward to the frontier of 
British Columbia may conveniently be divided into two sections: First, 
that lying west of Admiralty Inlet, the entrance to Pnget Sound. Sec- 
ond, that lying east of the same inlet. 

First — In the former of these divisions there are some good harbors; 
but all, with the single exception of Port Discovery, are indefensible 
against naval attack. Port Discovery formerly offered admirable facili- 
ties for defense through the position of Protection Island; but under 
modern conditions the great depth of water in the channels on either 
Hide of that island forbids (at present) the successful use of torpedoes, 
without which, to detain a hostile fleet under tire, batteries can not be 
exi)ected to prevent the entrance of an enemy. 

Second. — East of Admiralty Inlet the coast line is considered by the 
Commission to run outside of Fidalgo Island; the latter being taken as 
part of the mainland, because the waters which separate it are not navi- 

There are good anchorages on this coast, with easy access to the sea 
as far as hydrographic conditions are concerned, though not as good as 
ean be found elsewhere. The best position is in Bellingham Bay; but 
there the east shore, which alone offers good protection from prevailing 
winds, is already octuipied by town sites, and the whole available water- 
front will be required for commercial purposes if the sanguine expecta- 
tions of the residents should be fulfilled. The. country back of Belling- 
ham Bay, and to the frontier, is level and singularly favorably to rapid 
military movements. Therefore while it may safely be assumed that 
permanent occupation by any probable enemy could not be maintained, 
it is possible that, to a navy-yard placed there, a sudden raid might re- 
sult in injury irreparable for the time. 

The most decisive argument, however, against the whole coast-line 
here under discussion, from Cape Flattery to the frontier, is that in its 
present state of development, it does not possess the importance which 
wouhl justify a strong system of sea-coast defense ; and therefore either 
a navy-yard placed there would be undefended, or an elaborate line of 
works, otherwise unnecessary, would have to be erected for its sole pro- 
tection. The undeveloped condition of the country implies, as is actu- 
ally the ease, imperfect lines of communication with the interior, and 
deficient resources of the kind required by a navy-yard. 

IV. The San Juan IsUinds, or Haro Archipeldgo, — The anchorages in 
this group of ishnuls, and the character of the approaches to them, com- 
bine to present a strong attraction to the military seaman. It is con- 
ceivable that, if confronted with a fleet of substantially equal force in 
these and the adjoining waters, a strongly fortified naval station, or 
out|K)8t, might be occupied here with great advantage. Grifliu's Bay, 
with its high surrounding shores and its three narrow entrances (open- 
ing, one on the Straits of Fuca toward the sea, the others to the north 
and to the east, on the main ship-channel to the Gulf of Georgia and 
on Bosario Straits), is peculiarly fitted for such a station; controlling 
by its position all egress and ingress to the mainland by these ap- 
l)roaches. Such a position on the fighting line, however, though well 
suite<l for storing supplies of coal, ammunition, and provisions, and as 
the station for ships in full fighting equipment, is not what is wanted 
for a navy-yard. The latter bears to the coast and ships dependent 
ui>on it the relation of an essential and permanent base of supplies. 
Uiwn its efficiency, and therefore upon its security as well as upon its 
accessibility, depends the successful maintenance of war. It can not 


l>ru(lently or uRofnlly be thrust to the front, to share and invite bloui 
for Avhich, if serious, it alone can provide a remedy. The ships lyiii[ 
aloi)^ its front or in its docks should not be those which are r^kdy fo 
battle ; but those which either are not yet prepared, or which have « 
turned crippled by service or in action, and need the unmolested laboi 
of the yard to fit them again for their work. 

If, instead of being in equal or superior force to an enemy in th 
waters, the United States should be inferior, a navy-yard in the 
Juan Islands, not being itself a fighting element, would not add to 
security of the islands, but would be cut off from communication w 
the mainland ; without which its usefulness would last at best for i 
very limited time. 

For these reasons the Gommission did not make an exhaustive ex* 
amination of the San Juan Islands, and does not recommend them 
a site for a navy-yard. The selection or recommendation of posi 
for naval stations, for coal or other uses, does not enter into its insu 

V. Puget Sound. — ** Puget Sound " (see maps I and II) has now becoi 
by authority, the collective name for a large body of water, the diftei 
divisions of which have for the most part their own disting^uish 
titles. Originally the name Tuget was confined to the subdivision ly 
jibove (that is, south of) the Narrows. 

There are two entrances to Puget Sound from the Straits of Ji i 
Fuca, viz, through Admiralty Inlet, which is the usual and more 
I»ortant channel, and through Deception Pass, 17 miles further nona. 
between Whidbey and Fidalgo Islands. Of the latter it will be su 
cieiit to say here that it is so narrow, the current so irregular, c 
exi^ept for very short intervals at slack water, so violent, and the neo 
sity of clear vision so imperative from the natural difficulties, that 
very smoke of an engagement wouhl jnobably deter the boldest s< 
from risking its ])as8age. It can be well commanded by batteries havi 
both an enfilading and plnnging fire u])on ap])roaching vessels, ioc 
naval attack it may be said there is but one entrance to Puget Sound 

Kntrring by this more nsual passage, the main branch of the Sound 
extends south with a constant width of 3 miles. Sixty miles* ft 
the entrance. Just within the city of Tacoma, the Sound contracts to i 
wi<lth of less than a mile, forming a ))assage 5 miles long, known as the 
"Marrows,'- which makes u marked natural division between the upper 
and lower sounds. Before ruaching the Narrow^s, however, the maia 
branch of tin* Sound throws olf two large ollshoots. The first in order, 
known as Hood's Canal, i)arts on the west side at Foulweather Bluff, U 
miles from the entrance, and tends south-southwest for a distance of 45 
miles, after which it tnrns sharply to the east-northeast for 13 inilei 
more, when its head is reached. The second offshoot, which is sab- 
named Possession Sound, Port Susan, Saratoga Passage, and Similk 
Hay, separates from the main branch on its east side 25 miles from the 
entran(!e. Its general direction is northerly, and being ii5 miles long^ 
it rea(*hes 17 miles north of Admiralty Inlet, ending in Similk Bay, 
to wlii<'h admission is also gained from the Straits of Juan de Fuca by 
l)e<'eption Pass, l)efore s|>oIven of. 

Al)ove. the Narrows i*u^et Sound widens out over a large areSi 
running through nunieious ch.ninels around luimerous islands, and 
forming several inlets spread out like the lingers of a hand or ths 

* 'i'liiou<^Ii(>ul this ivporl "iiiil(;s" iiieaii statute, nut nautical, loUea. 


spokes of a wheel, and known by various names: Carr's Inlet, Case's 
Inlet, Budd's Inlet, etc. As the tide in some of these, and notably at 
the head of the Sound, has an extreme rise of 18 to 21 feet, and an 
average rise of from 9 to 13, it will be conceived that when the excess 
of water in this great area seeks to ebb through the Narrows, or on the 
return of the tide has to flow, currents of unusual strength and, as ex- 
periment has shown, of some irregularity are developed. These cur- 
rents have had and still have an important military bearing; but that 
bearing now is dififerent from what it was formerly. 

One of the inlets above the Narrows (Case's) extends to within 4 
wiles of the head of Hood's Canal. The land separating the two is said 
to be low, forming a portage ; and it is thought by parties familiar with 
the ground that a canal ^ould without diflticulty be made joining the 
two bodies of water. This low narrow strip of land is the neck of what 
is termed the Great Peninsula, which has a length of 40 miles north 
and south, with a width varying from 25 miles at its base to 5 or less 
at the north end. This peninsula is embracetl between the waters of 
Hood's Canal and of Puget Sound, above and below the Narrows. 

On the east side of the Great Peninsula there is an extensive recess 
of the coast line, forming, with its ramifications, a water area of over 
20 square miles. Immediately across the mouth of this great recess or 
bight lies Bainbridge Island, 10 miles long from north to south. The 
interi>osition of the island between the main sound and the recess in 
question converts the latter into a spacious harbor, known generally as 
Port Orchard (Map IH), though its subdivisions have each their special 
names: Dye's Inlet (or Port Washington), Dog Fish Bay, etc. The 
anchorage ground throughout this harbor has good and not excessive 
depth; while the two entrances, north and south of Bainbridge Island, 
are passable by ships of all sizes and are easily defensible. The pe- 
culiarities of Port Orchard entitle it to be classed as a separate sub- 
division of Puget Sound. 

A marked peculiarity and drawback to this great water area, whose 
leading outlines have so far been indicated, is the excessive depth 
found throughout the greater part of it. This is a twofold disadvan- 
tage: First, from the maritime point of view, in restricting the anchor- 
age ground ; and, secondly, from the militiiry point of view, in that the 
great depth combined with the rapid currents make it impossible to 
employ any system of stationary torpedoes, as yet devise<l, to supi)ort 
the defenses of the entrance, or any part of the principal channels, up 
to and including the Narrows 5 for the latter also are of great depth 
and rapid current. 

This defect of excessive depth is indeed remedied by the existence 
of virions harbors, larger or smaller, known generally as '' ports," as 
Port Madison, Port Gamble, yovt Ludlow, etc. ; but, unfortuuat<»ly. it 
exists in its most aggi'avated form along the very coast, the eastern, 
which would naturally first be developed, and which may reasonably 
be expected to retain in the future a preeminent importance due to 
its greater nearness to the centers of the country and population. In 
fact, the two great cities of the Sound, Seattle and Tacoma, despite 
this disadvantage, are already established there. The moderateness 
of the weather and wind allows ships to lie alongside the wharves, 
which are thrust- out upon the narrow le<lge of shoal that fringes their 
water front; but all the ** ports'' or other anchorage ground are to be 
found either al>ove the Narrows, or on the west side of the Sound, or 
on the Great Peninsula. 

One other feature of the soundings needs to be mentioned. When 


rivers or streams of any size euter the Sound, more or less.eztensh 
flats are formed, which are often bare at low water. This feature. 
most common on the eastern side. Dwamish Bay and CommenceD 
Bay, the harbors, if they may be called such, of Seattle aud 1 
respectively, are instances. The flats at the heads of these bays 
off almost without interme<liate soundiugs to depths of 160 to 250 fee 
The city of Olympia, at the head of Budd's Inlet, is separated by ov< 
a mile of flat from water whore vessels of moderate draught can float a 
low tide; but the anchorage beyond that distance is gooil, with re* 
able depth. The most marked instances of these flats are in Possessio 
Sound, Sanitoga Tassage, and Siinilk Bay ; where the Skagit and otht 
rivors empty. These are so extensive as to nnrrow to 1,000 yards 
channel between Saratoga Passage and Similk Bay; a fact which, fi 
the military point oi' view, renders the prohibition of all hostile entra 
through Deception Pass doubly sure. Even it an enemy had overcM 
the diflu'ulty of the almost imi)regnable pass, he w^ould still have tonn 
the gauntlet of this narrow channel, over 4 miles long, which, from 
moderate depth, can receive torpedoes throughout'. Granting reai 
able ])reparation, it may safely be said there is no entrance to ; 
yound save by Admiralty inlet. 

It has b(»en tliought best to enter into a detailed description of 
leading features of this remarkable inland sea, because in the judgm 
of tlH' members of the Commission it is clearly indicated as the watisn 
ui)(>n which, somewhere,' should be i)laced the navy-yard, a site : 
which they were directed to select, it alone, in all the great reg 
undei' examination, combines with perfect accessibility to the lari 
ships, at all times, such a present development as demands tl 
interests sliould b(», embraced in a scheme of sea-coast defense, beu 
which the proposed yard w^nild be established in safety, without i 
absolute necessity of fortifications of its own ; and it is difficult to doi 
that a sheet of water so favorably situate<l, with so vast a coast-li 
will become the future center and outlet of interests growing yearly in 
extent, and in importance to the whole country. 

Accei>t.iiig Puget Sound as the locality in which the yard should 
placed, the question of the j)articular site will be approached by c 
sidering successively the several great subdivisions in the followi 
order: (1) The Sound below (north of) the Narrows. (2) Hood's Gai 
(o) Posst'ssion Sound, with Similk Bay and Port Susan. (4) 1 
Sound abovi' the Narrows. (5) Port Orchard. 

(1) The l^oiuid hcloic the Narrows, — The Sound below the Narrows 
has a nearly constant width of 3 miles throughout its length flrom 
Admiralty lh*ad to Point Defiance. It has no good and commodionf 
haibors except the three grouping round the city of Port Townsend, 
viz: Port TownscMid, Oak Bay, and Kilisut Harbor; Quart ermaster'lB 
harbor in Vashon Ishmd; and Gig Harbor. The three first have good 
anchorages, but the entrance to Kilisut is so shoal aB to throw it oat 
ot Consideration. Port Townsend has an excellent anchorage, and at 
till* head of the bay there is good shelter from the worst winds, which 
blow from the southward and eastward, that is from up the Sound, and 
which are at times heavy enough to prevent vessels from lying at the 
city wharves. 

it is t!ie oi)inion of th(» Ommission that, as the width of the Soand 
is nearly uniform from t he i'ntran<'e to the Narrows^ and afi the cities of 
Seattle an<l Taeoma,the most important on the Sound, are found in this 
division, the ])rinci]>al line of defense for Puget Sound win natarally^ 

Rtl>OllT OP THE SficnEtARY OF THE NAVY. 135 

be thrown as far forward as possible, namely, to the entrance^ because 
such an advanced position will cover the greatest amount of ground in 
its rear, and because the relative positions and individual advantages 
of Admiralty Head, Point Wilson, and Marrowstone Point are pecu- 
liarly adapted to cover the entrance with a cross and plunging fire. 

Assuming this position for the outer line of defenses, and none can 
be found farther forward, the Commission consider Port Townsend too , 
far to the front ; and that in case of the temporary naval superiority of 
an enemy in the Straits of Juan de Fuca, a yard situated there might 
be shelled from the straits without serious hinderance from the batteries. 

The Commission also consider that, as the great depth of water at 
the entrance, 200 feet, forbids the successful use of stationary torpedoes 
or submarine mines, it would be possible for a hostile fleet, temporarily 
superior, to run the batteries and destroy the yard; and that, if the 
yard were at all worthy of its important purposes, the object of such 
an attempt would be well worth the risk. 

The Commission also consider that the position of Port Discovery 
would offer a valuable means of approach to an enemy seeking to 
attack a navy -yard at Port Townsend by land and sea; and that the posi- 
tion is in so far a menace to Port Townsend, unless Port Discovery be 
protected by a system of fortifications, for which its importance other- 
wise does not call. 

The Commission also consider that the resources and commanications 
of Port Townsend, and generally of the country west of the Sound, are 
as yet too limited, and their future too uncertain, to justify the selection 
of this site for a navy-yard when such other objections as those before 
named already exist. 

It is manifest, of course, that these disadvantages would have to be 
accepted if as good a site could not be found elsewhere ; but the Com- 
mission are of the opinion that a better site can be had. 

Quartermaster's Harbor, between Vashon and Maury Islands, is one 
of the very few good inclosed ancborages to be found below the Nar- 
rows. It was carefully examined by the Commission and two .points 
were noted where the topography seemed fairly suitable. The position 
is entirely insular: and, as the neck joining the two islands is so low as 
to be nearly awash at low water, every part of the harbor is open to 
attack by ships in the Sound, either from the northward or southward. 
These two reasons mainly determined the rejection of Quartermaster's 

Gig Harbor, at the entrance of the Narrows, opposite Point Defiance, 
was also visited. The entrance is shoal and narrow, and the port at 
once too contracted and too exposed for serious consideration. The 
neck which so narrows the entrance is a sand spit, affording no cover. 

As the imi)ortant cities of Seattle and Tacoma are both upon this 
part of the Soun<l, this is the proper place to say why the Commission 
have not selected a site in or near these cities 

The principal reasons are the lack of anchorage ground, unfavorable 
topography in the neighborhood, and that these cities lie open to bom- 
bardment by any fleet which shall succeed in running the batteries 
above. No position can be found in their neighborhood which would 
not be open thus to a force which should, not subdue nor reduce, but 
simply run bj^ the forts that may hereafter guard the channels. 

The statement can still be accepted, as it has been for a hundred 
years, that a fleet can pass any batteries through an unobstructed 
channel, }f its motive power be assured. The depth of the Sound below 
the Narrows is too great to admit of any obstructions yet known. Pro* 


tectioii, tliorofore, ninst <le])eii(l not upon fortifications alone, but also 
upon tioatin*: juhI niovuhle strnctures, coastiliifense ships, aiul torpedo 
vessels, wiiicii shall be rather the primary than auxiliary means of de- 
fense. These in turn depend for their ellieiency upon the yard ; which 
should, if possible, be so placed as to be out of risk of <lauj;er fi*oin a 
sudden attack, a temporary reverse, or superiority of the enemy due 
to backward jireparations on our own part. 

The (Jommissiou do not consider any ])lace on Puget Sound below 
the Narrows a suitable site for a navy-yard. 

(2) BootTH CanaL — There ar(» ])ositions on Hood's Canal whicli from 
depth of water and toi)ograi)hicaI surroundinfjs are apparently fairly 
a<lapted for a navy-yard, but they are not intrinsically as ^(hh\ hs po- 
sitions that can be found elsewhere. The whole of this region lyiiij; i>n 
the west side of Pu^et {Sound is as yet little opened, and it is remote 
from the present, and probable future, chief centers of activity and 

(3) PoHHCHHion iSoundn icith Saj-atoga Pannage^ Shnilk Bay^ and Port 
SuHon, — With the exception of Similk Bay the hydrography and tojiog- 
raphy of these waters is such as to otter no sites for a navy-yanl at all 
comi»arable to those that may be foun<l elsewhere. The shores aie bold 
and precijjitous, with <leep water close to. Upo.n Similk Bay there is 
a limited area of groun<l of gentle slope with moderite water in itM 
front. The ])Osition is one susceptible of strong local defense a^^ainst 
naval attack, being ai)proachable only through Deception Pass and the 
narrow channel before alluded to, which connects Saratoga Passage 
with Similk l>ay. >i'either the topograpliicj nor hydrographio cx)udi- 
tions, however, are at all equal to those of the site which the Commis- 
sion finally selected, nor are the facilities lor local defense superior, if 
they be as good. The anchorage ground is contracted and of uiieveii 
depth. This bay, betwec^n Mope Island and Deception Pass, is con- 
si<lerably farther from the entrance to Admiralty Inlet by interior line 
than the site chosen by the Commission, which would bo a disail van- 
tage to the coast-defense vessels stationed at that entrance. Finally, 
this ])osition is in a country as yet nndevelopeil and without railroad 
communi<>ations; it is remote from the preseitt centers of commercial 
activity and labor on Puget Sound. 

Spet'dy ac('ess through Deception Pass to the Straits of" Puca and 
the approaches to the (iulf of (leorgia is the only ]»lausible arguntent 
in favor (»f this position. A navy -yard on the spot, however, 18 not 
necessary; will not even improvi* this a<lvantage. Kven under friendly 
guns Deception l*ass will be an awkward and dangerous channel for 
lu'avv and costly ships. It, and the harbor behind it, can properly 
serve only for vessels of the cruiser chtss, not for fleets. In short, 
Similk Hay is lit ted not so iimch for a navy yard as for a naval station 
an<l depot of sn]>plies, close to the tront of operations, like the San Juan 
Islands, it is inferior to the latter Id natural advantages, particularly 
in having but one exit on the .N<'ene of acti\'ity; but with reference to 
maintaining th<* supplies that iniuht be centered there, it is superior in 
])ossessing an interior line of eoinmunieatious, not liable to interruption 
bv an enemv. 

(4) The Sound ahorc flir \firroirs. — In the Sound above the Narrows 
the dej>tli of water is for the most part eiinsidc-iably less than in the 
lower Sound. • 


In'tbe extensive length of the coast-line, due to th^ nnmerons inlets 
and ishmds found within the Narrows, there occur several places whose 
topography and hydrography seem to offer a suitable site for a navy- 
yard ; and among these doubtless some would be found to stand the 
test of a closer scrutiny than that the Commission thought necessary to 

It has also been urged upon the Commission that the distance of the 
upper waters of the Sound from its entrance at Admiralty Head would 
contribute to the security of a yard against an enemy, while the Nar- 
rows form a natural and formidable line of defense. 

The Commission consider, however, that a navy-yard may be too far 
from the front as well as too near it ; and particularly when, as in these 
waters, tiie sea-coast defenses must largely depend upon coast-defense 
8hij)s of various kinds. In case of injuries, requiring perhaps but a 
short time to repair, these ships should not be compelled to go from 90 
to 100 miles to a yard, when an equally good situation for it can be 
found at half the distance. 

As regards the Narrows, considered as a line of defense, the neces- 
sity of passing within close range of the batteries on either shore would 
doubtless weigh heavily in the councils of an enemy; while the heights 
of the bluffs on both sides insure a plunging lire, which could be made 
of a most formidable character. 

Nevertheless, the considerations that favor the passage of a fleet be- 
fore batteries, without vital or decisive injury, remain in force ; lessened, 
perhaps, by the characteristics of this particular passage, but by no 
means destroyed. The shortness of the time under fire, the security of 
the motive power, and the speed insured to modern steam shipsof-war, 
the difficulty of hitting a target that moves so rapidly across the line of 
lire, the smoke of battle, and finally, the opportunities offered by night 
and fog, if the way be straight and clear as the Narrows, all concur to 
assure the ])ractieal immunity of a fleet passing batteries in an unob- 
structed channel. The Narrows can not, under any ])resent or as yet 
probable system, be obstructed by stationary torpedoes or submarine 
mines; the depth being from 120 to 250 feet, and the speed of the cur- 
rent above 4 nauti(ral miles, probably at least 5 statute miles per hour. 
It must be renjembered that the tiuhe of attack is at the choice of an 
assailant, and that the speed of the current can be taken in favor of the 
speed of his piissing. There are here no pilotage difliculties to embar- 
rass him. 

The Commission do not consider the Narrows susceptible of being 
securely held against an enemy of the i)resent day. Owing to the 
uncertainty an<l usual gentleness of the wind in Paget Sound they 
were a formi<lal»le obstacle to sailing ships, which could rarely count 
on a "commanding" breeze to make them manageable in the violent 
and irregular currents. Their motive ])Ower was exposed to destruction, 
and they themselves to being thrown by the tide athwart the passage, 
the position most dangerous to them. 

Further, it will be remembered that both Tacoma and Seattle, the 
two chief <jitie8, lie below, outside the Narrows. The Commission can 
not anticipate the decision of the Chief of Engineers; but it seems 
probable that this fact will determine the principal line of defenses to 
be below those cities, and, as has before been said, at the entrance. 
There are not now within the Narrows any interests sufficiently great 
to claim defenses for themselves alone. Consequent ly, any works placed 
there for the security of the yard would be constructed for that i)urpose 
only, and the Commission believes that the site it will present is ca< 


pable of far mor^ efficient local defense by guns and tx>rpedoe8 than the 
Narrows will admit. 

There remains another drawback to the Sound above the Narrows in 
the ^reat rise and fall of the tide. In Olynipia, at its head, the differ- 
ence between extreme high and extreme low water is over 20 (20.7) 
feet, while high-water springs rise 18 (18.4) feet. Wharves being built 
so as to be a little clear of the high-water line, the inconvenience to ships 
lying alongside them with these varying levels can be recognized, as well 
as the greater height and consequently greater expense entailed in baild- 
ing them. Like other difficuUios, this can be met when necessary, but 
should be avoided if possible. Below the Narrows the variations are 
much less. In the site to be presented the extreme difference is nnder 
15 (14.0) ieet, sind high-water springs rise 13 (12.0) feet. 

It remains to be said that the development and resources of the* 
country within the Narrows are as yc^t inierior to the eastern shore of 
the lower Sound, an<l seem likely so to continue. 

For the reasons given the Commission, having found a site it thought 
better situated for local defense, if such were desired ; better situated 
with reference to the naval necessities of the whole water area; freer 
from particular objections to which the S(mnd above the Narrows is 
open, and bett(T situated with regard to centers of labor and supply, did 
not proceed to a closer examination of the various localities noted b^' it, 
in its preliminary reconnaissance of this subdivision. 

(5) Port Orchard, — The Commission having been led, by a process of 
comparison and elimination, to the conclusion that Puget Sound is the 
best locality for a navy-yard in the entire region it was directed to ex- 
amine, have, through a similar i)rocess applied to the Sound itself, 
reached theoi)inion that Port Orchard ))ossesses advantages over all its 
other divisions, and that the particular site should be sought behind 
Bainbridge IslaiHl. 

The chief and only substantial drawback to this position will first be 
stated, it lies on the surface, as do also the reasons why, in the jud£^* 
ment of the Commission, the drawbacks must be accepted. Port Or- 
chard is on the west side of the low<»r Sound, separated by water ftom 
the cities ot Seattle and Tacoma, whi<;li are now, and seem likely to 
continue, the chief centers of commercial and manufacturing activity 
on Puget S<)un<l. its advantages in other respects are so great that 
s<!arcely any hesitation or argument w<mld be needed, before fixing upon 
it, were it upon the <»astern instead of the western shore. 

A cursory inspection of the charts will be sufficient to show the ab- 
sence of good harbors and the openness to attack of all the east shores 
of the Sound, and the Commission has satisfied itself that they do not 
offer a favorable toi)o<,q'ai»hy. 

A great navy yard has a twolbld aspect. It is on the one hand a 
business establishment for carrying on certain work of a very special 
kind. On the other hand it is, for the coast and fleet dependent upon 
it, a base of oj)eratioiis in the most vital sense of the word; and nowhere 
more so than in Puget Sound, when* the defense of the water and its 
cities will rest mainly upon the armed shipping, and so ultimately upon 
the efliciency and security of the yard. 

The latter character, thcmgh obtaining only in time of war, is the 
more important. The tendency of a business establishment to place 
itself near the materials, labor, and sources of power which it uses-— 
n(»ar its resources — must, therefore, in this case, be checked by a con- 
sideration of the military exigencies; and, if the two requirements can 


not be perfectly reconciled, the military necessity mnst override the 
convenience of bosiuess. 

Allowing, for the moment only, that the business advantages are all 
iu favor of the east side of tlie Sound, it must also be admitted as pos- 
sible that hostile ships might pass any and all stationary defenses, in- 
cluding the Narrows. Having effected such a passage, through the ab- 
sence or the misfortunes of our armed shipping, their guns will command 
the shore-line in question with its cities, unless the latter be adequately 
protected by batteries in their immediate neighborhood; a condition 
dif&cult of fulfillment and not likely to be met. A navy-yard close to 
them would both be exi)Osed to and invite an attack, which considera- 
tions of humanity might otherwise avert. Puget Sound is not among 
those waters of which it can be affirmed that the art of the engineer 
has solved the problem of absolutely excluding the entrance of an 
armed fleet. 

Port Orchard, on the contrary, admits the application to the utmost 
extent, and in the least expensive manner, of all the resources of the 
engineer. It is the citadel of Puget Sound, not to be reduced except 
by long and regular approaches, even if the outer defenses be forced 
and the rest of the Sound in the hands of an enemy. Suitably de- 
fended, it is safe both from a sudden dash and from distant bombard- 
ment by shipping. Within its ample limits not only the navy-yard but 
all the merchant shipping of the Sound can find a secure retreat; while 
with two natural outlets, 10 miles apart and of ample depth, the ships 
of war can not be shut up as they might by the injury of an artificial 
channel, but remain a constant threat to an enemy outside and a 
hindrance to any extensive operations farther up the Sound. 

But while the military reasons for selecting this locality are so strong, 
the aHsun)ption, admitted for the moment, that the business considera- 
tions are all in favor of the other side is not correct. In its busi- 
ness capacity a navy-yard needs not only to be near centers of supply 
and labor, and in easy communication with them; it requires also good 
anchorage oft' it, water deep but not too deep, ample water frontage, 
and a suflicient acreage of ground of slight elevation above high- water 
mark, either level or of a light grade, to admit of the easy transporta- 
tion of heavy masses and the inexpensive excavation of dry docks. If 
in the former conditions Port Orchard is somewhat inferior to the neigh- 
borhood of the Sound cities, it is greatly and decisively superior in the 
fulfillment which it presents of the latter gioup of requirements; while 
in the character of the ground for 8upj)ortiug heavy buildings, in the 
healthfuIncKs of the climate, and in the supply of good drinking water, 
the two localities are equally favored. 

In regard to the position as somewhat removed from centers of sup- 
ply, the Commission have not been disposed to attach much weight to 
the necessity of trans shipment, by w ater, of supplies brought to the cities 
b3' rail. It is admitted to be an inconvenience, but not more. Port 
Orchard is distant by water from Seattle between 10 and 15 miles, 
from Tacx)nia double the distance. Except this inconvenience, the re- 
sources in the way of supi)ly of the rest of the Sound and of the whole 
Northwest are equally the resources of Port Orchard. It may be added, 
although the Commission has as a rule avoided surmises on the future 
and confined itself to present conditions, that there is good reason to 
expect railroad communications l>efore very long. A road has already 
been built from the head of Hood's Canal toward Port Orchard, which, 
although for logging only, is incorporated; the distance is only 10 miles, 
the ground is reported as of easy grade, and this road would readilj 


communicatee with others already projected. The question is important 
rather from the military point of view than from that of convenience, 
as affording a second line of communication less open to interruption 
than that by water. (See letter from E. R. Co., Appendix B.) 

The distance from centers of labor seems of more consequence. The 
intermittent activity which characterizes our navy-yards, the taking 
on and discharging of men according to the state of the appropriation, 
the necessity for increasing the force largely on emergency, make it an 
undoubted inconvenience to have a yard distant from the ordinary 
abodes of the required labor. The inducements afforded by navy- 
yards under present conditions, and especially under the eight-hour 
law, may probably be relied on to meet this difficulty, which reduces 
itself mainly to the question of providing lodging and food on the spot 
for a considerable temporary increase of the working force. This diffi- 
culty is minimized by the abundance and cheapness of lumber and the 
conditions of the climate, which is so moderate as to admit of men liv- 
ing comfortably and healthfully in the merest shells. A village named 
Sidney is already establishea a mile from the site selected by the Com- 

Tlu^ chief, and in the opinion of the Commission only, defect of Port 
Orchard having now been stated and sufficiently discussed, the reasons 
which dictated the selection of the particular site within the port will 
be hrst given, after which the advantages of that site itself will be pre- 
sented in full detail. 

Four positions were noted in tlie preliminary but very careful re- 
connaissance made by the Commission: 

(1) A peninsula on tlu? west side of liainbridge Island. 

(U) The north side of Dog Fish Bay. 

(l\) The west side of l^oint Glover, just within the entrance by 

Kich's Passage. 
(4) Point Turner, at the entrance of Dye's Inlet, which was the 

final choice of the Commission. 

These four positions are marked with their resi)ective numbers on 
the append<Hl chart of Fort Orchard. (Map III.) 

Dye's Inlet, known locally as Port Washington, received also the 
careful examination of the ('Ommission. There is more than one i)os- 
sible site within it or on the narrow i)assage leading to it; but the 
current in the ])assage is rapid, the depth not always sufficient for the 
heaviest shij)s, and the positions within more o])en to shelling from 
lloocFs C\'inal than Point Turner is from the lower Sound, it is not 
d(»sirable that the yard should need sj)ecial protection against water 
attack from the westwanl. 

(1) The peninsula on Daiidnidge Island offered excellent topograph- 
ical indications, with an ample water front so disposed that the build- 
ings and shops of a yard would be centrally placed relatively to the 
whole line. The anchorage before it is good and roomy. The deep 
bight to the northwanl promised a good ordinary for ships laid up, 
while that on tJie south presents an excavation already begun for a 

This i)osition wa^ rejected mainly because on an island, the Commis- 
sion being unwilling to cut the yard off from any probable direct com- 
munication with the railroad system of the future. It was also con- 
sidered to be too near the lower Sound ; its defense would necessitate 
more extensive prej»arations at the north end of the island than would 
be re<iuired merely to close Agate Piussage to the entrance of a fleet. 


I (2) The topographical indications on Dog-Fish Bay were excellent, 
presenting quite an extent of level ground, with ample water front. 
The anchorage is somewhat contracted. Being on the main-land of the 
Great Peninsula, this position is not cut off from the future railroads. 

Like the first, this position is too near Port Madison and the open 
waters at the north end of Bainbridge Island. The Agate Passage' 
can be so easily closed to an enemy, as compared with the southern 
entrance, as to dictate the accumulation of works for local defense 
about the latter. A yard placed at the northern end of Port Orchard 
would demand defenses for the special purpose of keeping hostile ships 
at a safe distance; which works, but for the yard, would not be neces- 

(3) The position within Point Glover offered fair tojiography a^nd 
water-front. The soundings immediately before it are very deep for 
Port Orchard, and inconveniently so for ships at a yard. This site is 
also closer than is desirable to the main entrance, Eich's Passage, and 
the presumed fortifications covering it; and finally, it is at least 3 miles 
nearer than Point Turner to the position at which it may be hoped hos- 
tile ships can be kept, by suitably disposed local defenses. 

(4) The considerations thus briefly given determined the Commission 
to examine Point Turner first among the sites favorably noted in the 
preliminary reconnoissance ; and, if the local features proved satisfac- 
tory, to give it the final preference. 

This part of Puget Sound having within the past few years been very 
closely and carefully surveyed by the officers of the U. S. Coast 
Survey, the hydrography was accurately known already by charts, 
which, though not yet published, were in the hands of the Commission i 
a copy from which accompanies the report. • It will be observed that the 
depth, outside the 5 fathom line, is in Sinclair Inlet quite uniform ; 
between and 8 fathoms (30 and 48 feet). In the channel leading to 
Dye's Inlet (locally styled Port Washington Narrows) there is about 
the same depth ; diminishing, however, in places to less than 5 fathoms, 
a fact which weighed with the Commission in rejecting the inlet. 

The belt in Sinclair Inlet, between low- water mark and the depth of 
30 feet (5-fathom line) at the same stage of the tide, which marks the 
probable line of the water- front and docks, averages about 250 yards 
in width. This is not excessive, and, when filled in, the ground thus 
reclaimed will be an important addition to the yard. There is more 
than enough of hilly ground immediately behind to fill in this space. 
The water in Dye's Inlet Narrows is deep close to shore. 

The current through the Dye-s Inlet Narrows is rapid, but not so in 
Sinclair Inlet. 

The average rise and fall of the tide is between 8 and feet. 

Finally, the hydrogra])hic conditions are satisfactory in that Point 
Turner is ac<'essible to the heaviest ships at all times through Kich's 
Passage ; and also, except at low water, through Agate Passage. 

in the matter of topography and the character of the ground the 
information of the Commission was much less definite; and, there being 
but little cleared ground on the j)oint, a closer examination became 
necessary. Owing to the dense growth of thicket and underbrush, with 
fallen timber, this was a i)roceeding that rec^uired both time and trouble. 
The Commission was able to satisfy itself that there was enough ground 
either level or of slight incline for the purposes of a yard ; that a great 
part of the general surface could be easily and inexpensively graded ; 
and that when this was done the area included in the selected site 
would readily lend itself to a convenient arrangement of docks, dry- 


docks, workshops, offices, and quarters of every kind, inclndini^, if nee- 
essary, marine barracks and hospital. But while the Gommiaaiou on 
the spot was able by personal examination thas to satisfy itself, it was 
im])os8ib]e so to describe the area as to be intelligible to a person called 
upon to ])ass comment or take action; and as the act constituting the 
Commission required a detailed report, and that the Secretary of the 
Navy should transmit the report with his comments to Congress, it was 
felt necessary to obtain such a survey as would show graphically and 
precisely the character of the surface and lay of the ground. Througb 
the kindness of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey the services 
of Assiwstant J. F. Pratt, an accomplished surveyor, were placed at the 
disposal of the Commission, and a copy of the survey made by him is 
appended to the report. (See Map V.) This survey shows with great 
])recision the contours of the shore, as well as the hydrography, along 
Sinclair Inlet, which would naturally be the principal working fk)nt of 
the yard. The funds at the disposal of the Commission were not large 
enough to admit of an equally minute examination of the rest of the 

From the report of Mr. Pratt, iiccompanying his survey (Appendix C), 
the following details are siimmarize<l: 

Tli(» site, within the limits recommended, contains 1,762.2 acres. Of 
these there are, close upon and tributary to the Sinclair Inlet fh>ut, 
about *592 a<Tes which are now of ]»ra<jticable sloj)e, merely correcting 
irregularities. This amount can be increased to over 500 acres without 
heavy expenditure for grading. By filling in to the 5 -fathom line at 
low water, about 104.5 acnvs more will be redeemed. The earth for such 
tilling in exists in more than suilicient amount in the high ground of 
the site close to the water. 

The site will afl'ord a mile and a half of water-iront on Sinclair lulet, 
and on the whole shoreline can give between and 7 miles; while the 
anchorage ground directly in Iront of it, in less than 10 fathoms and 
more than 4, is 1:J scjuare miles. 

There are upon Sinclair Inlet, within the limits of the site, two low 
basins, the beds of vei->* small streams, named provisionally Jertseii 
and Williams basins, both of which will be available for the excava- 
tion of dry-docks. The former is 1 ,S00 feet wide and extends back with 
that wi<ltli tlnee (|uarters of a mile from shore. In "Williams basin the 
front is 1,400 feet wide and extends back about the same distance (1,400 
feet), contracting to a ])oint. 

It may be added that on Dye's Inlet Narrows there is a deep bight 
witliin th<» site, well adapted for ships laid up in ordinary. 

The limited amount of money at the disposal of the Commission pre- 
vented it from having as many borings njade as it would have wished. 
Six were ordered, as the most the a])proi)riation would stand ; but three 
only could be ma<le owing to the character of the ground. The results 
of these are given in detail in IMr. Pratt's letter (Appendix C). In one 
case sand of coUvsiderable (lei)tli was struck, but this is probably a con- 
tracted local ccjndition. In the other two the results justify the anticipa- 
tion of tlie Commission, based \i\)ou an examination of the bluffs, that 
the soil would be found suitable for foundations and for excavationM. 
It luay be achled that the characteiistics of the ground in the site se- 
lected are those of the Puget Sound region generally. 

The (/ommission closes this detailed description of the site Si4ected 
by a summary of the conditions as Ibund, corresponding to the require- 



ments laid down by the Kavy Department's letter of November 30, 1888 
(page 6). 

(1) The situation is upon a good harbor, with ample extent and depth 
of water for ships of the largest size and heaviest draught, and is ac- 
cessible to them at all times. 

(2) The principal lines of defense have not yet been laid down, but 
the opinion given by the Commission as to their probable location co- 
incides with the conclusions of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, in 
his letter of April 27, 1888 (Fiftieth Congress, Senate Executive Docu- 
ment No. 165). The site chosen is well within any probable line of de- 
fense intended to cover the principal cities of Puget Sound. It may be 
added that it is also favorably situated to support that line of defense, 
while itself remaining secure. 

(3) Its position and natural surroundings are such as to afford ample 
local security from attack by naval force, whether by dash or bombard- 
ment, with unusually small expense in preparation of defenses. The 
northern entrance, Agate Passage, is exceedingly narrow and, while 
possessing sufficient depth for the heaviest ships at quarter-flood, can 
be filled with submarine mines. In this direction 11 miles is the short- 
est distance to which an enemy can approach the yard. The southern 
entrance, Rich's Passage, makes at Point Glover a sharp bend of 110 
degrees in its course -iiom the Sound to Port Orchard. Its shores 
are lined by bluffs which, though often of moderate elevation, give both 
enfilading and plunging fire upon a ))assing vessel, and which extend 
over so long a line as to admit of guns being massed or dispersed, as 
may seem most advisable. This passage is 3 miles long and nowhere 
wider, from shore to shore, than 1,500 yards. At the throat, lor a mile, 
it contracts to 700 yards, and the water throughout, though deeper than 
desirable with the current, will admit of torpedo defenses. Two miles 
outside of liich's Passage, in the Sound and almost mathematically 
in the center of the deep bight between Baiubridge and Vashon Islands, 
lies Blake Island, over 200 feet high and with slopes favorable to forti- 
fications* (see Maps II and III), which possesses all the advantages 
of an advanced post without the weaknesses of a salient; both flanks 
and rear being covered by the coast line, generally high, extending from 
Restoration I'oint by Point Orchard to Vashon Island, and nowhere 
more than 2 miles distant from Blake Island. Such conditions make it 
imi)Ossiblc for a fleet to surround the latter with a converging fire. By 
occupying the line indicated, and assuming that a fleet intent upon bom- 
barding an unseen distant object — a task which demands great precision 
and some immunity from molestation — will not lie nearer than 2 miles 
to batteries with plunging fire, thejard is found to be over 8 miles dis- 
tant from a possible enemy. If an attempt at bombardment be made 
from lower down Admiralty Inlet, to the east of Baiubridge Island, the 
heights there are equally favorable to defense; and even if unoccupied, 
the nearest approach there to Point Turner is 7 miles, with very high 
ground intervening. More favorable conditions of position and natural 
surroundings against naval attack, under the supposition of the princi- 
pal line of defense to Puget Sound being forced, can rarely be found. 

(4) The water-front on Sinclair Harbor is a mile and a half long, 
which, after all deductions for dry docks, building slips, etc., will allow 
at least a dozen of the heaviest ships known to lie at the docks in a 
single tier. The Commission consider that the water front on the 
entrance to Dye's Inlet (Port Washington Narrows) can be used for 

* A letter from Mr. Pratt giving the resolta of a i^econnaissance of Blake I»laiid will 
be found in tbe appendix* (Appendix D.) 


lifjliter vessels, if more space is needed. The current, thoa^li strong, 
will not prevent this. Tile two fronts together give a water-front of 6| 

(5) The position with respect to lines of interior commanication has 
been already incidentally, but fully, discussed. It is not as good as 
could be desired, but the defect amounts at worst to a present incon- 
venience. The site is on the main land and can be connected with the 
railroad systems. By water, it is in easy communication with all the 
resources of the country. 

(G) From want of money it has not been possible to make an exhaust- 
ive examination of the site with reference to its fitness tor supporting 
heavy structures and for excavations.. It has the general external 
characteristics of the Pnget Sound country, the sufface iudioatious are 
favorable, and the borings are thought to promise satisfactory results. 
The Commission believe that the ground will be found suitiible for the 
l)urposes named. 

(7) The site is 15 miles from Seattle, 30 from Tacoma, the principal 
centers of labor and su])plies upon Tuget Sound. Both labor and sup- 
l>lies can b<», obtained from those cities. 

(<S) The climate is the same as that of Puget Sound generally. There 
is a large amount of rain-fall throughout this region, though much more 
in some places than in others, and the same remark is true of the Colum- 
bia; but a distinguishing feature of the climate as compared with the 
Atlantic coast is the small range of tem])erature, and consequent free- 
dom from extremes of either heat or cohl. All accounts agree in the 
natural healtlifulness of the region generally, and that out-door labor 
can be carried on throughout the year with the loss of very few days. 

(9) The few and scattered settlers now on Point Turner obtain water 
from wells or small springs. There is little d(mbt that wells would 
supply all the wants of a yard ; but to set at rest, even that small doubt, 
the Commission examined J^ake Kitsap, (see Map IV), 3 miles from the 
])n»i)osed site. The lake was found by two baronjetrical observations 
to be V2\) an<l 14.j feet above high water; mean, 1.S7 feet. A specimen 
of the water was taken, and pronounced to be wholesome and potable 
by one of the leading ])hysi(jians of Seattle. From an examination of 
the outlet a rough estimate^ was reached that 3ti7,00() gallons of water 
hourly passed from the lake. This result was ]>ur})osely based on the 
lowest estimates of d<»]»th and velocity of tlie stream. The lake is a 
mih' long by a third of a mile wide. Soundings were taken at the head 
and midway the length, in both cases near the axis of the lake; 9 feet 
wen» foun<l at the former plare and 21 at the latter. A settler on the 
shore stated that in the dry season the lake fell about 6 inches. 

The Commission consi<ler it certjiin that with Lake. Kitsap in reserve 
thrre can always be had a snlVuriciit snpi>ly of <lrinking-water. With 
a view to fa<'ilitato. llu* nsc of thr water of 11m* Ijikt* by the Government, 
the Coiniuission snltinit tlu' convenience of obtaining a lot (No. G, Kec> 
tion 17) bordering npon it; which was vahuMl and a])praised in the 
same Wiiy as the lots constituting the site selected, the results being in 
the table ap])ended. Throughout thedreat Peninsula, south and west 
of Point Turner, the map shows nnineions streams and ponds. 

The Commission will add tiiat the general snrfa<M» of the country in 
the Pnget Sound region relleets the deplh, abruptness, and irregularity 
of the soundings. In a ])ersonal examination whieii extended over 
nearly live, wci'ks, during whi<'h tin* whole shon^ was ])as8ed in review, 
there was opi)ortunity to observe the gen<»ially broken character of the 
ground. Places presenting an approach to the level surface desii*ed for a 


navy-yard, and of sufficient extent, were relatively very rare. The Com- 
nii88ioii had, therefore, uo hesitation in accepting a certain amount of high 
land, provided the necessary level, or practicable, ground conveniently 
disposed was found associated with it. The same natural conditions 
compelled the Commission to recommend the obtaining of an unusually 
large area, in order to make sure of the necessary space 5 but the size 
of this area and the central location of the higher ground will permit 
the disposal of the various accessories of a naval yard and stations, 
each as marine barracks, hospital, officers' quarters, etc., in a manner 
convenient, compact and yet not contracted, to a degree that is rarely 
realized elsewhere. 

YI. LaJce Washhigton. — West of the city of Seattle and 2 miles dis- 
tant from it, but separated by very high ground, lies the large body of 
fresh water known as Lake Washington. 

This lake is 18 miles long, with a width of 1 J to 3 miles. Its axis is 
nearly due north and south, and the greatest width is toward its natural 
outlet at the southern end. JNIercer's Island, nearly^ miles long, lies in 
the southern third of the length, and, being almost a mile wide, leaves 
a channel of the same width surrounding it, on either side and at the 
foot of the lake. 

The west shore of the lake is parallel to the general direction of the 
:idjaceut Sound, at a fairly constant distance of 6 miles, the approach 
at Seattle being due to the deep bight called Dwamish Bay, at the head 
of which Seattle is built. 

The natural outlet of Lake Washington is at the south end, by Black 
and Dwamish Ki vers, into Dwamish Bay; but immediately north of 
Seattle, distant from the lake only half a mile, is a smaller body of fresh 
water of considerable depth, known as Lake Union. The latter has its 
own outlet, called Shilshole Creek, into Puget Sound. The project is 
mooted of forming an artiiicial channel, deep enough and wide enough 
for the largest ships, from Lake Washington to the Sound, utilizing 
Jjake Union and the bed of its outlet. A water-way sufficient to float 
large logs or very small boats has already been cut between the two 
lakes. The mean water-levels above Puget Sound at high water are,- 
Lake Washington, 20 feet; Lake Union, 12 feet; and as the fall of the 
tide in Shilshole Bay is from 10 to 11 feet, the ditterence of level between 
the two ends of the canal will be somewhat more than 30 feet. The 
length of the artificial channel thus to be made, including dredging in 
Lakes tJniou and Washington, is probably not less than 6 miles. Grant- 
ing the canal made as projected, the i)eculiar advantages claimed for 
Lake Washington depend upon the fresh water and the difficulty of 
access by an enemy. 

The Conimission believe that such a canal can be built, the only ques- 
tions bt*ing those of cost and exi)ediency, on neither of which did it feel 
called to exi)ri\ss, or form, an opinion. The project of converting this 
large sheet of water, by a canal magnificent in depth and. proportions, 
into a laiul locked harbor of extraordinary dimensions, lined by the 
wharves and surrounded by the din and activities of a great commer- 
<'ial mart, is fascinating to the imagination. The question of cost and 
general expediency belongs to others to decide. The Commission had 
only to determine whether it was desirable to build such a canal in order 
to have a navy-yard on the lake, and also whether, if the canal were 
actually built, the lake would offer the best site for the yard. Despite 
many arguments in favor, the Commission is of the opinion that, were 

NA 89 10 


any probable caual already in existence, Lake WaehiDgton would 
be the best site for a yard. 
The chief advantages claimed for the lake are, as already stated : 

(1) Fresh water, involving the absence of the teredo, with its 
effect ui)on submerged timber in vessels or wharves, and the prevenun 
of fouling or corrosion of the bottoms of iron ships. 

(2) Immunity from attack, owing to the distance of the lake firom th 
Sound and the contracted, and therefore easily defended, channel Iq 
which it must be reached. 

To these should be added that — 

(3) Being on the east shore of the Sound, it is convenient to tb 
various railroad systems now existing, and to the resoarces of the whole 

The Commission admit these advantages, and further, after snfSch 
examination, think a suitable site can be found on the lake 3 bat it m 
of the opinion — 

(1) That the water-front at the site selected can be of masonry, whidk 
will obviate the difficulty from the teredo ; and as regards the ibnlint 
of iron bottoms in salt water, that, as salt water is necessarily the ho 
and scene of action of ships of war, it is more important to secare 
access to it by channels which can not be interrupted than to have x 
Hiivy-yard on fresh water. Ships need to be at a yard only when pre- 
paring for service ; they can be docked, cleaned, and painted the 
thing before sailing; and when 8inii)ly laid up in ordinary they < , 
if the proposed canal ever be built, be placed in the lake, either at \ 
chor or at wharves, without the nav^^-yard being there. 

(2) Immunity from attack. As regards bombardment, the point 
the lake which the Commission thought most promising as a site (whica 
is marked 5 on the maps) is as far as Point Turner from any posr 
that an enemy's fleet can occupy, except in Dwamish Bay; and fn 
there the high ground on which Seattle is built would probably e- 
vent any shelling by guns of low trajectory. Access by an enetny'i 
ships to the lake could of course be stopped, in the last extremity, I9 
injuring the canal. 

(3) The convenience of having the yard on the east shore of Po 
Sound has already been admitted. 

The Commission might urge that the first article of its instrnctions 
from the Navy I)ei)artment (see page G), of the importance of which it 
is fully convinced, would rule out any j)osition not accessible to ships of 
the heaviest draught, except at the cost of a i)reliminary work of great 
expense and magnitude, requiring a long time to complete, and. so far 

upon this coast ; that the defense of Puget Sound must be largely, if 
not mainly, by naval means; and that therefore it will not do to pnt the 
yard in a place where, though perhaps salV enough, it will be depend- 
ent for access to the sea upon an artificial channel, which may become 
useless through treachery, through the sudden raid of an enemy, or 
through the necessity imposed upon us of destroying it ourselves trom 
the unprepared ('ondition of its defenses. It may be added that, grant- 
ing the presence of a hostile fleet not superior to our own before the 
mouth of the canal, it will be no slight matter to get out and deploy a 
number of shi]>s, through so narrow a pass, under an enemy's fire. 

Supi)osing, on the other hand, the perfectly possible case that the 
outer line of defense has been forced, the coast-defense ships and otbef 


naval compoueuts of the line worsted and forced to fall back. The 
eDeniy in pursuit can meet no position as strong as that which they 
have, by the sup])Osition, .already overcome. Arriving at Shilshole Bay 
the retreating ships, if as closely pursued as they ought to be, must, one 
by one, be successively received within this narrow entrance. There 
is no need to overdraw the embarrassment of a force so situated. If 
the enemy be able and active the result will be close upon destruction. 
If the attemi)t to enter be abandoned, the shipping, wherever else it 
takes refuge, will be separated from a base essential to its maintenance 
in good repair. 

This difficulty could perhaps be met by the construction of an arti- 
ficial port at the mouth of the canal, which could be strongly defended 
from its walls and the blufts on either side. Such a work, however, 
would l>e an enormous undertaking. As elsewhere on Puget Sound the 
flats of Shilshole Bay, which are bare at low water, drop off at once to 
a great depth. The soundings show from 120 to 150 feet close to the 
flat. The port must therelore be thrust out into this deep water, or else 
the flat must be excavated to the depth of over 30 feet within the walls 
built upon it. The tlat is, moreover, exceedingly narrow. 

If the entrance to Puget Sound could be made impregnable these 
conclusions might be much modified, and especially if the commercial 
necessities of the Sound, which the Commission have been directed by 
the act of Congress to consider, required this additional water space. 
The demand lor it, however, comes mainly from Seattle; and it appears 
to the Commission that, since ships lie quietly at the wharves, as has 
Iwiore been mentioned, there is no present commercial necessity for con- 
nection with the lake, while the amount of flat still unredeemed for 
wharf-room promises ample accommodation for a long time to come. 

As regards the military question, the Commission does not think that 
Puget S<mnd can be made imi)regnable except by the presence of a 
naval force ecjual to that brought against it. Such a force, when com- 
bined with suitable j)ermanent defenses, would be superior to the equal 
eneroj' sopposed. When the hour of contest approaches, the mobile 
defenses would concentrate near the fortifications — probably in Port 
Townsend Bay. If powerful enough to hold their own, all will be well ; 
but if, through some of the chances which must always be allowed for 
in war, or through original inferiority, the defending naval force be- 
comes decidedly weaker than the assailant, the principal line of defense 
may be forced. In that case the defense ships must fall back ; and it 
could not but be a matter of grave concern that they should then de- 
pend, for their efliciency and for their freedom of access to the scene of 
action, upon such a frail communication as an artificial water-way of the 
dimensions that may here be expected. 

After duly weighing all the considerations that have been set forth 
above, the Commission has selected Point Turner as the site to be 
recooimended to the Department for the establishment of a navy-yard 
on the northwest coast. The lines marking the limits of the area recom- 
mended are indicated on the accompanying map of Kitsap County 
(Map IV), and also on the survev made by direction of the Commission 
,Map V). 

That i)ortion of the Congressional instructions which required the 
Commission, alter selecting a site for a navy-yard, 'Mf upon private 
lauds to estimate its value and ascertain the price for which it can be 
purchased," was executed with much difiiculty. 

The speculation in land in this section of the country is probably at 
its ripest stage, aiid followers engaged in this business were ready to 


poimcp upon any bargains that might be secured, and nse the objecti 
the Commission for speculative purposes. In order to avoid this effoi 
it was decided to consider this question while the prelimiDary examim 
t ion was in progress. As many of the owners as possible were 8eeu, 
a written pro])osition obtained from them to sell their land to the Uoi 
ernnient within one year from date, for a specified snm. In soi io 
stances, where the owners could not be found until after public 
tion had been drawn to the investigations being made, prices were 
])anded to exorbitant figures, or else parties declined to set any v 
upon tlieir property. These instances are noted in the tabalated snui 
ment aiipended and marked E. 

In order to assist the Commission to arrive at a fair valaation of 
land in question, in a district where values were so fluctnatin^, it v 
decided to call upon persons who were more familiar with this subjee 
than tlie Commissioners could be. Mr. A. H. Sroufe, of Sidney', W. T* 
was seU^cted on the ])art of the Commissioners to act as one of three fa 
this purpose, while the United SUites district attorney, Jadge W. H. 
^Vhite, of Seattle, was requested to name a second. Hisnominee, W. E 
Whitworth, of SeattUs an<l Mr. Sroufe, together, selected Douglas A 
Allmond, also of Seattle, completing the organization required. 

The three api)raisers thus appointed made a careful inspection of the 
])ropo.sed site, and their report in the main has been used as the b^ 
for the data herein given. 

In order that the subject of ownership might be officially determined 
a des(!rii)tion of ihv, huul was submitted to the auditor for Kitsap County, 
W. T., in which the recommended site is situated, who gave an abstract 
of titles as far as ownershij) had been established to date. 

in a number of eases claimnnts had not completed the reqnirementt 
to se(Mne a tith», an<l a transcript of the records of the United States 
lan<l ollice at Seattle was obtained covering these cases. 

Some of the claims had been filed so recently that no clue could be 
found to the parties holding them, and in one or two instances it i« be- 
lieved the jKHties will not return to perfect their claims. 

From such claimants iis could be found written stiitements were se- 
<'ure(l, wherein they ])ro]K)sed to lelinipiish their rights for a stated sum, 
l>rovided they could leloeiite elsewhere upcm public lands. If, therefore, 
the valuations given in this ]v]>ort are made the basis of the transfer of 
this hind t(» the United Stntes, it will be necessary for the Government 
to nulhorize this<'hange of claims. 

it will bes ii()ti(!ed that the owners' valuation varies, not in accordance 
with the location and condition of the hind itself, but with the date (k 

The a])pnnsement is beli<'ved to give a fair (^compensation for the 
owners in trase the (lovernment should aceei)t the property witliin the 
year ending Mareli .'51, lSiM>. Tliest* values inelude the improvements 
and pro.speetive iniproveiniMits to the date above given. The appraised 
<*stiinate for the ciitin* site reeoninieiided, (M)m])rising 1,810 acres, is 
$.').■>. 1L*1>; the <»\\in*r>' valuation for the same aggregating $37,9(>4. One 
lot o I .")!>. 7.') aeres inehided in the above is situated on Lake Kitsap; in 
order, as bt'tore state'. I, to facilitate the use of the waters of the lake by 
tlu» <l(»verninent. if <lesir<'d.* 

The Coininissinn (h'siivs to acknowledge its obligations to the Lig^ht- 
Ibmse Hoard lor the use of the tender Mnnztnntay without which its 

' Thr (MMitriiis of tin' sitr pmjM I anmiint t linrhn*' to I,7r»0.*J,'i ;i<rn?H. Accord in j^ to 
the (iovcrniiM'iit I.iihI -^iir\(-\. Mr. I'ratt's roircrh-d t-^tiiiiato uf the bOluc is 1,702.2 



fttePOftt OF TflE StcnETARY OF TtlE NAVY. 149 

"work could scarcely have been done so thoroughly^ and certainly not so 
soon; and very especially to Lieutenant Uriel Sebree, United States 
i^avy, the light-house inspector, whose cordial co-operation removed 
every obstacle that might otherwise have been encountered. 

Its thanks are also due to the authorities of the U. 8. Coast and Ge- 
odetic Survey lor the ready and most valuable assistance extended by 
theih. The Commission had occasion to use the local knowledge of 
Lieutenant Mayo, United States Navy, acquired while surveying the 
Sound; while the experience of Assistant J. F. Pratt was of great value 
in making the examination of the topogrp,phy of the site selected, as 
well as in other ways. The survey of the site which accompanies the 
report is wholly the work of the latter. The skill and services of both 
these gentlemen are heartily acknowledged. 

Very respectfully, etc., your obedient servants, 

A. T. Mahan, 

Captain U, 8. Navy. 

C. M. Chester, 
Commander LL 8, Navy. 

C. H. Stockton, 
Lt. Commander U. 8. Navy. 


Appendix A. 



(1) From what sonrcen, in what qunntitios, and at what priceH can timber for sbip- 
Lnilding purposes bo obtained T 

(2) Can lauiber be obtained for wharves, etc., that is not sabject to tbo attacks of 
the teredo T 

(3) What are the sources for supplying? cast and wrought iron and steel? What 
quantities can these sources HUjjply, and at what ]»riceT 

(4) From what points can coal b(^ obtained, at what ])rice, and in what quantitiea, 
by (lay or month, and what quality for steaming and manufacturing purposes? 

(5) Is there any limestone in the vicinity T If not, from what points is lime pro- 
cured, and at what cost? 

(6) Are bricks of good quality made liero T If so, what do they cost T What is the 
capacity of works for turning out quantities? 

(7) What building-stone is obtained in the vicinity? 

(8) Is there any hydraulic cement made in the vieinity ? 

(9) What machine-shops are there in the vicinity? What kind and number of 
persons employed ? 

(10) What is the population within, say, twenty (20) miles radius around your city? 

(11) How many men are liable to draft — i. c, between the ages of eighteen and 
forty-five years ? 

(12) Is there any authentic register of the temperature, snow and rain fall, direction 
and force of winds? If so, i>leaHe furnish it to ns. 

(13) Where is fresh water (»btained in the vieinity, and in what quantity? 

(14) Costs of rents and living for niachinists, mechanics, and workmen.' 

(15) What is the death-rate of the place, ami what tbo prevailing diseases? 
(10) What is the character of the Koil for building-foundations in your vicinity? 

(17) Will you give the ('ommission a list of the manufacturing establishments of 
the city, their value, and the number of men employed? 

(18) What are the m^ans of communication with the Kast, the Mississippi Valley, 
San Francisco, and Port land, Oregon ? 

(19) What is projected in the immediate future in the nature of manufacturing 
establishments, railways, etc. ? 

(20) What are the present market rates for articles used in the construction of 
buildings and in iron and steel shii> building ? 

Appendix B. 

Port Gamblr, Wash., Marek 22, 1889. 

Dear Sir: Tour favor of the 18th instant from Seattle is at hand, and in reply wo 
would say that the railroad you refer to is the pr(»perty of the Union River Logging 
Railroad Company, a corporation duly incorimrated under the laws of the Territory 
of Washington, and their principal biBce and place of business is located at Port 
Gamble, Wash. Ter. Being closely connected with the railroad company in a bnsioesf 
way, we will oheerfally answer yoar inqairies as follows : 

fttt>OtlT OP TttE SfiCHfiTAftY OF tHE NAVt. 151 

The Union River Log^ng Railroad starts at tho head of Hood^s Canal (Lynch'a 
(/Ove) and extends northerly. The articles of incorporation permit the railroad to 
extend as far north as Seaheck, on Hood's Canal, and also northeasterly to Port 
Washington* and Port Orchard. At present we have only completed ahout 6 miles 
of the roady hut have 4 or 5 miles additional permanently located, and the extension 
to Seabeck» Port Washington, and Port Orchard preliminarily located. We hand 
yon herewith a map showing the location of the line and completed and uncompleted 
portion of the road. It was originally built principally for the logging business, but 
the articles of incorporation admit of the company doing a general transportation 
bnsiness, which the company is always ready and willing to do. The grade is easy, 
and the road well built and ballasted, twenty-six hundred ties to the mile, and 45- 

])ound steel rails, standard ^auge. The rolling stock at present consists of one 17- ton 
ocomotive and lifteen logging cars. The road could easily and cheaply be ext-ended 
to Port Orchard from its present termination, and, should the Port Townsend and 
Southern Railroad be built, it would be an easy matter to make the necessary con- 
nections from Clifton to Union City. The Union River Logging Railroad Company 
are grading an extension southerly from Clifton post-office, on the river, to a point 
commanding deep tide water. Should occasion offer, the company might consider a 
proposition to sell the plant, either to the Government or a road desiring a connection 
witn Port Orchard. Any further information we can give you we shall be pleased 
to send you at your request. 

We are, dear sir, yours, respectfully, 

PuGET Mill C')mpany, 
Per E. G. Ames. 
Capt. A. T. Mahax, 
Care of Lieut. U, Sebreej Portland^ Oregon : 

Appendix 0. 

Port Orchard, W. T., June 22, 1889. 

Dear Sir: By ycstcrday'i* mail I sent you specimens from three test borings made 
in Jertson's Banin, the locations of which are indicated on the survey. 

The augers Hcnt you from the Mare Island navy-yard were entirely useless in the 
formation found hero, and other attachments had to be devised and made. 

Boring No. 1 was made on the beach at high- water mark, and is about the middle 
of the front of the easterly half of the Jcrtson Basin, and took from May 20 to JuDe 
w to bore. 

The first I.') feet was through beach sand and gravel, with two very thin layers of 
a mixture of ])cat and mud. 

Fifteen to 20 feet was through gravel, with a small proportion of cement and earth. 

Tjireuty to 2;') feet was through gravel, with woo*!, tir bark, and cones, very hard 
and slow boring, as the gravel had to be broken up with a drill before it could be 
raised to the siirfnce. 

Twenty-live to 35 feet through gravel and cement, also very hard and slow boring; 
the gravel had to be ])ulverized before it could be raised to tno surface. 

At :)5 feet the appliance broke at the bottom in such a manner that this boring 
could not be continued further. 

Boring No. 2 is about :i50 feet westerly from No. 1 and just inside the ridge of gravel 
making the shore line : the surface is practically on a level with the high-water mark, 
and took from Juik^ 10 to June 15. 

The first If) feet was through l>each sand and gravel. 

Fifteen to 18 feet thron^h gravel and cement ; the gravel had to be broken with a 
drill before it could be raised to the surface. 

Eighteen to 27 feet pure cement or clay. 

Twenty-seven to 31 feet cement mixed with sand and occasional gravel stones with 
vein of fresh water. 

Thirty-one to 42 feet pnre cement or clay. 

Boring Xo. 3 is about 'J7b feet easterly from No 1, and inside of the ridge of gravel 
making the shore-line ; the surface is practically on a level with the high-water 
mark, and it took from June 17 to June 20. 

The first 1.5 feet was through beach sand and gravel. 

Fifteen to 4 1^ feet throngh sand ; as the curbing was not long enough to drive 
further, no solid foundation was reached. 

* Port Washington is a local name for Dye's Inlet, a branch of the waters of Fort 


Judging from the topographical features and the borings it is ray opinion tbat then 
once w:w » cafion or '* gulch," the center of which nnist have been very near, or* 
iittle east of, Horing No. 1, which has in course of time filled up. 

In the westerly half of Jertson's Basin there are no ** gulch" iudicatioDSy beaidesa 
shallow well which is in clay, and clay mixed with gravel. 

There was not sutlicient time or funds to make borings in the Williams Basin, bni 
from the outcrop|>ing8 in the bluii'east of ir.. and in a wall about 15 feet below high- 
water mark, the imiications are that it is composed of layers of gravel with day, cem* 
ent, an<l soft sandstone rock. 

Commencing at its mouth, soft sandstone rock outcrops at intervals on both sidet 
of Port Washington Narrows at high-water mark, and down as far as the tides per- 
mit seeing. 

As you perceived when here, tire has at some time run over nearly all of the entire 
site, burning the lH)undary posts, and the pitch exuding from the blazes on the treen 
simply facilitated their entire obliteration. 

The site has U|,\ miles of shore-line and a fnmtago ahmg the water, generalizing 
the shore-line, of (JJ miles. 

* As closely as I can approximate the area inside of high- water mark " shore-line,*' 
the site contains l,7Hl.r>r> acres, which i>i 2L.4 acres more than that given on the blu^ 
print taken presumably from the U. S. Land Office. Farther examination into bound- 
aries may slightly change the area." 

Assuming that* the frontage on Sinclair's Inh^t will be filled in to the5-fathoni line 
at low water, the area of the redeemed ground will be about 164.5 acres. 

The anchorage room directly in front of the yanl, in than 10 fathoms and more 
than 4 at low water, is IJ sipiare miles. 

The area of gronn<l directly tributary to the frontage on Sinclair's Inlet that may 
be consi<U'red now of practicable Klo])e. for heavy wagons or loads, merely competing 
for irregularities, is alxmt .'JlHi acres. 

The additional amount directly tributary to Sinclair's Inlet that could be nia<1o of 
such practicable sliapts without what would be considered a heavy or undue exjieudi- 
tiire lor grading, is about I.')!) acres. 

The westerly or JertKon Hasin has a ridi^e in about the middle of it, averaging about 
15 feet, higli, which NCparates it into t wo parts. The westerly half has room to <»oii- 
struct dry dt>cks TfiO ieet. wide and three-Iburthsof a mile longj the easterly half, 650 
feet wide and three-fourths of a mile long. Not taking »he ridge into account, for 
really it is of slight moment and would he good to borrow from for filling in the 
water iront, there is an available spa<'»« I, sou fi»i»t wide and throe-fourths of a mile 

It would seem probable that in case dry-docks were built in this basin, on acconnt 
of the water deepening very gradually, they would extend in a great measure oiitnido 
of high wafer mark, as the s<^a-wall in front would be about 1,100 feet outside of the 

The easterly or Williams JJasin is about 1,400 ivvt wide at the front ami extends 
back about the same distance, contracting to a i^oint. 

I{y to-day's mail 1 send you a tracing of all of my work to date. I have niado a 
great etVort to make it more complete, but it has be«Mi simi)ly impossible. 

'fhe contouring on the Sinclair's Inlet, side has been carried oat, considering the 
deuHe growth, with a ^reat deal <»!* precision and care, necessitating mach outting. 

As the opposite Hide is of minor importance, and being much more irregular lind 
complieated, to aetually survey it would lake a long time ; so am obliged to sketch 
it in and generali/e it in a great nieasure. 

All th«} shon'-line on the tracing has been carefully surveyed. 

As it was impoHsibh^ to have the (»ld soundings replotte<l in the office, they have 
be<*n plotted on this work by enlarging four times a copy of the old work, which 
m^cessarily general i/es them to a great extent, and can bo recognized by being 
farther apart than the new ones are. 

Trusting that this will rejM-h you before the ;t()th, I remain, 

Very truly, J. T. Pratt, 

AHHiHtantf If. S, C and G» Survey. 

Capt. A. r. Maiian, V. S. N,. 

/'nuiihnt \(irff Ytird Site f'omminsion, Sortlnvvxt (Joaxt, iraHhingionj D. C. 

* I'^irthcr l(\ss hurried i*\aiuination of iuteri<»r of site gave t(»tal acreage to be 1,75^.U 



Appendix D. 

U. S. Coast and Gkodktic Survky Launch, 

Admiralty Inlet j Wash. Ter. . June H, 1889, 

My Dear Captain : To-day I liavo made a trip to Blake Island, climbed to its 
snmmit and looked it over as much as my limited time would allo.w. The entire 
island is covered with trees and bushes, the crest or summit is on the westerly part 
and is about ::^50 feet above high-water mark, gradually sloping down in all direc- 
tions to the bluff line, which ranges from a few feet to 100 in height; the highest 
Mnif appears to be on the west side ; the ascent from the easterly end, where there 
is no blutf, to the summit is gradual. 

On the west side there is a good spring and of sufiQcieut size, if none of the water 
was allowed to run to waste, to supply a good sized colony. 

For this country the shape of the higher portion is exceptionally favorable for 
earthworks, etc., being much more regular and with fewer gulches than usual. 
Very truly, 

' J. F. Pratt. 

Capt. A. T. Mahan, U. S. N., 

Newport^ H. I. 

Appendix E. 


t/wnern of property y with entimatcd values and prices for which it can he purchased. 
[Towunhip 24 north, Range 1 eaat, KitHap County, Wa8hinf:t4)n Tt»rritory.] 






Warreu Smith 

Wm. ^ViHiaiiiH. 

Rot't JertHon . 

^Tm.r. Say ward. 
Kieman Daly 

John Sigo 

Chaa. Anderson. 


Lot 1. H«ction 13 34.50 


£Mtiniate<l valncM. 


Lot 2, MCtiou 13 

N K. i of SK. i, Miction 14 . . . 

SE. i of N K. i. section H . . . 

Lot 3, Heel ion 14 


Lot 3, sect ion 3 

I^>t 1. sect ion 24 

lA)t I, section 23 

Lot 2. section 23 

SE. ^ of 8E. i section 14 

M. HO 

203. 50 

24.00 I 
37.00 , 
40.00 i 


Lot 3, section 23 24.00 

lA)t 4. section •-»3 20. 25 

N W. i of N W. i, H«'ctiou 23 . . I 40. 00 

Lot l.s<H:tion2J ' 3.5.00 

N E. i of N E. i. section 22 .... ' 40. 00 

! 159.25 

NE. i of NW. 4, section 23 . 

Lot 1, section 14 
Lot 2, section 14 


... 35.75 

, 74.25 

SE. 4 of SE. 4. section 10 40.00 

SE. i of XW.i, section 14.... 40.00 





Per lot. 

720. 00 
6:i9. 00 
3, 4:»0. 00 

247. 50 
740. (K) 
800. UO 








V 3,236.25 


40.\00 I 
800. 00 



V 3,825.00 

1. 336. 50 

* A rerhal otfer of $5 000 was made hy the owner of this property, 
Cilher adviaed chnr^inf! $100 per acre, 
t Declined to make offer and estimatcMl valae taken. 
I Yerbal offer of $300 if Uken immediately. 

720.00 720.00 1,600.00 

600. 00 600. 00 :300. 00 

bat not confirmed, as the man's 


$7, 032. 50 

♦5, 000. 00 





Owners of property j with estimated values and prices, etc.— Con tin nod. 




9 Jobn RimmnnH... 










Charlie Sam 

Jos. TV. Sackman. . 


Freeman W. Baas. 

Swan Anderson. 


16 Jolin P. Anderson 

Howard Kimball, 

Cha«*. Jackson . 

John Bowers — 

S.vvcrt. Johnson. 

Kohort Engdahl 


Lot 6, section 11 
Lot 7, section 11 
Impruvemcuts . 

Lot 7, section 10 
Lot 8. section 10. 
Iniprovt'ments .. 

Lotl, section 10. 
Improvumenta .. 

Lot 7, section 3.. 
Ix>t 6, section 17. 

Lots, section 3. 
Lot 6, sections. 
Improvements . 

E. ^ of NE. i section 15. 
Lot G, 8e<;ti()n 10 

NE. i of SE. J, section 15 . 
Not yet claimed. 

SW.i of NE-i. section 14. 
N NV. i of SK. i. section 14 . 
K. i ot SE. i, sr-ction 14 ... 


Damage chan;;iug claim. . 

W.J of W.J, section 14.. 


Damage changing clnim . 

Ivot 2, section 10 

Lot 3, sect ion 10 

Lot 5, Hoction 10 

I mprovf.iiients 

Damage changing clnim. 

Lot 4. section 10 

Damage changing claim 












40. 00 

160. 00 

SE. i of SE. i section 15.. 

I):ima<;<« changing claim... 

No ollVr. Johnson coald 
nut b<> fonnd. Th(»nghtto 
have givrn up claim. 

SW. J of SE. i section 14.. 

Damaire changing claim 

No <»lli>r. Kngdahl coald 
not he found. Thought to 
have given np claim. 



124. 5U 



Estimated valaos. 










Per lot. 

$720. 00 
G3. 00 

480. 00. 
34U. 00 

1, 000. 00 



1. 107. 00 
2, 550. 00 









1, 800. 00 



1, 403. 75 

4, 710. 00 







400. 00 






*$i, coo. 00 


1, 500. 00 

1,500. CO 

t4. 710. 00 

:i, 635. 00 



1, 000. 00 - 


100. 00 


33, 12a 00 


• Title of lot 6 donbtful. (See county auditor's abstract) 
t Declineil ti» Met jirice. Wonld leave it to appraiMement. 
I Titli* doubtful. Pro]>erty mortgaged. Could not set price, bat thought $15 per acre fUr prica 


Appendix P. 


Room ^14, Navy Department, 

Washingtant D. C\, December 11, 1888. 

The Commission met at 11 a. m. under orders from the honorable Secretary of the 
Navy. Owing to a delay in issainjj the ordera, tlie Commission was unable to meet 
npou the day appointed by them, December 3, 1888. 

Present,: Capt. Alfred T.'Mahan, U. S. Navy ; Commander C. M. Chester, U. S. Navy ; 
and Ijieutenant-Commander Charles H. Stockton, U. S. Navy. 

The instructions of the honorable Secretary of the Navy to the president of the 
Commission, Capt. A. T. Mahan, were presented and read by the members of the 

The Commission in a body called upon theChief of Engineers of the Axmy, and were 
offered the facilities of the office. 

The charts of the sea-coast, ports, and anchorages of the State of Oregon and Ter- 
ritories of Washington and Alaska were examined by the Commission, reserving after 
this examination the charts of the Columbia River and its approaches, the Strait of 
Jnan de Fnca, and the waters in and about Puget Sound and Alaska for further ex- 

The Commission, at 3.30 p. m., adjourned. 

Room 144, Navt Department, 

Washington^ D. C, December 11, 1888. 

The Commission met at 10.30 a. m., pursuant to adjournment, all the members of 
the Commission being present. 

Commander Chester presented charts, publications, and other data, from the Coast 
Survey Office. 

An examination was made by the Commission of the chartsof the Columbia River 
and its Itar, and of the harbors and anchorages in Alaskan waters. 

A letter was addressed to the honorable Secretary of the Navy by the president of 
the CommiHsion, announcing the meeting and organization of the Commission and 
the recei])t of the instructions of the Secretary from the Chief of the Bureau of 
•Yards an»l Docks. 

The Commission continued its examination of the charts of the waters and coasts 
npecitied in the act of Congress, examining the harbors along the southern shores of 
tho Strait of Jnan de Fuca, the upper part of Admiralty Inlet, and Hood's Canal. 

It was d<*ti'rmiued to visit and examine Port Discovery, Port Townsend, Port Lud- 
low, Port Gamble, Port Madison, and the lower end of Uood's Canal from Union 
City to Lynches Cove. 

The Commission at 3.20 p. m. adjourned. 

Room 114, Navy Department, 

JVaahingtanj D. C, December 12, 1888. 

The Commission met pursuant to adjournment at 10.30 a. m., all the members be- 
ing present. 

An advance sheet of a chart of the waters of Puget Sound and additional data 
from the office of the Chief of Engineers of the Army were presented to the Com- 

An examination of the waters of Admiralty Inlet and Puget Sound was enteired 
into by the Commission, and as a result it was considered desirable that the Com- 
mission should visit and examine personally the towns and harbors of Seattle and 
Tacoma, and the waters of Port Orchanl, Quartermaster's Harbor, Steilacoom Har« 
1»or, and the upper part of Puget Sound, including Budd's Inlet and the vicinity c 

An examination was made of the vicinity of Bellingham Bay and the archipelago 
of the San Juan Islands, the question of personally visiting these localities being 
left for farther consideration. 

An examination was made of the railroads terminating in the vicinity of Paget 


Sound as shown on the map fnrnished from the office of the Chief of Engineers of the 
Army, and of the plans of the proposed ship-canal near Seattle, to extend from the 
Sound to Lakes Union and Washington. 
At 3 p. m. the Commission adjourned. 

Room 114, Navy Department, 

Washington, J). C, December 13, 1888. 

The Commission met at 11.30 a. ra., all the members being pres<;nt. Additional 
data were pre*?nted from the Coast Survey office. The examination of various points 
upon Fuget Sound and Admiralty Iniet was continued. 

At \*2.'M) o'clock the Commission ]>rocee<led to the Coast Survey oflice to examine 
the original sheets of the hydrographic and topographic survey" of various points 
upon and near }*uget Sound. 

Room 114, Navy Department, 

Washingtony J J, C, Decemher 14, 1888. 

The Commission met at 10.15 a. m. All the members were present. Additional 
data were presented from the office of the Chief of Engineers of the Army. A letter 
was addressed by the president of the Comuiivssion to the Chief of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks, asking for an allotment of funds from the ajipropriation for defraying the 
expenses of tht^ Conmiissiou ; $3,000 to be i)liiced to the credit of the purchasing pay- 
Diaster at San Francisco, Cal., and §1,000 to be placed to the credit of the purchasing 
paymaster at Washingt<m, D. C. A letter was also addressed to the Chief of Engi- 
neers of the Army by th<) president of the Commission, relative to the jjrinoipal lin<'s 
of defense on Puget Sound an<l the Columbia lviv(?r, and also asking for data in re- 
gard to the plans for the improvt'inent of various harl)ors upon the northwest coast. 

A lett<*T was also dinuited to tliehonoral>le 8<M.'retary of theNavy, asking authority 
to emi)loy a clerk to keep a n^cord of tlu? proceedings of the Commission and for ot her 
clerical purposes as re([uinMl by law. A letter was rrccnved from Commodore Har- 
mony, Chiet of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, announcing that the Bureau had 
drawn upon the honorable Secretary of th«i Navy for the amount of money asked for 
by the CommisNion. 

A letter was directed to the Second Comptroller of th«) Treasury, disking an opinion 
as to the legality of the payment of traveling <*x})enseH of a clerk, in case his ai>poiut- 
ment should be authorized. 

At 4 p. m. the CommiKsion adjourned. 

KooM 114, Navy Dkpartmext, 

WaHhingion^ 1). C, JJccemher W, ISSS. 

The Commission met at 10.30 a. m., all the memlx^rs being i)resent. After discus- 
sion it wjis determined to address ^piestions as to the resources, characteristics, etc., 
of various localities, to the mayors or leading persons of the j>laces. 

A circular lett<?r was drawn up and the formulation of tlu^ (iu<\stions discussed. 

A conference was held by the Commission, with Colonel Mend«;ll, of the Army, the 
division engineer of the Pacitie coast, and Major Post, of the otlice of the Chief of 
Engineers of the Army, in regard to the principal lines of <lefenso, harbor improve- 
ments on the Pacilic coast, and the canal projected to run from the Sound to Lakes 
Union and Washington. 

At 3.30 o'clock the Commission adjourned. 

Room 114, Navy Department, 

Uashingion, I). C, December 17, 1888. 

The Commission met at 10.30 a. m., and after an infonnal discussion the members 
separated t(» collect data at the Coast Survey Otlice an<l Office of IJ. S. Geological 
Survey. A list of questions relativi- to the. resources of various localities having been 
decided ni>on, a copy was ad<lressed to the mayor t>f Portland, Oregon. 


Room 114, Navy Department, 

Washington^ D, C, December 18, 1888. 

The Commission met at 10.45 a. m., all the members being present. After discus- 
sion, the following was adopted as the views of the Couuuission upon* the proper in- 
terpretation of the first requirement of the instructions for the location of a navy-yard 
site on the northwest coast of the United States : 

**lt is the opinion of the Commission that the conditions for special requirements, 
as per the instructions of the honorable Secretary of the Navy of November liO, 1888, viz, 
*A situation upon a good harbor of sufficient size, depth, and accessibility for vessels 
of the largest size and heaviest draught,' prevents any harbor which is obstructed by a 
bar having a U^ss de}>th than found on the San Francisco bar (33 feet at mean low 
water), or not having possibilities for at least that amount of w^ter, from being con- 
sidcied as Hui table.'' 

A list of questions as to resources, etc., was sent to the Hon. J. M. Siglin, Marsh- 
field, Oregon (on Koos Bay). 

The Commission having finiHhed its preliminary work, reported verbally to the 
ofiice of detail its readiness to proceed to the Pacific coast. 

At 1 p. m. the Commission adjourned to await orders from the Secretary of the 

Palace Hotj:!., Sax Francisco, California. February 2, 1889. 

The Commission met at 10.3()a. m., and, after an informal discussion, arrangements 
•were made to visit tli<» Coast Survey office in this city, gather data, and attend to 
matters concerning the object of the Commission. 

A recess was then taken until 3 p. m. 

Palace Hot?:l, San Francisco, California, February 2, 1889. 

The ConmiiKsioh met at 3 p. m., pursuant to recess, having visited during the day 
the Coast Survey office, the Navy pay office, and the otfice of Civil Engineer Bloomlield, 
on business connected with the work of the Commission. 

The j)roceediug8 of the Commission at its last meeting, December 18, 1888, were 
read and approved. 

It was decided to proceed to Mare Island on Monday in order, to confer with the 
commandant of the navy-yard there. 

It was directed that the following statement of events, occurring since the last 
meeting of the CommisHion of December 18, 1888, should be formally entered in the 
report of the proceedings. 

After the last meeting, as the result of a conference between the presiclent of the 
Commission and the Chief of Engineers of the Army, Captain Mahan proceeded to 
New York to consult with the members of the Board of Fortifications of the Army. 
While there h<^ was taken ill and a certificate of his attending surgeon duly for- 
warded to the honorable Secretary of the Navy, reporting that he was unable to 
proce<*<l to the Pacific coast in obedience to his ordei-a. He was not reported in con- 
dition to travel until January 21, 1889, when the Commission proceeded to San Fran- 
cisco, which plac<» all the menibei*s reached by Ffebruary 1. The orders of the Sec- 
retary of the Navy to the president and members of the Commission were so worded 
that all were re(juired to pro<terd with the president of the Commission. 

The letter address<*d to the honorable Secretary of the Navy requesting authority 
to ap])oint a clerk to the Coniinission was approved by the Scicretary, who re<|uired 
the name and siilary to be submitted for his further approval. The name of Mr, 
Charles K. Kern having been submitted by the Commission with the request for his 
appointment as clerk and stenographer, he was duly a])pointed on December 28, 
IH^H. by the honorable Secretary of the Navy, in that capacity at a salary of $10() 
|M'r month. 

1 'nder date of DecenilMT 24, L*<^H, the i)resident of the Commission received a h'tter 
from the honorai>Ie Secretary of the Navy inclosing, lor the information of the Com- 
mission, a copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, dated December 2^), 
lH8d, covering copies of letters fr«)m the naval wcretary of the Light-House Board an(l 
the Superintendent of the I'nit^Ml States Coast and (Jeodetic Survey, announcing that 
the officers of the Light-House Establishment and Coast Survey will assist the Conmiis- 
sion in every way in their power, and that the insiiectorofthe thirteenth light-house 
district had been directed to bo at 01ym]»ia, Wash., to receive the Commission and to 
transport it to such points as it nuiy desire to visit. 

A letter was received by the president of the Commission, dated December 20, 1888, 
from the Chief of Engineers of the Army in regard to the i>riucix>al formulated lines of 


defense and projected river and harbor imp rovenients other than those oontained in tht 
published reports of the Chief of Engineers. 

A letter dated December US, 18i^d, was also received by the preaideut of the Cora- 
misdiou from Lieut. U. Sebree, liti^ht-honst) iuspect4)r, thirteenth distriof , ftnnouiicing 
that the li>;ht- house tender will be ready at any time and at auy place the Coiiiiui^ 
sion desires. 

The above letters were read and discussed, and the Commission adjourned. 

l^ALAC'K rioTKL, Sax Fraxcisco, Cal., February 5, 1889. 

The Commission met at 10 o'clock a. m., having on Monday visited the Mare iHhind 
navy-yanl to confer witli the commandant, when arrangements were made to have 
boring tools sent to Seattle. 

The i)roceedings of the (Jtnninission on Saturday were read and approved. 

It was decided to retiuesl Lieutenant 8<'bree to have the light-house tender at Ta- 
coma, instead of01ym])ia, to meet the Couiniission. It was also decided to proceed 
to Portland, Oregon, by tlu^ 7 o'cloek train to-morrow evening. 

The Commission tlieu adjourned. 

Offick LiGiiT-IIousK Inspkctok, Tuirtkenth District, 

Portland, (hetjon, February 8, 18d9. 

The C(»mmiHsion having loft San Francisco on Wednesday, the ()th instanti arrived 
in Portland at 11 o'c-loek this morning and assembled at 2 p. m. and mot a coninjittee 
from the Hoard <if 'J'rade i»r Portland, ccuisisting of Hon. George H. Williams, Geiii-ral 
William Kapus, and Mr. Cjeorgc P. Frank, who ]>resented a memorial S(fttin|^ furth 
the advantages of the Columbia Kiv(>r as a site for the proposed navy-yard ou the 
Pai'itic coast north of the forty-se<'on<l parallel. 

The Commission then ailjoujncd to meet to-morrow morning at 9.30 o'clock. 

Offick LKiirr-HousE 1xsim:<:toh, Tiiiutkkxth District, 

J'ortland, Oretjon, February *J, 1889. 

The CommiKsion assembled at D.'.JO o'clock this morning. 

The proceediiigs of tln^ nn-etings of February r> and h wt^n* ro:wl and approved. 

The prt^sident presented the folU»wing papers, which were addressed to Uie Commis- 
sion : 

A letter from Mr. W.T. W«ibber, of Newjiort. Oregon (Yaquina Bay), giving replies 
to the (|nestions that had been sent out by the ('oinmission tVom Wasliin^^^n. 

A letter from Hon. A. H. Chambers, miyor of Olympia, W:iMhingt.ou Territory, pre- 
B<;nting answers to th«^ iiuestions subtnitted by th»^ Commission and making offers of 
assistanee when the ('omniis.^ion hhould arrive in Olympia. 

A lettiT inclosing a li»t of answers to the, interrogatives of the Commission from 
General J. M. Siglin, Marshliehl, Oregon, on Koos liay. 

Thu papers were tiled for further considt^ration. 

The memorial presente<l yesterday hy the eonmiittee of the Board of Trade of Port- 
land, Oregon, was read aloud by the president of the Commission, all the members 
being ]>reseiit. 

A letter froui Kobert Moran, esq., niayor of Seattle, Washington Territ-ory, dated 
January s, Ip^s'.i, was pres<'iife<l by the president of tht; Connnission, it being in ref^ard 
to the interrogatories rei-eived from the (.-omitiission, announe,ing that a comniitt-ee 
had been apjiointed to answtT the (|iiestions and furnish such other information as 
may be recpiired. 

A letter \Nas also received from liev. T. S. Weeks, San .Tuan Island, Washington 
Territory, <alling the attention of the Commission to Man-of-War Harbor, in 8an 
Juan Lslaiid, as a site for the |)ro]n)sed navy yaril. 

(Jen. (ieorge P. Ihrie, of Port TowummhI, Washington Territory, presented himself 
belori' the (.'oinmis.siou as the bearer of the answi-rs. from tin' mayor and Board of 
Traile of Port T<»wnsen«l, to ihe <|uesti»)iis srnt out by the Commission from Washing- 
ton. These he delivered. t(»g<'tljer with a map of port Townsend and vicinity. 

The answers to the ciuesiions ad<lr»'>«,ed to Koos Bay and Vaipiina Kiver having 
been duly i)resented and read aloud to the (jotnniiKsion. a inemorandnm of the hydro* 
graphic conditions of these harhors, eonipiled from the Coast Survoy charts and other 
sourceH, was also re;id aloud, as well as a statement, of the proposed imuroveilieilto of 
thcbe harbors by the engineers, United States Army 


After discassioo it was determined that, as the available depth of water at the eu- 
trance o( these harbors was inadequate, the chaDuels shifting and uncertain, the bars 
ofteii iiuj)as8able by reason of the sea breaking, and the resources and internal corn- 
uiunicatious limited, these places did not meet the requirements for a naval station, 
iiud conseqiieutly a visit to them was unnecessary. ^ 

The Commission then adjourned to meet on Monday morning, at 9.30 o'clqck. 

Office Light-House Inspector, Thirteenth District, 

Portland, Oregon, February 11, 1889. 

The Coromishion met at 9.30 o'clock, pursuant to adjournment. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and approved. 

On Saturday after adjournment, the Commission, in company with a committee of 
the Board of Trade of Portland, visited the Oswego Iron Works and the mines from 
which the ore used in the works is obtained. 

The president presented the following papers received since the last meeting: 

A letter frOm Messrs. Samuel Collyer and S. A. Wheelwright, a committee of the 
Tacoma (Wash.) Chamber of Commerce, inclosing replies to the interrogatories rela- 
tive to a navy-yard sit« on the northwest coast. 

A letter from C. H. Page, mayor of Astoria, Oregon, giving answers to the inter- 
rogatories relative to the selection of a navy-yard site. 

A letter from Messrs. William H. Brewster, president, and John H. Elwell, secre- 
tary, of the Vancouver (Wash.) Board of Trade, giving answers to the interroga- 
tories relative to the selection of a navy-yard site. 

Interrogatories were sent to the editor and proprietor of the Pacific Journal, Oyster- 
vtlle, Wash. (Shoal water Bay), and to the editor and proprietor of the Aberdeen 
Herald, Aberdeen, Wash. ( Gray ^s Harbor), relative to the advantages of their respect- 
ive localities for a naval station. 

The Commission then decided to leave Portland to-morrow, February 12, for Ta- 
coma, there to join the light-house tender Manzanila and proceed at once to Seattle, 
Wash., in order to begin, without loss of time, an examination into the hydrographic 
conditions of Lake Washington and ascertain the topography of its shores, on which 
points precise information is as yet wanting. 

The Commission then adjoorned to meet again at Seattle, Wash. 

tJinTED States Light-House Tender Manzanita, 

Seattle, Wa$h., February 18, 1889. 

The Commission met at 12 o'clock. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and approved. 

It was directed that the following statement of events occurring since the last 
meeting of the Commission should be ent4*red in the proceedings: 

On Tuesday evening, February 1*2, the Commission embarked on board the United 
States light- bouse tender Alanzanita at Tacoma, and proceeded on the following 
morning to Seattle. A joint committee from the Board of Trade, Chamber of Com- 
merce, and City Council of Seattle waited upon the Commission, and it was arranged 
that on the next day the CommisHion, in company with several members of the above 
committee, should visit Lakes Union and Washington. 

On February 14, at 9.30 o'clock a. m., the Commission left the Mamanitajin pursu- 
ance of the above arrangement, and entered Salmon Bay from the Sound by water. 
At the head of Salmon Bay th<' cars were taken to Lake Union, when the Commis- 
sion embarked on a steam-launch and nassed through Lake Union, sonnding on tlie 
wav. The small canal connecting Lakes Union and Washington was inspected, to- 
gether with the character of the soil, and the Commission was then transferred to 
thtf steamer Kirkland at Union Bay, Lake Washington. The steamer went over to 
Kirkland and thence skirted the lake by the east shore, passing around Mercer Island, 
thence to the end of the cable road, where the Commission disembarked at 5 p. m. 

On Friday, February 15, the Commission again embarked on board the Kirkland 
and continued the examination, taking in the northern part of the lake, and then 
examined more minutely those localities which had been noted as most promising ou 
the lirst inspection. 

The president presented the following commuiiicationB, which had b^ep rccoiviit| 
9ince the last meeting : 


A letter from Mr. Aloxnndcr Repp:, of Seattle, WaBhinjjtoii Territory, ^viiif; an- 
swers to iiitc;rropat«»ri«^s n'lative to tlie a(lvrtiitaj;eaV>f Seattle hh » unvy-yard 8it«. 

A letter from K. L. bliaiiiion, of PortLiiid, Oregon, calliug atteutiou to the »dvui- 
tiiiivis of 8i III ilk I^ay, WaKliinj^ton Ti;rritor.v, for a navy-yard site, ami inclosing 
iicwHpaper elippin^H ji^iviii}; hifonnatioii rotrurdiup tlio naiiie. 

A letter fmiii Maj. W. A. Joiios, U. S. Eiij^ineorH, of Portland, Oregon, inclotiiiiff a 
letter from Capt. Kdwanl Kldrid;;*?, culling; attention to Belliugliaiu Bay aa a posaiule 
navy-yard Kite. 

A l«-tt<'r froui Charles A. Hanirs, of Seattle, Washinjjton Territory, calling at 
tioii to tlie Elliott Bay tide-HatH as a site for the i)rof)o8ed navy-yard. 

The CoinniisHion having iiiado a Hutlicient preliminary examination of Lake Waiih- 
in;;ton to HU]>ply the information h(>fore laekin^r, it was detrided to proceed on Monday, 
the IHth inHtant, to Olympia, WaHliin<;;ton Territory, there to Wgin a syatematie 
oxaininati<»n of the waters of ]*ii;^et Sonnd. 

The CommiHNioii then adjourned, havin;:: previouHly listened to a readinjir of the 
annwers to tiie (|uestion4 forwarded by the authorities of Olympia regarding tbe 
advantagits of that place as a navy-yard site. 

17mtki» States Lkjut-Hoitse Tkndkr Maxzanita, 

OlympiUj Wash., February 'iO, 168il. 

Th<^ CommisHion met at 4. '.10 oVlock. 

The proe.eediii;;s of the hist iMeetiii>; were read and approved. 

It was directed that the foHowin^ statement of events occurring since tho laHt 
meeting he entered in the i>roeeedin;!:s of tli<' Commission : 

I.eaviii*,^ Seatth> on Fehrnary l^^, on hoard the ManzamtUy the ConiiuiMiion proceeded 
to Olympia, arriving; tliere on the same day at 1 oVIock p. m. A visit was received 
from the mayor and aeonimittee from tho Board of Trade and city conuoil of Olympia. 
In the afternoon they visited Tumwater, and were shown the Deschutes Kiver and 
water power. 

At ^.:tO on the morning of the l<)th the Commission left the Manzanita in a CosHt 
Snivev lanneh, visitinj; (inil Harbor (or Wepns«*c; Inlet), thence pnKseeding a1c>n^ the 
cast sjion* of Mndd's Inh't to (;oo])er's I*oint, down VAd Inlet, and rutnrning along the 
west slion* of Bndd's Inh't to Butler's (Jove. 

In the afternoon of th<' same day the Commission, on hoard the ^aHffaniia^ in- 
Npected Totten Inlet and Stinaxin Ishind. 

On the morning; of the *^Otli instant the Commission, on board the Mansanita, in- 
».pc<tcd Cast-'s Inlet, i)aNsin^ thronj»h riekerin^ Passage, west of Hartstene ]Hlan«l, to 
tin' extreme limit of the inlet, and returning tliron^h the passage to the oast lira nl of 
the isl:in<I, thence thron;^h Hrayton l^issa^^e. Halch's l*asN:i;;e, to the cast and (south 
of AndersonV Island, and retnrnin;; to Olympia inspected liuudorsou's lulet. 

The Commission then adjourned. 

Unitki> Statks Li(;iit-1Ioi sk Tkni>f.r Maxzakita. 

Taroma, Hash., /'Vfrrsary 21, 18d9« 

The C'omniissinn met at *2 ]>. m. 

The prncct'diiijis nithe last nieciin^x wen* read and ap])roved. 

It w;is diriM'ted that the folli»\N in«x siatenn-nt of <*vt"nts occurring f<ince thc» 1a«t 
meet in;; be <ntcied in the jiroceetlin^s: 

At 1M{0 this morning the Comniis>i<in commenced a rcconnaissanee of the Hoiitli 
.^liore of NJMiMally Kca<'h. p.issin-^; lo the ♦•:i-.t wjird near lii^lxi|> Bank. The stfanier 
then headed for Hyde Point . skitt iiii; tlie nmtli shore of McXeiPs Island, and looking 
into <iei-trnde*s Cove, all the ]Miints :ilnn^ the cunrse bcini; observed and the cliar- 
aeicristics note<l. Afterwards the i-ntire shnie line of (an's Inlet was piiHAed in 
review and notes made of the diauicler of piomisinir sites. The .l/aHcam'/a, on re- 
tiirnin^, passed between Fox Nbmd and the ni:iinl:nid. the Ciunmissiou making notea, 
and then went t'» Steilncomn. where the. Coiiimissitin laiiib-d and wa1ke<1 over the 
town, nlxcrvini: the char.-M'te" nt tlie ground. 

'J'lie ten(hT then x>roceeded to Tacoma. arriving there at TtMO o'clock p. nif 


Uniticd States Light-House Tender Manzanita, 

Stxittle, Wash., February 5i5, 1889. 

The CommlsHion met at 4.30 p. m. 

The proceedings of the last meeting, February 21, were read and approved. 

The following statement of events occurring since the last meeting was approved 
and it was directed that it be entered on the record : 

The Commission reached Tacouia at 5.30 p. m. of the 21st instant. On the follow- 
ing day a visit was received from a committee of citizens, and later in the day the 
Commission visited the different parts of the city. 

Od the 23d instant the Commission left Tacoma at 8.30 a. m. and visited Gig Har- 
bor, Qaarterm aster's Harbor, and the east shore of Commencement Bay, making 
observations of the character of the shores, and landing when considered necessary. 

On the 25th instant, at 6.30 a. m., the Commission left Tacoma on boai^d the Man- 
gaMita^ and proceeded by Colvos's Passage to Port Orchard, entering by Rich's Pas- 
sage. They visited Dyers Inlet and passed around its shores, then returning to Port 
Orchard skirted its entire shore line, making full notes of its character and especially 
of SQcb parts as seemed to offer promising sites for a navy-yard. In the coarse of the 
reconnaissance the tender passed through Agate Passage. 

The reconnaissance being finished the Commission proceeded to Seattle, arriving 
there at 5 p. m. 

A letter was received from Mr. Joseph W. Dorr, editor of the Journal, Blaine, 
Wash., calling attention to the advantages of that site for the location of a navy- 

United States Light-House Tender Manzanita, 

Nearing Whatcom, Wash., February 28, 1889. 

The Commission met at 5 p. m. 

The proceedings of the last meeting, Febrnary 25, were read and approved. 
It was directed that the following statement of events occurring since the last meet- 
ing be recorded in the proceedings: 
Oi>the morning of February 26, the Commission t^ok a special train from Seattle, 

Slaoed at its disposal by the officers of the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railroad 
ompanv. and went as far as the present terminus of the road, visiting on the way 
two of the coal mines which are on the line, and returning to Seattle at 4.30 p. m. 

At ll.'W a. m., of Febrnary 27, the Commission left Seattle in the Manzanita and 
went to Possession Sound, keeping along the east shore of Puget Sound. They entered, 
and skirted the shores of Port Susan and then proceeded to Saratoga Passage, looking 
into Holmes's Harbor and Penn's Cove, and at 6.30 p. m. anchored off Utsala<ly. 

Daring the trip observations were taken and notes made of the character of the 
shores, soundings being taken when necessary. 

No sites were observed that, from the topography, soundings as shown on the Coast 
Sarvey charts, position and nearness to centers of resources, approached in desira- 
bility sites alreiuly visited by the Commission 

On February 28th the Manzanita with the Commission on board, got under way 
from Utsalady at 7 a. m., and proceeded to Similk Bay at reduced speed, sounding 
constantly. ' 

At Hope Island, while moving very slowly, soundings were taken along the west 
end and close to the north shore and thence over to the east shore of the bay. The 
tender came to anchor at 8.30 o'clock in four (4) fathoms of water, and an examina- 
tion was made of Siniilk Bay and its vicinity in a boat, lines of soundings being run 
to determine the hydrography, the topography of the shore-line being noted. 

At 12.*.U) o'clock the Manzanita g(»t under way and passed through Deception Pass, 
thence through KoHurio iSt raits to Ship Harbor and Belling ham Bay, noting charac- 
teristics of the shore while passing by. 

United States Light-House Tender Manzanita, 

Fast Sound, Orcas Island, W. T., March 2, 1889. 

The Commission met at 10.30 a. ra. 

The proceedings of the last meeting, February 2Sth, were rend and approved. 
It was directed that the follo^ving statement of events, occurring since the las^ 
DUeeting, be entered in the prm>eedings. 
^t G.45 p. m. of February 28th, the Moif^Qnita aocWed off WbatooiOi 

If A 88-,— H 


lingbam Bay, the San Jnan Itiands, and the more important harbors on the Straits of 
Jnan de Foca, proceeded to disonss the comparative meritH of ,the sites noted, uid 
after discushioD decided to proceed to-morrow to a closer examination of Port Orehard, 
In order to determine how far it meets satisfactorily the oonditiona imposed by the 
Kavy Dexiartmeut's letter of instmctions of November 30, 1888. 

United States Light-House Tender Manzanita, 

Nearing Tacoma, Wash,, March 12, 1889. 

The CommiRsion met at 8 p. m. 

The proceedings of the last meetlDg, March 8, were read and approved. 

It was directed that the following statement of events, oocnring since the last meet- 
ing, be entered in the report of the proceedings: 

On March the 8th, at 6.45 a. m., the Manzanita got nnder way, standioff a little 
further up towards Lyuch's Cove, and then turned about and stood down the uppet 
part of Hood's Canal, following the southern shore-line. 

The Commission stopped at Union City, where information was obtained concerning 
various logging railroaas at the head and vicinity of Hood's Canal. The tender then 
stood up the northern arm of Hood's Canal, coasting along the east side, then stand- 
ing out of Hood's Canal into Admiralty Inlet, and at 6 p. m. the Commission re- 
turned to Seattle. 

On March 9, at 8 a. m., the Commission left Seattle in the Manzanita and pro- 
ceeded to Port Orchard, and at 9.30 anchored off Point Tamer. The Commission 
landed and inspected a part of the ground there: and afterwards two members, 
aooompanie<l by Assistant J. F. Pratt, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey, crossed the peninsula from Sinclair's Inlet to Dye's Inlet. In the afternoon 
there came on board A. Williams and Warren Smith, landholders on the point; and 
alao A. H. Sroiife, editor of the Kitsap County Pioneer, published at the neighboring 
village of Sidney, and conversation was had with them relative to prices of land, etc. 

Inquiries were made at Sidney to ascertain the development and resources of the 
surrounding country. At 6 p. m. the Manzanita again made fast to the wharf at 

At 9.*^ a. m. of the 11th instant the Manzanita was again anchored in Dye's Inlet, 
abreast of the house of Warren Smith. A number of owners and claimants of laud 
under the land laws of the United States were assembled, and from them was obtained 
the prices at which they were willing to sell or to relinquish their claims, having re- 
spect to the improvements made by tnem. 

A further examination of the face of the country from Point Turner along the shore 
of Dye's inlet, taking in Warren Smith's place, was made, including Phinney's Ba^. 

On March V2 the tender left Seattle at 10 a. m.. Commander Chester remaining in 
the city to make inquiries at the land office and office of the district attorney rela^ 
tive to the valuation and appraisement of lands, etc. 

The president of the Commission sent a telegram to-day to the Superintendent of 
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, requesting that Assistant Pratt be au- 
thorized to make a survey for a navy-yard site. 

The Manzanita arriving in Port Orchard, Captain Mahan and Lientenant^Com- 
mamler Stockt^m, aeconipanied by Assistant Pratt, landed at the property of Robert 
H. Jertaon and walked over the greater part of it, noting the character of the topog- 

HonndiDgs were taken off Point Turner to determine the character of the bottom 
within the five (5) fathom line, as to which no sufficient information was found on 
the ebart'. The topography of the country walked over was carefully observed, 
heights taken approximately, etc. The point on the west side of Phinney's Bay was 
further examined, and the point of entrance into Dye's Inlet of the outlet of Kitsap 
Lake was ascertained. 

The following letters were received by the president of the Commission and were 

From Mr. Alf. D. Bowen, proprietor of the Pacific Jonrnal, of Oysterville, Wash., 
showing the advantages of Sboalwater Bay as a navy-yard site. 

Prom Mr. Henry Drum, of Tacouia, Wash., inclosing a communication from Mr. W. 
J. Thompson, the'latter suggesting the east side of Commencement Bay as a suitable 
site for a navy-yard. 

From Mr. George E. Filley, of Aberdeen, Wash., giving information relative to ad- 
vantages of that IcK'ality as a navy-yard site. 

From Mr. £. 1). Warbass, of Roche Harbor, Wash., giving information relative to 
ailvautagee of Griffin's Bay, or Man-of-War Harbor, Wash., as a navy-yard site. 

The Commission received the boring-tools> se^^ from ^e OAvy-j^ard| MftT^ IsUwdi 

Q0(fm^ Qj^ boar4 the ManManita, y^t^rday^ 


UinTEi> States Light-Housx Tbnder Manzanita, 
Of Point Turner, Port Orokard, Waah., Marioh 18, 1889. 

The Commission met ftt 12.10 p. m. 

The proceedings of the last meeting, March 12, were read and approved. 

The following statement of the movements and proceedings of the Commissicm 
since the last meeting was directed to be entered in the record for the day : 

On Wednesday, March 13, the Commission left Tacoma in a special train on the 
Northern Pacific Railroad to visit certain mines on the line of that road, and visited 
those at Carbonado, Wilkeson, South Prairie, and Durham, spending the night at 

On Thursday, March 14, the Commission proceeded as far as Ellensburgh, visiting 
on the way the mines at Roslyn, starting for Tacoma on their return the same night. 

The Commission arrived in Tacoma at 7 a. m., of March 15, and at 7.45 started in 
the Manzanita for Port Orchard, where the day was spent at Point Turner in making 
a further inspection of the topography and in making borings of the soil. While 
thus employed, the Manzanita^ with Commander Chester on ooard, visited Sidney 
and Port Madison to obtain information relative to the ownership of property and 
valuation thereof, returning to Seattle at night. 

On Saturday, March 16, the Manzanita went again to Port Orchard. Captain 
Mahan, with Assistant Pratt, visited Lake Kitsap, 3 miles west of Point Turner, to 
ascertain its suitability as a source of water supply for a navy-yard. 

Lieutenant-Commander Stockton resumed borings of the soil at Point Turner. 

Commander Chester remained in Seattle, visiting the United States district attor- 
ney, William H. White, and made arrangements for the appointment of appraiser- 
to assist the Commission in cstiinatiug the value of the navy-yard site under oonsid, 
oration. The appraisers appointed were W. H. Whitworth, of Seattle; A. H. Sroufes 
of Sidney; and Douglass A. AUmond, of Seattle. 

The CommiHsion spent Sunday, March 17, in Seattle, on which day ft telegram was 
received from the Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to the effect 
that he hati authorized a survey for a navy-yard site by Assistant J. F. Pratt. 

On March 18 the Manzanita started for Port Orchard, conveying, besides the Com- 
mission, the appraisers appointed to assist the Commission in estimating the value 
of the site under consideration. 

The CommihHiou now took under consideration the special observations made by it 
on the spot, and decided that Point Turner, on Sinclair's Inlet, in Port Orchard, 
possesses in sufficient degree the conditions necessary for the establishment of a navy- 
yard and docks; and also that, considering the hydrographio conditions, location, 
general surroundings, and capacity for local defense, it fultills the rciiuirements pre- 
scribed by the Navy Department in its letter of instructions dated November ^iO, 
188H, better than any other site on Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Hood's Canal, or 
Lake Washington. 

The CommiHsion next took under consideration Possession Sound, Port Susan, and 
Siinilk Bay as possible sites for a navy-yard, and decided that the hydrographic con- 
ditions and remoteness from the present centers of commercial activity, with insuf- 
ficient communications, make them less eligible than Pdint Turner ias a site for a 
navy-yard, and that, therefore, no further examination of the particular conditions 
at those places was necessary. 

The Commission next took under consideration the main coast-line from Deception 
Pass to the Canada frontier, including the north and west shores of Fidalgo Island, 
and decided that the hydro<{rai>hic conditions were inferior to those of Port Orchard; 
that the country was us yet imperfectly developed, with insufficient communications; 
that the coast was open to attack by sea unless s])ecially fortified, which its present 
importance, irn-spective of a navy-yard, does not demand ; that it was, therefore, 
badly situated with reference to the principal lines of sea-coast defense as now re- 
quired ; also that the northern ]»ortion, including Bellingham Bay, from its nearness 
to the frontier, its isolated ]>ositlon, and the fitness of the surrounding country for 
military operations, was pe(;uliarly open to a sudden raid by land, for all which 
reas<ms this region is inferior to Point Turner as the site of a navy-yard and de- 
mands no further examination. 

The Commission next took up the San Juan Islands and considered them as a whole. 
It was decided that, while a number of available locations for fortified harbors or ad- 
vanced stations for naval operations existe<l, their isolation and insular position, 
together with their liability to blockade, or interruption of communications in time 
of war, did not permit the selection of any of their line harbors as Boitable for a navy- 

The consideration of the harbors cm the Strait of Juan do Foca then followo<l, viz, 
Port Angeles, New Dnngeness, Washington Harbor, and Port Discovery, which were 
also taken up as a whole. 

It was decided that while eacli offered some advantages fts ft port, yet, withoat 
entering into their deficiencies, their situation without the limits where the oatsr 








The Collector of the Porfj Xew OrleanB, La, : 

PleaHe liuvo the following delivered to Commodore MoCann, i^resideDt of c 
sion to report on location for navy-yard» on Gulf and Sontli Atlantic coast : 

Commodore William P. McCann, U. S. Navy : 

Department desires that the commission of wbtcb yon are president com! 
cate with Governor Lowry, JackHon, Miss., and agrco upon a time and place to 
commission to meet a commission appointed by Governor Lowry for conferenc 
gardiug an examination of the harbors and bays of Pascagoula and Biloxi, 
Acknowledge telegram. Notify Department of time and place arranged for i 

B. F. Tract, 
Secretary of the Si 

The subject of the comparative importance and aclvaTita|2^8 o^ 
different ports within the assigned limits of the investigation wa^ 
discussed, and during the following week the Gommissiou visiteti 
IIy<lrograi)hi(j Otlice and the Coast and Geodetic Survey Ollice 
amining cliarts and plane table sheets of all the points under di? 
sion. This cjireliil examination and the elimination of iilaces v 
the want of water put out ot the question made it i>os8ibIe to re* 
the number of phices tiiat it would be necessary to visit- Then 
certain conditions that are absolutely essential to a proper site; 
navy -yard ; out of this number two maybe taken, the absence of ei 
or both of which is fatal to any i)ropo8ed site. The first is a saffii 
depth of water over the bar and in the channel up to the proposed 
to admit of the heaviest shii)s at mean low water; and the seo 
fast lan<l above high- water mark on which to erect bnildiugs. In s 
cases, and in fact in most of tiie southern ports on our coast, the 
nels are not naturally of a sutiicient depth, and therefore nature l 
be assisted in her work of cutting across bars and deepening riven 
case nature has done little for a port or is gradually filling in ins 
of cutting out, the expense of cutting and maintaining a channel w 
be so great as to throw such a point entirely out of consideratioi 
matter what tlie character of the land and surroundings niigb 
when once inside, or the facilities for obtaining labor and brin 
material to the place. After a careful and full discussion of all po 
it wasde(*i(le(l thai only the Ibllowing-named [)lace8need be exanii 

Port Koyal, 8. (\, Sapelo Sound, Ga., and Brunswick, Ga., on tlw 
lantic const; while on the (xulf coiist, Pensacola, Fla., Mobile, ^ 
and >\'w Oilcans, La., wctc the only places that could be cousid 
available. To this list Savannah, Ga., was added later by direct 
the honorable Secretary of the Xavy, as was also by direction^ 
the si)ecial lequest of Ciovernor Lowery of Mississipx)!, the 
harbor of l>iloxi, Miss. 

On February li.'i the Coniinission adjourned. 

On Fehruary 2r)Cai)t. 1\ M. Kamsay was relieved from duty as pi 
dent of the navy-yard site coniniission and Commodore W. P. Mc 
was ordered as president of the commission. The orders from the 
l)artnMMit un<ler which these changes were made are as follows : 

Navy Department 
Washington f D, C, February 25, 

Sir: Voti ;nv 1i«t<'U> n'liovo<l from duty as preHident of the navy-yanl C4 
iil>point(Ml mull r llio I)<*partiiH'iit'« order of the 2l8t ultimo. 

W. C. Whitxbt, 
Secretary of ik4 3* 
Capt. V. M. liAMSAV, 

Commandant Navy-yardy Xew York, 


Bcipnlly ft»r stores an<l coal, at Port Royal, S. C, and Key West, Fla. There are 

tracts of land purchased, but nuused for naval purposed, at Algiers, La., oppo- 
s New Orleans, and o\i s«*V('ral islands along the coacft of Georgia. 

The I )e}>:irtuient understands, from the language of the act and from the public 
<>ussi(Mi attcUiMng its passage, that it is the wish of Congress to ascertain from the 

1 report and deliberate deeisiun of the commission of which you are president the 
9ii desirable loeation on or near the Gulf of Mexico for the principal naval estab- 

hnient of the I'uited States south of Norfolk, Va. 

Vh\^ estahlishui«*nt is propose<l to be for the repair and construction of naval ve»- 
as. In hr duly provided with ade(|uate docking resources and to be the important 
^'al arMMial and depot for our naval forces cruising and operating in or near the 
H' oi* Mexiro. the \Vrst Indies, and the Caribbean Sea. 

1 <lfridiiii: !i]»on this locatitui, the Department wishes you to consider the general 
«i stratc;;ieai reipiirenieuts of such u naval station iu this part of the United States, 
lecially its bearing as a naval base for operations for gnanling the months of the 
^sissippi and its water-borne trade, for the defense of the ports, coasts, and waters 
the (Hi!f f»f Mexico, and for the f>rotection of our trade and interests in the Ca- 
ftbean Sea. The direct- routes to the ('cntral American Isthmus, and its probable 
Lp-<'anul from the eastern coasts ot the United States, it must be borne in mind, 
s<s ihr<»ui:h tin* channels that lead out of or are near by the Gulf of Mexico. 
The con'<i<leration of this phase of the question should also include the relative 
sit ions of the various fortitied naval ports of strong European powers, now exist- 
r, or to b<' establishe<l, iu the West Indies, towards the location to be selected, 
i'M> ports being points from which hostile operations can be based against our trade 
<i coasts. 

In ad<lition to these general requiiements, due attention must lie given to the fol- 
•vinij Npeiial requirements for a navy-yanl : 

: 1) A .sitnati«Mi upon a good harbor, of suflicient size, depth, and accessibility for 
^.si-ls oT the largest size and heaviest draught. 

,:*) A favorabh* position with respect to the principal lines of defense. 
lit) A loeal si>curity from water attack, due to iKtsit ion and natural surroundings. 
^-1) Ample water frontage of sulhcient depth and permanence and with currents 
niodcratt' rafiidity. 

<.'»^ A lavorable po-^ition with respect to the lines of interior communication (by 
il or oiln iwiM') with the principal sources of supplies. 

<>• That the rhara<'ter (»f tin- ground shall be suitable for the construction of ex- 
\ :iti d <lo« ks and basins and tor heavy structures. 
7' rio\:iint\ to (■< nteis <if labor and supplies of material. 
. -< Ih .lit liin("<s of till' ( liinaie and its suitability for out-of-door labor. 
,'.* llic e\i<«tene«'. in ih«> virinity, pi' an ample Hup]dy of good potable water. 
lb' PtpartuMMit theretore deems it advisable that the commission ascertain from 
r proper authorities of the War l)epartment, for its consideration in thisconuectioni 
4> wi>ik> in o{M«ratioii and the jdans proposed or judged to be feasible for the per- 
iiii lit improvement of the more desirable harl>ors coming within the geographical 
nils of \()iir examination, and also the probable cost and results of such improve- 

In addition to the above information, the Department desires you to ascertain the 
iiiripal lines of deteiiM'. us far as they are forniulato4l, for the harbors and coasts 
Ahni tlie >cope of your < xaniination, and also to obtain any hydrographic or other 
fniriiMTion that would be ))«Ttinent, fniin the Coast Survey or llydn>graphic Office 
till* Itiireaii of Yards and l)o<'ks. 

Mil- <-oiniiiandant of the navy-yard, IVnsacida, Fla., and the commanding offioen 
tie- naval stations at Key West, Fla., and Port Ro3'al, S. C, will be instructed to 
Old \ou ail |H»ssibli* a'^sist.'ince. 

i am, vi-rv respectfullv, vour obedient ser\'ant, 

W. C. Whitney, 
Secretary of the Navjf, 
I 'apt. r. M. Kamsay. r. S. Navy, 

Pn-xitUnt nf rommi^nion to nclert Bxte for a 

nurtf.jfard on or about the Gulf of Mexico, etc, 

lii addition to the foregoing letter the following special instructions were received 
t« b :^raph froiu ih«* S«*cre(ary of the Navy. 

.miiiodore W. P. McK'anx, 

yavf{-yard, Pinntacola, Fla. : 

rh<> Department desires that Savapnah, Ga., be included in the places to be visited 
«l reporte<l u|>on by 1 he committee of which you are preddent. While at Savannah 
u will confer with the authorities. Acknowledge. 

B. F. Tbaot, 
8m>nUurji ef ik$ Nm9^. 


The Collector of the Porf^ Xew Orleana, La, : 

Pleafie have the Ibllowiup; dolivered to Commodore McCann, president of oommifr 
Bion to report on location for navy-yardi» ou Gulf and South Atlantic coast : 

Commodore William P. McCann, U. S. Navy : 

Department desires that the commission of whtch yon are president commafli- 
cate with Governor Lowry, Jackson, Miss., and agree upon a time and place tor tte 
commission to meet u couimiHsion appointed by Governor Lowry for conference i*- 
garding an examinatitm of the harbors and bays of Pascagoula and Hiloxi, Mia. 
Acknowledge telegram. Notify Department of time and place arranged for meo^ 

B. F. Tract, 
Secretary of the Navjfm 

The subject of tbe comparative importance and advantages of tie 
difterent ports within the assigned limits of the investigation was fulfc" 
discussed, and during the following week the Commission visited tte 
Hydrographic Oflicc and the Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, ex- 
amining charts and plane table sheets of all the points under discus- 
sion. This careful examination and the elimination of places whieh 
the want of water put out ot the (piestion made it iwssible to redaee 
the number of places that it would be necessary to visit. There aie 
certain conditions that are absolutely essential to a proper site for a 
navy-yard ; out of this number two may be taken, the absence of eitiier 
or both of which is fatal to any proposed site. The first is a sufficient 
depth of water over the bar and in the channel up to the proposed aite 
to admit of the heaviest ships at mean low water; and the second is 
fast land above high water mark on which to erect buildings. In some 
cases, an<l in fact in most of the southern ports on our coast, the chftu- 
nels are not naturally of a sullicient depth, and therefore nature lias to 
be assisted in her work of cutting across bars and deepening rivers. In 
case nature has done little for a ]K)rt or is gradually filling in instead 
of cutting out, the expense of cutting an<] maintaining a channel wotid 
be so great as to throw such a point entirely out of consideration, no 
matter what the character of the land and surroundings might bOi 
when once inside, or the facilities for obtaining labor and bringing 
material to the placre. After a carefid and full discussion of all points^ 
it wasde<*i<UMl that only the tbilowing-njinied ])laces need be examined: 

Tort i^)yal, IS. C, !Sai)eh) Sound, Ga., and Ihunswick, Cia., on the At- 
lantic coast; while on the (Julf coast, Pensacola, Fla., Mobile, Ala., 
and New Orleans, La., were the only places that could be considered 
available. To this list Savannah, (xa., was achled later by direction of 
the honorable Se<jretary of the Navy, as was also by direction, and at 
the special request of (rovernor Lowery of Mississippi, the bay and 
harbor of Diloxi, Miss. 

On February 23 the Commission adjourned. 

On February 25 (^apt. V. M. Kainsay wjis relieved from duty as presi- 
dent of the navy-yanl sit<'. commission and Commodore W. P. McCann 
was ordered as president of the commission. The orders from the De- 
partment under which these changes were made are as follows : 

Navy Department 
Washington, D, C, February 25, 

Sir: You ;in» lioroby relieved from duty as prewdent of the navy-yanl ooniin 
aj)poiiite(l iindrr tlio i.)(>partniont'8 order of the 2lBt lUtimo. 

W. C. Whitnbt, 
Secretary of the J^nf . 
Capt. F. M. Kamhay, 

Commandant Xavy-yardj Xew York, 


Navy Department, 
IVashuigtorty February 25, 1869. 

Riu: In pursuance of the act of Congress approved September 7, 1888, a copy of 
which is herewith inclosed, you are, in addition to your present duties, hereby ap- 
pointed president of a commission, to consist of Capt. Robert Boyd, Lieut. Comman- 
der Willard H. Brownson, and yourself, *^ to reporf as to the most desirable location on 
or near the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic coast for iiavy-yards 
and dry-docks." 

You will proceed to Washington and report, in person, at the Department for this 
duty, after which you will, with the commission, visit such points gn or near the 
eoast of the Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic coast of the Uuite<l States M it 
may deem advisable for the proper execution of this duty. 

The report of the commission will be as full as practicable, and will contain all 
the information in detail obtainable in reference to this subject which may be of in- 
terest to this Department or to Congress. 

W. C. Whitney, 

Secretary of the Navy, 
Commodore W. P. McCann, 

Commandant Navy-yard, Boston, Maes. 

In obedience to the following order, Lient. Duncan Kennedy, U. 8. 
Navy, reported for duty as secretary of the commission. 

Navy Department, 
Washington, D. C, March 2. 1889. 

Sir : In addition to your present duties you will report to Commodore W. P. Mc- 
Cann, for duty as secretary of the commission of which ho is president, appointed 
for the purpose of reporting as to the most desirable location on or near the coast of the 
Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic coast of the United States for a navy-yard and 

You will accompany the connuission to such points as it may visit in connection 
-with this duty. 


W. C. Whitney, 
Secretary of the Navy, 
Lieut. Duncan Kennedy, U. S. Navy, 

Navy Department y Washington, I). C. 

Washington, March li, 1889. 

The Commission met at the Navy Department. Present, Commodore 
W. l\ McCann, Capt. Robert Boyd, Lieut. Commander Willard H. 
Brownson, members, and Lieut. Duncan Kennedy, secretary. 

The question of the* route to be taken was discussed and settled, and 
after coUectinji^ (charts and other material that would be useful to the 
Commission during the course of its investigations, on Wednesday, the 
13th March, the Commission started for Beaufort, S. C, where the light- 
house tender Wistaria,, which ha<I been placed at the orders of the Com- 
mission by the Light House Board, was to meet them. The Commission 
arrived at Beaufort, JS. C, on the evening of the 14th, and on the morn- 
ing of the Lith proceeded in the ^Yi8taria to examine different points 
in and about Port Royal Sound with reference to their suitability as 
locations for a navy-yard. 

The Commission desires to express its appreciation of the cordial co- 
operation of Lieut. Commander R. D. Hitchcock, XJ. S. Navy, light- 
house inspector, which enabled them to make the examination of the 
Atlantic coast under the most favorable conditions. 

The Commission also desires in this connection to express its appre- 
ciation of the marked attention with which it was received by the State 
and local authorities everywhere, and ro state that they had extended 
to them ever^' aid and facility in carrying on theur investigations ^^ 
proposed sites for the establishment of naval statioDSi and that mUj^^ 


valuable information and data was obtained by the Commission " 
conferences with the authorities and leading business men of thai 
ent ports which were visited. 

The Commission having completed its examination of the son 
X>ort8 returned to Washington, and the following report was mai 
the honorable Secretary of the Navy: 

Navy Department, 
WtMhington, Z>. C, April tf, ! 

Sir : I have the honor to inform the Dopartroent that the Navy-yard site coi 
sion, having completed its examination of the South Atlantic and Gulf poit* 
reference to the location of navy-yards and dry-docks, has returned to Washi 
Before completing its report it will be necessary to wait for about one mo 
receive estimates for docks, dredging, and cutting ont the bars and channels 
the topographical survey at Pensacola, and borings at other localities. WhiiU 
ing for this data Captain Boyd and myself return to our stations and Lien 
Commander Brownson and Lieutenant Kennedy wiU remain al Washington to « 
reports and act for the commission. 

I have directed the members of the commission to re- assemble here when 
proceed with the work on the final report. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, 

W. P. McCann, 
Commodore^ U, 8. Navy ^ and President of the Navy- Yard Site Commistk 

The great and radical changes in the art of naval warfare ^ 
have been brought about in late years by the introduction of am 
ships, high-powered long-range guns, torpedo-boats, mines, and 
steamers have most materially altered the conditions which mua; 
filled before any site can be considered as suitable for a navy-yard, 
a first requisite there must be a depth of water sufficient to admit 
heaviest vessels at all times, for it is not difficult to imagine a v< 
seeking the harbor as a place of refuge when hard pressed, when 
delay outside would be fatal ; or ships might be inside waiting foi 
tide to rise so that there would be sufficient water on the bar to pe 
their going to sea, and in the mean time the enemy, possibly that it 
the intention to attack, has sufficient time to collect his forces if 
tered, or to move rapidly away if he prefers, while all the time the s 
that might do so much are cooped up helplessly inside, unable to at 
a blow. 

Sites that were well suited for the purposes of pavy-yards some tb 
or forty years ago are, many of them, out of the question now, I 
reason that they are too near the sea. While it is very true thatj 
rate shooting can not be done at the extreme ranges of the pr 
high-powered guns, and therefore that ships would never think 01 
gaging at extreme range, it must not be overlooked that a navy-j 
presents a fairly large target, and though the actual injury inflicted 
a bombardment might really be very slight, still the fact that it 
liable to such bombardment would sadly demoralize the laborers, in 
fere seriously with work, and some lucky shots might happen to in 
most serious injury to machinery, the plant in general, or to ves8< 
the yard. 

The primary use of a navy-yard is the construction and repairio. 
ships. As necessary sequences of this it follows that the location n 
be suitable to construction in all departments, and this again nea 
tates such soil as will admit of the construction of building-v 
machine-shops of the largest size, fitted with the heaviest machii 
forges, foundries, boiler shops, gun parks, etc. Store-houses n 
also be provided for the collection of stores in large quantities, so t 
in case of war and the necessit^^ of fitting out a large number of 1 
with the greatest expedition there may be no unreasonable deli^« 


list, which is but a very imperfect one, mcst be added quarters for 

rs, barracks, and guard-houses for sailors and marines, and many 

T bui!dinp:s, all of which together will cover a large amount of 

id, and must be well removed from any chance of molestation by 


nt only does a navy-yard represent years of labor and an immense 
Hy of capital, but it contains materials and stores which are ab- 
tt»ly nei*essary for the carrying on of a maritime war. Its destruc- 
during audi a war would be a disaster that could not be county 
►liars and cents, for not only would it most seriously cripple the 
frnfnent, and be iuii)()ssil)le to replace while the war continued, 
it might also have a most disastrous intiueDce on the results of the 

ne of the ])riniary conditions of a good site for a navy-yard is, there- 
, that it should ho so situated as to bo secure from attack either by 
or land. The innnunity from attack by sea should be the result of 
.tion if possible, rather than due to extensive fortifications alone, 
igh the fortitieations will always be needed to assist in the pro- 
ion of the navy yard, most especially from attack by wat^r. This 
essity of fortifying the actual locality, as well as the headlands and 
roa(rhes by water to diH»k-yards is fully recognized by foreign gov- 
tnents. The defense of the dock-yards at Chatham and Portsmouth, 
;lan(I. in addition to the outer lines of defense, are described as the 
it elaborate in the kingdom. The heights surrounding the former are 
ivned with batteries, while the banks of the Medway, for a distance of 
ies to the* estuary of the Thames, are studded with batteries and 
)«m1o stations, and are regarded as being unassailable. Such is the 
teetion given to a tlockyard by a power well prepared to defend its 
er approa<*hes by battle-ships alone. Our military authorities as- 

• us that we have little to fear from a descent on land. 

he ;reographieal and strategic position must have the greatest weight 
rlrriin;^r tlu» locality torn navy -yard. It may happen, as is really 
ease in the ilnlf of Mexico, that there are three or four places that 
so nearly equally distant from some particular point or points that 
it t)e guardtMl, that it is immaterial which one is selected; in this 

* loi:il peculiarities-will alone settle the question. But as the case 
>r.i!His w ith us, having navy-yards on our Northern Atlantic coast, 

e i>n th(* Southern coast, and but one on the Gulf coast, and that 
ailoweil to fall into decay, it follows from a careful study of the 
;:rapliieal situaticm that we should have a navy-yani somewhere 
ut iialt way between Norfolk and the Florida Straits, and another 
Im* (iulf of Mexico. Much can be said in favor of a vard on either 
st, and the selection of the one and the rejection of the other should 
be done hastilv, nor till all questions have been most carefully 

hi tiie Atlantic, we have a long stretch of coast on which there is no 
■e where a man-ofwar can run in and find a sup])ly of ammunition 
ting tor lH*r, where she can find material and men all ready to make 
repairs that an a<;tion or the exigencies of active service may make 
olut(*ly necessary and indispensable, or where she can be docked, 
]>ossib1y most impoitant of all, no point of rendezvous for a squad- 
that it might be the intention to collect for operations in the West 
ies. lM)r all such work in the Bahamas, on the eiistern end of Cuba, 
>an Domingo, or among the Windward Islands, some point on the 
antic coast wouhl have great advantages over one in the Gulf fh)ia 
fact tbat It would bu nearer the field of operationsi and yessels 


would not lose so mnch time in returning to port for ammunition, ooid, 
or repairs. In the event of war with a foreign power that had any ooni" 
merce with the West Indies or to the Isthmus of Panama, some pdnt 
on the Atlantic would make an excellent base from which to send oat 
vessels or squadrons to break up such commerce. It is true that to a 
number of points among the islands, the distance from some point on 
tlie Gulf would be less than from an Atlantic port, but it will be well 
to note that all vessels starting from the Gulf must, of necessity, pau 
through the Yucatan Channel or the Florida Straits as through a gate, 
and an enemy could lay in wait for them at these ])oints, knowing that 
there was no other way for theui to go. On the other hand, there woold 
be no means of determining beforehand what dirr<aion a lieet starting 
from an Atlantic port would take, and a slight detour might throw tbe 
enemy com])letely oti' the track and ])ermit the delivering of a blow on 
the enemy's commerce entirely unopi)ose(l. 

With regard to the question of the selection of some point on the Gnlf 
as a site for a navy yard, the reasons in favor of it are many and con- 
clusive. At the present time the commerce of the Gulf is enormou, 
and it is increasing all the time. The timber trade at Pensacola, the 
timber and iron trade at Mobile, and the i*.otton and general trade at 
New Orleans re])resent no insignilicant ])ortion of the trade of the 
United States, and most earnestly demand adecjuate ])rotection. Itis 
evident that .^uch protection (cannot be given if we have no navy-yanl 
in the Gulf at which we can readily fit out our vessels, which can beuied 
as a rendezvous for our fleets, and to which they can retire if an over- 
whelming force is oi)i>osed to them. In such an event a navy-yard on 
the Atlantic coast would be of little value. If we were at war'^k 
England she would have .Jamai(*.a from which to strike the blow ; while 
if the light were with 8])ain Culia would forma base of operations 
that would be closer to our Gulf-ports than any jmint we have on the 
Atlantic. With the cutting of a transisthmian canal, it matters little 
in this connection whether it be at PanainaoriSicaragua, questions ore 
sure to arise that will involve tlie United States, and we must be pre- 
pared to maintain our rights with force; all nations that areintereotBcl 
in this (piestion are lik(^ly to be Jealous of us, if for no other reason tfaon. 
our near neighborhood to the locality^and we must put ourselves in a posi- 
tion to maintain our rights, which can only be done by having anaval foico 
that can be nuide available at short notice, l^ngland, France, SimiD, 
Holland, and Denmark have all dock yards and coaling stations in tho 
West Indies, any one of which stations is a shorter distance from either 
the Panama or the Nicaragua Oanal than any ]K)rt in our ]>osRession. 

The cutting of a canal at either of the ]u)ints named would doubtless 
have a great effect on our commerce, botli i)etwt»eu the Paciftc and flie 
Altantic coasts and between the Gulf and the west coast of Soath 
America and the islands of the South Seas. Such commerce nnist pass 
through the Yucatan C'hannel, where we have Spain in the Island of 
Guba on one side, and the English in the Island of Jamaicii almost 
in the lin^^ of travel. Siurh a ]>osition is one of weakness for us andean 
only be olfset by our being prei»ared to i)rotect our rights, ami to ao- 
eomplish this, a navy-yard in the immediate vicinity, ready prepared as 
a base of operations, is absolutely necessary. 

The geographical and strategic <{uestions will decide the general lo- 
cality in which it is best to hxtate a navy yard, but minor hM*al qu 
tions will have to be carefully studied Ix'fore the i>arti(!ular spot can 
decided u])(m. These points are in many ways far moreditUcult of 80>ia- 
tiou than the more general ones. As regarils our own Southern ooaatB 


only a slight study of the charts is necessary to convince the most casual 
atudent that there is no point that combines within itself all the requi- 
sites for a perfect navy-yard site. It therefore becomes necessary to 
Btndy the various features of many places and endeavor to determine 
^liich one combines within itself the greatest number of good points 
and the smallest number of drawbacks. 

In the study of the relative values of various sites that may be brought 
forward as suitable for navy-yards, one of the first points to be consid- 
ered is the depth of water. In this respect the United States is pecu- 
liarly 8itnate<i. Generally speaking, the a])proaches to our ports are 
Blioal, and vessels of great draught can not find entrance even at high 
tide. This hydrographic peculiarity has forced upon the Government 
tlie construction of vessels of moderate draught, and in no construction 
policy that has yet been discussed have vessels of over 24 feet draught 
been seriously considered. 

However, the building of coast-defense vessels and battle-ships of a 
greater draught than 24 feet will soon be forcel upon us, and if a con- 
struction yard is to l>e established in our southern harbors the bars and 
eiiannels must be deepened and straightened to render them practica- 
ble for the increaseil and increasing size of armored ships. 

Closely allied to this question of depth is that of ease of entrance. 
As in war times it may not infrequently hapjien that the buoys are re- 
moved in order to prevent an enemy forcing his way in, it may also 
ha[)pen that at the same time one of our own sbij>s is trying to enter. If 
the channel is reasonably straight, a vessel familiar with the ground could 
enter in safety; while if the channel were very intricate, there would be 
no possibility of safely ])assing through. 

Once inside, the character of the holding ground, the extent of the 
water bfisin, the liability to sudden and heavy gales, the j)rotection af- 
forded by the surrounding land, are all points that must receive careful 
consideration. Ordinarily speaking, the gales on our coasts are not of 
snt'h severity that a vessel anchored in a harbor need fear breaking 
adrift. With men-of-war of the j>resent day, with their small amount of 
top hamper, there is still less likelihood uf any trouble on this score; 
but as the ships will ordinarily lie out in the stream, the general charac- 
ter of the weather is of interest as regards boating. The record of gales 
an kept for the last seventeen years by the Sigfial Service shows that 
on our southern and Gulf coasts the average velocity of the wind dur- 
ii);: the heaviest gales is only about 35 miles per hour.* 

An important point in the selection of a navy-yard site is the extent 
of th(» immediate water front, both ch)se alongside the wharves and off 
in llie stream, where vessels must lie when not neede<i at the wharf for 
n^pairs, or to take in coal, ammunition, etc. A restricted waterfront 
"wonld be a serious inconvenience in case it were necessary to fit out 
several vessels at the same time, and, if possible, all such impediments to 
rapid work should be avoided. Deej) water oft* the yard is also a neces- 
Hitv, in order that it shall be possible to move vessels at all stages of the 

When these requirements have all Iwen found, and it is safe to say that 
they can not all be fimnd in any one of the ports on our southern coast, 
it is necessary to study the location with n»ference to its interior lines 
of coiiunnnication and the facility with which material can be obtained 
and traiis])orted to the shops for immediate use. The railroa<l facilities 
of the country are so extensive that but few places will have to be 

(*8ee Appendix D.) 


thrown out of the count on this score, though odc or two in the C 
which otherwise would bo very desirable are entirely out of the q 
tion, notably Tampa. The leading seaboard cities of the South are < 
nected by rail with the coal and iron fields of Alabama, and to all 
them material of all classes could bt' brought with but little <lela3^ 

After a careful study of the general features of a proiwsed locali 
the next point naturally is the study of the ))articular spot of ^o 
which may be thought suitable for a Government establishment, 
the present day of steel ships the necessity of dry-docks is greater tl 
ever. For many years, even with co[)pered wooden ships, we have 
the want of dry-docks, and now that we are constructing a navy of a 
vessels that must be docked very frequently if they are to be kept 
servicable condition there must be facilities for keei)ing the botti 
clean and well painted, and this can only be done by taking the 
sels out of the water at comparatively short intervals. It has 1 
found by experience in all navies that an iron or steel vessel which 
been in the water for three or four months loses very much of its ej 
oftentimes as much as 25 per cent., so that by the end of six mc 
the amount of coal consumed if maximum speed is to be main 
and oftentimes this will be an absolute impossibility, would at le« ; 
for the cost of docking, and perhaps something over. The loss oi s 
in any vessel where the bottom is loul is so well known that it is hj 
necessary to allude to it; but the rapidity with which all kinds ot 
line growths accumulate on the bottoms of all steel and iron vessi 
not so well known, but all the same it emphasizes the nocessii 
having navy -yards and good docking facilities at various points v 
they may be available to all our cruising vessels without their stean 
a long distance to find them. 

The present naval dry-docks of the United States are, with three 
ceptions, made of granite. The exce])tions noted are the new docl 
New York, League Island, and Norfolk. Until recently gianite wj 
sole material used in the construction of such docks, but it has now 
demonstrated that dry-docks of wood are almost two-thirds chei 
and are really more lasting and less costly to keep in rei)air than t 
constructed of granite. Naval Constructor Uichborn, in his able re] 
on European dock-yards, says : 

Woo<len docks cost from 30 to 50 ]>or coiit. loss than thoHO of Ktono, and in cH 
where they are exposi^d to severe frosts are much clieupur in nuiintenaucu ; extbi 
repairs are not required within thetii-st twenty years. 

The following extracts from the letter of Commodore Harmony to 
Committee on Naval AllUirs on the subject of dry-docks are of iui 
and value in this connection. He says: 

My proposition to build docks of timber is based upon the faet that they oa»l 
built at such a small price, comparatively. Another very serious objection to 
present docks is the fact that their sides are almost vertical, an<l in cloudy dayiiU. 
so dark at the bottom of the dock as to make ellicieut work almost imixlssible. I 
the Simpson dock this objcctiim will be avoided by buildin*: them so wido thai 
person standing on the coping of the dock can see under the boitom of the vessel, ID 
thus giving light enough so that ellicient work can be <lonc» on the bottom of tl 
vessel even in the dullest of <lays. A look at th*- dry dock at the New York bavj 
yard, and also at the Simpson dry-dock in the bas;in ai Hro(»klyii, will at ooca €01 
viuce any one of the advantages of the latter plan. There is every reason to belief 
that a dock constructed of timber will last tor centurirH with proper care; in OMB< 
a piece of timber being found rotten it will be as easy a matter to replace ife aat 
take a defective plank out of a ship and ]>ut in a sound one. 

The princi|)al advantages wliicli timber docks i)ossess ov • sf 
docks as usually constiucted are greater accessihiliry, better U 
for shoring vessels, better distribution of light, and dryness, 


The narrow altars aud gently sloping ^sides afford safer and easier 

ans of ingress and egress at every point, furnish a better supply of 

uc^ht and air, and the shoring is more easily adjusted, ail of which 

ekterially aid in the dispatch and economy with which work of repairs 

kU be' prosecuted. 

In most of our southern cities there has always been considerable dif- procuring an ample supply of unobjectionable drinking water. 
I serious had this matter become that in many places, as the cities 
jreased in size, great fears were entertained on the score of possible 
itensive conflagrations, and at times, during ))eriods of prolonged 
rought, there would be also the fear of water famine, and the inhab- 
jits were obliged to depend upon cisterns and private wells. During 
B last few years, howev^er, most of the southern cities of any impor- 
Htnce have begun a systematic use of artesian wells, and wherever this 
.8 been done the water supply is practically^ unlimited and inexhausti- 
B. In some places on the Atlantic the water thus obtained hiis a 
rery decided sulphurous taste and smell, but this usually disappears 
ifter a short exposure, leaving the water pure and palatable. The uni- 
versal success of these wells makes it almost certain that at any place 
irhere a navy -yard may be established there will be no difficulty in 
ily obtaining any recpiired amount of good, potable water. At all 
I 1 places visited by the commission artesian wells were in use, and 
some, as at Savannah, Pensacohi, and Mobile, the entire city supply 
Irawn from this source. 

The healthfulness of any locality should be carefully considered be- 
•e deciding ujmn its titness for the site of a navy-yard. On the 
uthern coasts the land is generally low and swampy and there is 
^reat difficulty in finding a place that will be free from low, malarial 
fever, while most of the places are more or less subject to periodic visi- 
;ations of yellow fever. The Commission is indebted to Surgeon John 
W. Koss, ij. 8. Navy, for much valuable information on the subject of 
yellow fever and the healthfulness of the Gulf ports in general. Dr. 
Soas also forwarded letters and statistics from the U'ading medical men 
if Pensacola, Mobile, and New Orleans. All these nuMlical men seem 
be unanimous on one ]>oint ; that is, that yellow fever does not nat- 
irally belong to the (lulf coast of the United States, but is always 
oi|>orte<l, and that, with ]>ro]KM* quarantine regulations and a careful 
>bHervance of good sanitary ni](\s and regulations, it can be excluded 
dmost absolutely, and by carefully isolating the <'ases that do suwjeed 
ji running the (|naiantine an epidemic of yellow fever can be pre- 
rented. The following con<*lusion is quoted from Dr. Koss's letter: 

^jook'uig at PciiHacola, MoImI**, and Now OrI<'aim from a naiiitary ])<)int of view, 
•re <loiM not MH^iii to Im* any iniportaiit ditlcivncc In'twceii tlwiii unsjich for a Yiavy- 
^«r(l. TlH'ir reNpoctivc pros and coiih about coniitrrlialaiH'oonf another. Tluir<Ml<»e8 
lot H4*oin to bo any oltJrctiiMi that <-oiild lo^ittally Im* made to any oni> of th(> places 
DAiitioncd upon tlit* Hcon- of nnlicaltlit'nlncsH. Tin* tiiiu' is last ap])n»a('hin^, if it 
IMH not alreiuly ttmv«*d, wln'ii \rIlo\v icvrr will hr as rUVctnally l»aiTrd out <»f P«»n- 
Bcoia, Mtdiilr, and New (h-l<-ans ah it has Immh fioin Norfolk and riiiiadclpliia. Ma- 
arial tVviTf.the );ri*at <MirM* of tin* South, West, and many parts of the North, may 
ie Hhorn of in^arly ail its tcirors oy tin* proper <d»Mr\ ancc of a tVw lon^ kiio\Mi and 
ron-<"<tahli8hed precauti(»ns, surji a.i hlit'pini; in upp«>r storit.-s, thorough draiu- 
ige, «*t«'. 

In deciding upon a site a ])laci» should be chos(Mi whore the prevail- 
iig wind does not blow across any fn'sh-watt»r marsh, but comeH in 

rertly from the sea. The i)rcspnce of fresh water in any quantity 
irould be advantageous in facilitating the const ruction of fresh- water 
>a6in8 in which to lay up steel ships, but it may make a place so uu- 

jiA 89 12 


healthy as to prechide its acceptauce. The southern climate is suffl* 
cieutly temperate, even during the winter months, to admit the catrjiDir 
on of outdoor work, and during the summer the average temiierature is 
not so higli as to prevent out-door work by those who are acclimated. 
None of the ports are ever closed by ice, so that on this score at least 
there will be no difficulty in entering at a!iy time. 

There are but few, if any, southern ports in which it will not be 
necessary to carry out extensive dredging, and at places where this is 
not necessary the difficulty of finding fast land on which to pat ap 
heavy structures is often so great as to place such a point beyond ooo- 

Such, in brief, are the conditions deemed essential to a good Rite for 
a navy-yard, and it has been the endeavor to apply them carefully and 
dispassionately to the various points under consideration, and to dis- 
cover, by a careful and exhaustive examination of all the surroundings, 
what point combined in itself the nearest approach to all the desired 
requisites. Owing to the magnitude and importance of the questioii 
involved and to the fact that substantially the same question has 
received much attention of late years at the hands of successive boards 
of distinguished otiicers, your commissioners have undertaken the 
examination of the subject with much diffidence, and have not hesitated 
to make use of the very valuable information collected by those who 
before them have given this subject most careful study. In the detailed 
consideration of the various ports all the subjects already noted in a 
general way have been most carefully and extensively gone into, and 
information from all ])ossible sources has been sought and used in the 
study of this most important question. 


The geographical position of the superior harbor of Port Boyal, mid- 
way between Norfolk and Cape Florida, or about the middle of the south- 
ern Atlantic coast of the United States, with its well-sheltered, safe 
anchorages in the sound, and on the Broad, Colleton, and Beaufort JRivers 
oilers unparalleled advantages on this coast for the establishment of an 
important naval station. This harbor is well known, and its value as a 
naval station was fully api)reciated wben it was occupied by Rear- 
Admiral Dupont in 18()1. The entrance is (M)mparative]y easy, and 
though at the present moment there is not as much water on the bar as 
is desirable, still it has more water than any other point on the southern 
Atlantic ex)ast except Sapelo Sound, which latte^ ])1ace ofiers no other 
advantage, and vessels once iuside can ride in safety in deep water in 
the seund and in the adjacent rivers, while its size is sufficient to afford 
free movement to all vessels, even the very largest. 

The absence of facilities for docking and e(iui[)ping naval vessels on 
the long stretch of coast between Norfolk and Pensacola, a distance of 
1,440 miles, has already been seriously considered by the Department 
and recognized by official boards authorized to report on this snbjecti 
Port iioyal is about 480 miles from Norfolk, 900 from Pensacola, and 
450 from Key West. As regards communication with the West IndieSv 
Port Koyal is 480 miles nearer to the Bahamas than Pensacola, while 
the distance of the two ])laces from Havana is the same. As a pQint 
from which to communicate with the Windward Islands, Port Royal baa 
the advantage over LVnsacrola or any other (lulf port. The geo- 
gra])hi(*al position of l^ort Koyal, nearly midway between the* cities of 
Charleston and iSavaunah, explains why it has hitherto been neglected, 


the larger places completely overshadowing it. These cities, so long as 
small vessels were used for foreign commerce, were amply sufficient for 
all wants; bat now,when vessels of greater size and draught are common, 
a <leei)er harbor is required, and in this particular Port Koyal is far 
superior to its neighbors. The vast net- work of railroads that leiwl from 
the South and West and have their outlet at Brunswick, Savannah, and 
Charleston could easily be directed to Port Royal, to which point at 
the present time there is but gne rjiilroad, the Port Royal and Augusta 
Railroad, connecting with the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, and 
through it with the interior. 

The bar 10 miles distant from the entrance has a least depth of 21 
feet At mean low water, and would recpiire but little expense to 
straighten and deei)en it for the entrance of the larger class of vessels 
at low water. In consequence of the great size of Port Royal Sound, 
Broad River and its tributaries, tlie mean rise and fall of the tides being 
6.7 feet, the currents are moderate, and there is little tilling in or shift- 
ing of the bar due to local action, or to the bringing down of any de- 
posit by the rivers dowing into it. The most serious objection is the 
cbaracti^r of the land on the water front, it being mostly sandy, low, 
and in many places swampy. The climate of Port Royal is an impor- 
tant element in its favor. It is well north of the frost line, which in 
itself would aid greatly in excluding or at least stamping out yellow 
fever should it by any chance be introduced, while at the same time 
the weather is never so cold, nor ice and snow so abundant, as at any 
time to prevent out-door labor. 

The forests of yellow pine and other timbers suitable for the con- 
struction of docks, basins, and for building purposes in this State are 
practically inexhaustible, near at hand, with ample facilities for trans- 
portation by land or water, while the vast coal fields and iron mines 
of northern Alabama are accessible by the system of railroads connect- 
ing Port lioyal with every part of the country. 

The channels and shores of Broad, Colh*ton, and Beaufort rivers 
were carefully studied; favorable conditions of both land and water 
could be found on Colleton River and Neck, but the location on that 
side of the Sound is objectionable for want of readv communication 
b3' rail with the mainland, and for the further reason that such a locality 
would present no good points that can not be found at the site of the 
2>resent naval station. 

From Archer Creek to Habersham Creek the land is low, swampy, 
ami intersected with numenms small creeks, the fast land being a con- 
siderable distance back from the water's od^e. The point just above 
Habersham Cret^k it^ fast land, well wooded, and, compared to the ad- 
jacent lands, high, but at this ]>oint the broad, deep channel of Broad 
River becomes narrow, shoal, and intricate, and would require extensive 
dre<lging and cutting to make a suitable water front for a navy-yard. 
This ])oint bears a little south of west from Beaufort, distant about 5^ 
miles, and is :i^ miles from the nearest point of the Port Royal Rail- 
roatl. There are no houses nearer than l)etween 1 and 2 miles of this 
point, and there is little gofnl potable water here at present, but judg- 
ing by wells that have been dug in the vicinity, and more particularly 
by tin* art(»sian wells that have been bored in the neighborhood of Port 
Koyal. the naval station, and many other points in the south, there is 
not the least doubt that good potable water in almost any amount can 
be obtaineil from inexhaustible wells. 

The banks of the Chechessee River are low and swampy and not 
BUited for the purposes of a navy-yard, while on Colleton River, thougU 


fast land can be found, the channel from Port Boyal Sound is very in- 
tricate and abounding in shoals, while the water front would be so re- 
stricted as to be a very serious inconvenience. The same system of de- 
fenses that would protect any one point in Port Boyal Sound would 
serve almost equally well for all other points in the neighborhood, and 
as the present site of the naval station is well inside the outer line of 
defenses, it does not seem as if any other point offered superior or eqnal 
advantages. The examination of Beaufort.Biver and the land about the 
naval station at Paris Island proved more satisfactory. This position 
is 5 miles below Beaufort, G from Bay Point, and 15 from the outer bar. 
Twenty-one feet is found at the end of the wharf at the naval coal de- 
pot and 24 feet in the channel off it, admitting the heaviest draught ves- 
sels at high tide, and but little dredging would be required at one or 
two points in the channel of Beaufort Kiver to render it accessible at 
low water or to deepen it to 25 feet. This position offers a far more 
suitable site for docks and a depot of sup])lies than any other point ex- 
amined inside the headlands, and it could be successfully defended by 
an inner line of fortifieatigns on Paris and St. Phili])'s Islands, in addi- 
tion to those that might be established on Hilton Head aud Bay Point. 
The naval station being near the terminus of the Port Boyal and Aa- 
gusta Railroad could be easily connected with the whole railroad system. 
The distance from Port Royal to Charleston, S. C, is 88 miles; to Au- 
gusta, Ga., 112 miles; to Birmingham, Ala., 450 miles. 

The Army engineers have, up to the present time, made no examina- 
tion or survey of the entrance to Port Hoyal Sound with a view to ascer- 
taining the practicability of inii)roving the navigation. The present 
channel depth of 21 feet has, with a tide of 0.7 feet, satisfied all demands 
of commerce at this locality. No information is obtainable from which an 
opinion can be forniecl as to the i)ernialiency of dredging in the part of 
the river Inflow Battery Creek. Xo project for the defense of this port 
has been elaboratcHl up to the i)resent time. The protection of a navy- 
yard situated at the )>resent naval station on the eiist side of Paris 
Island would involve neither serious engineering ditliculties nor excess 
ive cost. 

The amount of land owned by the Government on Paris Island the 
site of the present naval station, is too small for the establishment of a 
navy-yard and rei)air station ; but from information furnished by the 
auditor of l^eanfort ('ounty, S. C, huid in the immediate vicinity can 
be purchased at reasonable rates. The auditor informs the (i^ommission 
jis follows : 

LandH in tlic nci^liborliood (»f tho naval station arc a.sNOMscd at. from $2 to $6 |ier 
aero, tlio latt«'r Ikmii;; lor arable lands. Thi'sc rates have ]>ievail<Ml lor years, but can 
not l>c eonsidored as a fair eHtiinate of value, wliirli is Konietiines tn^bled on adjoining 
HRiali tracts, duo entirely to tlie situation. The usual taking ]irieo lor 1 a ndH (agricult- 
ural) are from r^i) to <sl.') p(>r acre, tho hui^ prices prevail in;; wliero loug time is 

Much <lependH u])(mi who owns the land an<l circuniHtan<'es of sale. Tlie bnlk of it 
Ih in small tracts, owned hy nei;roes, who do not care to sell if any one wantH to Imy^ 
not even at ]>ndiihitory prices: but when they do scdl, it is generally at a ii^ire be- 
low the actual value. 

The Commission, e>onsiderin^ this ])oint an eligible site for a dry-dock 
and repair station, caused examinations to be made with a view to as- 
certaining the i)ra(!ticability dT constructinjf a timber dry-dock. The 
following is a summary of the results as obtained by Messrs. J. B. Simp- 
son & Co. The borin<»s were niadi* with a li-inch i)ipe, and the resnltB 
compared with those obtained by Lieut. C. 11. Lyman, U. S. Navy, in 
boring for a 0-inch pipe well at a point 300 feet south aud 60 feet we9t 


of the poipt where borings for a dock were made. The borings showed 
at top for 5 feet sandy loam ; for the next IL feet, bright light-blue clay 
slightly mixed with saud, stiff and solid ; for the next 9^ feet, fine gray 
Band mixed with clay ; for the next G feet, oyster and mussel shells 
with fine sand ; for the next 4} feet, sand and black mud. At this depth 
(36 feet) phosphate rock was encountered, though at this point it is a 
mere shell, being less than 1 inch in thickness. 

From 36 to 39 feet w^is found clay of an india-rubber like tenacity, 
almost imiK)ssible to drive through. In driving into this stratum the 
hammer would rebound after striking the pipe. From 39 feet to end of 
pipe (40 feet 6 inches) same clay, mixed with sort of sandstone parti- 

j)iligent investigation developed the fact that phosphate rock varies 
considerably in thickness, the maximum being 15 inches. On the part 
of Paris Island where the investigation was made the rock is thin. 
The clay noted as being so tough, hardens like stone, and contains some 
phosphate. Underlying this clay is a sand-mixed stratum, resembling 
stone, which is claimed (and is proved by artesian well-borings) to ex- 
tend some 100 feet in depth, and in several instances the boring and 
pipe are only run to this stratum. Phosphate rock and the like ac- 
companying strata underlie a large arcii of surrounding country. 

None of the destructive effects of the teredo are apparent at this 
place; but some of the pile structures show evidences of the existence 
of the Umnoria^ and it would be necessary to creosote the timber ex- 
posed always to the tide- water. 

As a result of their investigations, Messrs. J. E. Simpson &Co. are 
of the opinion that a timber dry-dock of the same dimensions as those 
now being built for the Government under similar specifications could 
be constructecl within thirty-six calendar months for the approximate 
sum of $675,000. 

The Commission would therefore recommend the establishment of a 
dry dock, dei)ot of naval supplies and coaling station on Paris Island, 
right bank of lieaufort River, South C'arolina, at the siti* of the pn^i^nt 
naval station. 

A chart of Port lloyal Sound and entrance is appended and marked 
£; also apian of the naval station, marked F; and a plan showing 
location of borings, marked G. 


The following information relative to the i)ort of Savannah has been 
furnished the Commission by the Hoard of Kngineers, U. S. Army, of 
which (Tenenil 11. L. Abbot is jnesident: 

Th«* works for tlie iniprovniu'iit of inivi^atinii l>ctw«'«Mi t lit' ocean ami tho city of 
8»v:iiiMiih, lN*};iin in 1H7:{, liMvt* Immmi ronrnHMl to the river un<l Tybee Roads; for the 
clc*]>tli of wutt^r tlirre Iium always Immmi letvs tlian on tlir ontvr l»«r, wlierw 16 or 17 feet 
is found at mean low water. TIiu object of the iniprovtMneiit hiis bcien to uarry tbiH 
depth to the city. In IK'X before the work i»f improvement npon tho pree«;nt ]>1aii 
was iiian^uratofl, tl^e usual draught of v(}HH4lsnavi<ratin^ (lio river at hif^h tido was 
14.') feet. Thu niciui rim* and fall (»f the tide at Savannah was ().7 foet and at the 
iu«>uth of the river 7 feet. 

The plan of iniprovenient under wlii<h operutions have Imm'd carried on up t-o tho 
pi^iMMit time provides for the eHtabllshinent of a ehannel from Tybeo Roads to the city 
of Savannah, practinible at hi;;h tide for vesstds drawing *22 feet f>f water and tms 
widening of the channel of the river op]>oHite the city to (iOO fi*et, of uniform depth 
with the balance of the ehaiiiiel. The cost was ori;;inalIy estimated at $482,000, and 
MB amended and enlarged at $l.*Jl'J,00<>. 

In the re]»ort ot the (Miief of EngimMTH for l>^-^.<^ (general Gillmore, in S'lbmitting the 
results of an examiuation and survey niu^le by the assistant, Lieut. O. M. Carter, with 


ft view to obtain 28 feet at high water (21 feet at mean low water) from Crou Tides 
abovo Savannah to the sea, presents in outline a project an<l estimate of the cost, the 
latter being |6,660,000. This project lias not been formally acted upon by the £n^- 
neer Department, but from it the inference is legitimate that the cost of obtainiiiK a 
depth of 25 feet at mean low water would be enormous, if indeed it be practicable ab 
any expense. Even to obtain a depth of 21 feet (2U feet at high water) General Giil- 
raore states: **The tidal section of Savannah River will need to be, in ^reat meMme, 
canalized, in order to maintain the greatest channel depth of which it is capable, and 
yearly dredeing will probably bo necessary.'' 

The Board on Fortifications and other Defenses of 1885 recommended for this port 
three 12-inch guns, six 10-inch guns, four 8-inch guns, sixteen 12-inch mortaiSi and 
300 submarine mines. Satisfactory sites of the batteries, etc., are available. The 
estimated cost was 1^,243,000. No attempt to make Tybee Roads a safe anchotage 
for vessels was contemplated, but it will be forbidden to the enemy. 

Under the direction of Lieut. O. M. Carter, Corps of Engineers, who 
kindly consented to attend to the business for the Commission, five 
borings were made at Savannah to ascertain the character of the sab- 
soil and its suitability for making excavated docks and saataining 
heavy structures. The borings were made at two different points; 
three at Deptford Plantation, near Fort Oglethorpe, and the other two 
at Hutchinson's Island, opposite the city of Savannah. The resalt ot 
these borings seems to show that the ground is of a character to sap- 
port the various heavy structures that would be required at a navy- 
yard. A diagram of the soundings is appended, marked I. 

The report of the health officer, prepared for the Commission in 
April, 1889, states that while Savannah has increased in population 
since 1879, the actual deaths have decreased, not only as to the annual 
ratio per thousand, but in the actual number of deaths. The annual 
ratio per thousand for that period, 1878-'79, is given as follows: 

Savannah, Ga 13. ()9 

New OrleanB, La 27.44 

Mobile, Ala 18.75 

Pcnsacola, Fla 14-SA 

Charleston, S. C 27 

Wilmington, N.C M 

(This table is copied from the '^ Sanitary Era," a magazine publi 
in New York City, and said to have no local interest in any Soatneru 

i?he Commission visited the locations on the river in the steam yacht 
belonging to the Engineer Department, which was kindly placed at 
their disposal by Lieutenant Carter, and also viewed Deptford from 
shore side. 

It is evident, from the information furnished by the Board of Engi- 
neers, that these officers do not consider it possible to secure aud main- 
tain a channel of 25 feet depth at mean low water, which de])th the Com- 
mission considers an absolute necessity. Furthermore, in the opini 
of the Commission, the land which is reclaimed swamp land and very 
low, is not suited to the purposes of a navy -yard. This ftict, taken in 
connection with what has alrea<ly been said about the lack of d« 
water in the channel, renders a fnrthor consideration of this harbor as 
a site for a navy-yard nnnecjessary. 

A chart of Savannah is appended, marked 11. 


Kxtracts from tho Report ot* tlie Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, 1888. 

About "2 miles abovi' tlie eity of Hninswirk the Turtle Kiver is divided by Baizard^ 
iHlniid into two brauclirs, the HimiHer one tlowin^ to the eastward of the island, bbc 
upon whieli the city <»f Hrnnswick is situated, bein;^ known as East River, the otl 
r«'tainin;r the iiam(> of Turt le River. These stnMims unite aj^ain about 1^ miles belw< 
the city to form Hrunswiek River. Tlie lower part of East Rivor furins what iiknowj 
fw the harbor of Brunswick. 


Turtle and Brnnswick rivers have low-water depths of from 4 to 6 fathoms. Over 
the shoalH iu front of the city there was, till the improvements had been carried out, 
ft low- Water depth of only 9 feet. The teredo is found at Brunswick. Much of the 
wood-work used in the channel work was almost destroyed by the teredo. In June, 
lc87, the minimum low-water depth was 14 feet. No work wafi done during 1888, 
and consequently the channel is now only 11.5 feet deep, and has narrowed, and in 
some places shoaled, to 7 feet. Great shoaling has also taken place along the city 

The present project for the improvement of this harbor was adopted in 1880, and 
modified and enlarged iu 1886, the object being to secure a navigable chanoel of not 
less than 15 feet depth at mean low water. The cost of the project of 1880 was esti- 
inateil at $73,187, and. as enlarged in 188C, at $190,000, inclusive of appropriatious 
Already made. The total expenditures to June 30, 1888, including all outstanding . 
liabilities, were $92,463; amount appropriated in 1888, $35,000 ; amount (estimated; 
required for completion of existing project, $62,500. 

A further consideratiou of this harbor for a navy-yard site is, iu the 
opinion of the Commission, unnecessary. 


The Commission inspected Sapelo Sound in the light-house tender 
Wistariaj passing up beyond the entrance to IVfud Eiver. There is ample 
depth of water both at the entrance arid in the Sound, but no fast 
land, the mud banks and swamps, mostly covered at high tide, ex- 
tending a mile or more back from the water's edge. Further comment 
on this place is considered unnecessary. 


The most advanced post that the United States possesses in the 
Gulf is Key West. Tliis point, thrust well out towards Cuba, guard- 
ing one of the two exits from the Gulf and the one through which 
the greater part of our commerce passes, is of the greatest impor- 
tance, and it would be hard to conceive of a greater blow to our 
power in the Gulf than its loss ; unfortunately, however, it is not so 
situated as to be well and easily defended. Being on the Florida 
Straits, only 5 miles from the deep water of the Gulf Stream, it is prac- 
tically the key to the Gulf, and also controls much of the West India 
trade, consequently its possession is of inestimable value. During any 
maritime war in which the United States might be engaged Key West 
and theTortugas held by our naval forces would insure the safety of our 
trade in that quarter, while, if in the possession of an enemy, the de- 
struction of the trade would be certain. The holding of Key West is a 
military necessity, for, in connection with theTortugas, it forms a naval 
base, natural and advanced, for any operation oflensive or defensive in 
relation to Havana, the island of Cuba, the Bahamas, or the West Indies 
in general; it atlbrds a rendezvous and coaling station for vessels en- 
gageil in protecting both the great outlets of the Mississippi and theGulf. 
Ilence the holding of it by the proper shore and floating defenses may 
be termed a military necessity. Key West has a further value in that 
it is the only connecting point between our Gulf and Atlantic defenses. 
It can never be independent of the sea for its*communications, but it 
can be made a safe refuge for a fleet or for a single vessel if the enemy 
be not powerful enough to overwhelm the necessary defenses. 

The advantages of Key West may be summed up as follows: The 
harbor is excellent and is reached by a main ship channel having a 
depth at mean low water of 28.5 feet; by the Southwest Channel there 
is 30 feet at mean low water, and ships may anchor in water of that 
depth. The mean rise and fall of the tide at Fort Taylor is 1.4 feet. 


No dredging is ncc'ossary. It is easy of access; difficult, from having 
several cbaiuiels, to hlottkadc; tbe boldiug ground is fair; the protee- 
tioD from the sea good, but from winds indill'ereut. 

The disadvantages of Key West may be summed up as follows : By 
the Southwest Channel a s<|uadrou of tlie heaviest armor-ciads, drawing 
as much as 27 feet, can approach within eas}' range of the stutiou, say 
within 2.V mih\s, and destroy it. There is a great scarcity of good iwta- 
ble water, and the island is subject to occasional very severe viHitationB 
i)f yellow fever, while tlie sanitary condition of the island is generally 
bad. The town being situated on an island of no natural resources, at 
a distance in the most direct line (and this only practicable for small 
vessels) of 130 miles from the nearest railroad terminus ou the main 
laud, is evidently untitted for anything but an advanced naval outpoflt 
The island itself is <*{ miles in length, and from one-half to a mile in width; 
it rises but a few^ ieet al)ove the level of the sea, and is intersescted by 
swamx)s and lagoons, it is an important coaling station for the North 
Atlantic Squadron. The coral formation of the islan<l may offer ad- 
vantages for e\(%uvated docks and basins, and sound foundations fw 
heavy buildings. Communication between the docks and the anchorage 
by short artiliciid channels would be inexpensive. 

The geographical ])osition of the island is not favorable for a naval 
establishment ; it lies near the track of the West India cycIoneH, and is 
unprotected excc])t by the surnmnding reefs. A dock-yard located at 
Key West wouhl be exi)()sed to attack by water from several directions 
at the same time, and to make this station secure against such attacks, 
would recpiire very extensive fortification of the island itself and its 
numerous api)roaches by water, an<l even then it could be completely cat 
olf from all connection with the mainland unless the United States had 
command of the sea. The distance from the mainland and the absence 
of every class of building materials, sup])lies, labor, and in fact all the 
requirements of a dock-yard are insurmountable obstacles to tbe locih 
tion of a navy-yiird at Key West. 

Florida possesses a sea-board on the Atlantic and (Julf of Mexico of 
about 1,100 miles, which is cxjMKscd to water attack by the great naval 
])0wers, several of which have naval arsenals and dockyanla in the 
West Indies and the Jjermudas. The advantages of establishing one 
or more naval stations for the prote(;tion of this coast and our comnle^ 
cial interests in the (iulf is self evident. While the eastern shore of 
the ])eninsula, the Florida Keys, and islands otter no safe orcommodiooB 
harbors for such a pur])ose, ihe (iulf coast of the State possesses bat 
two localities where a suitable site for a dock-yard might jiossibly be 



The re])ort of tlu» Chief of Ijigin<»(»rs, U. 8. Army, for 1888, states: 

Thr liailxir at TaiDita. nt th«» hvm\ of this bay, waH srriarat*!'! from dcop wat^r by* 
llat 2 iiiih's wide, tlinniixli this was a narmw rliaiiiirl with an nvcraj^o dejUh of aboat 
H tVt't, t'oriiUMl liy tln' waMTs of Ili|l.sli(Hi)n;:Ii Kivor. -• * • IN)rt(>Taitii>ii baa bew 
coiiiHH'tfd with Tampa 1>y llif ixtciisioii of tiii^ South Florida Hallroad, iind has ba- 
coiin* thi» t«'iniiiins of tht' Ki*y Wi"-! ami Havana line of stranicrH; lo foot of wat«r can 
now hv carried to Torto 'J\nn)»M. ^ * * At an cstinuitod cost of J?<>!<,(K)0 for dredg- 
ing; 'Jn t'r«'t of watci' can he <arrivd fiom the (Jnlf of Mexico to this point. The total 
estimated cost of the modilied |)n)je(ri i^ ^""^.O(H). 

This bay is on thr west siih* of the peniiKsula, ainl its excellent har- 
bor could be s<*enn'ly forlilied, and juobably fixed land suitable ftir 
docks and foundations for heavy buildingH could bo found j bat tho 



situation is isolated from manufactnriug^ centers and commerce, and 
too remote from every class of building materials both for ships and 
docks, as well as from su])plies and skilled labor. The inland commnni- 
cations depending upon a single railroad, in addition to the above con- 
siderations, renders this locality decidedly objectionable. 


Pensacola is a capacious, well sheltered, and safe harbor, land-locked 
by Santa Rosa Island, and liaving about 10 square miles of good anchor- 
ing ground for the largest class of vessels. On the outer bar between 
the east bank and Caycas Shoal there is 22.J feet of water, while on the 
inner bar, between the middle ground and Caycas there is 21J feet at 
mean low water. After entering the bay, for a distance of 8J miles to 
a point 2 miles east of the city, there is a depth of from 4 to 6 fathoms 
of water with goo<l holding ground. 

Under the conditions impose<l by the Dej)artment's instructions to 
this Commission, the site of the present navy-yard would have to be 
abandoned or closed lor construction purposes as it is no longer safe 
from the high powered guns of a fleet in the Gulf at a distance of 2 
nauti(;al miles. The present navy-yard is located on the eastern corner 
of a Government reservation of some 2,0(M) acres, stretching for a mile, 
from Tartar Point to BaiTancas, on the north shore ot the entrance to 
Pensacola Bay, and extending back to the Bayou Grande. 

The chief water front of the yard is on the north shore and is there- 
fore exi>osed to the prevailing south winds. This water front is a mile 
distant from Fort Pickens, a military ])ost of great importance at the 
extremity of Santa Rosa Island, commanding the approaches of the bay, 
easily rendered im]>regnable to assault, and unquestionably the location 
of any modern fortitication which may be erected for the protection of 
the bay. Reference to the chart will show that vessels can take station 

2 miles distant from Fort Pickens and have the navy-yard within a 
ninge. of only 2 miles with nothing but the low island of Santa Rosain- 
t»*rvening. An excellent position 4 miles from Fort IMckens and behind 
Kand bluff's on the island, atlbrds an o])en range of only a little more t'han 

3 miles to the navy-yard. Nothing more need be said to show the ex- 
tremely exjwsed position of the navy-yard to the attack of vessels armed 
with nHMlernonlnance. 

The most extensive fortifn^ations on the island of Santa Rosa and at 
the entrance of the bay would probably be insullicient to i)rotect the 
iiaval station at AVarrington, <;onse(iuent]y to make this tine harbor 
available, a site must be selected sutiiciently remote from the gulf, and 
one capable of being strongly fortilied against attack by water, should 
an enemy gain an entrancre. In a search on the northern shore of the 
bay for a site combining the greatest number of natural advantages 
£manuel E^oint was examined. This point of fixed land is 1^ milesto the 
eastward of the city, a half mile east of the Bayou Texar, and less than 
1 mile from 4 fathoms water in the bay. It is also less than G^ miles 
distant from the dee]) water of the gulf, and consequently unsuitable 
for a naval station. Tiie water front at (laberonne and Bohemia on the 
west shore of Escambia Bay, was then examined with no better results. 
The shallow water of the bay and the character of the land offering seri- 
oas objections to both thesi* sites. 

The Commission is imlebt<Ml to LitMit. G. Blocklinger, U. 8. Navy, 
lighthouse ins]>e<ftor, who placed the light-house tender Laurel at their 
disposal, and kimlly rendered every i>ossible assistance in the inspection 
of the bay. 


J. E. Simpson & Co., the contractors and builders of tbe Government 
dry-docks at New York and Norfolk, were employed by the Comniiasion 
tomakesonndin^sandfurnish plans and estimates as to the approximate 
cost of the construction of a timber dry-dock at Bohemia. Their re- 
port with plans and estimate is appended, marked L. 

From this report, as well as from the chart of the survey, it will be 
seen that the character of the pn'ound is unsuitable for excavated docks 
and basins, and that the cost of a dry-dock and dredged channel to the 
site would be excessive. In this report the opinion is given that a tim- 
ber dry-dock, of the c?ame. dimensions as those now being constructed 
for the Government, but with the specifications adapted to the locality, 
owing to the necessity for wide embankments on either side of the dock, 
and substantial retaining cribs or bulklieads for protection against the 
ravages of the teredo, could not be constructed upon this site for a less 
sum approximately than $1,465,000, and the time necessary for the con- 
struction would be i)laced at four years. 

Bohemia is 5 nautical miles northeastof the city, 15 from the entrance 
to the bay, and 9 from the nearest point in the Gulf outside of Santa 
Rosa Island. From 4 fatlioms of water, about 2 miles east of Pensacola, 
to the water front of Boliomia, an extensive cut 4 miles in length, vary- 
ing in depth from 1 to 25 feet, would be required. By request of the 
Commission an otlicer of tlie ('oust and Geodetic Survey, Mr. P. A. 
Welker, was detailed to make a survey of this portion of the bay, the 
map of which survey is appended, marked K. The ground covered by 
the party in making this topographic and hydrographic survey is the 
portion of Escambia Bay between Gaberonne and Devil's Point. 

The following description of the locality examined for a navy-yard 
site is (pioted from the very full and com])lete report of the survey made 
by Mr. Welker to the Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey: 

A Ijigli Ulufi' followK tlu» h«'ach closely iw far as Gaberoune, whore it turns back ftom 
the Hhoro and folIowH around tho swamp at a distance of from 400 to 500 yards fironi ' 
the shore. The bluils nt hoimo ])laceH, eHpecially whoro they an^ eloso to the abon, are 
very abrupt and much broken and cut up by birgo gullieN. Springs of water leak oat 
from these places, Homeof which disappear in the sand before reaching the shore. 
The 8loi)os of the hi nil's wliere (hey follow the shore are covered with vegetation and 
range from 'M) to r>0 decrees. Hack of the swamp (he slope is more gentle and uni- 
form, being not more than 5 degrees in some places. The laud back of the swamp is 
largely Innnmock, which is mostly e<)v<»n*d with hard wood. 

The general character of the blutV shows a mixture of clay and sand of a yellowish 
color. The beach is (jutiroly sand, and the soil near the beach sandy. Very little of 
the soil is good for ngrieultural ]>urposes. On a small portion of the land close to the 
beach oranges, jieaelies. phnns, and vegt^tables are raised. With the exception of a 
few cleared patches elo^e to the beach the whole tract surveyed is densely timbered* 
The trees are- from 'JO to 70 feet high and consist of pine, scattering live oak, water 
oak, and st^-ub oak, a. litth' ey]>ress and juui]u;r in the swamp, red bay and sweet bay, 
and magnolia and puluietto. Tliis timber is of little or no value. 

The larg(* fresh water swam]> shown on the map is heavily timbered, and has also a 
thick growth of underbrush of various kinds, generally scrub oak, and rangiuj; from 
1 to 10 feet in height. There is <iuite a large stream of fresh water running from the 
Bwaui]) into the hay : the level of the swamp is about '> f(>et above liigh-water mark. 

The I'ensacola and Atlantic division of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad fol- 
lows the slion^ line exee]it for a short distan<-e near (iabcronne, where it pastos 
through the s\vam|). Hohemia is merely a railroad station, with a collection of 
houses for the se<:ti<m-hand^. It is () nnlcs distant from Pensacola, which is the 
nearest ])ost-otliee. 

The eiimate iwn' is delight ful. and probably the best in vicinity of Pensacola. 
Fish are ]>b>ntiftil in the hay, such as tront, bass, mullet, and Spanish mackerel| 
while oyster beds are t'ound scattered over the bay. In the woods there are pai^ 
tridges and s<uih^ wild turkeys. 

Tlie pn^ vailing win<l is from the south and southwest, coming up daring the after* 
noon, when it is often very fresh. These winds sometimes come up very saddHllyi 
and may produce a very rough sea. 

'report of the secretary of the navy. 187 

The bottom of the bay in this locality consists of a very soft mnd of a dark gray 
color. Close to the beach there is a crnst of sand, bnt it is all mod underneath. 
Borings made by J. E. Simpson & Co., of New York, at 200 and 500 yards offshore 
show this same kind of mnd at a depth of 30 feet in the latter case and 50 feet in the 
former below the surface of the bottom, only that it is more compact than at the sur- 
face. It also se£ms that there are strata of different densities. Sand was obtained 
at a depth of 40 feet near the shore. Another boring made on shore at the high* 
water mark showed, at a depth of 26 feet, finely divided sand. A. pole can be shoved 
by hand to a depth of from 15 to 30 feet, and the tug-boats force their way through 
3 feet of this finely divided mud. Oyster-beds are found scattered over the bay. 

At Devil's Point (locally known as Gull Point) there is a long shoal extending from 
the point east to the old beacon. This shoal shifts from north to sopth with the pre- 
vailing wind. The southern limit of the work shows 18.7 feet of water, which is also 
the greatest depth. The least depth in the channel is found at the northeast'Orn 
limit of the work, about midway between the old and new beacons, where there is 7 
feet of wat^r. Further out from this point, however, there is deeper water. The 
tides are largely diurnal, there being one high and one low tide each day, excepting 
the day after the one when the moon's declination is zero, when there are two high 
and two low tides ; but the range is very small on that day. The mean ran^ of the 
tides is 1.44 feet. The extreme between highest and lowest tides for thirty-six obser- 
vations was 2.9 feet. High water nearly' always occurred between 8 a. m. and 4 p. m. 

Florida possesses a good climate, equable temperature, and, lying be- 
tween the temperate and torrid zones, it is exempt from the sndden 
changes of the one and the excessive heat of the other, so that out-door 
work is practicable throuffkout the year. Statistics show that Florida 
is one of the healthiest States in the Union. Several varieties of oak, 
cy])ress, hickory, and pine are found in abundance, while large fleets 
of ibreign ships are almost ccmtiiiiially loading lumber and timber at 
Pensacola. The water from the artesian wells, which is used to supply 
the city, has been pronounced by Professor Chandler to be of the purest. 

The absence of labor, both skilled and unskilled, and of supplies of 
material of all kinds has not heretofore been considered a serious draw- 
back to the naval station at Warrington. It is possible, however, that 
the higher rate of wages ])aid by the Government to it« employes, or, 
more correctly, the fewer hours which constitute a day's labor, in com- 
parison to that at ])iivate shipyards, together with the mild and health 
ful climate, would insure an abundance of all classes of laborers and 
meet all future requirements. 

The railroad communication with the interior and with the Gulf coast 
is ample. The Florida Central and Ten insular Kailroad Company extends 
from Jacksonville to Chattahooehie. Lateral lines connect this line 
with the Savannah, Florida and Western system bya branch from Live 
Oak north to Dui)ont, and to St. Mark's on the Gulf bya branch from 
Tallahassee. The same line extends from Fernandina, on the Atlantic, 
to Cedar Keys and Tampa on the Gulf. The Louisville and Nashville 
Kailroad extends fr(»m Pensiicola north to Birmingham and thecoal and 
iron fields of Alabama. Birmingham, the center of the cx)al and iron 
industry of the South, is only *S){) miles from l^ensacola, while its dis- 
tance from New Orit'ans is 417 miles, or 158 miles in favor of the former 

At tbe request of tin* Commission the Chief of Engineers, U. 8. Army, 
referred the question of the improvement and fortification of this harbor 
to the permanent I>oard of Engineers on Fortifications and other De* 
fenses, and the following is their report thereon: 

The depth on th«* iiuuT bar at Pmsacola in now 21.3 feot, and on the oater bar a 
foot more. It huH been utt<'m]>ti*d to dnMl;;i* n chanmd 24 feet deep and 300 feet wide 
acnms the inner bar ; bnt tlit* <lriMl«riii;r docs not maintain itself, and the rate of ap- 
propriation hnn been too slow to coiiiplore tbf work. 

It ia aomewhat doubtful whclher a rriliiiblo *jr>-f4>ut channel across the outer bar can 
be obtained and maintained exc«>pt by the of jetties. A project for a single Jetty 


of an 6flf imated cost of $2,295,719 has been Rubmittod to the Chief of EngineezB \xf 
the local eni^iueer. 

TheBoanlou Fort tficat ions or other Defeuflcs of 1885 n'conimnnded for this port 
two 12-inch gilns, ten 10-iuch gnnn, and two hundred submarine mines. The estimated 
cost was 994H,()00. If an important navy-yard were to be established, say 4 or 5 miles 
above the city on Es(fambiii bay, it would' be needfnl to increase this projoot ; bat 
the site is favorable, and can be defended against a lleet at moderate cost. 

Should the Gulf of Mexico and tlie Caribbean Sea l>ecome the scene 
of a naval war involving the Unitecl States, this bay would immedi- 
ately become the resort of our vessels for su]>plies, refitting, and what- 
ever repairs could be made without docking facilities. It^ great extent 
of well-sheltered anchorages, easy acce^ss from the Onlf, and security 
afibrded by fortifications at its entrance would render it an invaluable 
base for naval operations in that region. It wa« In view of these uatural » 
advantages, and its central position on the coast, that the Commission 
authorized a thorough survey, souiKlings, and estimates for a dry-dock. 
Unfortunately, the physical conditions of tlie water front and the 
character of the bottom of the eastern cmkI of the bay, where the ex- 
aminations were made, w(ue found to be unsuitable for either heavy 
buildings, excavated docks, or basins, conditions prohibiting the estab* 
lishmeut of a construction yard without excessive cost, and therefore 
the Commission does not recommend a sitt? for a naval dock-yard at 
Pensacola I>ay. 

A chart of Pensacola Bay is apjiended, marked J. 


The geogra])hical position of Mobile l>ay is about as favorable for the 
prote(;tion of our interests in tlie (iulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea 
as that of Pensacola (from wliich it is distant but 40 miles), but its com- 
parative importance as a site i'or a naval (establishment will depend 
upon the special i^ecpiireinents of depth of water, accessibility for ves- 
sels of the heaviest draught, permanency of channc*!, etc. 

Mobile I>ay is a lagoon like estuary, (Mit oti' from the Gulf of Mexico 
by the narrow sandy isthmus of MobiU*, Point and the chain of sandy 
islets on the south. It is, with the (exception of a deep i)ocket in the 
southern end, called the Lower Fl(»et, extnMiiely shallow. Its length 
from north to scmth is 34 miles; the northern half is from 7 to 8 miles 
wide, aiul very shallow; the southern half is from 15 to 18 miles wide. 
The Tenesaw Kiver, debouching at tlie head of the bay on the eastern 
side, has t^'o branclies; the one along tin* eastern shore is the Blakely; 
the other, em]>lying into the bay in a southwesterly <lirection, keeps 
the name of the Tenc^saw. Th(^ Mobile Kiver, fornuMl by the Alabama 
and Tombigbee uniting 30 miles north of the city, enters the head of 
the bay on the west si<le by two mouths, that passing the city keeping 
the name of Mobile, while the other branch, a mile to the eastward, is 
the Si)anish Kiver. The Spanish and tin*. Tenesaw have a common 
mouth, a mile east of the city. 

This end of the bay is a shallow delta, and with the exception of .a 
slight elevation at Choctaw Point, and the bluffs at Hollywood and 
Blakely, the bay is surrounded by tiat sandy plains. The average depth 
of wati»r is from 12 to 14 feet, but the Lower Fleet in the southern end. 
miles in length and 2.] miles in width, has an average depth of *3|( ' 
fatlumis ; but while there is 21 feet of water in a small i)art of this lover 
anchorage, it would be unsafe for vessels of more than 21 feet draught to 
anchor in rough weather. The outer bar^ 4 miles soutihof Mobile Poiot| 


has a depth of 23 feet at low water, and this depth is reported to be in- 
creasing anunully from natural pauses alone. In May, 1889, an English 
steamer drawing 23 feet passed from the Lower Fleet, where she had 
finished loading, across the bar without touching. The channel from 
the bar to the entrance of the bay is sufficiently deep for the largest 
class of vessels, and its general direction is straight. The rise and fall 
of the tide is small and the tidal currents very feeble. From the upper 
end of the Lower Fleet a dredged channel 180 feet wide, of about 14 
feet depth at low water, and 25.01 miles in length, extends to the city 
front, which channel, from inionnation gained at Mobile, is liable to silt 
up by the muchly dei)osits from the several rivers emptying into the 
head of the bay. 

With reference to the permanency of this artificial channel the follow- 
ing extracts from the report of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, for 
1888 are very instructive : 

The i»n*K<'ut }»rc)ject for tlic iiiii)rovonieiit of this harhor wa» a<loi>ted March, 1880, 
th«» object b«'iiijT to att'ord h chaimol of i'ntraiio«'froiii tlie Gulf of Mexico to the cityoi 
Mobile, of *2(»0 fret width and not 1»\S8 tliau 17 feet depth at mean low water. The 
channel had oriifinallya niinimuni depth of r>A feet throngh Choctaw PuBSf and 8 feet 
in l>o;^ niver Bar. This wjusdeepi'iuMl hv dn'djjinjj nnderappro])riationB from 1826 to 
1852, of f2-28,K)0. to 10 feet throu^ii hotli. In 1H(>0 the channel in Cl^ct-aw PaRS had 
shoaled to 7i feet. From l'»70 to l.'^7H the channel wan dee|>ened by dredgine to 13 
feet, under a)))>ropriations anionntin«j: to >:447,r)<)l, and rcHnlted in obtaining a channel 
witIi a niiniuiiim width of I'OO ftM't, a niiniinnni depth of 17 feet, and a maximnm 
depth of 2H feel. The amount expendi'd during the liscal year ending June \iO, 1888, 
in $2,2^1. The channel has shoaled so that now the minimum depth in 14 feet and the 
uiaximnm )i:\ feet. This ehann«'l was estimated to cost ^1,500,000. 

Briefly stated, the cost of improvement to the present time is: 

Fnmi \f*2i\ U: H.V2 $228,8:W) 

From If^O to 1-7-^ 401, (KX) 

To June 'MK 1-H7 747.r>61 

To Jnue:W, 1-k>j 2,281 

Total l,:Ci»,(»72 

to ohtain a precarious channel of 14 feet: and the estimated cost of a 
channel 23 feet deei> and 2S0 \Wt wide is $l,o(M),0(K). Tliis is exclu- 
sive of expenditures on tiie Alabama Kiver above Mobile, for the re- 
moval of sna^rs, h)ffs, etc., from the channel, cutting OTerhan^iuf: trees 
from the banks, protect ]n<j: caving banks and removal of sand-bars, 
etc. There is no reference to (h'epeiiin^^ the outrr bar. or estimate for 
cuttiuj]^ a deep channel fi*om .Mobile to Mount Voriion. The cost of 
dred;j:inj; a channel ot tin* reipiircd depth, 27 miles in length in Mobile 
Bay, and to deepen thr channel of Mobile Kivcr to Mount Vernon, a 
distaiUHt of 45 miles, wonid <r(M*tainl> be fxr<»ssivc, and Judj^in^ from the 
engineer's rej^ort their p^Minancncy would 1m» improbable, if not im- 
possible. In a paper written bv tin' distin;:nish(Mi Kn^lish enpneer 
Thomas Stevenson, under the head of Aititieial Scouring;, it is state<l 
that *' The preservation ot tin* depth of harlN)rs at a level lower than 
the original bottom invohes both nneertainty and ex])ense.'' 

lly direction of the <\)mtnission, Messrs. J. K. ISimpson & (Jo. made 
Ixirin^s at Mobile todt*terniine the <'hai:u't<'r of the subsoil and its suit- 
ability for excavated iloeks. wet basins, and for sustaining heavy struct- 
ures. The followin^r is a summary of the results obtained and reported 
to the Commission : 

The first ]K)int at whi<li sonndinjrs were made was at the lower end 
of tiie city front, near i hoetaw Point. Several attem]>ts were made at 
sounding, each timt* brin;;ln^^ up on sunken timber, causinp^ much trouble 
to recover pipe, as loj;s were lyinjr interwoveu with each other. Four 


soundings were made in the river at distances varying from 43 to 183 
feet from the wharf line and to depths below the surface of the water of 
from 12 to 26 feet, all bringing up on timber, in the Ulth sounding the 
pipe was driven to a depth of 31 feet 1) inches, reacliiug solid bottom. 
The sixth and last sounding in this vicinity was made 25 feet inside 
the wharf line, to a depth of 45 feet. This sounding drove very liard, 
and showed, from the top, 6 i'eet slab- wood and refuse matter, 13 feet 
bar sand, 24 feet coarse yellow sand, and 2 feet hard, white, sharp sand. 

The second place where soundings were made was at South End, 
about 5J miles south of Mobile, on the bay. 

The first sounding was made at 020 feet off shore from the high-water 
line, and to a depth of 40 feet, the pipe driving hard. On withdrawing 
it, the lower portion of the core (equal to 4J feet of earth depth) was 
lost; this would not compress sufficiently to remain in the pipe, being 

The second sounding was made at the high -water line on shore. A 
depth of 52 feet was reached, the pipe driving hard and the tn^eatest 
difficulty was experienced in withdrawing it. The sounding showed, 
from top, 15 feet red clay mixed with sand; 15 feet clay with less sand; 
13 feet fine Sjj^nd; 9 feet empty pipe where quicksand would not oo«i» 


This site, suggested to the Commission, was also examined. It pos- 
sesses many advantages in the character of the land, but not of water 
front, depth and width of the river, etc. The embankment at the nver 
front about the (jovernment reservation, with an elevation of 8 or 10 
feet, ascends gradually as it recedes from the liver to the arsenali 
where it attains a height of .'>20 feet. Assuming that the ground here 
is suitable for the foundations of heavy buihlings, machinery', and exca- 
vated docks, the position is too remote from the Gulf, and the engineer- 
ing difficulties in its approaches through the bay and river are, in the 
opinion of the Commission, insurmountable obstacles to the selection of 
this locality as a navy-yard site. JMount Vernon is 20 miles distant 
from the city by rail, 4;") by the somewhat tortuous channel of the livo*, 
and about 79 from the laitrance at Mobile Point. Very extensive dredg- 
ing would be reiiuired to o]>en and maintain a channel in the Mobue 
River sufficiently deep to be accessible to the heaviest draught vesselBi 
and its permancy, as of the channel in the bay, would be questionable. 
There are several abrupt turns in the river, and the channel at Mount 
Vernon is much too narrow to admit of the Iree turning of the larger 
class of vessels; in fact, the small revenue-cutter Craicford made nee 
of about all the available channel for this purpose when the Oommia- 
sion visited that locality. ISeveral other jioints above and below the 
Coosa Kiver, and at 27-mile bluflf, were examined with no better resolta. 
One railroad draw-bridge crosses the Mobile Kiver and trunks of trees 
were lodged in the channel. 

Among the many advantages of Mobile Bay or Mount Vernon for a 
naval station are the abundance of coal and iron in the central part of 
the State, ample facilities for inland transportation both by land and 
water, and a mild and healthful climate, suitable for out-door labor at 
all seasons. Ka(Mlities for obtaining labor are fair, there is an entire 
absence of the teredo, potable water may be obtained from arteeiaa 
wells, and at Mount Vernon there is the advantage of fresh water in the 

After carefully weighing all the advantages and disadvanta 


Mobile, the Commission is of the opinion that the absence of a suitable 
site ou either shore and the extremely shallow water on both, are fatal 
objections to the establishments of a navy -yard or docks at Mobile. 

The Commission desires to express their indebtedness to the collector 
of the port of Mobile and to Captain Keene, commanding the revenue- 
cutter Crawford^ for their assistance and courtesy' in placing the cutter 
at the disposal of the Commission when visiting Mount Vernon and in- 
specting Mobile Kiver. 

A chart of Mobile is appended, marked M. 


At the special request of Governor Lowry, of !^Iississippi, and in 
obedience to instructions received from the honorable Secretary of the 
Navy, the Commission visited Biloxi and inspected it with reference to 
its availability as a site for a navy -yard. At the present time there is 
very little water at Biloxi, and the following extract from the report of 
the Chief of Engineers will give a correct idea as to the feasibility of 
obtaining a deep-water dredged channel : 

The amount espeudcd duriDf2c tbe fiscal year ending June 30, 18d8, is $16,177, and 
resulted in dred^inj; a channel 8 feet deep tliron^liont at mean low tide, and 126 feet 
wide from the 8-foot curve outside in Mississippi Sound, for a distance of 2,150 feet, 
thence tt4 feet wide for a further distance of 2,000 feet, thence 124 feet wide a further 
distance of 1,030 feet to the 8-foot curve in Biloxi Bay. 

On acconnt of the hydrographic and topographic features of the place, 
the character of the back country, the distance from supplies of the 
most ordinary character, and the lack of railroad facilities, the Commis- 
sion does not regard this as a favorable site for a navy-yard or a dry- 


The Commission inspected the land and water front about Jackson 
Barracks, the naval reservation below Algiers, the method of protect- 
ing the river bank at Goldsborough Bend, and the excavation for the pro- 
posed locks at the Mississippi and Lake Borgne Canal. In this work 
of examination the Commission was verv much indebted to Lieut. 
Commander W. W. Mead, U. S. Navy, lighthouse inspector of the 
district, who kindly placed the lighthouse tender Panny at their dis- 
posal. From the examination of these various points, and from the 
data furnished by the several committees in New Orleans, the follow- 
ing conclusions were reached. 

The geographical position of New Orleans in its relations to strate- 
gical requirements in a general way is perhai)S not as favorable as that 
of either Mobile or IVnsacola, since its inland position, as well as the 
great velocity of the current of the river and the rise and fall of water 
dae to annual freshets, must deprive it of the great advantages of a 
site on or contiguous to the Gulf, where these conditions do not exist. 
A naval station situated near the city would be remote from the sea, 
and be liable to be bloi.kaded either by the obstruction of the narrow 
channel at South Pass, or by a superior naval force commanding its 
entrance. The channel betw^een the jetties can be defended only by a 
strong naval force. The construction of batteries in the delta for de- 
fensive purposes would be, if practicable, enormously exi>ensive, and 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip, 18 miles above the Head of the Passes, 
armed with modern ordnance, could afford no greater obstacles to the 
passage of armor-clads than they did to the fleet of wooden vessels ia 


The security of the naval Rtation is regarded as of paramoaut im- 
portance. The project for the defense of the Mississippi River, u 
formulated by the Board of Engineers on Fortifications aud other 
Defenses of 1885, "devolves the defense of the mouth of the river 
upon a naval force consisting of two lio^iting batteries and twelve tw- 
Itedo lH)ats, re-enforced by submarine mines. It is supposed that these 
vessels will be able to prevent an enemy from blocking the chaDuel 
between the jetties at South Pass and the cutting off of ingress and" 

The following is a brief statement of the ccmditions favorable to a 
navy -yard site on this river: New Orleans is the terminus of six trunk 
lines of railroads. The communication by water with the vast extent 
of territoiy embraced in the valley of the Mississippi is unsurpassed. 
It is the principal commercial port of the Gulf States, and possesses 
great facilities for obtaining every class of building material, skillal 
and unskilled labor, and supplies ; coal is abundant and cheap. The 
amount of commerce that passes in and out of the (Jrulf of Mexico is a 
very large portion of the total commerce of the United States. The 
amount of exports from New Orleans, coming from the whole Missis 
sippi basin and much of the great West, will demand protection at any 
cost, and consequently whether the navy-yard be located at Xew Or- 
leans or elsewliere, the Passes and all the approaches to the city will 
have to be defended as thoroughly as military and naval skill can eflieet 
it. Such being tlie ease, and since there is no other point in the Gidf 
of equal importance, or the closing of which would do iis much ii\jaiy 
to so large a district or to so many i)e(>i)le, no other place will have or 
begin to h<ave the same protecti(m and eare unless the G overii men t es- 
tablishes elsewhere a navy -yard, and it is absolutely necessary to pio- 
tect it in order to retain tlie command of the (lulf. 

The city is subject at intervals to ei)i(iemics of yellow fever, bat fpwn 
a com])arison of its vital statistics with those of otlier cities it does not 
appear to be exceptionally unhealthy. (See report of Surgeon Jolm 
W. Ross, U. S. Navy, in Appendix, marked A.) 

At the South l*ass there is a dei)th of water ihrough a straight and 
narrow channel between the jetties of more than 26 feet, and a wldthof 
more than 2(K) feet for a distanee of 11 n)iles. The central depth of this 
channel exceeds 30 feet, tlierti is no indication of the formation of a bsr 
in front of the entrance, and it is assumed that these favorable condi- 
tions will be maintained, as no dretlging has been recpiired since 1883. 
The Mississip])i liiver Commission states that in its o])inion the chaa- 
nel at South Pass Jetties is ])ennanent in the seuhC that it will be pos- 
sible to maintain a channel theie of at least 20 feet depth at low watisr 
in the river, so long as the. jetties are maintained to deep water and the 
damages from storms are re|)air(Ml. 

In tlie report of the (.'hief of Engineers for 188S, under the head of 
the "Survey of South Pass from its head to South Pass Light-Honse,* 
it is stated : 

As cfmipnrnl with tlu' Hiirvoy of \f^7'\ tlicrc 1i;i'<1h.m*!i a ilccidcd shoal iiig throaffhont 
Ihr PttSM, lixropt ill ii ivach 2.^00 tVrt Ion;:, <-onirin'iuiii;: nt :i i)<)iiit l,lr>0 feet aboTe 
South l*a8H Li^ht-Houst', wliich (Ici'jH'ni'd an aiiiniiiil varying I'rom 'A to (i feot. The 
localitirs wliirli liavc .shoah'<l tlu' l«»ast a'nl hut sllixlilly air thoso near Grand Bayoa 
and (loat Island. Tho ^rratcst slioalin^ is :ih<iv(> (iiaixl r>:i\on, and varios from 5 
to IS feet in a vfiTical hri-^ht, whilr hclow tlie hayon it vari«'s from \ to 10 feet, 

Tho least dcjith ohtaintMl <lnrin;^^ the yrar in liir ii'ach ah«)Vf (;()at Islniicl was 28.7 
ft*<M, and the hsist width at any tinn- oi'tho 'X) loot chaiinil was ti'JO ftM»t. The g Wt 
<'st (le)>th in this roach dniin^ thi' yrar was Iiii I'l-rt, and xUo :!(i-r(i()t chaiincl wai SOO 
ffet wide. Tin* jnesmt dojuh is ijl)..*) iVft. and the 'Jti-loot chann«'l is Ifc'iO feet wide. 

TUe lca»t depth iu tho Grand Uayon ivat.InMl during the year was 557 feefe| tho 


groatest 2a4 feet, and tbe preseut depth, 28.2 feet. The least width of the 26-foot 
channel was 130 feet, the greatest 280 feet, which is also the present width. 

'^A channel through U\e jetties 2G feet iu depth, not less than 200 feet in width at the 
bottom, and having through it a central depth of 30 feet, without regard to width," 
and ''a channel having a navigable depth of 2t) fei^t,'' through the shoal at the head 
of South Pass, and *• through the Pass itself," was maintained throughont the year 
without tbe aid of drtMlging, and as required by law. 

The rei)ort goes on to explain at length tbe cause of the shoaling, 
and states that the required depth has been maintained between the 
jettiei?, but the jetties require constant supervision and work from time 
to time. In the regulations issued by the War Department for the nav- 
igation of the South Pass channel it is stated that ^Hhere is a maxi- 
mum depth of 30 feet between the jetties and over the bar, but as the 
channel is narrow and mud lumps may exist at the mouth, vessels 
drawing over 12 feet must exercise care in entering the Pass ; strangers 
should not attempt to go in without a pilot." 

In the absence of land defenses a strong naval force would be re- 
quired to protect the entrance as well as tlje Head of the Passes. The 
destniction or removal by an enemy of the aids to navigation in such 
an exposed position, or the obstruction of the channel by sunken ves- 
8C*l8, would effectually blockade the port. 

Tlie rise and fall of the tides in the Gulf, Skt springs, average 18 
inches. The depth of the river along the shore at New Orleans varies 
from 20 to 30 feet, and from 100 to liOO feet in mid-stream. The holding 
ground is reported to be good, but a serious objection attends the hold- 
ing character of the bottom ; the anchor, sinking through the soft mud, 
becomes imbedded in the tenacious clay beneath and remains there un- 
less frequently sighted, so that cutting the cable becomes sometimes a 
iiecessiry; this, however, would l>e favorable to i>ermanent moorings. 

Tlie velocities of the river current at different times, as given by the 
Mis.sissippi River Commission, are: 

M.-iximnni at hi^h water, G.25 feet )M*r se(.'(»nd =3.1)8 geocpraphical miles per hoar. 
Mininintn at low wat«'r, 1 loot per second =(>.() geogra])nlcal mile i>er hoar, 

and extreme rise and fall of river at New Orleans about 17 feet; aver- 
age aUmt 12 feet. The great velocity of the current, together with the 
great rise and fall of the river during the spring freshets, produces 
very unfavorable conditions for the saf^ and easy handling of vessels, 
as well as the navigation of the river. It is doubtless true that there 
are many parts of the banks of the river within the harbor limits which 
are and have l>een unchanged for years, and that it is practicable by 
the methods of bank luotection now employed by the Mississippi River 
Commission to prevent entirely the caving of the banks. This is said 
to have been aceoinplished at (loldsborough Bend. 

Tlie Mississippi Uivc^r Commission states that the protection of this 
bank by spurs and rev«'tiiieiits forms a part of the improvement of the 
harbor of New Orleans now in progress and can be done at a reasona- 
ble and admissible cost. As this work of protect-ing the river bank is 
in ]>rogressat the presmt time and quite independent of the question 
of locjiting a navy-yard at tlie city, it cannot be taken into considera- 
tion when summing uj) the expenses of locating a Government establish- 
ment at this ]>oint, but may be consideriHl as a point in its favor from 
the fact that they have prove<l themselves so effective hitherto wherever 
em])loyed. The Commission is further informed that the levee just be- 
low Algiers, antl oj^posite to Jackson Hiirracks, was built in the early 
part of the present century and that its location has remained un- 
changed, thus d(*monstrating that the river's encroachments on tbia 

NA 89 la 


shore are hardly i>ereeptible, even in Huch a long period of time. It wag 
uear the scene of the improvements at Goldsborough Lend, hut befixra 
they were made, where the banks, and wharves on heavy pilings, and 
the railroad station of the Texas and l*acific Railway fell into the river. 
Since the improvements have been made the wharves and buildings 
have been replaced, and there is now no apprehension felt as to their 

The fitness of the soil on the river banks for bearing heavy structures 
if properly piled, is unquestionable. The massive buildings, seven ana 
ten stories in height, of the Louisiana sugar refinery, constructed partly 
on the batture land, attest the truth of this statement. They are, how- 
ever, at a safe distance from the encroachments of the river. 

Canals for very light vessels connect the liarbor with the western 
Gulf coast, and others are projected between the river, Lake Pbiitchar- 
train, and Mississippi Sound, but the levee has not its yet l>een cut at 
any point. The Lake Borgne and Mississippi Kiver Canal, now in the 
course of construction and which is to be connected with the river by 
locks, is designed for the use of the light draught vessels that navigate 
the shallow waters of Lake Borgne. (For plans and views of the work 
at the locks see appendix, marked N.) 

The engimH3ring difficulties to be encountered in constructing ao 
excavated dock with a depth of 25 feet on the bh>cks below low- water 
mark, and probably 40 feet below high-water mark of the spring 
freshets, with gates of a suitable dei)tli connecting with the river 
through the levee, will be great, but not neci».ssarily insurmountable. 
The Commission was informed that there was no record nt New Orleans 
of an attempt at the construction of au excavated dock, even for vesseto 
of moderate draught, on the banks of the Mississippi Kiver; the great 
rise and fall of tiie water and the rapid current have probably prevented 
such an undertaking. The construction of one now would be experi- 
niental, and possibly very dillicult, but by no means iiupossible. 

Examinations that were made at Algiers by Messrs. J. K. Simpson & 
Co., under directions from the commission, to determine the possibility 
of C/onstructingan excavated dry-do(jk, gave the following results, (For 
full report see api)endix, markiMl C.) It is to be noted in this connec- 
tion that no mention is made as to the cost ordilViculty of cutting a gate- 
way in the levee, nor th(» i)n)bable results to tiie adjacent banks of the 
river. The site selected for the examination is situated opposite the 
lower end of New Oileans at Algiers, and embraces as a Government 
reservation a plot .'i<S4 feet wiile, running biuik 2,880 feet; the land in 
front is about 4 Inflow the level of the levee and sloi)es grada- 
ally to the rear. The bottom of the river close inshori^ slopes away at 
an angle of about oiu^ in two, giving a depth of .*50 ieet at a distance of 
70 feet from low- water mark, or 180 feet from the levee. At 400 feet 
from the levee, nearly opposite the mid<lle of the reservation, the low- 
water depth is 54 feet. Soundings were mm]o with a liinch pij^e near 
the water's (».dge, and at about 1*00 and (>00 feet back along the center 
liu(^ of the ])lot, to depths of from 1*0 to 40 feet below the Gulf level, and 
all showt»d the same characteristics; that is, alter the first 8 feet, which 
was easily penetrat«'(l, the driving gradually became harder, finally re* 
(iuiring heavy blows to sink the pipe one-quarter of an incii. 

At tln^ first point, when a p(*uetration of .'>0 Ieet *^^ inches had been 
rea(*he«l, it was <h»eme(l best to witlniraw the |)ipe, the adhesiveness of 
the elay whi(rh the pipe brought ui> showing goo<l resistance. The 
spe<'inieus showeil dark day, harder and more compact as thedo])th in- 
creased. The second sounding was i>Kule to a (le))th of 42 feet below 
th(» surface of thegroun*!, the pipe d» '»r hard until finally, with well- 


directed blows, it could only be driven one-eighth of an inch at each 
blow; the pipe was then witlidrawn, using a 20- foot lever. This sound- 
ing showed the same character as the iirst one for a depth of 24 feet; 
for the next 12 feet there was a mixture of two parts stiff clay to one of 
sand, and the Unal feet was stiff clay and sharp sand. The third 
sounding, to a depth of 26 feet, ended in stiff clay. (For plan of borings 
see Ap{)endix, marked P.) 

The Teredo navalis does not exist at this point and there is nothing in 
the water or soil destructive to timber. The only objection that can be 
urged to a dock at this i)lace is the rise of the river during freshets ; 
this would necessit^ite the placing of the coping of the dock at or near 
the level of the top of the levee, or about 13 feet above low- water mark. 
Tlie Mississippi Eiver Commission gives the extreme rise and fall of the 
river at New Orleans at 17 feet; this discrepancy is more apparent 
than real, since one statement refei^s to the difference between the ex- 
treme high and low water, while the other refers to the rise above Gulf 
level. The observations of the Mississippi Eivei* Commission were 
made at Carrollton,Just above New Orleans, and fliere is a difference of 
about 1.2 feet between that place and Algiers in favor of the latter 
place. This great depth would, of course, inci*ease the cost of a dock at 
this place, but presents no insurmountable difficulties from an engineer- 
ing point of view. The time required to construct a dock here would 
approximate three years ; the cost, $840,000. 

The present reservation with a front of only 384 feet is too small for the 
purpose for which it is intended, and if the Government decides to place 
the navy -yard at this point it will l>e necessary to purchase more land. 
The following information relative to the property on either side of the 
reservation is taken from certified information furnished the commis- 
sion by the assessor of the district in which it is situated : Above, or to 
the west of the reservation, there are two vacant lots owne<l by different 
parties ; the first, 672 by 7,080 feet, and the second 500 by 7,080 feet. 
The depth in this property includes both cleared and wooded land. As 
regards the price at which the Government could purchase this land it 
could not be determined, as the representatives of the estates say they 
do not care to sell unless comi)elled to, though they say they would ex- 
pect to be reiisonable if the Government wished to purchase with a 
view to establishing a navy -yard there. The riparian rights, or "bat- 
tare pri\ileges," go with these jls with most of the property along the 
river at this point and further down. 

Below, or to the east of the reservation, the adjoining property, 192 
feet front, 7,680 feet deep, is owned by tlie same party that holds the 
land, 4,79() feet deep, directly in rear of the reservation. The tnict next 
adjoining has l>een consitlerably subdivided into small hohlings, while 
the batture land is held by still another party, forming the exception 
to the usual rule regarding property in tins neighborluM)d. The price 
at which the Government coulil accpiire sufficient of this pn>i>erty to en- 
large the present reservation to any extent desired would be on a basis 
of $5,000 per tract of 102 by 2,870 feet (1 arpent front by 15 ari)ents 
dei^p) for unim))roved land, and about double this sum for improved land, 
or in proportion to the imimivements. 

At the excavation for the eanal locks, lH»fore mentioned, boiings 
were made to a depth of 5ti feet below the Gulf level, and, by marks 
registered there, 72 U^ot below the highest known water rise — that of 
1874. The result of these soundings showed the same dense blue clay 
the entire depth as had been found in the other soundings. 

While the Commission believes that the ground at Algiers is well 
adapted for building a timber dry-dock it id not prepared to concur in 


tbe opiniou that serious engineering difficulties are not to be eneount^ 
ered in the construction of its entrance to the rivpr. A dry-dock with 
its caissons of a depth extending some 40 feet below the top of the 
levee miglit possibly lead to the formation of bars at the entrance ; in 
facty there is little doubt but that in course of time a deposit would be 
formed in front of any opening that might be made in the levee. There 
is no reason to apprehend any more serious trouble than this, and as it 
has been found necessary to dredge in front of the entrance to the dry- 
docks at both Boston and New York there is no ground for supposiog 
that this will entail any excessive expense or interfere materially with 
the usefulness of the dock. 

The adjustment of launching slips and ways to the varying stances of 
the river is another difficult problem for the engineer, since they will have 
to be so constructed as to permit the launching of a ship at a low stage, if 
not the lowest stage, of the river and at the same time keep the stem 
almost clear of the water at its highest stage. Tlie extreme rise and 
fall at this point is not far from 17 i'eet ^ this, if the ordinary incline of 
seven-eighths of an inch to the foot is given, would involve the expense 
and difficulty of continuing the ways back 233 feet further than would be 
needed at the lowest stage of the water; besides this, the usual depth 
of water along the banks at time of freshet is about 20 feet at a distanee 
of 120 feet from tlie levee, and deepens to 70 feet at a distance of 370 
feet, so that there might be tnuibh*. in supporting the outer ends of the 
ways for launching a heavy armor-dad, say of 10,000 tons, at extreme low 
water. This difficulty of arranging the lanncliing slips would bean 
inconvenience certainly, but it couM be met by so adjusting the ways 
as to ailmit of launching at anything but extreme low wator, which 
would cutout only a very short time in the late summer, when it woaU 
be impossible to launch a ship, and it would not be necessary to put the 
stern of the ship above liigh-water mark, since in the slip there wouMbe 
no current, and there would V)e no harm done if tlie steriipost was in the 
water, jus sometimes happc^hs now at some of the northern yards at high 
tide. Should building docks be resorted to in order to obviate tiiis 
trouble, as at some of the i)rivate T^uropean dock-yards. Naval Con- 
structor Hichborn expresses the opinion that though as a rule they are 
damp, dark, and contracted, th(» system has one advantage, that ail the 
weights are lowered into their places, no hoisting being rt»quired. 

After carefully weighing all the a<lvantages and disadvantages of Al- 
giers as a site for a naval station, the (Commission is of the opinion thit 
while the s])ot is not an ideal one, no other place in the Gulf compares 
with it in the advantages oilenMl, and that the advantages are so many 
and so great and (mtweigli the (li^:Hlvantages to such an extent, thrt 
the Commission has no hesitation in nMronmiending the location of a 
navy-yard and dry docks at tlie piesiMit (l<)V<»rnm(Mit reservation at Al- 
giers, Louisiana. 

A chart of New Orleans is ai>i)euded, niarkcil O. 
Very respecttully, vour obedient seivants, 

\v, r. mcCann, 

Commodore^ U. >Sf. Xaru^ Prfsidnit A'^fo/- Yard Siiv Commission. 

WlIJwMjn 11. r.ROWNSON, 

Lirif tenant (jnnmantlcr^ U, 8. Navjf. 


Lh'ittenant, l\ S. Xary^ Secretary to Commissiam. 
Uon. 13. F. Tracy, 

Secretary of tJw Navy. 

Appendix A. 

U. S. Navy- Yard, Pensacola, Fi*a., 

Surgeon's Office, August 26, 1889. 

Sir : Tour letter requesting informatioQ and opinions for the Navy- Yard Site Com- 
miseion regarding the healthfulness of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola, was duly 

I incloee herewith communications upon the subject from men whom I consider the 
best authorities of the three places in question. 

Dr. Hargis has for a great many years been the leading medical man of Pensacola, 
and has given particular attention to public health matters, especially to yellow 
fever. Professor Chailld of Now Orleans, and Dr. Mastin, of Mobile, have national 
reputations with which the Commission is doubtless familiar. 

Professor Chaill^'s views and facts, t- s)>ecia]ly those expressed in his letter of the 
18th instant, are so entirely in accord with those which I had formed and collated 
that I shall take the liberty to refer the Commission to them and refrain from the 
repetition in words of my own. 

Looking at Pensacola, Mobile, and New Orleans from a sanitary point of view^ I do 
not see any important difference between them as sites for a navy-yard. Their re- 
spective pros and cons about counterbalance one another. Moreover I do not see 
any objection that could logically be made to either place upon the score of unhealth- 
fulness. The time is fast approaching, if it has not already arrived, when.yellow 
fever will be as effectually barred out of Pensacola, New Orleans, and Mobile, as it 
liuH been from Norfolk and Philadelphia. 

Malarial fever, the great curse of the South, West, and many parts of the North, 
may be shorn of nearly all its terrors by the proper observance or a few long-known 
and well-established precautious, such as sleeping in upper stories, thorough drainage 
of the soil, &c. 

Very respectfully, 

J. W. Ross, 
Surgeon, U, S. Nary, 

Lieat. Duncan Kennedy, U. S. Navy, 

Seoretary to Navy- Yard Site Commission, Washington, D, C. 

Appendix B. 

Beport of sonndingH made at Penwicola, Fla., June 2, 1HS9, together with plans of 
tame, and approximate estimate of the cost of col struct ion of one of Simpson's im- 
proved dry docks adaptc<l to the location and its surroundings. 

The rite as proposed is located at Bohemia, Escambia Bay, about G miles northeast 
of Pensacola. 

This site forms a hollow between two oxtciKlrd points, Gaberonue and Devil's 
Point. At each of thewi points and along the bay the land rises in blufifs (close to the 
water) from 60 to 12(» feet high, the tracks of the Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad 
running between bluffs and water. 

At the place designated, lioheniia, the land is dat marsh for a distance of one-half 
mile back from shore, then rises to the height of surrounding blufis; water shallow — 
8 feet in depth a distance of 1^ miles out, in lino of Bohemia. 

A line from Oaberonne to Devil's Point would extend about 1^ miles, bringing 
Bohemia three-eighths of a mile at a right-unglo further inshore. 

]?>om a small steam-launch we sounded in 4 feet of water, 250 feet from shore with 
a sonnding-rod 13 feet in length ; rml met with slight resistance for 12 to 14 incbea, 
then went down of its own weight. 

We next sounded inshore at water's e<lge ; beach covered with coarse sand ; it re- 
quired hard work, Jomping the rod up and down, to get down 4 feet, after whioh it 
was easily thnist its entire length ; this at a i>oint immediately in front of chimnej 
shown on plan. 



TliiH point hii8 a]>parcntly boon tlio oiitlot to a Htroani riiiiiiiii^ from tlin swamp. 

Wt) noxt w'fMit 4(H) i((3<;t out fix>iii Hhoro ; water 4 ft.'ot <UH.'p. Roil wan readily pnflhed 
to watvr level. 

Wo then went 50 feet farther out, with same result. 

At r)r)0 feet out from shore the water was 5 feet (> iuches deep and the rod with 
difficulty thrust dowu for a distance of 2 feet, and then the rod went down very 

One thousand iivo hundred feet from shore the material was very soft; water 6 feet 
deep, rod going down of its own weight as far as we could reach. 

Seventh sounding made about 2()0 feet farther south, same distance out, gave same 
result; all above soundings made at low water; mean tide, 1.3 feet; wind varying 
tide G to 10 inches. The last four soundings wen; made from a skitf. 

Tuesday, June 4, 1889, Captain Saunders, who has the only floating pile-driver at 
this place, having failed to be ready for us, we secured (Kifet't of 1-inch pipe and 
with this made one sounding at a point 1,6H0 feet fn)in shore and -iyCiHW feet Koath-aooth- 
west from DeviPs Point, measured by Mr. Welker, civil (jngineer, an officer of the 
United States Coast Survey. 

At this point the water was 7 feet fi inches deep; pipe went with easy pushing to 
28 feet below high water, then with light ta^mof maul to 3h foot below high water. 
The]>ipe wjis then hauled and showi^d soft, slimy, black mud to within 2 feet of bot- 
tom, where there was a mixture of fine san*! suHlciient to feel gritty. 

The wind interfering with out-shore work, we started at shoro-line, at a point east 
of chimney, marked B; by jumping the pipe up and down it ]»enetrated 12 feet and 
was then driven with mallet to*2() feet 2 inches below high water. The pipe turned 
freely by hand until 24 feet was reached, then it <'ommcMiced to <lrive harder until 
we reaclie<l 20 feet 2 inches below bi«4;h water, when the pii>e bent at top and was 
hauled ; bottom showed mud mixed with conrse sand for 2 feet, balance t^) the top 
all sand. 

Wednesday, June ;">, we towed pile-driving machine fi-om IVnsacola to Escambia 
Bay ; owing to shallow water, the tug cast the machine adrift, one-quarter of a mile 
from shore, and the strong wind soon carried it ashore. An effort was made to drive 
a pile at this point, but little c<»uld be done, jis engine would not lift 1,800* pound ham- 
mer until woo<len lagging was removed from drum. 

We, however, drove one stick r.H'eet <> inclies into sand at a point 10 feet from 
water's edge, it driving very hanl, through clean eoai-se sand. 

Thursday, June 0, pile-driver beinji: aground, we used it lo make soundiug fh>m ; 
wv. drove 2-inch pii)e 2r) feet ; this drove very bard after the first 10 feet, bonding top 
end of pipe ; we hauled pipe and found coarse sand its entire length — this at a point 
40 feet from bank, about 800 feet northeast from chimney, marked (•. 

Then with 1-inch pipe we ma<le sounding off launch in line HOO feet out iVom C, 
nuirked 1), i)ushed pipe :52 feet below high water, tluMi drov(5 with light mallet to fiO 
feet below high water (water feet deep), in endeavoring; to pnll this pipe the launch 
lurched, the hiver slipped, and i)i]>e broke jifter starting \\\i some l\ or t» feet ; the point 
at which i>i]>e broke being at '^0 feet below high water, no result other than approx- 
imate could be obtain<Ml irom this sounding, which seemed soft all through. 

We next started from shore with skill*, sounding with 20-foot i)ol(»; starting ^ith 
sand or ai>pareiitly hard bottom close to shore, we worked out, sounding in the vicin- 
ity of site with ]»ole. 

We found wat^^r depth to increase slowly, while mud de])thinereas<ul nmre rapidly. 

From a point at zero at shore-line, we ])ushed tlM^ pole to water-level at a point 
7lM) feet out from shore. At places the bottom is covered with a crust, a short dis- 
tance below the slimy to]); out from the center line of Bohemia, thiscrustiR thinner 
than at either side, and for this reason every etVort was made to find solidity. A 
sonn<ling lead weighing 10 ])ounds penetrated from i\ to 2 feet into mnd below 
wat er. 

Satunlay, Jun«' 8, having seeiired from Mr. E. F. Skinner, of Fscambia(throneh 
the intervention of Mayor Chipley), a good Oat scow, w«» maile soiniding, marked IS, 
:10 feet from shore; water IH inehes <leep ; the pipe penetrated 'M't feet, driving very 
hard: result, sharp coarse san<l for ciutire dejith. 'J'his Mumding was made 8s» feet 
northeast of chimney (this line was worked out as showing best possible ehanoe for 
hard bottom, jndgint; from ])n^vions soundings with ]>ole an<l i*od). 

We next drov<> sounding marked F at a ])')int :^J0 feet from shore on same line, 
water T)^ feet deep. The pipe was driven 28 feet below high water; bottom hard 
sand i'or a de])th of 15 inches, then 12 inches of sand mixe<l with mud, balance above 
that Wcis soft nnid. 

We next droves sounding marked fJ, on same line OHO feet out — water 6 feet 6 
inches deep ; with the 1-inch l)ipe, we just n'ached hard sand atlW feet below high- 
water level ; wnth the exce])tion of one f(iN>t at bottom, of mud and sand mixed, wis 
sounding showing soft mud for its entire depth. The pipe was]Mit down by hand In 
this sounding. 


We next mmie Houiidiiip^ marked If, 1,100 feet out, water 7 feet deep. The pipe 
fa8toiie<l to pole was piiHlied by hand to a depth of 43 feet 3 inches below high water, 
when sand was reaclti>d — entire depth except abont one foot at l>ottoni was soft mud. 

These pipes, Q and H, were pushed down until they brought up hard and then 
raised, the bottom showing about one foot of sand. All these soundings were nia<le 
oif steady lighter and clearly demonstrated the shape of bottom from shore-line out. 

These were all the sonndings made at Pensncola. 

At this place we find the teredo doing great damage to pile structures, several 
ruins of wharves bearing evidence of their ravages. The Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad Company have cast a cement covering around the piles in the bridges and 
wharves, although they had beou creosoted. It was contended, however, by some 
that the piles in question had been improperly and insufficiently treated. However 
that may be, it is a fact that the Louisville and Nashville Railroad have made molds 
which a diver placcH below water and around the piles, then tills to abpve water-level 
with cement, thus forming a sleeve about 2 inches thick. 

The vast amount of slippery ooze, or mud, which covers this bay is the output of 
lar^e swamps, which abound all along the rivers which enipty into this bay, and 
while onr soundings here showed a rather even slope to hardni)od, yet there are evi- 
dences of undulating bottom all around here. 

In building some of the wharves at this place they put down 40-feet piles with 
lever; at other points in same wharf 30-feet piles drove hard. Some wharves have 
sunk in middle of length. 

At the bridge across the Escambia River (bridge 2^ miles long), 3^ miles above site, 
the piles vary from 35 feet to 60 feet in length. Mayor Chipley, who is president of 
railroad, mentions some instances whore ))iles sank to 40 feet with one blow of 
hammer, while in other places they drove hard. 

From the Wst evidence obtainable, It appears that in the upper section of the bay 
the hard 1>ottom is UHually found at a great depth, while above such hard bottom 
is slimy mud, through which boats (tan readily pass to depth of 3 to 4 feet. 

At the marine railway, now building, on the op|>osite side of bay, they are using 
some 5-inch iron screw-piles 70 feet long. Facilities for doing the work of sounding 
or obtaining help at this place were niiw'rable. 

From the foregoing results, obtained after patient investigation, we are of the opin- 
ion that a timber dry-dock of same dimensions :is those we are now building for the 
United States Goveniment, the s])eciticat ion being adapted to the location (owing to 
the neceiisity of wide enibanknituits on either side of dock and substantial retaiuing- 
cribs or bulk-heails for the protection against the ravages of the teredo)^ could not bo 
constructed upon this site for a less sum, approximat<*ly, than l^l,4()5,000, and the 
time necessary for its construction we would ])hu;e at four years. 

We beg to respectfully submit the foregoing. 

J. E. Simpson & Co. 
New York, August 2, ldd9. 

Appendix C. 

Report of soundings made at Algi<>rs, ojiposite Now Orleans, La., May 27, 1889, to- 
gether with plans of s:inu>. and approximateeKtimateof the cost of construction of one 
of Simpson's pat4?nt ill) pr«)ved dry-docks ada])te<l to the location and its surround- 

The site, stdected as m.-irkt'd u]»on chart, is situated opposite the lower end of New 
Orleans, at a place called Algiers, and embract's a plot about 400 feet wide, running 
back about 2,(HH) foct to low land, the land at this point being about 5 feet below the 
level of *• levee." The levtM- eenti'r to river-bank at this time was 107 feet. The 
water-level at this date was 3 feet an«l (I in(rhes alK>ve " gulf-level," or what is termed 
a low stage. 

From information furnished by Major llarnnl (city surveyor) we ascertained that 
water-levels are taken fron> '* gulf-lfv«'l" as standani zero. 





harder, finally re<juiririg heavy blows to sink pipe one-quarterof an inch. The ram- 
mer was of live oak, weighed GO pounds, and was worked by two men, the drop be- 
ing 2 feet (> inches. When this penetration had been reached, it was deemed i»est to 
withdraw the pi]>e, which was accomplished by use of chain and lever, the adhesive- 
ness of clay which piin^ brought up showing gooil resistanrf . The si>ecimcns showed 
dark clay, being harder and more compact us depth increased. 


A second sonnding was made at a i>oiiit ixiHide of levee, distant from A 184 feet, on 
same line (center of plot), and marked B. This sonnding was made to a depth of 42 
feet below the surface of the ground, the pipe driving hard until iinallyi with well- 
directed blows, it could only DC driven one-eighth otaii inch at each blow. The pipe 
was then withdrawn, using a 20-foot levtsr. This sounding showed clay of the same 
character as at A for a depth of 24 feet ; for the next V2 feet was a mixture of two 
parts stiff clay to one of sand, and the iinal six feet was stiff clay and sharp sand. 

A third sounding, marked C, was made 400 feet inland from B, to a depth of 26 feety 
ending in stiJOTclay. 

A severe storm of rain, with vivid lightning, ended labor for the day. 

We next visited the excavation at the Gulf Canal at a place on the New Orleans 
side of river at a point about 11 miles below the center of tho city. 

The excavation at this place having been made to a depth of "23 feet from surface 
of groond, without disturbing the sides, although they were soft at top and often 
soaked with Surface water or ** seepage.'' 

The soil appears to be clay for the entire depth of excavation ; darker at top, and at 
bottom a compact bluish clay. 

This was deemed am excellent opportunity for deep sonnding to test the clay (or 
mud, as termed here), said to line the bank of the Mississippi River. 

Our tools and appliances having boon Hhii>po(l to PonsiK'ola, 1^-inch pipe was 
secured, but after three vain efforts to drive (the ]>ip» breaking each time), 41 feet of 
1-inch pipe was secured and driven to a depth of ^{9 feet below the lowest point of 

Excavation 17 feet below gn\f level, sonnding therefore 56 feet below gulf level, 
and by mark registered here 72 feet b«ilow highest known water rise of lti74. The 
result of this sounding shows samn clay for entire depth. 

Upon the next day three test-piles were driven at the Algiers site. (It may be re- 
marked that all piles driven in the vicinity of New Orleans are square, usually 13 by 
13 inches at larger end and 10 by 10 inches at the other, and varying from 35 feet to 70 
feet in length, the ends not point-ed). 

These being the only kind of pile obtainable we used such, but pointed them before 

An 1,800-pound hammer was nsed ; the guides of the machine admitted of only a 
45-feet drop ; in order to get piles under hanniier they were sawn off to 60 feet. 

The first pile was driven at u]>-river end of plot, marked D, water 8 feet deep 18 
feet from bank. 

The weight of pile and hammer combined caused a penetration 9 feet ; thirty-two 
blows caused a fiuther penetration of 18 feet; this was with cushion block of wood 
on top of pile, to save niig (the usual method employed at this place). Dispensing 
with the cushion and driving directly on ring, st^venty -eight blows caused a further 
penetration of 17 feet ; ten blows more were struck, carefully raising the hammer to 
top of ways, driving the pile only 13 inches further. 

Total penetration, 49 feet 7 inches below ** gulf level." 

Drop of hammer about 37 feet. 

A second pile of same dimensions, marked E, was driven at a point 120 feet down 
river (in line of first pile D) ; water 8 feet deep. This pile sunk with weight of ham- 
mer 9 feet. 

First twenty-five blows: penetration 7 feet 6 inches. 

Second twenty-five blows : penetration 13 feet 6 inches, after which ei^htj blows 
were struck, the penetration varying from 5 to 1^ inches, ending 43 feet in soU and 
47 feet 6 inches below ** gulf level." 

The third pile, marked F, same dimensions as D and E, was driven at lower line of 

Slot, 10 feet from bank, water 7 feet 8 inches doop. Pile sank under hammer 7 feet 
inches. The penetration of this pile was carefully noted after each ten blows witii 
result as follows: 


Pint 10 blows ^ 

Fttt, In. 
12 2 

Seoond 10 blows 

2 9 

Third 10 blows ^ 

1 H 

2 V 

Fourth 10 blows........... 

Fifth 10 blows...... -*. 

X 5 

Sixth 10 blows 

1 2 

Seyeoth 10 blows 

1 • 

EiehthlO blows 

1 2| 
1 0^ 

Ninih 10 blows 

Trath 10 blows ^ 


XUrcBth 10 blows...... . . .^. „ 

1 t 









'" § 

III /h\ W 









, SO' ■ 


























» Ig 1 


/ ' 




I 5 ! 
























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United States NavIl Academy, 
Annapolis, Md., June 7, 1889. 

SiE: The Board of Visitors to the Naval Academy has the honor to 
ibmit the foUowiii^j: ivporf : 

The Board conveiK^l on the 1st instant, and organized by the election 
fConnnodore(ieor;;e Brown, U. S. Navy, president, and Senator M.C. 
iutler, of South Carolina, vice president; Lieut. Richard Wainright, 
r. S. Navy, secretary, he having been detailed for that duty by the 
uperiutendent of the Academy. 


(1) Condition of admiaaion to and discharge from the Academy. — Hon. M.C. Butler, 
Hon. H. A. tlorbert, Hon. C. H. Grosvenor, Commodore George Brown. 

(ii) Subjects of study and standard of scholarship. — Hon. H. M. Teller, L. C. Gar- 
land, LL. D., Gt'nenil F. A. Walker. 

(3) Grounds, huilditifjUy and sanitary condition. — Hon. William McAdoo, GoTernor 

J. A. Beaver, Hon. C H. GroHVenor. 

(4) Sfamanfihij)^ ordnanct; and navitjation, — Commodore George Brown, Governor 

J. A. Beaver, Hon. Wililam MeAdoo. 
(f)) DiKiiplinf^ drill, practical (j-criiseH, administration and police, — General 8. L. 

Woodford, Gtiu-nl F. A. Walker, Hon. M.C.Butler. 
(C) Steam, mathematiiH, physivH^ and mechanics. — Dr. T. C. Mendenhall, Prof. Oren 

Koot, General F. A. Walker. 

(7) Kngliah studicM^ modern languayvs, drawiny^ physioloytffand hygiene. — Prof. Oren 

Koot, L.C. Garland, LL. D., Hon. H. M. Teller. * 

(8) Finance and library. — Hon. H. A. Herbert, Commodore George Brown. 

(9) Final report. — Hon. C. H. Grosvenor, General S. L. Woodford, Dr. T. C, Mend- 

enhall, Commodt)re George Brown. 
General Stewart L. Woodford was elected orator. 
SessionH of the Boanl were held daily during the continnance of the examinations. 


The Board, after careful cousideration of tbe Rubject, unanimously 
^commeuds that the actadeuiic course Ik; rtnluccd from six to four years, 
Qd that at the end of four years the graduates be coDimissioned as en- 
gns. It also recommends that it shall be required by law that tbe 


desigiiittiuii of [K-t«oiiH lor iii)poinlm«nt, aud tbvir tiltenuiica, to All \i 
vaucicH ucdirriug Q-om graduation, Ik< niad(> one year itr nilvHiim wIm 

TbcBoai'd also recommends a islmQRi- in thfilaw tiKhig the niaxhnoa 
limit of age for uuiraDce into the Naval Academy at twenty (20) jvml 
Initttoiiiniou uiiietecu (19) years i» the 1>etter limit. 

The Board has made diligent inquiry in order that it nii|£htait(«nitiDi 
if i>0K»ib1e, the effect upon cadeti* of the hiw, flT»l eoaoCed in I^:;, ha' 
itin^ the nnmber of udmissiouH into the Navy. 

It was rea»oual)letD Bujipose that 8onteratdetii,iieetng no fair prospect 
of a eoinmi»siou, would beeome dit«eonriiged and ceaae to |iitr«uu llMtf 
studies with diligence. There is testimony tending to show that,iDH<MB» 
decree, thia is true. The Board belierea that the value of Ihu euurat 
of inHtruction, both to those who reach jfradnattnit and to (hone who Gul 
of graduation, is impaned by the iiaiuful smallness of tli*.^ number vt 
those who can I'easouably hope to attain positions in the iinval Qurrict 

While it ajipears that the morale, discipline, and scholiu'ship of tht 
Academyhave impi'oved in the last four years.yet the Boanl iti cotiQdoit 
that the intense competition which necesearily ariseti under the oper>> 
tiou of the act of 1882 is incousisteut with an iiltogether licultbftil |w- 
suit of the studies of the course. 

It would be very desirable for the Government to tlnd, irprKcticaUt, 
occupation for more cndet graduates than are now taken uunaally inU 
the naval service. It seems to the Board that CongnrKu might «•# 
consider the propriety of putting these yrmn^ meii, ko far us may h«,v 
the revenue marine service, tilling all vacancies there by api>o)Dtni«l 
from the graduates of the Academy. These would be &o many 
prizes tor diligence, and certainly it would not be an undomralile 
to have naval offlcerx acquire the knowledge of our <»ka«tH and if 
liroaches that would be attained in that et^rvltte, the dutiua of «h(«h 
quire constant watchfidneas over every avcuue aud landing by vhi 
an enemy could approiich from the Hca. 

If tho number of tbone who are to be rccuivvd into the m'rrtMfl 
not be increased, it would, in the jmlgmextof the Itoanl, be liotterti 
a much amultur number should bo admitted into the Acuileoiy, 


The Board Huda : 

(1) That nopubjectofstndy isemhraeod in ibejiresoMicouiw' wliii 
is not essential or highly important In the educatlou and tmuiins^ 
naval cadets, under the general system prevaillng- 

(2) That the pro|>ortious according t'O whtob the Hgitre^tD time ' 
the disposal of the academic board has been divided between the w 
eral Bubjects of study are, in general, very judiciously Inken, 

(3) That no subject which can be deemed cs»ential to the pToi>errf 
ucation and training of navul ci(det«>, uiKler the geueral HyBiem ]<i*' 
vailing, is now omitted from the course of IdBtrnctign, excepting oeV 
international law, and the Board is unanimous luid curncdt in tbeopmlV 
that this brauch of study should beheld to bo absolutely iudiH)iea 

Believing that it in not advisable lo add anything to the pi 
weight of studies in the Academy, it recommeodw that mom be 
for this branch of instrnotion through a reduction iu llie votnn*' 
work iu this or some other depsutment. 

(4) The Boanl Bnds that, while the course of fitndy nt the Avadfttlj 


rere^ as it ouj^^ht to be, the requirements of instructioD are uot ex- 
ive. After careful consideration the Board is satisfied that the de- 

ands upon the time and strength of the cadets are not greater than 

consistent with health and mental soundness. 

•Jhe BoanVs observation of the cadets, as well as the testimony of 
.he medical officers of the Academy and other members of the corps of 
DStruction, shows that the young men pursuing these studies are vig- 
>ron8, active, vivacious, with a degree of mental spontaneity and phys- 
cal alertness which could not be exhibited by men who had habitually 
been overweighted or kept under undue strain. 

The Board notes, with gratification, the instruction given in the me- 
chanic arts, and hopes that opi)ortunity will be found for a large exten- 
lion of these studies and exercises during the summer or otherwise, and 
the introduction of the cadets into the shops at an earlier period of the 


The Boani heartily indorses the report of the Board of Visitors last 
vear as to the excellent condition of the grounds and buildings; clean- 
UDess and order are everywhere observable, and the good health of all 
^t the Aca4iemy bespeaks its sanitary condition. 
As recommended last year, a new boat-house for the storage of the 
eamlaunches and boats has been appropriated for by Congress and 
8 now being built. There is also in course of construction a new brick 
tiding to be used as a sail and rigging loft. This will do away with 
use of the pre/^ent fnime building on the dock and lessen the dan- 
jr of fire. These buildings will serve a useful pur|>ose. 
The Board again recommends that some use or disposal be ma<le of 
he unuse<l hospital building. It thinks that if no use i^n be found for 
he building by the Government the same should be sold. 
The additional land adjoining the Academy grounds, for the pnr- 
ase of which Congress j)rovided at its last session, has not yet been 
^ht, owing to the fiict that the owners demand a larger sum than 
nac appropriated for this [)ur]>ose. Measures are now being taken to 
oiidemn this land to Government use under due process of law, and at 
, price to bi» thereby fixed. 

The Board has been impn^ssed, as were its immediate predecessors, 
y the necessity for additional houses for officers detailed for duty at 
be Academy, many of whom are now obliged to live, at no little ex- 
it 5, outside the Government reservation ; therefore the Board unan- 
lusly recommends that additional quarters be furnished for the in- 
- tors of the Academy. 


T Board witnessed, with much interest, the drills and exercises of 
(»i<let>$ in practical seamanship on l>oard of the Wyoming^ the target 
tice with great guns on boanl the same ship, and the artillery and 
lintry tactics on shore. 

in the exorcisc^s on board of the Wyoming the ship was gotten under 
r and steamed to a favorable position in the bay, the cadets i>erform- 
ail tin* duties usually required of seamen and the forces of the en- 
lue and fire rooms. 


The exercises in making nud shortttiiitig aall, seuiliiift np and 
light nin&ts anil ^yanlM, anil in the oniiiiary eTolntioiis of hauitlinK 
were performed m a, very eatisfautoiy manner aiiil with uouiiiivi 
Bpirit The cadets lalioieil nnder gi-eat ilisadvaDtajr«-is dnu i 
heavy spars, oid fashioned blocks, and poor-flttliiji; »»\l». Huoh 
ously iinperfeot appliances will not probably exist wlieo tbi: uh' 
ship, already appropriated for, is completed. Tbat «hlp alioiild boi 
most modern type in all departments; she should be Sfinarw-rig; 
at least two of ber masts, and sbe should have an cxLra milt ol 
especially for exercises. 

In the department of ordnance the practical work ahowA cvidei 
carefnl training. The drills of artillery and infantry wen! ereiliC 
the instrnotors as well as to the cadets. The targ>t pnuaiGu fru 
Wyoming, when nnder way, was most excellent lu di-tiiiU and r 
The regclatinn target was anchored, and tlie ship luaiiititinud a p 
about 1,200 yards from the target. The target was xtruuk rmql 
and of the many shots llred, but few, if any, wonld have failud W 
a small-sized vessel. It was particularly ouservable that the t 
and instruction of the cadets bad been sneh an to f^ve them tliat 
Cougdenoo in their guns which ie essential to gooal guunury. 

The discipline of the Ai;ademy is all that is riv]nired for a IukI 
of milititry training. The regulations arc ncceMtinnly exu^^'tini;, 1 
sn unforcetl by thoHC eharged with this duty as lo'ustuldiHh pi 
relations betwi-ou them and the ciideLs. The example shown 
ufiicers of the Academy has a benclicial effect in liiis rcHpei^U 

The amplest opportunities were iill'iirded the Uoanl In jadga 
prolleiuncy of the ciuleLs in their various drills, which was foui " 
most gratifying and satisfactory, all movements being execitl 
the precision resulting oiUy from a thorough perauaal ande 
the subject. 

The system of practical exercises which has Iwen ailopled i 
mended, and in the matter of administnition and police, afVer 
investigation and consideration, no uhaugcs snggunt UiecuifelvM 


The reorganization of the oonrse of atndy and praclive at llio AoaM 
in virtue of which those who enter the Engineer Corps of tfavSavyi 
selected at the end of the third year of their coart(i>i, anil tin* pruvitl 
with special studies and exercises during the fourth yejir, tnnlc<!« tti 
perative that the facilities for work in sleam-enclnverlug beeJiUtf 
and amplified. 

The equipment now available in this department, although extWb 
In Its way, is much of it obsol«t«. M)irlte<l fmproveuieut in tbeo 
etruction of mariue engines and toilers has iR-en made since this eqn 
ment was snpplied,andyoiingmeu well drilled iu theuseandconsUui'l^ 
of the steam apparatus now at hand, would find themselves quite uuo' 
to manage easily and sncoessfnlly Itic best engines of modern oodRU' 
tion which an« being placed in the new ships. It iii,therorDr«\ v ~ 
purtuut that a new triple-cxpausioa mariuo engine, of the best tj 



for the use of the department, and that the boilers now in use be 
-ed by those of modern constniction. 

le arrangement shouhl also be nnule for absorbing the power of 

igine by submerging the screw, if possible, or by other available 

odj so tliat the engine may be worked under conditions similar to 

obtaining at sea. 

IS also believed that the addition of a small stationary engine, es- 

ly designed and constructed for purely experimental purposes, 

ci be of great value. With it should be provided suitable dyna- 

iters for measuring its available horse-power; apparatus for carry- 

i evaporating tests, fuel tests, etc. Additional appliances are also 

wl for the better study of the proi)erties of steam. 

e machinery and equipment of the machine-shop are good and prob- 

sutliciently complete for the demands likely to be made, but the 

ties for wo<Kl-working should be enlarged, and it should be sup- 

. with power. The blacksmith-shop should also be supplied with 

f'er-blast for th<^ forges. 

practical exeicises of the cadets in the work-shops furnish evi- 
3 of excellent instruction and emphasize the importance of this 
ire of their course. 

oe nio<lern war-ship is a vast and complicated machine. She is 

lied by ma<*hinery, steered by machinery, her guns are loaded, 

,£4*il, and lired by machinery. The mechanism by means of which 

uiis is accomplishe<l is intricate and often delicate, and its various 

nts are so rehit^d to each other that failure, although but tern- 

y, of an apparently unimportant device to properly i)erform its 

jons might lead to a C(mi[)lete ]mra1ysis of the whole. 

uiH fact makes the possi*ssion of mechanical ingenuity and skill one 

be important qualiil(*ations of a successful otticer, and it, therefore, 

i8 to this hoard that the cidtivation of manual dexterity through 

ic-shop pnictice might well be begun earlier in the course than at 

lent, and a somewhat larger proportion of the summer ilevoted to 

The eliect, both [U'imary and secondary, of such [)racti(!e is goo<i, 

itH intiuence upon the work of the cadet in other parts of his eourse 

uor fail to be beneficial. 

he circumstances under which the lioard visited the Academy ren- 

1 an actual insi>ection of the methods in use in the various depart- 

lUi of instruction imjH>ssible. Without such actual inspection it is 

rissible to si>eak with certainty and confidence regarding the 

bo^I. It is the sense of the l^»ard that it would be well that a cer- 

uunilK'r of the I^)ard of Visitors be designated to come to the 

LMtiy prior to the closing week of the academic year and examine 

)rk in progress. Much information was gained, however, by in- 

lews with the heads of these departments, and by the ins[>ection of 

nation papers. Knowledge thus gained has led to the belief that, 

main, thr instruction is thorough and ellicient. 

uc course in mathematics is extensivt* and exacting, but not uii- 

inarily so, since it is the foundation, upon the integrity of which 

Is a large share of the professional culture of the cadets. The 

ruction given is, in the main, excellent, but the scheme adopted in 

vision (»f the cadets into sections, and the subsequent instruction 

«e sections, is one of which the IJoard can not approve. While 

:ant to express opini<ins in strong con<lemnation of methods which 

have n*ceived th<* ap[)roval of the Acadennc Hoard, it can not 

n from d(K*laring its belief that any system which restricts tho 

>A 81> 14 


instraction of tbe beail of the ilepartment, uaturally more experienced 
aD(l capable tban bis assistants, to that section of the class which is 
bipfbest in scholarship, is false in ])rinciple and pernicioas in practice, 
under tbe conditions which exist at the Academy. 

The advantage which, in the very beginning, is thus given to students 
who may enter a little ahead of their fellows, or who aro a little more 
ready in recitation, or whose memory is more retentive, is likely to be 
held through the system of daily marks and averages, to which undae 
prominence may be given. 

Tbe existence of this system is, unquestionably, one of tb.e reasons 
why so small a proportion of a class is graduated. In the judgment 
of the Board the so-called " electi ves," which .ire really " extras,'' should 
be given up so far as they take the form of recitations upon which marks 
are given which are allowed to tell upon tbe cadet's rank. Such time 
as can be spared by the better scholars should be devoted to prac- 
tical exercises or to recreation. 

Tbe department of physics is, for the most ])art, well equipped, and 
as far iis known to the Board the nietbods of instruction are in agree- 
ment with those adopted by the best institutions of learning. Tbe sub- 
ject is of great and growing importance to the naval officer, and an in- 
crease in the facilities for instruction along certain lines is demandcul. 

Tlie extensive application of electrical apparatus on board ship for 
lighting and other purposes calls for the establishment at the Academy 
of an electrical plant similar to that in use on the best equipped vessels, 
so that the cadets may become practically familiar with its luautige- 
ment. A lighting plant ibr certain of the buildings of the Academy, 
notably the study-rooms of the cadets, would not only bedesirable on 
general principles, but would also be a valuable iuldition to the fsicilities 
for instruction in the physical department. 

The system of change in instructors by detail from the active service 
of the Navy, while jmssessing advantages in some departments, is not 
calcnlate<l, in the o]>inion of the Board, to produce the best results in 
such a rapidly-expanding department as that of physics, and it is there- 
fore recommended that a permanent assistant to the head of this de- 
partment be provided for. 

Tlie course of study in a])i>lied nu»chani<js is complete and thorough, 
but the addition of some appliances for the experimental study of the 
laws of elasticity, the elastic limit, eh)ngation, and torsional rigidity of 
materials used in construction would be very desirable. 



The work in these d(»partm(Mits, as<»vinccMl i)y the results presented to 
the Boanl, has been well conducted, when the narrow limits of time al- 
lowed are considered. 


The finances of the Academy seem to be well administered, the liooks 
correctly kept, and the system of checks and balances adopted to pre- 
vt'ut improper expenditures appears to be eflicient, and the interests of 
the (lovenimeiit and the cadets are carefully guarded, and the m 
system of a<MMuuits adoi>ted during the last winter works aiimimbly. 


ie library is well arranged, neatly kept, and is, altogether, well 
aged. The U('w bailding is admirably adapte<l to tbe pnri>08e for 
ih it was built and will afford ample room for many years. 
Very respectfully, your obe<lient servants, 

Geo. Brown, 
Commodore U. IS. N.j President. 
M. 0. Butler, 

U. 8. Senate^ Vice-President. 
H. M. Teller, 

U. 8. 8cnate. 
H. A. Herbert, 

Ho%ise of Representatives. 
Wm. McAdoo, 

Rouse of Representatives. 
Francis A. Walker, 
President Massachtufetts Institute of Technology. 

T. O. Mendenhall, 
President Rose Polytechnic Institute. 

L. C Garland, LL. D., 
Chancellor of Vanderbilt University. 
Oren Boot, 
ProfessorofMathematicSj Hamilton College. 

Stewart L. Woodford. 
on. B. F. Tracy, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



Xorfolk, I'a., August 14, 1889. 

Sir : In accordanco Tvith a reHolutiou of tlio Hoard of Visitoi-H to tho Naval Academy 
in Jone last, of which Board I was president, I IciviQ tho honor to Hubmit the accom- 
panying papers as an appendix to tii^ report of tlie Hoard. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Gko. Buowx, 
• Commodore f U. 6". Navy, 

Hon. B. F. Tracy, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

U. S. Naval Academy, 

AnnapoltSf Md., June 4, 1889. 

The Board of Visitors was called to ord<T at 8.37 o'clock p. ni., by Commodore 
Brown, U. S. Navy, i)reKi<lcnt, presidinj^. 

Present: Coninio<lore ({corjjjo Hrown, U. S. Navy, ])roj}id«»nt ; S<;nator ^^. C. Bntler, 
U. S. S<'nat<', South Caroliiiii, viro-presidonl ; Senator II. M. Ttdlor, U. 8. Senate, 
Cblora<lo; Hon. H. A. HtThrrt, House of l{e])n*s('ntativo4, Alabama; Hon. William 
McAdoo, IIouHO of lieprortcntativcrt. New JtTsoy ; Prof. Oi'en Root, Hamilton College, 
Clinton, N. Y. ; Dr. T. C. M«Mul«Mihall, prosi.UMit Kos»» rolytechnic Institute, Tene 
Hante, Ind.; General F. A. Walk or, presiilmt Mnssacliusetts Institute Technology, 
Boston, Mass.; L. C. Garland, LL. D., cliancellor of the Vanderbilt Univenityi 
Nashville, Tenn. Commander P. F. Harrin^t<»n, U. S. Navy, coniniaudant of cadets, 
was present. 

Commander Harrington was intorroj^afod as follows: 

By the President. The act to re^julatc the course of the. Naval Academy, approved 
March !2, 1H89, has been ref<>rred to by the Sn]»erintondent, Captain Sampson, wnohaa 
I)oiuted ont certain object ionable ieatures in t his aet. Have you ^iven this matter any 
considerat ion T 

Commander Harrington. I was chairman of the committee of the Academic Boaid 
which pre])ared a report to the Secrriary of the Navy two years ago, Troni which 
report this aet ori<:inated. The modilication of the law existing prior to the paenage 
of this act desired by tli<<> Aca<iemie. Hoard inchuh'd tlio abolition (»f the two yeas^ 
course at sea. I hare always been a slnMiuons advoente of that idea. If the Board 
desires, 1 could give ujy views abniit Ibis matter. I»ut thi'v are embraced in the report. 

Ti»e PRKSIDKNT. The Hoard would like to liraryour views. 

ConwuandtT Haukington. At the end of the four years* course, the cadets who am 
eligible to appointment in th<% Navy have already bad a professonal f-onrse anflSoiently 
extended to tit^crmine their di>o]»osition as \\<'ii as their qualification for the naval 
service. Those who are not elij^ihle und«-r tlie ]ireKent law have acquired a method 
and system of study, a mental process wliieli fits t liem to ;;o into work in any otliorpro« 
fession or business, of eoursr after a preliminary study in such business or' profeflBloii. 

Tlie two years that they spend at sea is worse than h)sr to them, while it iHOf no 
use to the Government. On the (»ther liand, aixllookin^ to the interests of the Govern- 
ment, they Iiave ac<iiiired so much taste tbr naval life as would probably determine 
their return to the service at a subse(|nent ]ierind, in the event of war, if their aarr- 
ices were needed. It S(>emH to me flint on any ero^nid of Ix^netit to the Government^ 
or benefit to the yonn^ man, the 1 wo years' eonrse subseqnent to Kraduntion is na^ 
less. As a matter of economy t he ( lovernment wimld save about $:tO,000 a year hy the 
abolition of the two years' eonrse at sea. 

Again, the ^nMluates of this sriiool, un(h>r the formei law, averaged about twen^ 



:irs of ai^r :ii ;xra«lii;itI«Mi. 'IMiiit will In* irirro:iM«Ml iwarly (nio .v<*ar, tlie avtT- 
»• i>i I'lmain*' liaviiiii lurii M«voiii«'iMi yrar.s ami thrw inonthH, which will be 
Id alioiii oi;ilii«MMi years iiixler iMir present hiw. Twmty-two vearH is t<M» old 
laii Toi^ii lo sclioiil twn years loiijjer at 8«'a. and to ])orrorin Muhordiiiate duties — 
wliioh an* not strii-tly <if a pr<>;x»'0-'*sivo oharaeter — such as takiii}^ charge of 
irk.i't-l»i>at in the luornmjj. etr. I>ut sm-li, to a larj^e extent, is tlio work given 
\ (Hiiv^iT ;ri-;i(lii:ites ot' this sohiMii. I think it desirable that thev ahoiild be 
(MiriiMii>>ioi)s upon gradiiatiii;; at the end ol* lour years, and placed at once in 
slide positions; plaeed in char;;e ol' guns, and of the numerous pieces of lua- 
\ iiist:ille«l in nnHleni war vessels. 

nk that steam aiixiliaiytMii^ines will, in all probability, give way to the electric 
tor various uses; that tlie latter will be used tor miieh work in our ships, and 
:i«- and ati4>ntion of the«j:raditatesf>f the sehools shonhl betaken up largely in ac- 
•^ a iu;nMi«al knowledi^e ot' thi*in. The Aea<lemy fits its graduates to undertake 
.I'.ioi*, anil toeoiitinue the-M* stinlies : and it mmmus to me tliat the workers ought 
i-waidi-d and di;;nilied witli a eoinmission. and so exeite their ideas of respon- 
\-, that wonlil br akin to the eoiirse at West Ttvint. The two years' course at 

ra«let> is repri'*»sive. 

it or r»rri,Ki:. Then you think tlie two years' eruise is of no benetit to them or 

(iO\ r\ liliii Mt f 

iiiaiider n\Ki:iNCtii»N'. It is of no benetit to eitln»r. The young men return 
i paN>< an i xainination. whi<'li is but a re«.iinir* of their former graduating ex- 
tioii. riieri- is little liC proirffss in the second (or linal) graduating examina- 

reM-niative McAiMni. |)>> many ehanges tn'cur in the standing of cadets after 
iiiLi l"r«nii the -^ea vovaLif ? 

iiMfiihi- IIai:i:in»;t«in. In a lew laNes fliev rise or fall tive or six numbers. The 
i.iiiu«-« .-lie i^iMierallv small and are notiiin;; mon* than a<'<>idental, and due to 
•iiem iif markiii:;. 

Jvi:i. vNi». I»o rhiy apply tlieniM-lve^ on boai«l ship to the studies which occn- 
Hill at the Aeadi-my f 

rn.iinh r II \i:im\«;tm\. A- eomiiiandi-r of a ship, where I had op|M)rtunity to 
e thi I adi !>< ni-i i\ii| from otiii r >hi|is, I have come to the conclusion, from ob- 
^ liiem. that the maiti i' of simly of eaib-tson board ship is largely a matter of 

• ■:ir:.):i tht-v reei-iNi- linni tin mmaiidi'r or i»xeeiit i ve oflleer. It depends upon 

lies: \vhi< I) the laptain of the ship takiv-* in theiii, rather than the energy of 


llMsir.iie: I reipiir<Ml a eadet ti» asei-rtain from the ehart what time we should 

iLiii w.iter on the next day. and at'ter half an hour's work he was unable to ttdl 

pMi him ti) woik ami evi lit iialiy he parsed, but pas^.-d t(N> low to be appoint<'d. 

; ihit I adtts nil lioant j*1iips dmin;: tlie two vears do not study. I think when 

• •m«- h.M k Ipii' lhe\ !*:t d<'»Nn lor two nr three weeks and «'ram themselves for 
:il • \.(miii.itin!i. whil 1) i> not \eiy different t'rom the examinations they have 

:it tlii*. -ibool. Von. ".'eiii leiiiiii, laii ti-ot that by eoniparing t\w pa]>erH of the 
I !■ X I'rii' .ti lo'v. I .hin'i 1 liiiik > tHir •pie'.t ion ean be answered in the atliruiative. 
, ilo no! '.iMtlN iiMi 'I at -••a unless eoinpeili-d by their ra]>tain. 
^•^eiit.ii I v< 111 i:ni:i:r. Aii' m:iii\ ih.t!i::is made nsnallv bv the examination at 

• I ofrhi t^viiMMi^ at <>iM .' 1 me.m. is it ot'ieii the ease that a man who doejt 
ihI h: ,h I ii'in ,:h to iji-t :i i-iimmi'«-ion i»i-fi»re going to M*a doe.s stantl high enough 
hi-^iiMi-i i:-.-!!"!! \\ ln-»i hi- ronn - haek. by reason of gi-tling ahead of somebtMlyT 
ncihdi I II \i:;;iN(. iiis. I th:i:kyiiii w<ii:ld find one ehaii^e every year. It is 
!•• I: ;i' »omi' viai« t h- ]■- m:i\ be more: but I regard that to a large ext4Mit as 
r:di-i)t ol [i'l- exaniMiai :■':). 1 will ;:ive an exam)de : A young eadet was hen* 
eeKo :!.:•■ ;iii. I i aim- to n.i. :<.i\ ill:; lie hail doni* bailly on one exannnation. I 
liiiii-i^i.r the t lo.ili.i .\ .1^. "I was puzzled ori o[ie ipii'stion,'' he answenMl. 
[ too m-M-li iinii- I'll ^ii)>1>i!il; i|i;r>.i inn. t'orgetting my old arademic rule to 

tin- •.i-v ]iioli]i-ii>o :u»'. I toiiiiil a ureat ileal f>f tinn* hail passed before I had 
tlii-t;i-; •|Mi-«t!oM. .iiiil ] lot time to finish." That examination prfdiably 
Ml a po.iit. Ill- wo!i]<l h 1-1 •■ 1..ii! .a liiile hi^hi-r mark but for the aecidttnt of 
v:i/iii:i,itiori. and 1 ihinu ii iM >:i.i;i-s tin* id*-a that i-a<lets make i»r los4* a nnm- 
<rn le aiiai-iii*. -•ii k u* --, •'! T h!<iM'^h t In- hiek of )ia\ iiig i|ne:«tionN with which tliey 
rfei-tl\ faiiiiliar. whih- tin;, mi^at he pn//l.'<'i liy <{iie.>.t ion*) on other parts of the 
t. * 

vifiitativt- ili'.iM'.i.i. I . .\ri' I haii^i- i-ser rireli- by tli«- tlitb*reiicf;s in seamanship, 
iig from «t iiil\ unin:- M.« t'Ao \i ar^.' eruisi * Winn we had this question be- 
llmise It w aN III j:i-*! \i-i\ ^i i-i-iiiioii«l-. thai the two \ ears i*nable thi* young uieu 
i»iit theniNtdvi •. .i>- -«• iir:>-i 1 >o \ on think tluT*- i*« anything in that f 
luander II \|{I:in(.i«>v. i tli'nk \on .mII tiinl cailetscomu back and change 
ID ilitVereiit Ntiidiis : h-i: nut in a lar^f ih-^^ree. 
VMentaiive Mkiii'.ki:!. I'>iit m pi.iet: -al seamanship T 


CoiMiiiatKltT ILvRia.NT.TON. I am iinaMo t^) fell you whether tlioy do or iiot. I 
think it would iicceHsitiito n nxjoiirso to Mio rocords to determine whether that is no 
or not. L think the c:idet*H (•xperioncc in practical Hcamaiiship is uot BulBtiientLy ex- 
ti^ndtMl in the, Hcho<i]. 

Kepresontiitive Hkukrkt. My qncHtion 18 whether that two years affords any Tal- 
uablc criterion, and whether it nniki^s any practical diit'ereuoe in the cadet's stand- 

Commander Haruingtox. That hriuj^H in the matter of opinion. I will say that of 
reports wc rect^ive from commandin<; ottict^rs of vphncIs some exhibit goo<l jad|pment 
in markin<r cadetH, while oth<Ts exhibit a want of care that is very near to indiffer- 
ence. I have M('<'-n a private letter from one commanding offieer oomi)laining of a oadet| 
while his otficial report marked him high. Theconrso of commanding oflicers toward 
cadets hats been a matter of comment during the last twenty years. Some captains 
watch their ciulets very closely, others do not. Some otHcers have no judgment con- 
cerning the cadet's capacity to make a good oHicer. Every naval olfloer has heen 
surprised upon hearing some one say such an<l such a one is a good officer, when 
he had condemned him. Such reports can not be compared with oxamiuations as 
a means of determiuins: a cadet's merit and proficiency. 

Uepresentative Hkkbkrt. So you do not give a great deal of weight to these re- 
ports, because you can not consider tht^m always reliable T 

Commander IIarrin(;t()N. They have not the confidence of the Academio Board. 

Representative Herbert. And, for that reason, you do not consider the two yeaisT 
course beneticial T 

Commander Harrington. That is a nmi Hcquitur. 

Uepresentative McAixx). Suppose there were fifteen vacancies and there was a 
class of thirty at sea, the sixteenth man might he highly n^comnieuded by his oom- 
nianding oihicer. Wonld that recommendation change his standing as against his 
])a])ors t 

Commander TlARRiN<f ton. No, sir ; it wonld not.. It wonld only modify it in a small 
degree. I suppose you hav'<'- seen the formula. He would get the benefit in that 
slight degree. I wonld say that the judgment of the otliccrs of the practice ship, nn- 
der the system adopted two years ago, I consider as determining the merit of the 
cade.t better than any other method that, can be adopted during their two years at 
sea. Yon have the judgment of the teachers at this school, marking them every day. 
1 could give you, very brielly, a stat^tment of how this thing is done. I will iustanco 
a case on board the itnictice ship I commanded last year. The moment we left |Knt 
the <'.adet8 were notified when the courst^ in seamanship would begin. Five otHcers 
were assigned to nuirk tbeni on their daily lessons. They were required to take the 
deck themselves and handle the ship ; t.o perform the duties of seamen and all duties 
pertaining to the otllcer, and each oilicer was required to mark for the lesson eaeh 
<lay, and twice a month to mark on the cadet's general bearing and personal charac- 

The work of the cadet each day was examined by the officer to whom he 
assigned, and tbe errors marked with a blue pencil underneath. The cadet wi 
quired to ascertain what that error was and to oorn^ct it with additional notes. 
After marking for twelve weeks an avc^rage was struck. An examination was then 
lield, the (questions Ix^ing drawn from the work that had been done, and this oona- 
bined with the weekly marks and the judguuMit of the otllcers npon aptitude to de- 
termine, the cadet's standing, in my judgment that is about as close as we can get 
to the personal worth of these gentlemen as seamen. 

Dr. (Iaklani). Ifnw far was that average mark miule to bear upon the geneni 
average, including their studies here? 

Commander Harrington. It is one-fourth of the entire course in sonmanship. In 
other words, it gives a cadet jmsition if he happens to be an excellent practical SB^ 
man. That iinqtortion was proposed by niysidf two years ago, and I have had no 
n^ason to wish to see it increased. It is two years since I left tlie de]»artu]ent of SB^ 
nianshi]), so that I can not speak with certainty regarding the attitude toward the 
matter now. I Ix'lievi*' (Jonnnander Sigsbee, whose attention h:iK been directed novs 
closely to this matter, would give the information required concerning it. 

Senator UuTLKii. Winn did you graduate t 

Connnmider Harrington. In IH(>:<. 

Senat'Or Hitti.kk. Could yon give the Board any idea of the studies of that day MB 
com])are(l with the present * 

Commander HAi:KiN(iT(»N. The comparison wonld be a marked one. The studies 
now are entirely dilferent. They are more conqirehensive. They embrace a g ieat 
many subje<'.ts that were not taught in my day. 1 should say it re«piire« a greater 
ett'ort. than it di<l in my time to graduate. I was here in the beginning of the wsr, 
when th<^ (iovernnieut wanted to get ollicers and pushed cadets into active nervioe. 

Senator ISrTLKR. Can you give the board any information as to what tbe ooi 
was prior to that f 


CuiiiiiuiLtdtT 1IaI!i:in»:t<)N. Tlu' roiirsit prior to tluit inrliidofl luornl Htitiict', which 
ir« «1o not tcarli now. i hcii' was a li;;ht' courHc in intcmutiunal law, and a li^bt 
soiirM." in niutiuMnaiirs. an lutniiiarnl wiih wliut wo have now. 

8i'uator IU'Tlkr. Tho time has not hoon extended for the mastery of the additional 

Commander llAKiMNciTox. The time alhiwed is exactly the Rame. The amount of 
inie hsu* never hem changed. The nnniber ot numths and hours is the same as 
liirty years a>;o. 

Dr. Oaki^M). Yon nniNt, then, have Rtudieil more thoroughly in former years T 

Coinm:in«h'r IIa1{KIN(;t()N. 1 may (lualify my answer by stating that formerly part 
vt that time wa.s driven to ]>raetical work, which is now devoted to theory. 

I>r. Mkndknhall. \V«'n' the conditions for entering the same as now T 

Commander ]lAi:i:iN(nT)N. Onr examination has increased, but in no very great 
lei^ree. Ah you ask me ihnt ([nf^Htion, I will ^ay I am partially resjionsible for this 
rbange. Am chairman (»f the committee, in 18)^2,1 advocated an examination in al- 


The Pkksidknt. Trior to that time how far did you go in mathematics T 

Coniniandcr llAi:iiiN(iToN. Arithmetic only was required. 

Dr. Mkndkmiall. Do I nndci-Htaud the examination in arithmetic is not moredlfli- 
tult f It iH simply the addition of algebra f 

Con mauder llAKiiiNtiToN. In making that addition, it was provided that the ex- 
miinaiion should he drawn from a certain book (Kay's Higher Algebra), the examina- 
ion lii'ing drawn entirely f'n>ni the lirnt pages, including algebraic equations of the 

nX dc^iiT. involving ouo unknown ((uantity, Nueh as school-boys aoconqdish at 
uirteen <»r lonrteen years of age. One ,vear ago it was seen that every ])roblem in 
buM' pagcH was mi tully known that it could not really test the knowle<lgo of the 
tad«*nt. They could 1h> meniori/ed. Then ditVerent questions were given, drawn 
roin till' same principIt'^«. 

Dr. Mkndkniiall. Do I understand the questions were actually taken from that 
ook f 

Commander lfAi:i{iN(iToN. Vcs, sir; but they are no longer so selected. They 

iind that it was a *'Hi»ft Mia]»'Morthe boys. The preparatory schools would get 

fellow through by force of memory, when he really didn't know anything abont 

M, lit* rKK>ii>KNT. How < lo t he exam i nations twenty-live years ago compare with those 
f to-day T 

Comma u<lfr Hakkinoton. The etfort then was to get every bmly through on ao- 
9unt of the war. 
Tho TkHsiDKNT. W<'ll. Kiv. twenty years agoT 

C'omnninder llAnKiN^iTnN. 1 don't think 1 can annwer that question precisely, but 
iHPltevo that the enteiing examination is now more extensive. 

Ut. Mkndf.niiali.. Could Niin get thcNtaliHtics for the last twenty years and bring 

»in up to date witlmnt any ^reat tnmblef Is there a reconl f 

^'oinniander HAiii:iN«.ni\. Then' in a perfect reconl. 

The I'uKKiDKNT. We can rail upon the Sui>erintendent for that. 

Commander IIakkiniiTon. 1 would Hiiggent that Pnifessor Ilendrickson will provide 
oil with that inrnrniation. 

H«*natnr Hitlku. Ah commandant of (*adetHyoii have ha<I an opportunity to ol»s«*r\'e 
|ii» rciiirse preity duseiy, and of conrM> have the interest of the place at heart, as we 
II liave; 1 would lie \i ly ;:lad if \(»n would give the Hoard the benelit of ycmr judg- 

yfir whether you think the eourm* in too hevere. Thatis to say, whether too much 

included in th«> fitiir \eais for the ordinary boy, the average American l)oy. 

Comniantler llAitKiNtirnN. I would like to iH'gin an answer to that question by re- 

ing to my experience a^ head of the d<.'partment of navigation. 1 was therc^ four 

va , having been there previously ii.t teacher during three years, and my oIimt- 

r^w..'n was that any lad of lair ability who had also fair appIication*to his stuilies 

( 1 aecomplinh the eoniK*' in that department, but any relaxation of attention to 

H»y for a month or mi would put him in a very ba^l strait, and, if more pndonged, 
vOald Im' fatal to Hucce.xs. 

The l*RKSii)KNi . That was how hitig ago f 

Commander llAiii:iN(iT(»N. I left that department tlm^ years ago. It is now the 

.s when I left the department. There is but one diflllcult study in that depart- 

, and that is the study of the mathemati<'al theory of compass divisions; but 

».ie last hix or hevt-n years I don't think then* have i>een mon* than three or fonr 

p. a who have not been aMe to accomplish that stinly. I mean in the aggregates 

Senator HrTLFit. Can yon give any information as t<» the other departments? 

Commander HakkinMiTon'. In the department of s4*amanship,of which I won the 

mA for one year, it has been ver>* sehlom that a cadet has 1»een found deticicntand 
d. In both them* departments, niMni the final examination, cai lets have occo- 
illy been found deficient and reject«'d, but wtt MJnce the pn*sent law went into 



fiiriv. Iinmriii.itolj' prior, It nurtX to Imilonn. Tli»t iadira tnrniisoiiUiAt ilflrf 
jruur jinisciit tiiqiiir.v. 

Vr, Oaiu^Nd. We want lo bcaryonc opinion on the qnestion i>f stuilaitic baui)i 
lisAvily bardemcd with atndy, 

ConrniADder HAJUtiMOTOM. I caold not iuItodcs an optnioii in regard to tbr i 
r.nlty of other departroeata with vely ereat confideDce. I don't know thotcai 
what Is lieinK donp in them, oal do in the depoilnieitta IhaTeiaai;fat iu. I caat 
sivu 1117 aetiern.1 opiuiun that i:adp1« of fair aliilitj who ore peroietuut aiwl rogidi 
their stnilieB and altenlivelolho duties of the different dt>pa(tiDent« can f turn am 
aminntione. Thiisc ivho fail generally have one orinore esamiDatiatu, kbd II 
ultfo ktionn that tlKiv have foiled In thneo ro-cxamiDntinna for want of atalj 
want of nllcnliou tii their m<rfc. Lost fPM, oa IwHird tbn pmolica >hl|>, tliei* m 
mitnbcr of cftdetH who wi-ro direelcU l>y tbn Acodtunio Boatil tu b« re-ioamia* 
BcptRmlior. As caninikndiitg nOloct of tiio sbiii I wm very iinsioua to Iwlii tboa, 
1 rolievrd tbera ttnm tho proctjiiil diilii'M of tho alilp frum 1 lu t] o'clwk (Uil) 
tnnied the fomord oobin into a dludy looui, uid gave- thnm imrtiriotnn (o m 
thfin for cxamimLtiim and mqatrol atndf. Thnt naa kept ii]i fur tno mofitHM 
half, aud Ibcy I'liinu back uiiU piUM^ tbi«ir exauiiitatioos. Not oua failed. 

Tht! tuonpot n cmlt-t be^iiiB to drui>, I cui finil n oanw loc it. In do»Mi» aT m 
UiMC ia nu doobt. V«r; often tbiTi- in a ludy lu tbu i^use. Tlir^ get Intemtol I 
girl aud tixey quit tbeir eflbrtB. Tbey uan nut piua tlicic examiDaUoo, atid wat 
noUiing to do l)ut to luru them out. That buifpcMiii ln^ro. I tbink thr exsaiuli 
OS I huTubceu ublt> tu ubnervotlieiuan) tair. 1 iluti'l know an lam iiiialiilLnl toifi 
in ioitiodepurliiitMiti*. it sMiiiM to tti«, tbeexumiuatiuuB i>ri.*iutrd. t bnTfJadMllI 
bowovrr, rntbtirby tli6 reiuilN of niiiiit;ltt vKituiiuatitm, wbon- a larRe tHirtJDnrf 
daw have btwn marked low, uml 1 hate drawn thi* inftiniooe that Itar g»antinall 
there are Cou lou}{or toodifflcolt; but that was mere'y an inr«Tvoutt, andnoiajl 
mcnt with full kiiuwItKlKe of what tbe esamiDation waa. 

Senator Bi^Tleh. I was eoine to ask you whether ttwrv is any iRiproTenml i> 
oharacletuud alilil.v of the officers of the Navy under Ibiaimw asatom ofesaol 
tiou und BluUy wlniili you saj exists now, as agaiuat the oBleCTv ol thirty jrcona 

Couiiuiuidor TIarrimgtok. Perbsps it would not be bi><iriiulag to anf torn fott 
nQle*TH ure belicr lliuii 1 am, and that I ani licttot tbao Cunnntnlutv Brawui k 
tliink tlK- offlterB vt li<-di(y enjcy a Rirat advsutage. I Uiluk ibo conntn i*8M< 
t b n fits of d a I Tbe «d se beT«, wUilf high aad tboMMl 

d ahcb a a bf^auw n >pl«aiMit evvrjr pieovuf lb 

by au Uiui da a b p O tenohlnK Is ubjtvt ItArliin^ 

be k ohe« of Ibo Knrr. Thn*l 

d p lunorwl Tbiawluut aoilbet 

k Ilea ble to ubiuin that lanlt ni 

ay ill! bard oa vaaw jimftft 
b mnmnL 

B > Buf llie cnnuirv «t.vtK<-] 

ua lan tboer froui • > 1 . 

C niu od u oiir on*-, I - 1 

ac d D Hutnupuist'i 1 1 

d e<u) able (o bolil 1 : : . 

UHses W b » lariird wilb 1^..:.^ .;.; 

tH ua ua u -uj a b luh b p b oloiw Vi'a hav<- um'. out 


Spdu Tbix r B ba <> 7 How bu Ibaae Troia CtntgnashKial 
n wh b b re ar u i\ T 

u S»mp»on «a« from Palisyra, N. V. 
, -etty gWHi whoola tbHW long }n-tnrr ilia caj 
xviiv lO Ibe pDblir M^hoelB. 

Couimander Habbinoton. 1 tbiiik tbi- n|ip(>rcndptk in tbr npprr Hat 
Iblsronrse eaBily, and a treniundouH eompetiUou liL't.warn tbrui '~ * — 
tho law of 11^83, which iuduiMW th<^i tu go into tbn elerttTDrmin 
to work, so at the fop of tbe elasa we find the oaileto all wurkoi 
I'piit; work. 

Senator Bdtler. Wbut do yuii think would be thn pffwt nf tn. 
lutu of the course here under wbieb nioro young men wonli^ •"'■■' 
olBi'orn and at the aanie tinii- eatiiblisli a nont-ifiafluatn n' 
Dlieoial aptitude fur seientilie atudiuB, tite faiAbt>r branch' >. 
studies requiring epeciiil mluptabilttyf What do you i h in 

tbalobangef I agree with you when you nay yon wonli ir ■ 

etndiea luwenxl here. Thin ih u iiutiounl rrprcMiut.atlva inKrrTiiTgnii. ii r* in 
for speeiQe purjiuaes. Whst iln yon Ibluk would bn tha vitt-X i<t uHHlenlb 
GODTie here, bringing it back to what It wnjt tw«n^ yran af^, awl otafaUii 


*]ifN»1 of !ii;;hiT Mtaihlniil wln'iv >t)iiii^ iiK'ii nii;;tit tako post-^radiinto coiirm'H in 
Bt'itMitilir (l<']i:irtiiuiiLs / 

Coiiiiiiaii(U'r llAKKiNiiToN. It siMMiiHto iiic tlic lii-flt rcMiiIt ol'a ehaii^o uf that kind, 
to take thehi'liool back to wliat it was twenty yoarsago, nii^lit nwilt in jj^ivin^ you 
two or tlirco inure men u year in the Navy, but that is a question you can deterniiue 
fnnn the nu'iu'ds. 

Senator Tkllkk. IVrhapa it is not fair to say to take the school back to what it 
ivan twenty years a«;o. Imt to modify it. 

Ci»mmander HAKuiNtiTON. (7on;;re8s, two years aj^o, introduced a coursti of hygiene 
Aiid ])hysiolot;y iuto the Acath-my. 

S«"naior'l'KLLKK. ('«»M^;n'ss introduced it t 

CununanthT HakkiMiTon. Yes, by a statute. That was regretted by the Aeadeuiio 
Board, aei it w:ui simidy putting tin additional burden on the cadets. 

l>r. Garland. You don't h'ssen the hibor in otluT (b^partments, do you, because of 

Commander ][AHKiNtiT()N. No, sir. Senator [addressing; Senator Tidier "J, I don't 
know how to eariv the course bark to l^C'J. It will be a verv «lillicult.task. Where will 
you rut oil'f Shall \«)U say not study eh'ctrieity.or a<'«iuire less uuitiiematii's, or not 
take N<i extruded a eouiNe in steam 7 I don't mte how \\u are ^oin^ to cut otf anything 
iwe havr now. Jt is true, thrrt* are soiue minor studies, but they appear essential to 
» ^(M)d ;4en«*ral education. 

Senator Miilku. What wiuildbe the etVe.ct of extending the time to accomplish that 
^rhi<'h is now aerouipliNln-d ? 

Commander llAiHtiNirioN. I think a few more cadets would accompliRh it, but 
how many, of e«iurse. I ran not Jud^e. 1 expre.ssed my opinion a little while ag4> ; I 
bflieve the eadets who fail fail for eauses which are not, to any extent, a fault of the 

* Dr. (fAlci.ANn. Would ihat not have an injurious etfect upon those who an) your best 
ii4;bidars. while it would be favoiabht to tlioM* who are lowest f Y«mi extend the time 
ti» brill;; the aceompli.slnuent of liie «'ourM> within the reaeh of your pMorest sclndarH. 
What wiuild be the ett'eet npoii the interest and energy of your suiM>rior sclifdarsf 

('oMiiiiaiider H.\i:KiMriii\. It would be im)Hi-.>iMe tii^ive an answer; lean not 
Jud^i* the edect, liiit 1 tiiiiik tli^ su^r^ested one |Mobable. 

|)r. (.•AULAM>. Ir is a unat bifssiu;; for bo,\N to have their ha'. ds full. 

Commander llAiti:iMii«iN. The ead<'is don't have too iiiueh to do. My objoctions 
arp, that the arhleiieanil iiraiiirai want deve|o]M'm«-nt. I should liko to M-e the cadets 
faave a little betti-r d«'\4-lopni«Mit of athletic w«uk. We ;;ivo them time, but they 
Ui»e it in soriul plraMiri'>. 

I)r. <iAl:l.AM». 1 Mippiixi- they have no time for general eiilture ? 

<*ommaiider ll.\i:i;iN«i 1<»N. Tlie\ hiive Saturda\ afteiiiooii an<l Siindav. The ma- 

■ ■ ■ 

Jority are devoted tn their stuijies. and tloit't ha\enitieh time f«)r ;;eiieral literature. 
A year a;;o. w hi u 1 hi-r.-riie foiiiiiiaiiilaiit ftfradets, I iiM|iiii-ed into llieMiibjeet of the 
aiiiuunt and eharait>'i ot liti-iature tiny read, Mm! eventually retpiired eaeji eadet to 
mililiiit to me a ii*«( <•! biMiKx in his room. 1 examined (hem and re]io|-|i-d totlu'Siiper- 
jilteinb-nt, \s it h t In* n « ••mrni'iniathMi that *'a«li'; - Nhoiild imi Ixi allowed to ket'ii cer- 
tain btNik**. riif i:re;it injjoi ity «d'lhe botdvs were utter I rash. 

l)r. (fAKl.AM). TudiT vxhiihiMir pre>s In ^^roaniiii:. 

CoiiimaiHiir llAi:iMS<ii<iN. 1 have often loiiiid the cadets readin*; this liiera tun*. 
^ow it rontN ilh- (Mill-Is |i\i' deiiii'iiis to liaxeolieof tlutsi* btioks in his I'ooni wilhoiii 
p^rriiiNtion : and thi'v dun't k(*ep buoks in iheir looms unless they are proper ones. 

Sfiiaiiir Tr.i.r.Ki:. ('aij he take aii\ book from th** library t 

Coniniatnler IIakuim^ ii»\. Thev mav takeanv book. 'I'hev do take novels, and vou 
ran liml what eia>s nt honks the eaih is reatl fnun the library records. On board the 
praetiei* shi]i thi-y had a'l attack of dime novrl tever. and 1 hail to throw a ^o(m1 
Diitny biHik.s ovi-rhoard. 

Ki'pH'MMit alive Me Xdihi. In ccuiM*i|uen«-tMif the riiodern veHH«ds, thn's it not re(|uire 
a higher staiidini^ to In* a naval otiieer now than formerly f 

Communder Makuinc KiN. The aiiioiini of i!itelli;:eii(-e reiiuiri-d Ih ni(»r»« ditfiised. 
]t einbrae**s a ;:reatei iiiinihiT iif topics. One ol tlie extra branches is [n the study 
offiteel; ami our eadet^ ai4|uire proticiem-y in te-tin:; stci'l, m» that at this moment 
flirty. tif(y,or a inindred are competent to d«i tht> work reipiiriMl by tin* <ioverninent. 
Tli«*re are mauv other Mi-r.-ssarv stutlies n<it fornnilv ess«-iitial to a jiooil ollicer. 

Repri'sentative McM Von eclncatetliein tn mana^easliip? 

Conniuinder HAUi:i\«tii>N. 'ihat is ti» make a ship otlici-r. Wi; don't teach the art 
of war. The school smtply t«-aclifs them to maiia're and li;;ht a ship and its bat- 
terieH; and by that 1 mean its i«irp**diies. ;:iiiis, iimi all the machinery iti naval war- 

Representative MlAihhi. Mo yon think it a wise thinir to wait until the third year 
before beKiuning to tearh heaman.<«Iiip, ami the fourth ^ear beforu teaching; gnu- 



0>miii:»iil<'i' IUi:i:>s<n..N U'r <li> not wart ixutll Uial tini.-. tii th-U frn'^IIWift 

■truiiiliiii ilioy :iii' ii'L^n i'. i In. ntiiilj uf HiuniiiKiililp aihI aiifiiti-rj' wiil kiwbrf 

niw.ltmil stuillu' t tli>-il,i.'. ilM't ••uti.T. ItlHbruv Uiuy Uuu'l l«lii> ■>[> Uwiu^. 

tu boobs. Dot sc'iiiii;iTi'>l>i|>, iiiLviil I'liriHlrnction, umlgnuuanF a*« new all iitaBlitTnf 
Iftrgnly thrungli iln' irmlnun iii' TimihuuiKtiui). In idt <h^ it van nut mi. snoiM'. 
Hliiji wag mom cif n j.rnvLica] aiiuly, n-liilo tliv KuuinHiisliip ot Ui-Uk^ U mofc off 
mathcniatU'iil aludj-, lUiiliiiidi-Uureuot rmidj' to Uka r[i Ibo (ruok atndy pfaB — 
b1iIii iuid giwuery immoiUatuly apuii ••nterin): llie Aatul«ni)i 

RuprHSFDlutivi- UcAuoo. TUat mAkcuit iilulu. I Htw jfou do IoimIi it iltiriiigW 

Cumiunudsr n^RRiNflTON. We don't lea oh tlieth«»r^ «f ffuiitivrj' )Hd<in3 Hun ha« 
iKwiuired it full ouurae of maClieinBtiGs. I mufll hh^ tb« atutty tit at^tamui^^ 
giiiiiii-rT biut bueu (Iriveii rurwartl, pnrti*lJy from tliat caiwa ami ptuLiiillj' IruMlH 
Htndy of olbt-r mlbJeqU. 

I{ri)riwcntiil>ivi< UgAdoo. Do 7011 <!i)u8[il«r tliii onugtructiou uurpa m>i] tbe ag 
lUKu- uorpn vc>ry iaiporiuit tu a n»w aai) luudorti oavj t 

Cumuiuii<)«T Harbikoton. I tbiakrlie oooatrucUou onipa is vtfr; unputtantt 1 
eiiHLUur vur[w hIhu. I)iit in a li^nu ilugn-u. 

spresenUtive McAdoo. Huveyuu luiy «Lig(,'««tion to niftbvftbunt tlK) vutpaid ^ 

Comiuttnder Habbisoton. You know, 
corpH for speoial piirgiiMe, &od dnev nut ttUm any'p»rt In tbu (iniotiaiU mntiliif id 
DaVy. We are now linililin^ up oar ooriBlraotlon wn\i» nn a (il«n wUk'fa Iim _^ 
found b^DofieiKl in Eii|;laiid, FranvH, and othir uountiliM. Wi> Lutfe clie moifd- 
niMitm euglneeriuK m part of onr cadebt' tratiiiKi; IW tl") nonstruutiua ooriHF «■(>■ 
tfaf HMiHU of liandliDg maobiuery, but In. the dMiitalnK nT mociiitMnj. 

RepnwoiitativH McAuoa. And ia tbat stuily elri^tivc I 

Ciiiuniandtir ILameimoton. No. In the liLDglisb and ir'rbiuh mnvj the cor^M rf tt 
ei^n and ooDatruotiou dmigna allahlpe. 

Bepreabntative UcAdoo. Now that we are bnildioi; abips, wi> could ■„ . 

corpH in tlie Aondciuir, as ■we do witb eugiDeera, boioif a crrqw o( wDfjiaoiMK Atr Nt- 

ConimaodeT IfARRiNaTOK. I tbink we are doitiff it botliRT id t1ti> pniaout wrmj. 1 
lunal lie a, limited corps, and we now Boloct tbo llttbt men lo tAlui ttitT wpralBl tuOiW 
abTond, under tbe dire L-tiun of the Secrotary of tbi> Navy. Via tt»l tlie bait mm M 
til at corps. 

Knpiesentalivo UcAddo. Then yon Mind acimn nf tbn foaag moii fur tluty allH 
yardn t 

Commauder IlAKittNUToN. We have oito atntloiit liarc. Hot* on duty. ]Mtflta(ltal 
bimimlf in llio prcifcsHiou as a oODSti'iii?.l<ir. 

Dr. MitKi>8KBALL. Do thase selections ennio fWitn tbr nii||iiiA»r (siriw nr tbn llMt 

Commander HAHTtiNOTOt4. Thsy have oomo fmni Iratli wiitrMia. Wv lovd mimtj 
trhcm often from those who am naval codnta. I'nilor tbrt fnrinar )giR tbay wm>* 
liwtoil with Tegal'd to ability, rntlior llian in Toy;uiil 1« Ibu latiuflAl vur|Mi ' "'' 
thoy bnlougnd. 

Dr. (jAKLAHD. la there now loft any jimfnrr.ncn for tbr mi-ji. wholliur tbvy ahsBN 
■eloeted or notf 

(Commander KARiUKn'niN. The Acodoinic Doaiil bu nnt rxganlml lUit i)m 

Dr. Garlahu. Row many aro thero in t.ho OAniitructdou carps T 

CoRimatidnr IlAiiiiiKaTOK. Thnnv nru twonty, 

UeiimwntntWo XlcAJxin. \n tllo older men gn mi( nf tho corps tlt« 1 
afllu«m tako Ihnlr pliKM, do tiiey iKit I 

Cumniaiidrr tlAttKiKafnN. Ynn, air. About ntoo of tho old onti« axv left. 
Heveu younger oUtcomnf the construction Mir}!*, M>iiin oiitfln>d tlin N'nvul Act ' 
riadat engiticera and some aa amlot midahlpniiai. TUam am al|rUl of Ibn U 
tliruo of tliu latter. 

Tlie PuKHIUKxr. Tbn majority of thnin tmi'o ftn4lnl nnxlncum. J.8[H)iiliiu|[ ul U 
•ilt«riii|; tiiK ODIiiitnintion cOTpN.] 

Senator llt)'r].igi(. Do tbey lose their riink in tlie Xavy b,v Rnluu itilii 
iloti ourfa r 

Coiiimuuder ilAitlUKUTOH. They are given now noiniulwriona witti Inut 

KepreNi-ntativo McAuoo. Tbey are hiehAT than tb^lr nliiiNiiaat''ji, w 
have grsdnaUid. Tbn Seoretoi? of tbe N»vy makm tbn aebwlixii. do^ a 

Comiuaniler Hahkikutdn, The Aendemie Doaiil niTlM'.ht, tot liin 8«ai 
Navy, three or four tindiita tnr nppoinliomil to tin- i-nrjH, ami fton 
or two, or a« inuuy in ho iirfid». 

Soiinlnr Tki.I.kk. Am tbey ulvon In any ordiic i>( picJitntuoK f 

CouiniBuder IlAHHinui'UJi. Ym; tha Unai'd uan^tw ' ' ■ 


BeproHeiitativc McAikh). Wo liavi* w»iii(» very j;«<>cl yoiinj; ii)«rii in lliut corps iu»w. 
Coiiiiimmlcr llAitKiNcintN. I would like to say, in n><;ai'(l to tlio ]»ractioal »tmni:in- 
lip ami uavij^atioii, that 1 think it w(»uld bo an advantaji^e to this Hchool t<» iticrt>aM 
» aiuonnt ot time ((iven for their study. I think our prai'^tice crnirii) should last all 
isjuiuer, and I think the one month's leave every year is demoralizing in many 

1 he Prksident. That is a mere matter of regulation which the Secretary of the 
•Ty can change. 

JJr. Mkn'dkxhall. Would the new arrangement, if a corps of couHtruction were 
Mtablished, change to any extent the studies of these young men from those of other 

Commander Hakkington. They n^main naval cadets under similar discipline and 
locnpying |Hmiti(»ns exactly the* same, the only difference l>eing in the course of 
itiidies they pursue. 

L)r. Mkndrnhall. The only difTt^renee is whether the cori>R is better calculated or 
m wore likely to furnish the proper men for naval construction than the corns as it 
inw stands. D<» you consider that the ctmrse the engineers now have is the best to 
, them for construotorsf 

Conmiander Hakkin(«T()N. I presume that the cadets who study for the line will 
fcve a more exti*nsiv<>. course in electricity, tor]>edoes, gunnery, etc., while the addi- 
3nal studies for the engineer cor])s, which will be a mon^ extensive course in drawing, 
wMigning machinery, and in heat, the latter cours(^ would tend to develop knowledge 
if naval design, wliirh would tit them bett4*r for the construction corps. 
General Walkku. Does it place their mathematical studies higher T 
Oomman<ler IIarkinciton. No: they are the same for both branches of the servioe. 
L knowleilge of mathematics is c({ually necessary' for the line ofiicer, the enginoery 
id the constructor. 

R4>prcHentativc McAdoo. Do they have instruction for the construction corps? 
iliteaking of the English and French schools.] 
Conimaniler Haiciiinoton. I think they rarely go to sea. At the English and French 
bools they an^ stationed at the dock-yanls, and, after taking their course, never go 
I sea. 

Kepn'sentative McAik)0. Do the young men of our Navy who study abroad su1»- 
t tlicmH4*lves to the same examinations as do fon*ign students? 
<»7onHnander 1Iaurin(;t<>n. Yes, sir: they are gnintc^ the same privileges as the 
orients from other countries, and they bring home much information aliont the 
ick-yards and the practical workings <»f the institutions which they are in the 
••nw of their studies permitted to itis|H>ct. 

nator IU'TLKK. Why should we not have such schools as these, insteail of sending 
lK>ys to English aiul Freiieh schm»ls f 
mjommander l(AituiN<iT<iN. They have a very large number, and we «Mlucate a very 
r. The English an<l French schmds are each of a ditler«*ut <'haraet-<T. The Poly- 
ibnic is a preparatory seitMititic institution, while at Cherbouri; (Ecole L'An- 
catton du <renie Maratiuie). isof a more practical character and intended t-o supply 
, ktrnctors for ships and engines. 
, nator Ki:tlku. 1 >o you know how long the terms arc at thorns nl:&^es f 
'm .le PRKHIDKNT. Two year** at Cherbourg; aft'Cr two years, at the rolyt^Mshnio. 
Kepn'sentative McAdoo. How is it in the English s<'h(M»l f 

C'Ninimander IlAUi:iN<;roN. There is a naval college at (Jreeuwieli. A great many 

cerK att4*nd fnun ail rorp**. autl thcN«M>tTlcerN take s|M'eial courses in gnunery, steam 

neeiiug, tt»rpedoeN. na\al conntruction and architeeture, cte. J met aeaptJiin of 

, English navy some y«>ars ago in China, as he was about going home. He said: 

m will f^o to the Koval Naval ('(diege and get a tirst-elass certitieate, in the ho|ieof 

*iiig a command," and he got it. They buve |M>st-graduate e(uirM4's tlieie and the 

vm an* obliged to pass eertain examinations before tli«*y get their eommiHsions. 

.y have three grailen, first, H<*c4md, andlhird, indicrating the nOative proticiency of 


presentative Mc;Ai>oo. I believe the system in England or in the English navv 
I •.!>« reverse of that in vogue here. There, they first plaee the l>oy on ship and ai- 
BfTWards send him to ecdlege. 
Commander HAKUiNcnoN. They havestudieson shipb(»ard. however, for the oadeta. 
RffpreMcntative McAlmm». Is it optional for the English oflieerto go to the college at 
••nwich f 
ratnauder Harrington. If he desires a<lvancemeiit he must t4ike a special 
i0. It is not optional. They must go there in order to pass their examinations, 
fhm i^raile of certificate determines their standing. 

entatire M(*Ainm>. Do they have the rank of ensign in the English navy t 
iDder Harhiniston. Sublieutenant is their hiw«>st rank. That is e<|nivm- 
uviir rank of juni(»r lieutenant. 8o far as the edueaticm of our naval officers 
'Qant to examination is ooncerne<l, we have a tor|N*do school where the attend- 



tliff begin agalu to Uailj " 

', lUul Ibr 



BptTvu-ii^itlvu MirAiioi). Dn yon Oiiuk tlii< i.Tstcm hpre, or Li>f(lunii>ic tliviMi 
tlim nt the ullki-i' wiili tt fuiii' yeitiV »CBiUMUiu oonnw, in |irv(i-ntti1ii lu Ibr m 
uitnpiod in tii« EagUvh usvyf 

Cuiumiiailer Uaiuunotom. I bftvs loug b««a of tho opiiilim CliaL uur meUial i 
only WAV to atudy our Draf'.'minn. I have ilo aontlcl»noB lo tlln ooiinfl- at m*. I 
ubiwrvca there in very lillk< Htodying iloiie M itea. 1'he nirrnanrtlnKit of •lily III 
Duc niitad fur profouud tiliKty- Hany yunug!tt«ra ^o toaeu koil tuf. iiiinbli- r-"*- 
tUioK with Ibeimtudies, mill wliiiii tlify ■ - . ■ 

\ki» lutvniiced tliHii -wheu iboy left otfc 

Sutintur BuTLKR. " 
witb IheDi abroiul. 
anil England. 

UomniaudeT HARRiNaroN. 1 aoi very pmnil Mi oay 
with linwo of Bny oiUur uonatry. 

SuiiMtor BUIXKR. I wait •peHkioH of th« liuvk at llic QoDcun. 

Cuiiiniaudet UAltKiKaTOM. At Qreeowicb, THiylor took Atrmj- tlio Iil|{tHUrt 

The PftssiDKNT. CoinmaiidaF Harrinfctnii, the a*st of Cmxtmu M> (*«,_ 
eonrsa n( study at the Naval Academy, anprovod Uarch 4, trvH, MvtliMi % 
" Tliat after the 4th of March, 1A^!I, tlie nilliiniBni s^ga ot wIlniiMltin •)( r^*^^ 
Nnval Aoadeniy tdialt ha fifMen ye»ra, aud Ihn luaxtioam ng* Iwouiy yuar^' 
Btut« any obJecUoiiB to that law as it HtoodHT 

CuRiniBDder Hakrimoton, I think twenty ynarn too old. 

The I'RKSltJKNT. Why 1 

CommaDder HAitRiNRTUti. I think twanty y^arx tno old n 
Kion. The boy euteru the day befare twmtT yiram of ns'' 
foro hii In IWBUty-six yoars old I« enter thiJ fnwiwt umiif li. 
man onght to begin liia work aoanet than that, Whcii ii. 
foHf years of effort, he should be given a po«itipli of tbti>' 
work to do. 

Tlin Prksidbmt. How nhoat the ininimnm ago of fiftounl 

Commander UARRIKtiTON. I thtuk very Mnllcif that. Thu Aoa4]nnIn 
niuoilril the ngeM liom fifteen to ninuleeu an tiio*n iif adraiHivn. Thrro 
Blronn feeling; that the age ahoahl not go nboTn nlnntcen. Wti i^ititilil ^ 
Bveragii age of about sovcntunn yiiari and oiclit uiontlu. Non- It Ik tiighl 
and three moiiths at timn of fuliuiuiion to the Aoudem.v. 

Dr. MEKDBNim.L. Wciald not oightom yniin bo i>tl)l bottar for tltn 

Conimundet HARRiNQ'njN. 1 havu alwoyi buea of the opiniiin ihiii 
IN tuu young, but tliiuk tliat twoDty yonD in nl<lot than d- ' 
or>wv(Miteeu years and Ibroo inontha vboannnut iiiuBonrin ' 
not go into tbo Nary. Out piiturlaR examiuMion in tint it i: r 
not ttt Mrenteeu yeara and thn« moathn, wliii.-Ii waa rlir^ ii ' 
til the nrsaent l«w, nuaanuxununotJoaffhicliUtheQxaiiiiii ' 
Hcbaolboy, busbuuldnolbonllowodta toiler) and I aortuinly i-hmk .i i..^ 
]iut tUo ngu forwurd to twunty voons. 

i^nutor TKi-I.Ktt, Suppou it boy oanu hero, who in far cuuiikIi itiKiuii 
■tiiUiea. who baa bpon HtudyinK tbrooKb that iDti-rmuilinto |H>rini| whl>:h 
twii i-xtreuieA of tbu ago of uditiiMiioii ; who hiM. pcrhajM, liwn khimk th 
very uuurae ha will lutve here. How would that aStLvt tJio iitliPt tioya f 

Cumuinnder HARBiNaTfiK. lU' would cdJi - " 

Bi'natur Tku.KH, But to regard to hli n*i.'iniiiea 

Commander HAftRIKfiTON. He woald be goini 
alrouily j^uue through. Spuaking uf tlie agM f >r 
yoara brineK tog<<ther eudelain the aame cliws m' i 

Heuuiur i'KixBK. You iHinId remedy tJiut, by ii>.>: . , iitwui 

yt'ar«; hot you think twenty years in loo old i- 

ComiiuuMi.-rnAiiui.Nom.v, Yt», I do. I ktu.r 
■ilooiNWit'iil ivliu bi>K'Lu ut a luter puriud. t kiii'n- ;> iiiriii 'tIi'- sUtHnl Iffel 
tor, Ibpii "1 iidierl for ilit. niioiBtry, iifterwanla biH.'oniiDgtt lawyi-r at IlilrtyJ 
liixt-namedpamuil: and finally mkic J mini bb-l 

piry great ihIij 

atnii'-, >itir'L't><'<litiKoiily ill the 
good nerviuB in tbi' Uiiili'd t^' 
nucosHury that it ulioiild bi 

Seuntur Trllkk, Wbeu 
Nalty begin* the iiludy of 

Commander UAHBtMUTi.i 
profc«aional work whan bi 

Dr. GaBLAMI}. I Rupprwi 
with good attalnr ■ ' 
of Ui« fourth -'- 

rtnl thf. life of a navitl <r 


Commander Hariiingt<^n. He wouM have to pass oor examinations in order to 
enter a higher clas:>. 

Dr. Oakland. Sui)poso the hoy had Mtiidied and was protieient in mathematics, 
np to a certain standanl, wonhl you suhject ban to similar examinations, or would 
yon relieve him fnmi those studies? 

Commander Haruingtox. If he could pass all the examinations of the fourth class 
vear, he could be put ahead into a higher class (the third). If not advanced a class, 
he would have more time than other cadets to devote to branches of study, in which 
he had not been schcmled. 

Senator Teller. It' ho was thoroughly up in geometry, would you itxxuire him to 
go through your course f 

Conmiander Harrington. Yes. That would be an exceptional case. 

The Prksident. Where you tind a cadet who had been educated in Franco, would 
you oblige him to take the French course? 

Commander Harrington. Yen, sir, but he could take French and German or Spanish. 

Dr. Meni>eniiall. Does not the ditferent character of the course make it impossi- 
ble for the boy to t;ike an advanced place in his class merely because of the training 
he had in outside schools ? 

Commander Harrington. I doubt very much whether it could be done beyond the 
thinl class. Previous good training, doubtless, helps a ua<lot at lirst, or until the 
Academy methods develop the natural traits of all the cadets of a class. 

Dr. Mendenhall. All your drills and exercisers and professional work be would 
not have had. 

S«'uator Teller. But if he had a thorough knowledge of mathematics, he could 
devote mor(? time to electricity. 

Commander Harrington. JIo has to go to class and attend his study hours the 
same as the others. If a i>rofessor finds he can advant'C a man and give him higher 
problems, work of the same general class, but more dilhcult', that wouhl be done, and 
he wonhl l>e at the top of his class in that one study, and enjoy the a<lditional advan- 
tage of being able to put more time to other studies. That is a case that occurs fre- 
quently in this school ; there is hardly a year passes that we do not have a cadet who 
hiis these advantages. 

Dr. Menpkniiall. I would like to ask Commander Harrington how many honrs 
per week are re(]uired for recitation during the tirst four months of the year, includ- 
ing such as ship and drill exercises? 

Commander Harrington. Nino hours for tivedays and with an average of four 
hours on Saturday. That includes study hours, recitation periods, and drill hours. 

Dr. Me.ndkniiall. About tifty hours per week ? 

Commander Harrington. Fifty-one or fifty-two hours per week. 

Senator Teller. Does th.'it cover the time devoted to study and recitationst 

Commander Harrington. Yes, sir ; and to drills also. I must qualify that an- 
swer, in this respect : Where a department calls upon a cadet to spend two hours, an* 
entire period, upon practical exercises, chemistry, or navigation work, that requires 
no pn'vious study, then all other departments gain forty minutes. For example: 
this afternoon the head of the department of navigation will take cadets of the 
first class for two hours; he gives no lessons to study, but there are forty minutes 
that go to the other two dt^partments, and in that way the cadet gains a good deal 
of time for study, over and above the usual time. 

Dr. Mendeniiall. I should not reganl that as excessive. 

Kepre^Msntative McAi>oO. When a boy goes to the board, and there is a large sec- 
tion, does he have time to work out a i»rob]em, or is ho pushed for time? 

Commander Harringto.v. Asa rule, he stands there until thnmgh. Before the 
bugle blows, if he is not through, the instructor assists him. They are never hurried 
and are alhtwed to take as much time as they please, within the hour. 

Kepresentative McAdoo. Do you think that is long enough ? 

C«»mmand«*r Harrington. The instructors can not hear more than a certain num- 
ber recite. I think sections rarely exceed 8 or 9, and in the mathematical depart- 
ment, or 7. 

Dr. Mendbnhall. Is it customary for instructors to give the young man assistance, 
if he is failing to get his iiroblem ; or does it go until the next day ? 

Commander Haruington. The instructor usually assists. Sometimes, the next 
(lay, he may be tried on a similar problem. The cadet has a different instructor each 

Dr. Mendenhall. Then as the section goes to another instructor, does he not 
have the first instructor again ? 

Commander HARRiNCiTON. He may, in being transferred to another section. 
Usually he passes to another instructor. 

Dr. Mendeniiall. What is the object of tliat change ? 

Commander Harrlnutox. It is the result of long experience, tiouie instmctors 


matli Iiij;;lier lliAu otLcn, ftiiil tbe ulijei^t i<i to givn amk cadet » (coaeral ■■tiiM^ 
beiu^ tiinrkcd liy ttll tilie iualrtictors of l>ht' sohool. 
Dr. Mekdknball. But I should think the object skoolil b* to inctiual Hm |«I 

i^i-uator Bdtlkr. It 1b a cbeclL Dpon favoritiam. 

CiimtiiHudeT HARRutcTOK. IflLore wore any diBpoaitioti lalrant • e»de( naftii 
il wiinlil be a chock. 
finnoi-al Wai^br. It is not a virtne to have a iitn<l«iil tnke him ooiinMi nnd« dil 

Ciiniaiaudsr Bariunotdn, I never enw any objertkoi im it catlnt's nmrl tii a obv 
ill ti'krtiaular luetruulorHj tboiigb iliertN are nriine ivbii ura iiiuni papolnr tliitD olb 
t tbink one officer in thiH acbnul vitjiijra a vtrv hl^b rapuiaCion aa k tckcbw, and 
like to ^et with him. 

Dr. MKRDKirBAiJ.. t tliink that aort o< obnngn in rldky. 

Senator Uutlbk. Ih ever; uadet callM] ii)>an ttt e««h liwaiHi I 

Comiaandei Harrikgto!!. He is liable t^o b« eallMl ojioii. 'I'b« id^^s la Bo pn 1 
arecilAtiou eachilaj, lie iloeaaat bnow what bnuokof the sulijnat hn.niftjr MotI 
upon to explaiu ; be bos to stndj the whuJc iMwinn. 

Senator TSLLBR. If bi! t;°ta skipped two or three timm h« toasB tbo ntipartuillf 
be markeil, doea be uot t 

Comrasuder UAJiRiKirroK. No ; when a cailet ivcit^H hut orioe par wiwk, thai na 
ou)]' has half weight. If it la a very hieh mark, it onlf wrvM to pall him op nl 
tively hut little, nod uot ae mnch as if the regolt of two rtKiiUtiouH. 

SeuatoT Tellbr. Itat if a bo; could have miuie laetAot HieitAtiiinii at taush ban 
lie has lost aoDiethiuK- Siippoae be bad been purfett »t evHr; reuitaliuii t 

CoiuDiaader UAitKiMiTON. Then bin mark wonlil be porf*«t. iMt lou mblals : I 
iiinking np the marks for thii month, that neeJc in trbleb ilia boy t*csu» Vnl~M 
wniilil have half weight only a« compared with the wphIm lii whioli b»do«ll 

foct tecltatioiiB, tbe dull scbnUr m»^ set nuuiv iHivi>iiMi|(« 

(.louiuiaader HARRlNilTON. Whore tbiat happeus in oiib 
tbu next week ofiiwts it, -It ma; bo that a ondet is sick, ii* iiirnc 
((ether on that wnek. We have tii liuve certain rules iu i{t*lii|> lib« 
tiviii weiifbt, and as tbove has iiovi't been any ovuU'iiea nrdl«MthDuTtiiiu or ttU n 
no the part of the cadet, wu have laohvd upon It favnratily. Wk liavc D«var h^ 
cadet coinplnin uf it. 

tlouatoi Tbllbr. Do not tbey oomplniQ if they amnuier coJhiil iiitun f 

Senator Bctlxr. In the connH! nf the nontb there is n ■»» iir avitiajw ftt i 
endeM. They have tu piusD tliruugh u certain tiainltor of nnrtiu linns. 

Oeueral Walker. In « nuaII ncolioii i* a man rullod uvery daj T 

Commander HAnRIMOTON. BonielJnteii the Nnvy nuiiuriMiniil in not ablAUM 
ply thcfnllnnmberof instmetnra needed. If Mven iiimuctim aru luvdM anil « 
live supplied the 8tDd<.ntB cnn uot be o*lled iinnn everyday. 

Representative McAJ>UO. In wbftt ycnr of ttie acadomtq etninn ctu the latn« u 
lierof boys fail t 

Coniniandet Harrinutom. Thu llrst y<^ar. 

i^Kuator Tellrr. What nuinhitr of insirnotOTK bavn yon f 

Commander Harrimoiom. 1 have tbnr awilsl.iintii, who bav« iHitblnn; l« 4o *1 

i> lb« liMlraotor m 

Hcholaatio da ties. 

Dr. MRNnBNHAi. . . ^ „ . . . 

n liaK npou theuCQcienevof the liMtmctorsf In other wonla. I« Ihi 

Wliat ia ;onr judgment in re};ard to Uio eflHct tb» aucfclnv ■ 

.__ , nienevof the liMtmctorsf In other wonla. I« Ihn iiiiiiniaiii iiiil 

witicti the lastmctui stunJ* of nioiwnriug the recilMion a deDrliueut to bia ^nliiMi 


Comiimoder Barrinotuk. I think it has a ver> bennfirtal kKh^i ii|Hin Iba oJBn 
who are inatmcturs. At the bei:iiiiilnj> of bis earoar oh iDHtmel.iir at this •ehosL I 
officer's teaching is nsaally iu<lilfcront ; he don't know bow t« t«Kab. Tbe tcM 71 
he is learning how to iiiijiBrt his knowledge, and be is not a very TaloabU (Ban : 1 
tbn next year he has atiqnired a lhoron|;b iuformation on the sul^e^t vnl lann 
III ti'och, hut there is no doubt that oadets do tnfl^er W a, bwUIu Bxt^nt Ihnn bn 
under an offltsr who hssjiwt come into the dapunmeat. 

l>r. MeNDKNItAU- It is iu n>Kaid to thu systrnn 1 ini)ulre. The qaoatlnn ia, ^1 

• ) 


ioBarof Tho Socratic luotliod of teaching in tho niont ^MTfuct, after all. What Ih 
ihe examination in tho recitation room? 1 uiUHt know what tho diiliunlties of the 
itadeut un\ thoaf^h I may not caro>t4i give tho marks. 

ConnuandiT IIakuington. We uiuMt have a sytitem of marking ; wo niimt say how 
iheso pupils aro to ho gradinl ; and, while this method is open to criticism, I most 
ny thiM'o is a groat d«^al of instrnctiou givon ontsido of tho work of oxaminiug tho 
>upiL It IS eoininon for an instructor to stop all work and gather cadotM ahoiit him, 
M> explain iho dillicult points. On tho other hand, the marking is essontial. We 
ma not grad«> tho ]mpils without this daily m:irkiug. 

Dr. Mi-:ni>kniia.ll. Is instruction given hy lectures f 

Connnauder IlAKKiNttTON. Thon^ is ctmsiderahU^ iecturiug done iii tho school ; hut 
[ think exi>erie;ico docs not ptuiit in favor (»f it as a moans of instrnctitm. When 
ectn^^s arc dchveretl slowly, and copitms notes taken, they are mon) etl'octive. We 
n(»t approvi^ of lectures givcMi in an otl-hand way, that cadets aro unable to follow 
» know oreci^elv what is said. I think our system of marking is the nuMt perfect in 
ihe world. We lN>rrowed it from tho French originally, and we have brought it to 
Mrfection hero. Vou will see ot'ieu a cacb't here marking himstdt, and at the end of 
ibe month he will bt* very closit to the instructor in the tinal mark. 

Dr. Mendknuall. But do<'s this fact justify the system f Other educational in- 
ititntion.s, outside of the war sidiools in this country, have been, for twenty years, 
Irifting awav from that system, and the science of petlagogics, if theni is a science, 
Uid it is generally acktiowlo4lg<Ml now [to its disfavor]. There is a loiul cry against 
liudying and working for merits among students, the belief generally being that 
t diK'H not work goo<I. Is it not signiticant that outside Oilucutionul institntious 
duiost uaaninionsly condcuui itf 

Comniunder HAUUiNuroN. If wo ctmid substitute weekly examinations it would be 
M)tter. I believe with weekly examinations we could grade them blotter; but to 
lo that you would have to giv<^ up one day in live. In every study we already have 
Donihly exnminution.s. 'riieexnuiinationsconstitutBa more stivtu'o and a ni«»re precise 
ei»t of acquirement. 

I>r. (fAici.AN'i). I was examining the rules by which you grade the students. I H*«e 
^oii multiply the standing by It, mid tho examlnatiim as 1, and divide tho whole by 
; that is giving more weight to tho daily performances than t(» the examinatiim. 
low can ,von avoid the diH|Kisition of the student to cram himsi*If fnmi day to day f 

Connnauder IlAi:itiN(iT(»N. I pn'sume the eflieiency of our cours«» dt'iK^nds upon 
Xiinii nations, and. as ]>r. .Mendenhall says, "every day*s work is an examination.'' 
*ractically. the daily examination is oral. At tho end of the month tho examination 
t written. 

IDr. (r.\ici.ANi>. Siippnse the student, during the mtuith, fitnu excellence of memory, 

ds Inm-ii abin to perlorm well trom day today, and he is marked high. At the etui 
.. the month give liini pri»bhiins which re<piire fnun him knowhrdge of principles, 

kko it jieces>ary for liini to solv«« ii<*w problems, t(» which ho will prove efpial to 

3 degree that hi; has ma^itcred them. Wouhl not such an examination as that de- 

tnine tlie graile n[' e\e«'lliine f 

Commander llAi:KiNtiTo\. I think so; but the stress iijxm the cadet wouhl bo morn 
l|{«iriHi<4. Oiut exaniitiaiiou niiglit bo fatal. The existing method affords fair oppor- 
anitii's to all to avoid failure. 

^r. (IaklanI). ii* there no other way to determine precimdy the merits of the 

Commander IlAliKiNr.niN. Yes. providing the examinations areHuHlciently numer- 
Mik Where we have re)M'ated examinations of that character i|. is the best tcHt. 

M^li cadet undergoes iweiitv-tive examinations in the school year in the fourth 
^ , and the second class niiderg(»es about forty. Tliesi* are tlie written examina- 
i« outside (»f daily recitations, and tht>y are very strong factors in grading tho 


]>r. Mkndrniiali.. WnnM it not be HUfh(*ient to base vour jiulgnient on these ex- 

ainations uuil omii the daily marks? 

Commander II.\ici(iNitT<iN. We hhoulil iln»p very many more cadets, but would be 
nrvr of tlii^ knowl(>ilgi« <ii tli«- remaining uiwyt, 

r>r. iiAKLAND. Vou would li>^e tilt* hiimuluH they fieri vt* from their study. 

Coniiiianiler IlAKUlN4;niN. ^hi^f has iN'cn thought i>ver during fil'ti'en or twenty 
eATN. rrofcH^or lleuili ;i-k<^iin can tell you about the resull<4 of weekly c\aiuinati(»ns. 

think what we are doiti^ is the best way to get work out of the cailets and Ii» get 
hem to HCipiire the difiereni branches 4if study. 

Or. MF.Ni»rNii.\i.L. Tlhii' is aimther obje<'iif»n I have t(» this daily marking system. 

iti't 3'ou think it iniiMi'i ri"< with ilie opportunity td' the iiistrucior to impress him- 

afniMin the 4'l:iss atitl !•• infii<««> \hh enthusiasm into themf It si*ems to nn* it ii 
pOKsibh) to hav«* that eutliiisiasm ami sit with tin* list in hand ami mark down li}^ 
,. every time a fellow make.-* a recitation. Is it not true that the toncliof the live 
in IB sa<;riljced by tliM marking sy.stem f 


Commander Harrington. PerliapH it is dimiuislied. I should like to have yoQ||i 
into onr recitation rooms and sec the work as it is really done. The iuf^tractonin 
around the room, catechising the cadets and helping them. Wo lalNir under 
disadvantages of not having rcgnlar instmctors of long experience. The first }«u 
the officers, acting as instructors, are not worth much; the second year they an 
much hotter. The third year they arc really vahiahle teachers, and then thn 
have to leave us. That course educates the otBcers. Wo are not x>edagognes: n 
are students oui'selves, and work with the cadets. 

Senator Teller. Suppose a cadet of the fourth class, along in the second or thiic 
month of his tirst half, shows signs of failure in any of the departments; stippoM 
comes to his recitation in alge)»ra, and is not clear — for example, has a low iiuw>. 
and again has a low mark, what is done in reference to thatcadet of tho fourth aim 
by the instructor of the department of mathematics where he shows signs of weak- 
iiess / 

Commander Harrington. I can not tell you exactly what is done; I onlyki 
he is the ohjc'ct of solicitude and attention. Generally, I say something to hini.i 
euc'oiirai^e him. The head of the department takes an interest. Generally the lomi 
section is given in charge of some ollicer supposed to be a good teacher; often 
lu;:ul of the department Lakes it himself. Very frequently they are allowed to ban 
special instructor.^. Along at the end of the term a lad comes to us and says: *'Itf 
not getting along ; " and very often an ollicer conies in to work with him for an hoir 
or an hour and a half, devoting himself to that study in whieli the boy is lackinf* 
There are plenty of officers who give up an hour a day to special iuHtrnc'tion of i 

General Walker. Are the relations between the officers and Btudents such 
make the students eonlide in them f 

Commander Hauiuxgton. I think the relations are good. 

General Walkkr. I don^t mean to ask if there is any animosity. 

(lonunander Harkingtox. In Fcliruary last three or four cadeta were deticientii 
the ^<ee<)nd ehiss, and 1 was interested in their behalf because of their gi>od conduct 
1 plea»led with the Board, and they voted to extend their time and give them a » 
examiunttion. The head of that department began to give them Rp«'cial instructiofll 
«'verv evening, for three-quarters ol an hour of their study period and part of tlieif 
recreation time, and, as a result, thi'y paesed their examinatious and will becontiuoid. 
That, was work he was not required Jto do as a ]»art of his official duly. 

General Walkkh. 1 should like to ask, whether, in his observation of the stadenti 
in their drills and in their individual aiiinsemeuts about the campuH, and wherever he 
may meet th<^ni, if Commander Harrington notices any considerable failing in them. 
Do they inipress him as overstndied or overworked men? Whether towards thecloM 
of the term they appeared overworked f 

Connnander IIarkington. 1 1 liink there are a few such cases every yciir. 

(MMieral Walker. Speaking in a general way f 

Commander Haihungton. Generally, no. There area few such eases every yetf^ 
bill 1 should say it is not a general efl'ect. I lament very much the tniiiblo we Ban 
with athletics, and I have to forco them agaiust their will. If wo had our g 
nasinm right alongside the living (|narters there would ho a very difterent story. • 
JTMineed the eadcts to g(^t; ui» an athletic tournament this year, and (in WcdnM 
att»"nioon we will give yon an exhibition. But 1 have the ntmost diflicnltv to ui— 
the time t'or the cadets to visit the gynnnisium often. It takes fifteen or' tw 
ntinntes to g(» to the gyntnasiuni and bark to the quarters. I think there is no q 
lion about it that the. eadets at this school need more such training hh they getat 

(iineral Walkku. Are these exereist^s supervised by a snrgeon or expert f 

Connnander II ARRiNGTox. \V«^ hav^^ an expert who has been here twenty yean 
Uc i^ nndcp the supervision of the ronnnandant of eadets, but I know very little ny- 
M-ir about the safety of the training. I have seen a student go in there and the 
inastrr would say to him '* Lookout ! yon will hurt yourself; don't yon do that," wi 
tln' radel would supnos*' it all right. 

If I had one reeoinniendat ion above another to make, it woald be that the g 
na-iiiiin be move<l over alon;;:side the living 4[uartei-s; next, to extend the pmci 
rrn'iNe and abolisli the annual leave. 1 might say the annnal leave hi not good t*m 
1 tie I -adi'ts. The old ])lan of giving them three months and a half leave at the b» 
;;iniiing of tli** second (?lass y«*ar <M»nnnends itself, tomy judgment, for many reaac 
With thai system of leiive tin* jiraetieo ernise would bo a month longer annnOu^. 
It is a niatler of regulation, whirh the Sceretary of the Navy can control. 

Medieal Inspeeior T. C. Walt«)X, of t!ie Acaih-my, appeared liofore the iKianL 
st.ited that he was in ehai'ge. of (he medical d(>partiuent of the Acodeni}', and ala& — 

tin* dejparl mint n|' physiologN and hygii-ne. 

S(Miati>r r.irrir.i:. Ilnw inuir havi' \oii been at the Aeadeniyf 


l>r. Waltox. Six years. 

Senator Uutler. Will yon he good enough to give the Board your opinion of the 

iffeot of the study required here upon the physique of the cadets f 

Dr. Walton. So far as I have obtk^rved, 1 thiuk all those who enter here, having 

od phyHi(|ue8, are benetited by the course. I have Heeu no injury that I am aware 

,. in that time. There are some few cad«^t8 who, after having been entered here, 

irhen perhaps the medical board has been doubtful about their iitnew, or that the 

dical hoard rejected and the Navy Department has waived their defects, who have 

«.led. The strain has been too much for them. During the term of my duty here, 

lerhaps two or three times, I have noticed that the strain has been too much for 

ihem, and I have recommended that they either resign or take a vacation, and one 

vr two of them are on leave now. In one case, the boy being on leave now, and who 

i(oo<l number one or two in his class, I ascertaineil he had been tak«'n from school 

»n at least twti oc^'asions before he came hore from overwork, and 1 found that the 

(train was too much for him, and recommtMided him to take a leave, and he left in 

?«)bruary. I had to watch him very clohely at the time, as he was anxious to finish 

s semi-monthly examinations. He is now at his home, and expects to return here 

■■ September or October, and to pUHs bin annual examination. If he can get ^.5, he 

irill be satisfactory, so far as his mental ([ualificationis concerned. I don't know that 

t will be well to rtmtinue that young man; but because his hoi>es were all bent upon 

mtting in the S4*rvire, I have not insistt^d on discontinuing him. I will have to watch 

m for another year, and if sit^ns of failure come we will have to let him go. 

There is another vase of a young man who has juHt pasned his examination, and I 

ve recommended that his nlivHical examinutinu Ikj deferred until October, The 

iniinations wen^ too mueii for him, but still he got through with them aatis- 

torily. I told his father that if he were my boy 1 would take him away from the 

vmOoI and not let him stand the strain. He will be granted a sick leave until 

>etober, and then his physical exan>ination will be eom]»Ieted. In case the boy is 

t sntliciently strong for the service, and very likely he will fail in the course of an- 

r year, his )»e()ple will then \w sati.stied that he can not stand the work here. 

'wvt'e may be one or two other similar cases. The defect 4»f those who fail has been 

ring to some eans** existing prior to the time they came hen\ 

General Walkkk. SometimeH caus4'd by the boy's great grandfather? 

I>r. Walton. Sometimes you don'r have to go back so far as that. 

Genera] Walkkk. You may reammably expect to find some students constitation- 

lly weak T 

Dr. Walton. There are not as many cases of break-down as I expected to find 
ben I came here. 

Senat<»r lU'TLRR. It takes a very goml constitution to stand the strain? 

Dr. Walton. It is often very hard to tell who can stand the work iMMt. The 

tudent standing number oiit> of the graduating class last year is an instance of this. 

hesitated some time before I passed him. He had a ptMirly-noiirished, very un- 

romising look. Miit during his <'fiunM' here he was on the sick-list only one day. 

Ii« mention that has been iiiad«> of the extni work done h«*re reminds me that he once 

lid me he never htinlied overhours, except just prior to the examination; but I sup- 

Mied he was an exeeptiiui. 

General Wai.kkh. Do you think the y.oung man who enters here continnes to grow, 

he would under a less severe rt*gimen f 
m>r. Walton. I think so. The cadits are well and regularly fed and exercifle<l. I 
eatistied that when tln'V return from si'a after their crnis«* of two years many of 
.m have lost tlesh. This may <lependon the fact that sonit* of them go in unhealthy 
jiates, but an a geneial rule there is a 1«>s.h of N\ei;:ht while at sea and an increase 
•jile hi*re. Tli<> casen in which there is not a gf»oil normal irrowth are very rare. 
General Walkkk. Do yon have control oft heir diet and the hygiene ol the Academy t 
I>r. Walton. Yes, sir. 
General Walkkk. Will vou please state what the ftanitary condition of the Aca<leuiy 


i.)r. Walton. The nanitarv condition, i;i'nerally speakini;. is good. We have liad 
» epidcmien, with a siiiL:le exieption. We now have several cahes of miimiM; but 
ben the first cium* f»cciir<* we take pre<'aiit ions and nofiirihi'rdamagi* isdone. When 
OJMe occurs, I make iiM|iiiri*"« to liml who havt* Imm-u ex|ins«<d and eaiitiiUi them at 
bont the time the <lisea'«<' \« til shi»w 4iii them. We isolat** th<* paneiitH ami fumigate 
rir rooms. If it furiirs in t*amilieH, their members are not ailt>wed to mix i^ith 
pijpn. We have the di-*i lo'"* i-oiiiiiiom ti> rhil .n-n Iiit«*. I thm'i ]iri'tt*nd to control 
leee diseaHes amon^ i-hililreii in the fainilii's. In iii> tirit yi>ai, wi* hail sixtv cases 
r measles amoii^ tin* laiiiiii«"*. but not imh* am>>ni! iiM*«'adft*«. Dipiiihfria is the most 
(▼ere disease we have had her**, but wi< havr loot no eadfts from it. On*' vear there 
fifty deaths from diphtheria in Annapolis au'l tliiee aiii«>n4 tin* families in the 
smy grounds, but, fortunately, not a cadet was lost. At the uutsul we did not 

JIA 89 15 




KDoguiae that it was (Uphtberia; W3 looked upou it m > mild sort of sore lU 
npuu Ibe first evidence tliat it nils the mure diuigeruiis diseaoo ire Cook gim 
to control it. 

We have a regnlation bere which rei]DiraamembeKo['tboci(Dc«re'fB[DOiisl*N 
every ciuie uf aiukneM Cbat occurs, and wo taku iaunediulo tneitBunni to lamlnl 
diHease, if it ie uoutugious. 

We bave all tbe aewera and nrinala flushed «nc« a mnQth, Mid if tbcf« m — T 
tagioQs diseace, more freqneutJ.v, and a solution of coppnra« (Jiirtwn to UamTt 
are n good many old pan closeta still to the buililings here, but we ant gnulaallf il 
iag ihem replaced liv better ones, of wbiiih wo are mncb in Btmcl. Tlw ohiMtiM 
onilets am eeniiratnil tmtn the malo buJlcliugH, no tbore ia imt uueli diutfOrll 
students' bnulfh Croin tben. Wo bod n oliuii liere dndag lw>>, ftflRiniar IbM ■■ 
lownd QDnannI privibges; the; were qiiivrtcnid id ono of the ItiiUdiu]^ iiutMid* 
hoard the Saittce. 

The result wm, the ^aungators sat onl un Uio grnittul aa lat« a« 9.30 o'dmk f, 
and Buine staid Dut uutU 10 n'oluck ; souiu got ontaide the ^nands, tuiil, BtKjiag' 
liuio, nwamuronndto where tbo; oould enter without beitig roporivd. TltaluM 
paloiilntvd to do their health uuy guud. Tlieo a dmiri was tieinj; Oux lien Gira>i 
supply of water, and iis there was some trouble about gottiog iilfwii UmJnlH: 
open for two or three weeks. Then they were all,awtd tn go liiii inw<nift|l 
deal, and the result was when they left, about the 3&tb (if Aii^st, k nnmbcci 
iwmplaiaia);, and in a short time ten were alok with fpver. On« shorlly aflVVi 
died from what was thought to be typhoid fever. I tutil been tinT« » ImcUasl 
thought I knew the place pretty well, but uould uol hud llio cnumo of lE» Otm 
Ann thorough iuvestigation wo finully oauie to the oonelimiia that ii w^ aula 
t)*ver. The result hhs that three or four uf the yuuutf men having the di^nx w 
tiinied hack a class. The others, except thu one who died, liavo mniiai-eil lo knf 
with their studies. Of the several cases of typhoid fever w« havn bwldarfwi 
soi'Viue 1 am aatiitlied tbut they can be traced outride, unit that tlie; Itava miV 
oooirauted Id the place. I have recooimended to the 8niwrlutMui)«iit tbal tbical 
b* quartered on board the SaiiM this tiuiuiaor, aud that thay lie aoi. atlowtd <t 
ashore St nigbt. I would let Uieoi go in the towu iuihe aflernoHa, bnt kiMpt^ 
at night. Tho yonug man who died used to go AHhore at tilght uid Dot iwlnn ■ 
U.IIO o^elook. 1 have told IhB familieii iioru that If they stuy outoo tlni ^.nw 111 
flveuiug they will bave fever, and they get it whi<u they Hluy nut. This jsatltt 
we will bave less trouble about such matters. 

General Walkkk. la the drainage of the Academy geuerally good t 

Dr. Walton, Yes, it is generally good. 

General Walkkk. la there any reason to diatruat the purity of the watati 

Dr. Walton. The water is the purest in the cotiutry. Tliere la a ii<il>ilnf< 
of vegetable matter in it, bnt there is no sewage. 

General Walkrr. Have yon a satiafoutory boepital t 

Dr. Walton. Yea, sir. 

General Walker, What staff have yon t 

Dr. Walton. 1 have four asgiatauts. 

General Walkbr. Is there an evening sick-call I 

Dr. Waito.v. Yes, sir. , 

General Walxeh, I shonld be glad to have yon say what yon l«a«l)lalta«| 
of physiology and hygiene. 

Dr. Waltox. The first thing we have in view, is to teauli th«> •'ffbc^ at alM* 
li<]uorB and narcoTJoa ou the sytitem. That is wbnt ILe law mijatres. Wvdu tkH 

K'ving them n fair account of how their bodies are formed, how tbaj irn><*. Mi 
ncUons of the difforciit orgona of tbe body, such as the akin, this lUDn. tW W 
kud the utotnaoli. In wpeaking of the skin, we nientioti the cfTnoM wI^wfclHJ 
the ncd'ssl ty for it. Wo describe the properticsnf clothing and I«U thvm what ill 
for thorn to wear. In aiHiaklng of the lungs, we describe tbe pn>04«a nf laahj 
and xhuw what tbe ordmary impurities of the air are and hnw to b<«t ventlMvi 
rooms aud ships. Wo t«l] them eeneraliy what U neoeeaury for a hoalibT Inrfyl 
DoiuetUing about the ordinary foods they are liable to eaL In tha ni>t4or M il^ 
ing the ell'oot of aleoliol, we comply with the law; and in n^pud to tuliauML J j 
them what I believe to be a correct idea of it« use and alniso. 

Then they are taught practices which are uf use in gweral (uuorg«ncr cmai.k 
to arrest hemorrhages, etc. They are taught how to r««ou« ponooa froiii ibnaW 
death, cnuspquent upon drowninir. 

1 itcm't tallc muub about Darcotics. I don't believe Uipiv Is any iiso In docrlUiC 
thone bnya the elfuuts of opium and haslieeah. I give tbaui a gntiarkl Idoa of ^ 
niirootiQH lire and what their danger is, to the human systmii. witbuut (tuiBc iiil*J 
tail. I ti]|l Ibom the nature of tea, coflee, tobacco, and aleobul. Tb«r arv elf" 
percentage uf ulcuhol contained in dilliiient liqjiors, and » tuiX aoooant tif tto A 
OS the various organs and tlasoes of the body. 


, €l«nera1 Walker. Have yon reason to believe that there is much smoking among tho 

Dr. Walton. Very little. I found two years ajjo between forty and fifty of them 
with derangement of the heart. I made an investigation as to the cause of it, and 
eonolnded that it was owing to the use of tobacco ; in a few cases, from a too free use 
oC ooflee. We have had thn ration of coffee cut down; they are allowed coffee for 
toeakfast only. The piini8linient for the use of tobacco has been increased, and now 
■y en, or even ten, demerits are given them. There is very little nse of tobaooo. 
When they were stopped smoking, they started chewing, that being harder to detect. 
Tbere was a time when the First Class was allowed to smoke, l^at there is very little 
■•e of tobacco now. 

General Walkkk. As yon observe the students on the gronnds and moving abont, 
do they seem to l»e listless or tired out f Do you notice any difference in their condi- 
tion dnriug the first and last of the term f 

Dr. Walton. They are not overworked. I see a great deal of them. They are 

etty wearieil at the end of the term, very often. They are apt to trifle away their 

at the first of the term and then settle down to hard work along towards the end. 

^dneral Walkkk. What is your opinion of the value of the annual leave of a month 

^aiparison with a leave of throe months near the end of the course? 

^ . Walton. I think the annnjil leave is a mistake. Some contract diseases while 

Some whose homes are fur distant do not go there at all. Those who live in 

uthern States are apt to gut malarial fever and bring it back with them. I 

> •hink the leave is of nincli benetit to them. I would nave them all take the 

r cruise and have it extend until October, and then let them commence with 

u syndics. I think they ought to have three mouths' leave at the end of their 

M year. 

nator Butlkr. That is the rule at West Point. 
•ltV. Walton. Then the last y«*ar they don't have so many new studios to occupy 
. The work then is not so ditUcult. 
. A^«. Mrndknhall. Do 1 unden«tand you to say the last year is the easiest? 
T>r. Walton. The students don't then have so nmch mental work; it is more prao- 
«>r. Mkndkniiall. Whirh is the most difficult year for the cadet? 
I>r. Walton. I Hup]>ose the thinl year is. The majority of tfie failures occur dur- 
l the first half of the tirst year, but that is iMfoause they are not prepared and can 
i settle down to the disoipiinu here. It is found out in that six months who are 
(Anted for the service and tlmse who are not are weeded out. 

. Hbkmkkt. I)o you have many cases of trouMu with the eye-sight? 
jft^t. Walton. N(»t many. 

Mr. Hkriikrt. Is there any special cans«* to which the trouble is attributed? 

^r. Walton. There is often a change in the eyesof young people at the age of the 

idents while they are here. I dou't think w*) have a greater proportion of these 

0S than they do outsiile. No matter what the boy does rhere will be that change. 

It before an examination some of the boys will stand out in the halls and study 

*h a p(N>r light thus hurting their eyes and catching c<ild. 

iSeneral Walkkil They stand in the hiUls because the lights in their rooms are 

..Jr. Walton. Yes, sir; the regulations provide that the lights shall be put out at 
rtain time. The li;rht they have in their nMinis is pretty goo4l for study. They 
a Argan«l burners, which are pla<>ed over the eentcr of the table in each room and 
r eadets wear shades over their eyes. The only ohjertion to that burner is that it 
her heating and it tends to vitiate the air'of the rcMim, but it is questionable 
iier the electric li;;ht wouhl be an improvement. I am not satisiied that the 
tic light is Huitabh* to stu<iy by. 
. Mrndknhall. What is the {possible objection to it? 

• Walton. I don't know ; I have not yet m'en enough in its favor; its oontin- 
lae IS said to fatigue the eyes; I believe it is worth while trj'iug; I would ad- 
bnring it in a few nf the quarters before adopting it generally. 
t • Mrndrnhalu It is Kteatly and does not viriate the atmosphere? 
1 . Walton. We ought tirst t4» have some report of its fitness from our ships. The 
thing that I have seen alHMit it is that a medical nnin in London published an 
.««Qt of a di84*a'ie of the eyes doe to the electric light. He said he had thirty- 
I eases of it. 1 have hi>ard (»thers say that after using it awhile it beoomee Tery 
f ing to the eyes. 

Mkndkniiali^ That is the are light. The incandescent is diflbrent? 
. Walton. I wouhl not object to the light Mng tried here, but it would haTa 
moditied somewhat. We are not huffeitng from the light we have. 
. HsHBBRT. Do you think the Argaud burner and gae in better than the 1(04001 
to vtody by f 


Dr. Mbndexhall. I see Bome men wearing spectftcles; are tb^ admlttod wHk 
that defect f 

Dr. Walton. No ; the standard required iB that they most be able to mw their 
special senses without artiiicial aid. Bat in this case the student's Yision has beoome 
impaired since he came here, and we are letting him go on for two years. He will 
make his cruise and then he will resign, and that may have something to do witii i^y 
leniency towards him. I thonght he would be able to make his crniset bat whoeiw 
examines him will see whether he is able to remain or not. I told him that I wobU 
reject him. 

General Walker. J)o yon know of any great trouble with the eyesight whM 
drawing is practiced to any great extent ? 

Dr. Walton. I think that alFects them. We t«st them before they enter, Mftd the 
oases that fail are the cases that the medical board is in doubt about. 

Senator Butler. Uou't you have soiuo cases of color blindness f 

Dr. Walton. Yes ; but the rules for detecting it are so explicit that most of the 
cases are weeded out before they come here. We had one case this year. I doBi 
know how he escaped the nivdical man. I try to make the instmctioDS to cover tkt 
detection of this defect so plain that there may be very few cases to njeot. 

Senator Butlkr. We understand you to say that generally the oonrse of study aai 
discipline here is not too great a strain upon the average student? 

Dr. Walton. I am sutislied that it is not. 

General Walker. It seonis to me that the boys have a very elastio step. 

Dr. Walton. Our sick-list does not aniunnt to much. One-half the time the yom^ 
sters who complain want to get out of their recitation for the day. Headache wssa 
racket they generally worked on us. I said to the doctor who was holdiojg the eiflk 
call: ^'This is a perfect farce ; we must stop it." Finally we had an assistant hsn 
who carried out my instructions to the letter. During the three mouths Velbre ks «>- 
rived. I had one hundred and 80venty-six adnnssions for headache, and during the 
three months ho was liere I had eight. 1 don't doubt but there may haye heenasaa 
fellows who had headache who were not excused. 

Dr. Mendenifall. What was his method f 

Dr. Walton, lie would talk to them. He would say : '' So yon oan not stndj ta* 
day," and the boy might answer, " 1 am not prepared with my recitation.'' Tlie da^ 
tor would take their temperature to satisfy himself they had no fever, and thea he 
would say: ^' We are not putting on the sick-list to-day for headache." Alter a* 
these boys didn't come near us ? 

General Walkei:. How about the cases of men who are subject to habitnal 

Dr. Walton. Tht^ro are some sueh oases. In the case of first classmen we tehs 
their word. But the conijilaint is usually by the follows at the foot of the olasB| aod 
in the past the privilege oi' getting exensed wtis ahnsed. But I am more lenient with 
them now. It often saves the follow demerits to get excused, and Bometimes I aavt 
them. Sometimes they would get a zero or a very low mark, and if they conld gataa 
the sick-list they would be satisfactory for a week, and that was the reason manysf 
them worked it. So you see the health statistics of this place mnst be taken witk 
some allowance. 

Senator Butler. I see the boys learn how to play ^*old soldier" as well as aMw 
feflows. • • 

General Walker. I don't see why you can not call it •* old sailor.'' 

Knsign H. G. Dkesel, assistant in the department of mathematicSi appealed k^ 
fore the board. 

General Woodford. Ho\« long have you been an instructor in the matb 
department f 

Ensign Dresel. One aeadiunic year. I have been attached totheAcademT 
August, and have been teaching since October. 1 am iustrnctor to the thi 
fourth elasses. 

General Woodford. Do any instructors in the mathematical department i 
more than two elasses ? 

ICnsigu DuEttEL. Not in our department. I don't kifow how they do in the dej 
ment of applied matheniatirN, as I have nothing to do with it. 

General Woodford. Please explain to us how the fourth class is arranged. 
the boys come in, what is the liist thing you do with t-hemf 

Ensign Dresel. They are arranged alphabetically first. .. .; 

General Woodfori>. How man v are assigm^d to each section f 

Ensign Dresel. About nint? or ten to each seetion. 

General Woodford. These seetions are known or numbered how t 

Ensign Dresel. From one to nine, or teii,aeet>rding to the number of seoUm^a ^ 

General Woodford. Does Professor llendricksou have anything to do 
fourth class in its instruction 1 

Ensign Dkeskl. He takes the first section. 


1 Woodford. Doos he instrnct tbe other Reccionsf 
Dkkskl. Not (luring my time'as instructor. 
1 WooDFOKD. How BOOH after the academic year begins are the sections 

I Dkf.sel. Aft^^r the first month, and then the sections are formed according 

mdiiijjf (»f the students each month. 

il Woodford. You say the alphabetical sections are broken up after the first 

I Drkskl. Yes, sir; and ratings ma<le according to the examinations and 


.1 Woodford. Who are put into the first section f 

I PuKSKL. The highest nine or ten. 

kl Woodford. So that if there were nine sections the ninth would oontain 

St in tlieir murks f 

I Dkkskl. Yes, sir. 

il Woodford. Yes; but the first section would contain the highest students 

B. During the l:u4t year who tnnght the highest section f 

I DuKSEi.. Professor llendrick^toii. 

il Woodford. Does the second section have the same instmctor and the 

urth, tit'th, sixth, seveuth, eighth, and ninth f 

I Drkskl. No, sir. 

A Woodford. Have the instructors, in all the sections beside, the firsty been 

each fiioiitli of t lie aca<ien)ic yearf 

I I)RKSKI.. Yes. Hir. 

il Woodford. Have they been frequently changed? 
I l)RK*iKK. 1 think they have been changed every m<mth. 
i\ Woodford. But the first has not been changed at all? 
I N<», Hir. 

A Woodford. Then the first section, consisting ofthe nine or ten boys highest 
I, have ha^l the personal instruction ofthe head ofthe mathematical depart- 
through the yearf 

I Drkskl. Not necessarily the same nine or ten boys highest in marks; those 
id tirst the first month need not necessarily be so after that. 
i\ Woodford. Those who are highest each month are the ones that consti- 
first seetion for the next month; and the first section has had the personal 
on of Professor liendrickson throughout the year; so that the nine or ten 
)(liii«: hi;;heHt eacli mouth get the personal instruction of the head of the 
kti<-al tiepartment f 
I Dkkskl. Yes, nir. 

i\ Wooi)FOKD. Is that so recarding the third class? 
I Drkskl. I think Professor Hendriekson has had them right along. 
A Woodford. You have had the first section in the third class occasionally 
ile n ritation f 
I Drk>kl. Yes, sir. 

entative Hkrrkrt. Do you kuow the reasons that prompt this course on the 
•fofi'ssor HendriekHon f 

I Dkkskl. Formerly he took the ^ower sections, and had once been aoonsed 
I't of a lower seetiou of trying to bilge hiui by marking too low, though that, 
«'n Hhowii, was false. (^ouHcquently he would not expose himself to a repe- 
this eliargt*. Investi^^atioiiH were held reganliug these charges, and cadets 
hem wenTomp«lie<l to resi^^n, the charges having beeu disproved. He takes 
to lielp out his assistants in their work. 
rntative Hkkbkrt. And this is the reason for his course? 
I Drksi.l. Y«'s, .sir; I think so. 

entarive McAdoo. Are you cognizant of complaints among the boys because 
ange of instructors every uionlli ? 

I Drkskl. I have never heard them. I think it is a very goo<l system. Some 
rs mark higher than others, and their ideas of what is perfect is a little dif- 
8o. if I. for iustunee, ftuirk low uu<l had the same section continually, they 
♦ hihind ntlMTs. 

entative Mc.Vdoo. On the other hand, a boy gets accnstomed to the methods 
icher and fimls hims«'lf in agreeable relations with him, and next month a 
her is given him who h^is new methods, and who himself might be repulsive 

entative Hkrulrt. How h>ng since Professor Hendriekson adopted the course 

the til St stMtiiMi fxelusively under his charge? 
, J^RKsKL. I do not know. 

(or Hoot. Is there any |>eculiar work attached to the studies ofthe first sec- 
ng the entire year which would lead Professor Hendriekson to bold on to 
ion ? 



£n»ign Dresrl. No, sir ; I tliiuk not. He alwnys lays down, in writing, what w« 
are to teacb, mid we can teach oiir Hections t<K.actl,v what he teacfaeR his seolioD. Ub 
has a lesfloii-bouk for eiiv.h week, in whieli hv writcH out the outline of his worl^ and 
we copy it anil ^ive our Kcction the »ain6 lesson that his fj^ets. 

Professor Root. Has he any other way, save by the marks, of reaching the memboi 
of the lower sections f 

Eusign Drrskl. No, sir j he loaves the marking of the sections entirely in onr hands. 
TVe correct the papers and make out tholinal average, ho that he has no chaige of iL 

Professor Root. Does not Professor HtMidrickson, at any time, dnring the Tear, 
reach personally cadets in the lowor scctiouH ? 

Ensign Dreskl. He conies in the recitation rooms somotimes, bnt in no other 
that I know of. 

Professor Root. IIow largely does the position of the first section ohaqge 
month to month, during the voarT 

Ensign Dkksel. About 'i.') or :i() per cent. 

Professor Root. Then of the ten ukmi who where assigned to that aection at tfai 
close of the tirst month, there wonld be seven or eight in that section thron|^ the 
entire year f 

Ensign Dresrl. I don't know. The best way to determine that wonld be hf re- 
ferring to the records. I can not trust to my mtMuory for that information. 

Representative MoAdoo. Don't the boy gt't his standing abont the middle of the 
year? Afcer you divide the ninety boys into nine sections, at what part of the jeer 
does the standing of the boys become uniform and steady f 

Ensign Drkskl. At about the end of the first term ; bocanse we change the atadlflt 
about the middle of the year. In the third class, we have trigonometry dnring the 
first term, and conio sections during the m^cond. A student might do weU throng 
out the first term and badly after that. So you can not tell until the end of the year, 
as regards the exact class standing. 

Professor Root. I notice in the examination papers that no member of ' 
section is graded lower than three, and no uummImt of the fifth, section hia 
2.51. What I want to get at is, how Professor Flendrickson inflnenoea tL» ji 
men of the tifth section, manifestly the weak section ; or himself cornea to bear 
them, to encourage them with their studies f 

Ensign Drkskl. Through the instructors. The bright boys would naturaOy hata 
higher marks. In again referring to the change of positions iu claseea, by ei 
Eusign Dresel sai<I : '* I knew one student who start-ed in the first section and « 
down several sections. Some are constantly changing, going np and down all _ 
time. Some show facilities in one branch and are lacking iu otherSi so that tl 
cordingly are shifting in ]»osition." 

Representative McAdoo. You think a majority of the first ten, on enl 
Academy, stay in the first section ? 

Ensign Drkskl. About a majority stay in the first section; thatltii r 
ond or third month. 

Prof. N. M. Tkrry, head of the department of physics and chemistry, Vmwwl'd 
emy, Annapolis, ^Id., appriiied before the Hoard. 

Senator Butlkr. Are you a graduate of this institution? 

Professor Tkrrv. No, sir; I am a graduate of Amherst College and the XTniTWri^ 
of Gottingen, (fennany. 

Senator Bt'TLKR. How long have yon been here* 

Professor Tkrrv. Siii<>e 1^7'J. 

Senator Bitlkk. Plrast* stair whixt lixt-books are used in your department* 

Profesrior Tkrrv. In the s<'(.-otm1 tenn of the third class, we commence Di 
Principles of IMiysics; rractii-al rhysics, l»y Stewart and G«^: Remsen'a Gheb 
and lecture notes. In the first teini of tlte seeond claKs. wo continue Dantell'a 
ci pies of Physics; Ganot's Sound and Li;;bt : Stewart's Treatise on Heat; Pr 
Physics, by Stewart and (iee ; Kohlranst Ifs i'li\siral Measurements; lectnie 
In the second term of the seeond elasN, the text-lxxdvt^are the same as the firs. 
with the addition of Thompson's Klectrieity and Magnetism; Ayrton'a P 
Electricity; Day's Kxercises in Klectrical Measurementit; lecture notea. 
first term of the first class, the text-hooks are the same as the second olaavyi 
lecture notes. 

Senator Buti.rr. Do you find the cadets, up to tho time they oome to yoil| 
prepared for entrance in your department f 

Professor Terry. 1 arrange my studies according to their preparation. 7 
give them, early in the course, a bird*s-eye view of tho whole field of atndy 
department, that they may understand tho co-relation of the branahiM tomm 
afterwards study more thoroughly, with the spciHal t-ext- books Just i i n«4 

Dr. Mkndenhall. How do you give that '* bird's-eye view;" hyz^i 


Professor Terry. By ilaily recitations, by occasional Icctnres, and practical work. 
X detail them for practical work after they have prepared the lesson tor the day. 

Dr. Mkndkniiall. Have they had any previous study in physics f 

Professor Terry. Nothing is required. Some have j^raduated from high schools^ 
'Wbere they have ha<l an elementary course in physics and chemistry. 

Dr. Mendkniiall. Of what does your laboratory consist f 

Professor Terry. We have good buildings, with instruments for illustrating onr 
leMons and making physical measnrements. 

Dr. Mbndenhall. Are the experiments qualitative or quantitative f 

Professor Terry. Many are merely qualitative. What I seek to arrive at is exact 

Dr. Mbndenhall. Do you yourself make the experimental illustrations from your 
leetnre table f 

Professor Terry. I do to a considerable extent, though I try to make the cadets 
perform the experiments as far as possible. 

Dr. Mendenhall. How many hours a week, during the first term, do yon devote 
to the work in your department f 

Professt»r Tkrry. Wo give live periods to it; that is, five hours a week. Then 
there are recitations only, but part of the term the sections go, upon alternate da>'s, 
to the chemical laboratory for practical exercises, instead of their recitation, and 
when no time is re<{iiired for preparation, the cadets are allowed to remain the whole 
perio<l (two honrH) in tbo laboratory. 

Dr. Mendkniiall. How many students are there in your class? 

Professor Terry. Sixty-two in the third class, 36 in the second, and 35 in the first 

Dr. Mexdexhall. How many assistants have yon T 

Professor Tkrry. Six. In the practical work the instructors are generally em- 
ployed two hours a day, and in n?citation, one or two hours. In addition to this 
time, which is devoted to the instruction of the cadets, they pursue for themselv<*s, 
wbat is, in reality, a p<»st graduate course in physics, for which this laboratory 
illTonls excellfMit facilities. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Does this course continue through the second class; that is, 
does it cover two yearH? 

Professor Terry. Yes. The course in physics and chemistry covers two years; 
one term of tlie third chiMs, two of the WM'ond, and one of the tirst. 

Dr. Mende.viiall. What ]iroi>ortion of the time is given to phvHics and what to 
eibemistry f 

Professor Terry. Three-fourths Ui phyMics and one-fourth to chemistry. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Of the time devoted to physics, what proportion is devoted to 
Blectricity ? 

ProfeHHor Terry. I Hhoiild say about one-thinl of the whole time. I could get you 
ttxactlv the ainouiit. 

Dr. Mendenhall. During any part of this course, do you have a longer period for 
laboratory exerriH«*H than i»n«' hourf 

PmfesHor Tkruv. Yes. we extend it over two hours sometimes. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Would it not be lK»tter to have a longer period of three hours f 

Pn>feHM4)r Tkhrv. 1 hhonlil like to have n longer time that I might give many ex- 
periinentM t*or whirh we do not have time now ; and in order to get better reHults, 
irhirh are HonietimeM not Mati.Mfaetory, as I have to take one part of an experiniout one 
^AVand tininh it the next. 

Dr. .Mendenhall. Are the studit^ marked for the hour whieh is devoted to this 
*^ractical work, according to the syhtem which has been explaintul to us as in uso 


Professor Terry. I have trie<l vnriouH experiments in marking iheni for that w«)rk, 

id now havu a plan whieh seeinn to work very well. I have little cardH and at the 

p is marked the name of the cadet whoso marks it contains. A portion of it is de- 
^ Jled to marks for experimental work, which is divided into three columns ; in one 
•f which I give a mark for zeal, in another ingenuity, and in the thini for results. 
Tbese an* averaged and the reitnlt is used a? if it were a daily recitation mark. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Ih the examination of the student no complete every day that 
yon can give him a mark on the rennltf 

Professor Terry. Simetimes I don*t mark them on zeal and ingenuity, when I have 
■Ot basis enough for a mark. Hut the general plan is to give marks for the three. 

Dr. Mendenhall. What in the nature of the lectnres you give them occasionally t 

Professor Terry. The lfctnn*s are to illustrate the text-book and recitation-room 
*" :; and to give sup)»leuieutary information on sul)jects of special importance to 
'aval cadets. 

. Mendenhall. The text>books are not thoroughly studied I suppose, bat are 
V for reference. 

« «v r Terry. I freqaently assign a topic for a recitation and require the cadets to 


got tbcir infornintion from every available sonrne, bnt for tbemost part definite lo ton 
are asHi^iieil and tliu cadetH are strictly marked upon tbeir recitatious and wiitta 

Dr. Mendenhall. Do your stadents undertake original investigation and ezp«ii 

Profesi»or Terrt. Tbey bave done so, bnt tbe opportunity is not very great, beoaoM 
tbey cau not work coiitiiiuouRly. Sonieof tbeui bave done pretty £ftir work. I shoilld 
like to sbow you a paper on tiie result of an experiment made by a oadet who ia now 
a constructor and wan thou a cadet^engiueer. 

Dr. Mrndknhall. Did tbe cadet-eugiueers take a more thorough eonrae than tbi 
i cadets do now f 

I ProfesHor Terry. No, sir. Tbeir attention was directed especially to heat, analyti" 

I cal cbeniistry, aud miueralogy wbeuevcr tbey were allowed extra time in thia deparip 

\ ment. 

\ Dr. Mkndexiiall. Do you give instructions in tbermo-dynamicsf 

Professor Thru Y. We take tbt^ni tbrougb a course that touches on that alishtly. 
' Tbis year tbe course on tberuio-dyiianiics is more tbon)ngb, bnt it is not poasible 10 

• take an extended course in thcrmo-dynamies in tbe time allowed. 

', Dr. Mexdkniialt.. Have you a reasonably fair equipment for giving inatrnotifliM 

« in pbysies and eleetricity ? 

Professor Terry. We bave a good laboratory, but I would like a large amonnt ol 
money to expend on it. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Is tbere anytbing wliicb yon tbink you especially need f It ii 
one of tbe functions of our board to consider tbese tilings. 

Professor Terry. I would like to equip a dynamo-room, so that I would have a 
specimen of tbe dynamos use.d on tbe new cruisers. I now have an old-fashioned 
Edison dynamo and a Brusb d> namo. Tbe students learn to start the engine and aw 
tlie dynamo. I would like a low-Kpeed dynamo connected witb a high-speed ftng;iiitb 

Dr. Mendenhall. Have you a good equipment in tbe way of hght appUanoN^ 
lamps, and nieasureuK'nts, etc. f 

Professor Terry. I have a sinall Hrusb macbine and run two ara lights with it,aad 
a tifty-ligbt Kdisou dynamo. The st udents sometimes make determinations of the de- 
Hciency of tbe ))l:int; but the dynamo plant is very limited, and it would be grnallj 
to tbe advautngo of the lirNt rlaxs if they could bave a complete outflt, BO that th^ 
conbl bceonn* familiar witb tbe best dynamos. 

Dr. MendeN'IIALL. Have you any batteries? 

l*rofessor Terry. We have ten of the Accumulator Company's cells, and twentj-fiTV 
of Julien, and a good sup])ly of good Leelanebe and copper snlpbate batteries; also 
one hundred and lifty chloride of silver cells for testing tbe insulation of oablea. 

General Walker. Do yo!i tbink an advantage would be given the work of yonr de- 
partment if tlu* cadets were early in tbe coursi^ put into tbe workshops for praettaal 
mechanical work and continue tbere through the entire course? 

Professor Terry. I won hi like to bave them do it. Tbey are awkward with theii 
fingers, and if they bad manual training it would make them more expert in the woift 
they do witb me. 

General Walker. It would train tbeir judgment. 

Professor TERitY. 1 don^t think there is time for it now. We are very mnoh Umitad 
in our course here in the matter of tim(^ 

Dr. Mendenhall. Is your course in electricity so complete that yon would feelMft 
in allowing one of yonr graduates undertake and 8ux>crvise the estahliidunent of M 
electiical plant on boaid a ship t 

Profi'ssor Terry. I would not. 

Dr. Mendenhall. What further is necessary ; experience? 

Professor Terry. Tin* instruct ion I would give would be experience. I think thab 
knowledge of the theory is sntrnient. Tb(* dynamos I bave mentioned as needed in 
our work for practice would hcl]) tit them for that sort of work. We have sent onl 


two or three men from my department wiui are fullv prepared to goon a ship 

£nt in a eoin]dct(' ehctrical system. They graduated as instructors. £nsi||f^ ] 
[napp, Ensign K. (J. .Smith, aud Knsign Morgan are examples. 

Senator Hitler. Do you think it wonhl bo advisable to have a post-gradaatfl 
course here * 

Professor TERRY. There are so many things connected with that, that I hardlj 
how to answer tbe questittn. I tbink a post-graduate conrse could he 
that it would bo moht nseful. 

Dr. Mende.viiall. W'hat would be yonr judgment regarding the plan of allowliif 
the young men a choice between staying here and taking the course in applied ' 
tricity, and going to sea for two years ? What would be tbe effect of that f 

Professor Terry. From what the naval otlQcers tell me, I think it would bah 
to go to sea for awhile, though they would not come back as well equipped to 


icir course. Rnt from testimony of naval officers I most say I think it would 

sr for iliom to ^o to sea. n 

or Bu TLKK. Do you t Iniik the coarse is too severe for the average boy t 

4Sor Tkuuy If tlie boy is to get into the Navy I think the best material is le* 

and I would rathor raise the standard than lower it. 

or Hi'TLKR. You do not think the course too severe? 

isor Tkkuy. No, sir. 

or Bttlkr. And the strain is not too severe mentally or physically t 

Bsor Tkkuy. No, Hir. I think the boys arc sprightly and in good working oon- 

or HcTLKR. Do you think good results are had by the course as it is given here 

1 do lint sfx^ak of the men who are preparing for scientitio parsnita, bot of 

ho exju'ct to he naval othcers. 

SNor rKKKY. I'he im))ortance of a scientific training for naval officers is so 

liat I liiiuk the be»t possi))le course should be given in chemistry and in physios, 

ly III <>lt*etricity. Naval otlicers are frequently ordered to dnties which can 

iurerNslully dineliarged by men ignorant of these sabjeots. 

4>r Bi I'LKK. You do not think that their pursuit of scientific studies interferes 

eir (iiiaiitiiationM for coniinandingf 

•isor TKitKY. 1 think it benetits them. I think it serves to select the most in- 

t UHMI. 

or HrTLKR. But does it interfere with their qnalifications for the genersl 
)f a naval otlieer though they may be highly iutellectaal f 
Mor Tkkuy. I think not. 

W. W. Hkni>uickson, U. 8. Navy, hea<l of the department of mathemstio8| 

s'l before the board. 

*KKsii)KNT. llow long have you been a professor at the Academy f 
s^or llKNDUicKsoN. .Since l^<73. 1 was graduated in ISSS and became ao in- 
r in lb70. In 1^7:; I resigned my commission as lieutenant-commander in the 
ud took the profesHor^liip which I now hold. 

or Bm'LKK. 1 would like you to state how the present course of study por- 
the Academy compares with that of 18(i3, when you graduated, and also 
on canic line as an instructor f 

Hsor 1 1 r.Ni>uicKM>N. My entranoe here wasdnring the war, when the course was 
ed vt-ry Miatenally, to enable cadets to get through. In 1870, when I came 
kcadriiiy aH an instructor, 1 think it had not recovered from the effect of the 
es ill tile endeavor to get tin* men through ouickly. When I came here the 
'\n^^ iM'gan with aritliinctio and tinished witn that slud^^ and algebra during 
, year, and the second year t<N)k geometry. They had a full course in descrip* 
»nietry and nliorter training in analytical geometry, but no differential cal- 
itil I <'aine hen* in H70. The wider scope taken in teaching these studies 
course made a great change. The study of phvsics has been very much 
'd. It amoinited to almost nothing in my time. Theu there was no depart- 
' steani-cngineering until just b«;fore I. came here in It^O. 
'al Walkkr. Were the mechanical studies taught in your day very thor- 

iisor Hkndricksox. We used Symtlfs text-book, which was quite an element- 


or Bi'TLKR. Do you think that the amplification of the course of studies yon 

Ht retcrri'd to is not too great for a boy to master at present f 

Mor Hknduick^on. 1 tliink it is not. I think the results show that. I think 

ibi'T found dcliricnt is not greater than in former days. The boys come to ns 

irepari'd tliiin they n^fd to. In my time they did nf»t give a great deal of at> 

t(» uiatlitMnaticH. I did not spend half an htmr on my studies. Our mathe- 

only included elementary arithmetic and algebra, and I had been through 

hen I cjiiiie here. 

al Wai.kki:. What d(» you mean by elementary algel>raf 
Mor I1km>i:I( K>^n\. We used au elementary book. It was Davies, I think* 
al Wai.kkk. 1 should like to ask if in your instruction of mathematics it is 
iry to explain in advance f 

Mor Hkndkk kson. I have fcmnd that it isdifficult to makea student nnderstand 
(on by an explanation In'tore he has looked it over. 1 should like to speak 
be question of the amount of instruction given at the Aca<iemy, because I 
kno^ Honiething about it. I have b«sen to West Point, the Boston School of 
logv, Troy, and Hoboken as a visitor, an<l seen classes instructed at those 
uid I am sure that at no one of those places can anything like as much in- 
n be given as there is here. Their instructors have classes of thirty or Ibrtj 
ieal with, aud they do not have a longer period for instmetion thao we. At 


West Point tho time for instruction is an hour and a balf, and tbey confine 
8«lves very lnr<<:cl.v to text-books in cat^'^cbiziug the claasand marking the res 
has alwayB been my aim to toach, and where I could help a atadeat I have 
done 8<). 

Senator Tellkr. I have heard the same complaint r^arding the lack of 
tion at West Point. 

Professor HKXDRiCESoy. They do teach there, bat they pay more attent 
marking than we. 

The Presidrxt. Is it your practice to assist the student in every possible w 

Professor IIendrickson. Yes ; even to the extent of doing his work for him 
times, wliicb may become necessary. 

Dr. Mendkniiall. What are the text-books yon use in yonr department f 

Professor Mendricksox. In the fourth class, Todh an tor's Higher Algebr 
Chauveuet's Geometry and Tn>;oiiomotry, and in the latter stady wehaveTodl 
as an additional book, tri;;ouometry beiu^ a third-class stady. Other text-lHN» 
Church's Descriptive Geometry, C* Smith's Conic Sections, Aldis's Solid Geomc 

Senator J^ Do you require the cadets to study all these book^F 

Prol't'ssor Hendkicksox. A lesson nmy be gi^'^nin one or the other. ChanT 
work on tri<:;ono[nctry is very <lelicient in examples, and mj idea in teaching b 
niatics is to ^ive the boys plenty of work in the way of solving problems. 

General Walker. Do you think the number of studenta thrown out fromti 
time durin^r tbt^ course is, nncoiisciously on the part of the Academic Bom 
creased by the known fact that but a small number can be provided for ia the 2 

Professor IIendrick.sox. 1 was disposed to think that the law when first pSflK 
that etlec-t, and 1 now think it was so for a time, bat I doubt that it is a fact 
It seeuis to me tliiit the trouble to get on here can not be charged to the lack of c 
tunity to^et in the service. 

General Walker. 1 mean on the part of the teachers ; whether the fact thil 
is no cliauce for the student to enter the Navy does, perhaps anconscioosly, 
the student's chance on tbt» part of the teacher. 

Professor Hkndricksox. It has hud an inliuence in this way. Previoosly, v 
student failed to ^ct in, he was allowed to go over the coarse another year. 
this law was )>a^sed and tbe competition became so important, it was thought i 
to givo Si man two years Avben others only had one. So tbe board did not allo^ 
to be taken back for a second year's trial, except in the case of illness, or sone 
erjually jjo«)d n.-ason. 

General Walker. In the case a whole class averages very mnch higher in on 
than in another, do you think you would be likely to graduate a larger perasnt 
them f 

Profcsstir ITexdricksox. It would be guess-work forme to answer that. X; 
is, that 1 lie avera^^ir of graduates runs about the same thronglioiit tho year. 01^ 
bciu'T bctiiT than another would ;j;raduato more men, but iu point of fact, thai 
of ^raduatifs avrrajre about the same. 

Senator Hitlkr. Do you think there has been any improvement in the chant 
the- graduates from \\w. Naval Academy under what may be called the newn 
since the time you cntcn'd >' Do ihey make better ofiicerst 

i'ro(rssor II KN oiiicKsoN. ] kuow that, when I graduated they said we werenot 
a rent, 'i'iiat is just what tbey say about them now. I think tbe men whoan 
iiatcd now are btMtci- in every way. Tbeirconduetis very much better if wetik 
account tiic reports oflbcni while on shipboard. We have forty yoangiuen cow 
to the Academy for examination after their two years' cruise every year, uid vt 
no disturbance of any kind. 

<ieneral Walkkk. Is there an improvement in character as well as in tniid 

I'rofessor Ii]:M)KiCK.S(»x. The number of men who smoke and drink is aaBi 
than it used to be. That is due to the restrictions of the coarse here, I think. 

Senator J>rTLKR. 1 referred to the diflerenco in their qualification for nsTsI 
cers. i )o you I hink t bey are of a better class than turned oat fifteen years 

rrot'e-^s'if Hi:ni)i:i('kso\. Tliescbool has greatly improved, the discipline., 
us is every tiling about it. I don't think we have taken any backward stspi 
tliiiik tills is show n in the character of the men we turn ont. 

S(M)ator J KLLi'.R. Tbe standard of the curriculum is higher, is it notf 

J*roies-or Hkm>i:I(.'Kson. Yes. 

Cteneral Walkkk. Von get better men, better prepared! 

rrottssor IIkni>i:i(:ks<ln. I tbink so. When I came here I was exaDiin«d 
Tbe exaruiu.itittns \vere carried on from tvn to thirty days in all. Now ST 
examined ;ir tln^ same time. We got the best, I think, and don't let anyge* ■ 
wboou«;ht not to ]»ass. 

IvepreMMitative IIkrbkrt. Have you mapped out the oonise to be panned bg 
students who are to be cn/jjineera t 

Professor ilKXDRicKSox. In a general way, yes; hat it is not entinly ' 


Rcprewntfttivo IIfrbert. What facilttios for teachinfi^ the additional course in en- 
l^neerin;; have you ? 

Pn>tesHor Hknihiu'Kson. Xo p^ovi^^ioll has been uinde. I don't know whether we 
will need any additional taeilitics. The iustrncton* in the department of steam en- 
l^neerin^i: will be tlie inHtructorb in the new courne. 

Re]»retM*ntative llKunKirr. Do you expect the instructors to do this additional 
teaching without any ))n'paration f 

ProfeHsor Hkni>I{icks()n. 1 should reqnire a great deal, as I am not an expert in 
the line of studies that \\\\\ be pursued in the new course. I think the Chief Engineer 
wonld have u great deal to sav about how that department would be organized. 
Everything they have now is old fashioned. The act of Congress is a little curious 
in the rule it makes for the division of the class. It provides that the class shall be 
divided in proportion to the number of vacancies oi the preceding year in the line 
mod Engineer Corps, but provides that there shall be at least two engineers. Sup- 
posing there are no vacancies in the Engineer Corps or in the line, thequestion would 
Dehow could any division be madef 

Representative Hf.kbkkt. That biil was passed in the shape it was presented by 
Captain iSampson. 

Prf)fe^8or Hkndkickson. I think it wonld l>e better to make a definite division of 
tbe class every year. It is not clear to me the utility of having the division depend 
on the vacancies of the last year, when the appointment of the new officers would 
not take etlect for tlire<- years to come. 

Representative IlKunKKT. That ])ro vision was probably prompted by the fact that 
the numlxT of «'ngineers have not yet l»een reduced to the limit provided in the bill 
of Xf*Ti2j and it was not desirable to have any nlore pursue that course than was 

^ Tbe pRKsiDRN'T. In your opinion, how does the course for the education of cadet 
•ngineers provided for in this bill compare with that pursued in the Academy in 
the past f 

Professor IIkndkickson*. I think the system of appointing cadet engineers gave 
good men, better than we are likely to get under any other system of appoint- 

^Representative IlKitnKRT. Do the cadets get as much scientific education under 
the old law as they will now f 

Professor 11km >H I ( kson. I think they get more than of old. Under the old sys- 
kom the men began their traininu after having entered the Academy, whereas now 
they will be better prepared tor th«> special course they are to take. 

I>r. Mkndrmi.^m^ Tlie engine«T was pretty near a third-class man when he came 

\T**f was he not f 

Professor ]lKNhKi('KM»N. I could give them one book of geometry as a leason, 

toause they w«<re cttachcd u]» perfectly whea they came here and had the time 

y would ordinarily have to give to plane geometry to devote to descriptive geom- 

>*•/> which is a Hubjfrt very necesHjiry to the engineiT. They could accomplish all 

nqnired of them and have time to hpare, and that was partly the reason why the 

stem was brf>ki'n u]>. They were iN'coining tb« best students of the school. 

Senator Tkllkk. Whi-n wah that synteni broken up. 

Professor Hkndhk-kson. In ltv*'J. Of the class (»f 'r*! there wore 72 cadet midship- 

D and *24 engineers, and undrr the act of Congress of *S2 only *^) got into tue 

•▼ice, and the bal.tiiiM* wen* allowed to i;o. The men who came here as cadet en- 

neent are not tin* kind t<i dn»p out ; they were able men. 

Dr. 5lRNi>KxnAiJ.. What would be your judgment reganling the advisability of 

kking the division of tlie conrsr a .\ear earli«'r f Would it not make better men if 

i division of the r<Mirsc would take place at the end of the second year instead of 

.ring it at the end of tin* third .\earf 

ProfesMir Hkndkh K>n\. Wi* discussed this matter in the Academic Board very 
Toughly. We conchnhd that it was lM>st t<» make the ilivision at the end of the 
rd year rather than at the end of the s«*cond >«'ar. The older the men tbe more 

' can know about th< ni, and conH4'f|uently the more jmliciously cau the diTision be 

nator Tkllkk. Will the engineers go to s<*a at the end of their four years' course 

the other cadet.s ? 
« rofesMir llKM>nirKsnN. I do not know. I should think they ought not to do so. 
Senator Tkm.kk. NNonld it be advinable to k«*ep them here? 
Professor IiKNi>nicK>o.N. That matter will be in the hands of the Navy Depart- 


Jenator Tki.i.rk. Po \ou think the Secretary might control thatt 

Professor HKNi>itirKSf>N. 1 think he will pnibably do whatever the Academic Boatd 

nimends in the matter. 
-^nator Tbllek. They will not have a very thorough training as engineen if they 

hxm the Academy at the end of fonr years, will (hey f 



Professor HRynRiCKSON. I think it stands to reason that their profession can iw 
be thoroughly learned in one year. 

Senator Teller. The cadet has no special training except in that one year. Tbm 
he will not be a very skillful engineer. 

Dr. Mendrnhall. What has been done in the way of recmiting the EtngliMS 
Corps from the passace of the act of 1882 up to the present time f 

The President. There haye been no vacancies. 

Senator Butlkr. What do you think of the advisability of having the two jmn 
course at sea, after the four years' course here 7 

Professor Hendrickson. I think on the whole it would be best not to send men U 
eea for a two years' course. I think it is a pretty long pull for the yonng num. 

Senator Butlkr. Is it better to give him two years' course at sea at the beginnim 
of his course or at the end of it f 

Professor Hendrickson. At the end, if ho is to have the oonrse at all, by all meuM 
I think to send the youngster two years to sea at the start would have a vmrr bai 
effect. I don't think there is any ])lace for a youngster under sixteen years old oi 
board a man-of-war. They should know a little more when they go there. 

Senator Tkllrk. What is the English method of training their officers f 

Professor Hendrickson. They send them to a school-ship for two yean befon 
beginning their course. Their system is nothing like ours. They go to the sUl 
very young — when they are but twelve or thirteen years old, I think. 

Senator What is your opinion about the provision of the aot of Congiw 
extending the age of entrance to the Academy f 

Professor Hendrickson. I was satisfied with the law as it stood previonalyy whei 
the age was from fourteen to eighteen, though there are occasionally oases of yoaai 
men who come here, fourteen years of age, who are obviously too young to go tBfon^ 
the course, but a great many go through at th:it age and do well. I think the nppe 
limit, as now established, is too great. It seems to me that the age at whlen vi 
send a younf^ man out into the Navy is too great. 

{Senator Tkller. Suppose he were given his commission at the end of hia Jbo 
years' conrHe T 

Professor Hkndrickson. I think that would bo a good thing to do. I think twantg 
years is too old for the u])per limit as the course ih now given. 

Senator Tkllkk You think the raise from tourt(>ou to fifteen years is all Ti|^t 
You would have the limit for entrance frnm iift<'on to nineteen T 

Professor Hendrickson. Yes, sir ; I think the limit of age should give the yoom 
man as much chance an possible, as there is but one chance for appointment hsM 
At West Point a yonng man always h;is more than one chance. ' 

Eepresentative IlERnERT. I understand that there has been a gradual increaasil 
the ages of cadets admitte<l hero and that it is now appft>xi mating to the npPM 
limit. Does not this result from the habit of Congressmen, of having oompeORVl 
examinations for the appointment which they give, in which the older men ava. apl 
to carry off the prize t 

Professor Hendrickson. I don't think this is the reason. J oonld not give Ml 
statistics, but my impression is that quite as often as not the young men eanjei 
the prizes in those com])etitive examinations. 

General Walker. Assuming that there is a certain class of forty men, helirsfli 
the ages of fifteen and sixteen and another between seventeen and eiffhteen, la i 
your opinion that a larger x>n)pr)rtion of the men of the younger age will gradaall 
than those of tho higher limit of age T 

Professor IIkndkickson. 1 don't think there will be a CTeat deal of diffiiranas^ 
but 1 sus]>eet that it will be in favor of the younger uhmi. These statistics haTehssi 
ma<le up from time to time and may be found in the Superintendent's <^ee. {f 
course any ntatistics of that kind will ehange from year to year. Some one WW 
speaking of the fact that there are no N(;w England men in the npper classes thh 
year. This so happens,, but in the long run 1 think all sections will averag* *| 
about the same. 

The President. You don't think tho locality from which the boy comes hai 
to do with his standing in the Academy f 

Professor Hendrickson. I can not say I would place one State over i 
that respect. 

Professor KooT. I should like to have Profewsor Hendrickson explain the 
nn<1er whi(;h he makes up his general examinations. 

Professor Hendrickson. I suppose no two ]»rofesvsors teach a subject Jnat al 
We all have our peculiarities. My general idea in making up an examination i 
and this comes from long experience, is to arrange a paper so that while to i 
whole of the work requires tho utmost capacity of the l>est men, yet at the 
time the work is not too much for what I regard as a standard for the loweal 
The highest man 1 suppose to be able to get a perfect mark on thepraer, i 
to arrange the papers so that Irom my experience the lowest man trill oe aL.« 


at five-eighths of it. Generally these yonng men are weW satisfied if they get » 
<t is r>0 per cent. I don't know that I can explain my system any better than 

m)t, Mendknhall. How much time is allowed for the annual examination f 

Profetisor Hendkickson. Two hours and twenty minutes on each part. I suppose 
most of UH mark up five or six ques^tions to cover the two hoars. In the present 

uFth cluHs of sixty men but four wore below the re<|uirod limit in mathematics, 
>ugh any one not uequainted with the system of examination would think it too 

•«u. That is a reniarkahle nn'onl. 

General Walkkk. Does not tht^ syst-em of examinations at the Academy give the 
itudentsa certain ohoiiM>asto the questions they will answeror the work they will do f 

Professor II KXDiiK'Ksox. That iH quite fre()\iently done. There are varions ways 
»f arriving at tho same end. In muthematics wo generally give six questions and 
reqnire five to bo answered. Tlie nixth question is known to be pretty difflcalt, and 
|]io«e who ean tackle it };et credit for their work if they make mistakes on the other 
irork. The stiidcniMcan never pet a mark of four any other way. 

ReprcMMitative Hkkhkkt. Du I understand you to say no one ever passed a perfect 
sxamin&tion in inulhiiieticsf 

Profett-sor 1Ikni)UICKH)N. The mark four is piven, but I mean to say the student 
Bould never pet it witiuuit such a help as I have spoken of. No one can do matbe- 

itical work without uiakinp mistakes. 

Representative Hkkhrkt. 1 have seen many marked perfect. 

Dr. Mendkniiaij.. 1 have seen many ptTfocl examinations if the time is allowed. 

Professor Hknokickson. If you give them time enough I grant it can be done. 

Dr. Oakland. In making u)i your examinations how many of the six qnestions 
prill be altogether new to the class f 

Professor HENi>KirKS(»N. A very small proportion. I hardly understand what yon 

«n by new. In algebra we give problems taken from the text books. 

^r. Gaki.ani>. Then tliey will have stndied them. They are thoroughly versed or 
Wght to be with the ])robleins you s«>lect f 

Professor liKNMtii'Ksox. I <lon't aim to give very difficult problems for the exam- 

Btions. We rather aim to bring out what ihe student has learned and knows well 

1 can write do^^n at oiire. 

Or. Garland. I was looking over some papers on the application of the eqnilibrinm 

forces. Tiiese prineipies, of eonrs(\ are old to the students, but are the examples 
.«ji give to test their iin(h>rstanding of the principles those with which they have 

^n familiar? 

professor Hkmiuickson. The prolilems in mechanics would be given by Professor 

ce. I don't know an> thing about th«^ particular exaniiimtion he would give, but 
—r habit is to give examples which an> taken from the books. Of course it is not 

sly that the >tiidents have worked all the problems out. Then in most cases there 

-oniethiiig new intended to try the best man. 

. Mendknhall. I would like ]*rofi>Hsor Hendricksou to give us his opinion re- 

'i^e to the system of giving daily marks which is pursueil in his department. 

» yon think it addH Hiircc.*.., or efiiciency to the work, or d(K«s it interfere! with the 

itrnctor as a teacher / 

JVofesHor IIendhick.'^on. Ithink when the instructors are used to the system it 

be pursued with but liitir th<iught by th«Mu. The officers who come here as in- 

.. uOtorsnre fimiliar witli the system, and you will find the students marking them- 

ves pretty nearly as w«-il as tli«> instructors will <lo it. 

mlenenil NValkrk. 1 inidrist.ind Dr. Mendenhall's qucstitm to mean whether the 
mination is mi-rfiy a fne.iiis at gi-tting at what the student knows, or Is it an at- 
^t to iiiHtruct him f 

. .ofewtor Hkndi{I('K<<o\. 1 do rot mark my section until the students have gone 
of the riHiiii. Whi-ii thev have gone, I put down what I think the recitation is 

.Mendknhall. What means have you of eheeking your own fairness of Jndg- 
111 f 
m'n*fi*sMor IlKNDKit'K'<oN. Thi-se things beeotm* a iiintter of habit to a man who is 

d to it. so that you d'Mi't have to pay any particular attention 
mJt. Mendknhall. .Xm- ihe^- marks not your pers4>iial iinpressii>ns of the standing 
the young man iatli< r iliait of the aetuaj performance he givesut the time? 
m'rofcHsor I{kndi!I(*K'*<>\. IN-rhaps they are. but that iN'pwmal inimession is what I 
it to give. A man rom«*s ti> the reeitatioii loom and g(»es to wore, at some prob- 
I may or may not have time t<> hear him reeite. So with the others. But at 
vind of the rt'citaiion I \\:%\*' a pretty iitMid idea of what they have done. I do 
mean to siiy that 1 giadi- tli«* class in om- day. but at the end of a week they are 
fairly rated. 

rill Walker. What is the virtue of your monthly change of instroctocBSOthat 
»«adent xiasses before four difi'ereut instructom f 



Professor Hexdrickson. Tbo stadonts would not have the same inAtmotor ihnmg 
the entire course, even if the instructors were not changed, as the seotiona theniMlvi 
change. If the iuHtructors kept the same sections they would not have the 

The President. Why not allow them to keep the same section f 

Professor Hexdricksox. All instructorH are not equal in their method of 
and they are not equully liked by the cadets, who would not like to have the sm 
men all the time. If the students have difibrent instructors their marks at the en 
of thtvterm will average fairly, showing their real standing. 

The President. It eliminates any prejudices for or against them. 

Professor Hendrickson. This rule is not understood to be a cast-iroo xeg^olatiaii 
hut has been adopted in justice to the students. 

Dr. Mendexhall. Is that custom pursued in the other departments — in the phjil 
cal laboratories, for instance f 

Professor Hexdricksox. I am not x^ositive. I think the work there ia continaoDi 

E^f. J. M. Rice, professor of mechanics and applied mathematics, Naval Acadenqj 
appeared before the Board. 

Senator Butler. How long have you been a professor at the Aoademy f 

Professor KiCE. I have been hero' for twenty-six years. I came hexe in Octobei 

Senator Butler. What is your opinion as to the course of study puieaed here mi 
as compared to the courHc when you came hero ? 

Professor Hice. It is vast ly improved. The advance has been very greet. 

Senator Butler. State in what respect. 

Professor KiCE. The men couie here better ]>repared. The mathematical ooani 
has l)ccn greatly increa.sed and modernized. The course when I oame here was vei] 
antiquated, but it has been made ninch more luodoru and arranged to cover mon 
ground, and it does it better, so that for tlietimo we have — I think the mathemfttiea 
course, as a whole, is a ver^' suecesHlul and satisfactory one. 

Senator Butler. Do you think you have time enough for the coarse? 

Proiessor Rick. I think >v(> have. It would seem, of course, to persons aoouatoiiiM 
to outside schools that we have not, and if any ono should have asked me befoie] 
came here if it were possilile to carry young men over the course we have I ahonU 
probably have said no. But my views are entirely changed. We could nae mem 
time, but I don't think ir would do much good to go more slowly. 

Senator Butler. Do you think the cadets are as thoroughly instmoted am if man 
time were given f 

Professor Rick. I am under the inipressi(»H that they are well equipped when tlMj 
leave liero. They are well enough e(j nipped to get a subject up when called upon, 
and I have found when conversing with pe.o])le who come in contact with onroedeti 
elsi^whero that there are very few who can use mathematics better than thev. Ow 
plan Ihis been to take them over a good deal of ground, and although it wonld wm 
to one not familiar with the Academy that we go too far, I don't think wo daon fthi 
whole. The Htimulns we can bring to bear upon tht^ eadets here and the fact that wi 
don't get everybody in the service, that we are not obliged to keep a class baokfti 
the sake of one or two men who have no chanec to get in the service, are great bebl 
to us in ])ushing the cadets aheiul. Th(n*e is no reason why we should keep back tM 
upper half of the class beeaust? of those who have no chance to get in the service eii| 

Senator Butler. Do you think the ])resent law has the effect of oreatiug Kraatoi 
pressure among the sludi.'nts than tiiere would be otherwise t 

Professor Rice. It holds out a prize to a certain number. Those who are not aUl 
to get in the service are apt to get tliseoii raged. It would be better if we held OVi 
more of these prizes, because thost^ who have no chance to get into the service aiidM 
the present law would then do better. But our system of study makes the npper msB 
of great assistance to the ]ow(>r men; great (>r here than any other place I havi 
known. If there is anything taught to the upper section and not to the lower msi 
they usually get it. Those cadets who go into civil life are pretty well equipped] 
that is, they have a pretty good foundation laid fur success in <?hatever bnaineHM 
profession they may enter. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Is there diflerence in the courses of the different sectiODsT 

Professor Rice. Sometimes there is. lliere has not. been any difference wortt 
mentioning this year, but formerly we used to give what we called elective ronim. 
That is to say, we took the u])per secti<m over in four days what the remainder of tkl 
class acconi])lished in tive, and gave them advantages in the way of marks. Tlurt 
had a good effect thr(»ughout the class. Ir was a gn>at stimulus to the lower men oil 
the class. We are about starting that system again. We had that ^ftem in VMti 
18p2, and with very good success. 

Senator Butusb. what are the text- hooks of your class f 


»r Rice. Rice and Johnsoifs Differential Calonlus, JohnHon's Integral Cal« 
wser's Analytical Mechanics, Cott^riirs Applied Mechanics, Merriinan's 
r Least Sqnares. We shall not use Merriinan's Method of Least Squares 
j^er. Professor Johnson is now writing a new book that will be the text- 
lat branch next year. We find Merriman very unsatisfactory. 

BuTi.KK. Do you have anything to do with the fourth class? 
>r Kick. I begin my instrnctiou of students after they have been here two 
hey liave, in the mean time, completed algebraand trigonometry, analytical 
, both plane and solid. I l>egin with the calculus, and going throngh dif- 
and integral calculus in the tirst term. In the second term of the second 

I tak«» them over mt*chanics. In the first class they have Cotteriirs Ap- 
hanics. Cotterill is professor of applied mechanics at Greenwich. 

.Waia'KK. I should like to ask Professor Kice if in his work in the calculus 
lie students have all the instruction and drill in algebra which is required 
r work in the calculus easily t 

)r Hick. TIm'v come to me very well drilled. I could not get them over the 
:hey were not well drilled previously. My course in the calculus is crowded 
t. * 

i Walker. Is mnch importance at<"ached in the Academy to the matter of 
id hnndsoiiie <lemotistration or recitation other than what is required for an 
idinij ot" the work f 

)r Kick. I don't think we do give as much attention to that as they do at 
•es. We make our recitations rather subordinate to the examination sys- 

get all the work we eun out of the students in the hour. We don't devote 
luch attention to style, etc., as wenii^ht ; we don*t think it is so important. 
X a reeitati(m ordinarily I havt^ the work put on the blackboard. I don't 

go to the blackboard and read over equations, because it dotts no good. I 
(>w he gets the e<iuatiou number two from number one, and try to get at 

point directly. It is at the expense of that style and manner that you will 
v itroiiiiui'iit at W<'st Pt>int. 

Wai.kkk. Is the time that w<nild be required to bring a class of Mtndents 
■itaiioii room aind blaeklM>ard prepared to make these ]>rompt, handsome, 
ivr (Icinoust rat Ions out loud, as is done in some institutions, enough to eu- 
[o understand the matter? 

)r K'lcK. [ think there is a g<iod deal of time wasttMl in stylish demonstra- 
loiTt think the style pays. True, it gives the man a certain amount of 
. Adnnr.kl Kodgers tried to intro<lnc() more style in recitations here when 
iptTiiiteiident, but we rather fell back from it after he left. 
vi> In your mathematical instruction is attention or encouragement 
>ri;;inal demonstration on the part of the stud«*nt f .^re they required to 
I work on the board in iiccordance with the text-bo(»ks or are they encour- 
riginal diMnonntration f 
i>r Kick. We always enconrago them as far as poasible in original demon- 

I'.nt wi* tlon't lind a great deal of it. 
I Walkkk. How many hours a week and how many weeks do yon devote 
ntial <:ih-iiliis? 
JT Ki< k. About teu'Weeks ; five recitations each week. You s(*e it is a short 

I Walkkr. W»^ usually devtite a whole year to it. 

or Kick. We don't eoinplete the lN>ok I use on ditlereiitial calculus. Nlon't 
h more than half. There are subjects put into the books with s|»eoial ref- 
< the i'lective courses, and when we had the elective coiirs«>s I took the 
n«*n over th<* whole of the book. Now I cut out i)ver> thing that is not ap- 
iUiih 1 try to {>ut in everything essential. 

r l^i'TLKK. I)u you think the course you have just indicated, which ranst 
rigid, is es.H4mtial for the i»erformance of the ordinary duties of the naval 

or Kick. Y<*s, sir: it is ess<*ntial for this n^ason : The courses in gunnery, 
diit«M>tnn\ navigation, etc., are dins'tly de]>endent on the mathematical 
It wonlfl Hcem to me a great mistake in stiKlyiiig navigation to take the 
without dtMiioiiHtration. The 4-:i<lets should \m giviMi a course that will 
m understand the derivation of the formulas and fully com iirehend their 
pplicatiouH. If there was anvthing in iny course that couhl bo omitted, 
h would have no application in a naval otli<-t*rN can*er. I Hhoiild cut it out 
An illu<«tration of this is seen in the study of tli>* mi*thi>d of least squares, 
ce that ttndy. and I would not teach it if it went not absolutely necessary. 
ueeesMary, becaus<* yonng men may be ordered on experimental duty t^ the 
««ervatory and elsewhere, and as yon know, in nearly ail tabu1ate«l work of 
mental character, the method of least squares is emplf>ved. We doD*t torn 
M out masters of tliia subjeoti bnt wo give them iiuflioient knowMso to 
I importauco. 




Dr. Mbndenhall. Do they make use of their^nowledge of this stndy in yovf 
perimentai work here t 
Professor Rice. I don't kuow that they do. There is no reason why tbmr 

i. Senator Butler. Do yoa think the coarse yoa have Jost indicated .pats too 

a strata on the boys to get the best results f 
^ Professor Rice. I think not. 

Seaator Butler. Do yon think yoar coarse gets the best results t 
ij Professor Rice. I think so. They would noc l>e able to stand the strain if it 

for the exercise they get in their drills. It takes a good deal of stady to bren^ doi 
a boy who has plenty of exercise. We don't have such cases so far at I know. 
think the doctor will probably agree to that. I don't think the strain is too flimL 
i' Representative Herbert. How much time is given the stadenta to amnrerll 

I questions at thair annual examination, f 

Professor KiCE. Five hours. 
■ Representative Herbert. What is the object in limiting the time to five hooti 

Suppose a student would answer every question if he had time, why not allow U 
J . to do it t 

.^ Professor Rice. There may be a difference of opinion about that. We giTetiM 

']' marks on work done in a given time. At the annual examiuationy we ooold ct 

[ them longer time, but it has been customary to mark on what they can do in a ^V 

time. If this were not so, I don't kuow how long a time some men would apead 
their examinations. 

Representative Herbert. But would it not make a great differenoe in tba 
ation of some of the men, if full time were allowed tliemf Freqaentlyy u w. 
work slowly stand better and take a higher relative rank than others v 
excel them if limited in time. 

Professor Rice. At our monthly examinations, each head of department la * 
to make his examination in his own period of two hours, because the nezt{ ■& , 
be engaged for recitations clsowheic. My experience has been, that a goow m\ 
the cadets will stay at tlieir examinations as long as yon will let them. 1 
we have for the annual examinations is from 8 to 1 o'clock, with an inter 
twenty minutes. We might make the time from ti to 2, but I don't think i« <« « 
while to do that. 

Representative Herbert. Bat does not this system result in making the 1 
rapidity at which a man can work, rather than of the thoroughness of niskn«*v 

Professor KiCB. If a man is thoroughly conVorHant with the subjeet, the 
sufficiently long for him. The examination is usually rather more than the m 
can accomplish in the time given. We aim to make the papers long enough tu 
not only the lower but the upper men of the class. If we were to give a sho.. 
easy paper, the upper men would got a perfect mark and we shonla fail tc i 

Representative Herbert. You grade the upper part of the class by lin 

Professor Rice. I doubt whether more time would help the lower men onfc. 

Representative Herbert. Has the time given for the examinations always b 
limited? • 

Professor Rice. I think some years ago wo did not limit the time as olosely 
late years. I am undtT the impretision that when Admiral Porter was here w- 
givev them unlimited time, but. 1 don't think it would be expedient to do that 

Representative Hkkhkrt. Why not dinpenHe with something else, in order tfl 
more time for examinations, that the knowledge of the students may be tiion 
tested t 

Professor Rice. There is a certain amount of time assigned to each depi \ 

could not take the time asHigned to another department. If I did, it wottau 
students to lose advantages els.^when^ and would interfere with the entire «; 

Representative Hkhbkrt. So you are ho greatly x>i^^'!^u*i ^or time, that you ««■ 
stop to give more time to examinations? 

Professor Rice. No, sir; it is iuiposHiblo under our present system. There 
be a great waste of time for the bulk of the class were we to do so. 

Senator Butler. What proportion of the griuluat-es who are turned ont 
stitutiou get into the service as compared with those entering twenty year* «fi»-< 
. j Professor Rice. I should think wu got into the service about two-thilds 

number that got into the Horviee twenty years ago. 

Senator Butlkr. I M()eak of the perciuitage of graduates f 

Professor Rick. I think it is mueli larger. 

Senator Butlkr. Do you take into consideration the increased ran 
There are three hundred and twenty-live Representatives iu Oougr w» m 

is entitled to nominate a cadet f 

Professor Rigk. X mean that of a class of a hundred the proportion Of 


w tbaii it was formerly. I ])«'1p(Ml to niako up 8omo ti«:ure8 i'l rej^ard to 
*64. At that time, of the wholo nninbor sont us, about ou«)-l'ourtb got 
n\ of thorn* who were a<hiiitt4>d about 3*i or X) per vvut. ^nuiuuted. About 

of all who oaiuo got throu«j(h ultimately aixl of those who went iu about 
;rH<Iuat(Ml. I have not made up the statistics for the present time, but I 
pnt))orii(»n is much larger. 
Bi'TLEU. The pn)porti«»u of graduation? 

r Rice. The proportion of graduation, I think, is larger. We get more 
gh than we U84>d to. Tiie statistics we ma<le up iu 18(34 weut back to 1845, 
lihition of the Academy. 

itativt* Herbkkt. Are thow figures accessible now f 

r Rice. 1 think they could be found. I could not put my baud on tbem 

itative llEKnEKT. I wish you would get the ligures and append tbem to 

BriLEK. What do yon think would be the effect of rtnlucing the standard 
cut course at tln^ Aca<leniy somewhat and then adding a post-graduate 
young nun who have a spt'cial a)>titnde for scientilic studies? 
r \\WK. I don't think t\w standard need be reduced very mnob. I don't 
iTcssjiry to reduce the stan«lanl very nuich, though we couhl then get a 
iImt thrnngli, if thest* young men were matle oflicers on graduation. It 
*eas(> the si/<« of the class and we could grailuate a much larger number. 
' g«'t ]>n'tty much all through now who have fair or moderate ability. The 
lon'f iH'X through are those who <lon't work. The course is not so difficult, 
lion, but that the students can get through it if they work. 
DKNiiAiJ.. Tiider the present system, the men who stand highest in the 
R* oiH's N\lio ^rt into the service. Is the system of instruction which you 

with the examinations and daily marks, the best system for selecting that 
• graduates who will be the best otlicers of the service t Is it tbe best sys- 
kking the seliM'tions t 

r h'K'K. I think so. I think we can not do any better. Cadets Bometimea 
valiialih' <|ualitirs that we can not find out, but I dim't know anything bet- 
ir system tor K^Mting at them. If I knew anything better I sbonld advo- 
M* havo tried every means to g(>t at the value of cadets; among others, the 
rking tor practical fM>anninship ami navigation on practice ships. 
Wai-KER. Of a i'lass of ninety enteryig the Academy I believe sixteen get 
rvinv of the-M* sixteen, how many, speaking very roughly, because it is a 
mpiession to a certain extent, would not bo among the first sixteen schol- 

recitation room f Of their number how many would be promoted for 
n drills and practical <'xercises •* 

r KiCE. That question is rather diflicult to answer without some act aal 
ije mi'u are ci«*dited for their work at practical exere»s<»stoa certain extent, 
H'siime the sixteen entering the s«*rviie would bo the sixteen best scholars. 
litt\roor three of thtMiumber get into the service tlimugh etUcicucy in 
. but I think the numlwr is not very gn*at. 
NVai.kek. Not more than two or three our of sixteen T 
' Kick. We have tried all th*} means wo know of to get at tbe practical 
)e men. 

Itative IIkkbeht. How do the discipline and morality of tbe cadets com- 
twentv vears iv'tt t 
r Rice. They an' mtn'h lH*tt4'r n«)w. 
Itative Mekheiit. Has thero been a continuous impmvement in that ro- 

r Rice. Ye«*. a continuous improvement. There is less dissipation among 

and they are geiierilly more dispos«>d to conform to the- n^gulations of the 

ban they weie twenty years ago. 

Itative HKiMiEKT. How do the la*«t twenty men of the class compare with 

lative Mfamling tw«»nty years »j;«»f 

r Kick. They jire better trained men now. 

Itative IfEiMiEnT. Has the :iet of LS-'-J had atiy effert upon their standing? 

r Uu'K. Thry h.ive bi-iMi In-tier trained luen for u long time than they were 

r» of the \\ ar. 

Itative HrnuEnr. Do the men In the lower part of the class study as dill- 

hev<lnl |»ri«>r to th«» act of l*— .i? 

r Rkm:. I *Utn\ think they stu<Iy ipiiteas well. Then* is.Hinne difference, but I 

: it is iinicli. It i^ not as great as one would think. I supp(»!Mt some of tbem 

raided, though then* are others who feel that they are laying a vahiable 

1 for dniii<r soiuething outside the Academy, and that acts as a Htimulos. 

Itative IIekuert. Do yon think the numlx^r of men to whom the course is 

ieiy valueless is any greater now than prior to It^'il 

, 89 16 


Professor Rice. I do not think it is greater. At any rate, not mnoh. I have 
tbonght tliut 1 noticed a little lack of zeal on the part of some. PreTlons to 1898 m 
did carry the cliisH over a more oxtcude<l course, but that was partly due toths 
elective courses which I have mentioned and x)artly to the fact that the oadet-«B- 
gineers were here. 

General Walkkk. Do yoii think the presence of the cadet-enghaeezs effeota the mfc 
of the students t 

Professor Rick. I think it did. The oadet- engineers were selected by competittre 
examination. They were the better prepared men and their coone covezed cooaid- 
erable more ground than that of the cadet-midshipmen. 

General Walker. Were they the leadin<; scholars t 

Professor Rice. Yes, they wore the leading scholars — ^the beet prepared men. We 
had one young man sent here from Richmond, who had been throogb analytical 
geometry and calcnlns, and he was only seventeen years old. We had a irreatmauy 
men come here as cadet-cngine»T8 who were very well prepared. I don't think then 
is any doubt about the value of the post-graduate course, and itmightvery easily be c^ 
tablished here, it would not even require any legislation, if the Seoretary of the 
Navy should wish to ord«»r it. 

Senator Butler. Could the Secretary of the Navy do that withont the authority 
of Congress ? 

Professor Rice. I think so. All he would have to do would be to pick oat eome ot 
the young graduates and order tbem here. 

Senator Botleu. Would any additional preparation be required at the Ajoademyf 

Professor Rice. No, sir. • 

General Walker. The presence of such post-graduate students would be an ia* 
spiratiou to the cadets, would it not? 

Professor Rice. Yes; v.o doubt. They might be utilized for drills, too. Idout w(>. Hhouhl mainlain stru't discipline with them. Tbey would be ordered to 
sea if tlifv did not imi)rov<? tlirir time. 

iSouator i>i;TLi<:K. Don't, you think it would be a very great advantage to have a 
post-jrraduatc" course i 

Prol'cNsor Kici:. 1 do, indeed; the cost to the Government would be verylittla; I 
don't, think it would require any ap])ropriation or legislation. 

Representative Hi:rbkrt. Would it not require an increased plant, snoh as ateiM* 
enjjinos, ships, models, and such things necessary to study t 

Professor UiCE. We should use the recitation rooms we now have. We should n- 
quir<^ a tVw more models than we have for the use of the iuatructom. 

General Walker. Those would be the things you (mght to have anyhow; thati% 
the UHxlern a[>proved appliances/ 

Professor KiCE. Yes, sir. 

Senator Uutler You don't think it would be necessary or advisable to eimiiUiy cr 
reduce the <rourse of study, to have this post-graduate course, do yonf 

Professor KiCE. What we should probably do would be to take some etndiae iMft 
of the n>gular course and put them In the ])ost.-graduato cotirse. There are Mmt 
subjects we fe(,^l compelled to teach as absolutely necessary, that we might be ahlelo 
l>nt in the ])ost-j:;rMdnate course. 

Senator Hi^tlkr. What nnni would you expect to ])ut in this post-grad nate.coi 
men who <!on't want to ;no in the. service f 

Prot'essor Kick. My i«lea would be to make it an entirely voluntary coane. 
would not ])av(^ any man take it unless he did so voluntarily. I would let the 
elect the '.'ourses t lie V desired to pursue. There are certain officers who have 
ciallios and tlu'V wmild lind great advantage from such a course. 

Professor IJoor. What would be th(^ inllueuct^ of adding a year to tho school ( 
as now anany;e<l * 

Profi?ssoi KicE. I hardly think that would be expedient. We don't want 
young men to wait too long before going to sea. I dtmbt whether the addiU&wvB.« 
year would ho expedient. 

Professor Hoot. Would it be of advantage to raise tho requirement fori 
to tho Academy f 

Professor KiCE. To a certain extent, I think it would. 

Professor KooT. Your requirements are now behind those of the colleges naady a 

Professor HiCE. 1 douM. see why that should continue. But the atndente i 
each Oongressional district and we have had to keep tho standard down a'« > .w- 
cause of lliat. 

Professor KooT. Do you btdieve there are boys from any of tho dintriote, who t 
acquirer algebra through simple equations, who could not go through qnadn b. 

Professor Kicr.. No, I don't think so. .„ 

Professor Uoor. Could not the first four books of geometry be obtained ia 
mission examinatitui T 


Professor Rice. I think that might also bo put in. We should have to do these 
things gradually, so as to give the unMubors of Congress due waruiug^ bat I don't 
think there is any practical ditlicully in raising the standard. 

General Walker. Sup])ose it were provided that jonngnien coming lo Annapolis 
should be appointed a year in advance, so tbey would have that time to prepare 
themselves. Would there be any ditliculty then in securing the additional iustrac- • 
tion ? 

Pn)fe8«or Rice. I think there would bo no ditficulty. I think it would be a good 
plan if they were appointed a year in advance. No objection against that plan oc- 
curs to me. 

General Walkeu. The eflect would be to lighten their work during the regular 
course here. 

Professor KicR. It is to be hoped it would not increase the ago of admission. The 
age is now a)>out as high as it is desirable to make it. 

Representative HKunKKT. What do you think about establishing a maximum age for 
admission at twenty years f 

Professor Kick. That is too old. It would be a mistake to make the difference be- 
tween the youngest an<l the oldest of the cadets any greater. 

Representative Hp:kbert. It is now live years. Do you think that is too great a 
difference t 

Professor Rice. Yes, I think it would be better to take a year off the upper limit. 
The average age of admission has been about seventeen years/ but the increase of the 
up|>er limit will tiave the tendency to increase it. 

General Walkkk. A young man coming here at nineteen or twenty years of age is 
less pliable and adaptable than if he came at sevtMiteeuf 

Professor Kick. I think so, and everybody's experience is that a voung man going 
from here to Nea at twenty-three years of age is too old to break in to that kind of 

General Walker. What is your opinion regarding the requirement of a two-years 
course at sea before final graduation f What is your observation relative to the com- 
parative merits of the examination before and after that two-years course f 

Professor Rice. I think no great advantage is gained by that two additional years 
at sea. My opinion is that it would be better to give the cadets their commissions 
when they get through here. The present system is expensive and I don't think the 
results pay for the trouble. 

Gkiueral Walkkk. As I understand, at the end of that two years a re-examination 
is held, covering the same ground as the examination before the cruise. How does 
their knowledge of the subjects they study and their practical ability to use what 
they have learned, at the end of the two-years course, as shown by their examina- 
tions, compare with what they could <lo before that course f 

Professor Kick. As far as their knowledge of books is concerned I don't think they 
show much advancement. They make progress in t he languages, and their experience 
at sea gives them knowh^lge of the subject of st<>am-engineering, but I don't see any 
great improvement iu their examinations. I dtm't think the results irf the two-vears 
course are worth the trouble and expense that it costs. The argument in Washing- 
ton is that these m«'n who go to sea for^two years constitute a naval reserve in time of 
war. Hut the graduate's who don't ^ei into the service don't go to sea. They go into 
every other line of business. Tlu-y go into brokers' otlices, and engineers' othces, etc. 
If a man has been in civil life for ten years there i- no place for him in the Navy. 

General Walker. Do you mean he would not be valuable? 

Professor Rice. A man could not go back in the Navy and take a rank along with 
his classumtes. The advances in the service would not allow that, and he would not 
be able to till such a place. 

General Walker. The best officers on both sides of the civil war were men who 
had long been out of the service. 

Professor Rick. But that would not be so in the Navy. The volunteer oflQcers who 
came into the service during the war were not, on the whole, very useful. They were 
sometimes ignorant and inetlicient and sometimes dissipated. Ttiey were, with some 
notable exceptions, not ver^ usid'ul men. I think everyliody who remembers about 
it will say that. There were a few w^iu did excellent s<;rvioe. 

Commander C. D. Sigshkk, U. S. N., head of department of seamanship, naval 
tactioSy and naval construction, appeared before the board. 

The President. You are familiar with the act of Congress to regulate the coarse 
of the Naval Academy, ap])roved March 2, ItiSi* f 

Commander Sigsbke. I am. 

The PRBfijDRNT. The second section of that act states that after March 4, 18«&, the 
miDimam age for a<lmission of cadets to the Academy shall l>e fifteen years and the 
miniinniii age twenty. What are your views on the effects of this legislation f 


* \\ Commander Sigsbek. I favor the advance of the minimum and aoqaieaoein ti 

{:■ maximum. 

« > The President. You see no objection to a candidate being twenty yettta of age 1) 

\ fore entering the Academy T i 

|^= Commander Sigbbke. My chief objection is that a cadet or young officer will be J 

\\ *a low grade wlien ho is rather old. 

\ General Walker. Is not the older student less adaptable to the reqairemeata < 

7 the service? 

Commander Sigsbee. I don't think he would be more so. I think the change wf 
produce more stagnation in tbe service than wo have now. My idea is that 1X 
officer ought to have his first command at tliirty years of age, in order to have tl 
{ proper incentive to eft'ort. Kosponsibility is a great educator, and if we fiul toil 

vest an officer with n^spousibility wlien h»^ is young lie gets into a rot. 
General Walkeii. You consider tho advance from fourteen to fifteen yeaxainfl 
\\ minimum age for adniission desirable ? 

|; Commander Sigsbek. I consid(>r that excellent, as being likely to enable boya fka 

>: sections of tbe country where schools are not so good to compete on better terms wit 

i j boys from more favored sections. 

The President. Wbero do you think the best school|) exist f 
Commauiler Sigsbee. The general impression is that the bcIiooIb of New £nglaa 
are the best. 

The President. It has been suggested that it will be for the best interest of th 
service if cadets are graduated at the expiration of the four-years coarse at tk 
Academy and commissioned as ersigns at once. What are your views on the sal 
jectf Is the present method an advantage or disadvantage to the boy and to tli 
service f 

Commander Sigsbee. I think by all means those who go into the service shoold b 
commisHioned as ensigns at the end of four-years course. To give a maa i 
scientific education in this school and then send him to sea and give him duties thi 
are dognuling, and that should be performed by the sailors, is not oalonlatad to ac 
as an incentive to efibrt on his )>art. At present the petty offloersoD board oorsUjB 
have almost no responsibility whutt^ver. The consequence is it harts the sailor, whO 
the petty duties are given to the officers, who are educated for greater thinga. Thsi 
retically, a young otlicer is educated up to the grade of an admiral, and then woaBBi 
him to sea, and he does only these trifiing duties. It is absurd. I wish to say in tU 
connection that, while I have always niath^ young officers stand np to thedo^as \tk 
down at present, I have always disapproved the system. The case of ttiaffradaaill 
of this school is parallel with that of the graduates of other schools. Aoootor bl 
gins the practice of his ])roieHsi(m at once. He does not clean instrnments nor asril 
nurses for a time after he graduates. With this change in the age of admission eiWI 
the greater necessity of giving the young ollicer responsible dnties at onoe. 
General Walker. Your opinion is that the practice cruises will give all thadli 
, to enable the cadet to become an ensign ? 

Commander SKfSBEk. Yes; but praetieo will improve him, asinany pro 
The President. Now a cadet gets a month's leave each year aft^ his oa««aw 
or after his summer at the Academy. J)o yon think that is an advantage o>«r 
old system T 
Commander Sigsbee. I think it is a disadvantage, becanse it t-akes part of 1 
j to go away each year. It is likely to leavt^ him less mtmey on graduating and v» 

I ties him for study at the- hegint'.ing of eaifh a<'adeniic year. At the end of the ai 

i year 1 would give him two months, returning to the old practice. I thi 

■ months would be too lonuf. 

I General Walkkk. 1 should like to ask Commander Sigsbife whether ei 

I the course of study at the Academy to be too severe, considering the ag» « 

i of development reached by the cadets ¥ Is it too si^vere in the sense of • 

! their growth or reducing their vitality or keei>ing them in a strained 

Does your observation show this result T 

Commander Si GSHKE. 1 do not tind that it has that effect. It most be: 
bered that the boys who enter here are physically sound. They are 
every year ])hysically. They hav«j a regular <liet and regular habits andai« 
ical in every way. We tind that when hail clubs comn here from otbsr eo. 
compete with the cadets, the latter are, in almost every case, the finer b< . 
In almost every case the cadet shows greater eudurance. They play 1h>ot 
latter part of the game. 
General Walker, lint are these not picked menf 
Comnmnder Sigsbee. They j)lay against picked men, men picked ft 
I of students. 

j General Walker. Do the others show any signs of loss of vitality or i 

I Pommander SitiSBUK. 1 have not observed that they do. MypfiflerTl 


imon^ tboso of tin- first class, who nro also niidor my obsorvation on board sbip, 
irheri' a lark of pbyNiral quality would be likely to show itself. 
General Walkkr. Do they appear like younj; nu'n under gooil conditions f 
Commander Sigshek. I Iiave generally found that when workc<l bard for four 
inars on l>oard Hhi]>, in the hot Hun, numbers of them took to Hkylarkin^; when they 
Dt aHhon*. I think we eouhl push them harder here. I think they are better able 
tu stand tlie strain than the avurago outside student, on account of the regularity of 
iheir life. 
Representative Hf.u»i:rt. When did yon jrraduateT 
Commander Sicsukk. In I'^iW. 

Rennwentativo IlKKncuT. Were you familiar with atlairs at the Academy after 
> close of the war? 

Oommander Sigshf.k. Not ntrictly. Only in a general way. My first term here 
10 an oflicer was in 1^70. 
Repn-sentative IIkuhkrt. How does the presiMit course compare with thatof 1870t 
Commander SitfSnr.K. I should say it is a little more severe, bocause, when they 
nerged the tw(» conrsis (ratlet-midshipnien and cadet-ongineers) there was a ten- 
lency to preserve all they coulil in eaeh course; but I should not like to go into de- 
Alls without consulting books. 
RepreH«Mitative Hkkukrt. What studies have been added since that time? 
Commander SitiSHKK. I would not like to state without looking at the books. I do 
lot know of any absolutely newsnbject except hygiene. The elements of mechanism 
nd a little more extended couise in Mt«'ani were retained, in order not to lose what was 
pKMl in th«' «'ad»*t engin«*ers' <'ourse. 
Reprosentativi* np.KRKKT. Was the course in luatheniatics extended? 
Commander SuisuKK. I think no more unitheuiatics was given. 
Reprt*sentative IlKnitiinr. I would like to have some statistics showing how the 
lonnie coni]>an's no\v witli what it was twenty years ago f 
Commander Skisiif.k. If yon will b't me go back to IH.V.) I ean answer moredefi- 
ely. At that time tln'ie waN ton little in the (Miurse. I don*t think I amexafi^ger- 
g when I sjiy that many buy** got tlKuugh on no nnu'i^ than one hour of study per 
. Speaking f«)r myself, I got through im less than that the^ first year, and com- 
■■■wed the secon<l on what I learned in the first. From l--r>Uto l6G:i I dbn'tthink I av- 
ed thrtv-quarters of an hour stmly per day. Brighter students may have found it 
•■ easier, 
presentative IlKnttKirr. How <lo failures now compare with previous years? 
^vmmauder Siii>uKK. If y<>u mean failures to enter, the examination for entrance 
more diltii-ult now. l»nt n(»t more ditlieult in eomparison to the requirements of the 
ral .-wrviee at the pre^^ent time. The statistics of the Academy can be obtained 
Jta the Snpeiintentlent's ofiire. 

JleneRil Wai.kkr. N it yi>iir opinion that the average American buy will go through 
iMTger c(»urs«* of study at this time without greater effort than he would have twenty 
BMn ago ? 

Representative IlKi:nKi:T. Have we not better text-books? 

Commander SiC'^iiKK. We liive l>i>tter method't than were in use twenty years ago. 
lie great tnniMe we h:ive with the cad«*ts is that they do not know how to study 
'b^n they eonie here. Any biight boy eoining here is likely t«i go through if be is 
wll grminded and deieiiniiied to siicreed. 

I>r. (■Ai:i.AM>. Po I umleiHtiind that in I'-.VJ an average student could have accom* 
liahed Hiiceesstnlly what uas reiiuirefi of him by the study of an hour a day, or one 
Dtir for ear h leritatioii ? 

Commander Sitisiir.i:. I ilnnk he eould have d«ine so by studying only one hour a 
frf»m \«i tit \'^*ui. i^)ie«-i:illy if hi' were as well grounded in his studies as the 
Irnts who i-itTiie licif in-ilay. 
^^r. <r \r.i.\N'i>. ilnw Mi;iii\ Kritat iiuis a tlay had yi»u then? 

Commamler Mii-uki:. Tin- <aiiie as ikiw ; tlin-e per day. The standard of studios 
'A4 Terv low ivi-iv. 

I>r. (fARi.ANi*. rh(:i vi^ii iiiiie to pr^] tare for each reeitation wuuM not average 
ra than twenty ininuti-s? 

^^mmandei .^^ii.sni.i-'. I ii:irne«l all my gi*oiiieir\ between dismissal from breakfast 

1 iitndy houi>«. and thiit was ab(»ut tweiiiy niiuutes: 1 got through all right, too. 

Aeadeni> wa*-. in tli'isi- i!av«*. vi-ry slipshod. 

«^r. tfAiii.ANi». Now ><iii :;i\e srlio]a-tie w4»rU, wliieh it is <^ufiposed Will occupy the 

eruge Htuilerit abonr ^:\ hoiir^ in tvvtMit>-toiir in its pri-]iaration. Thi'ii you have 

add three houi> toi the p-iitation, whieh will bung it up tonine hnnis. hiothestu- 

will be «*ngagi'<l nine limii'* in the tweiity-toiireither in the preparation of scho- 

,.c work or ill teritatinn-. N that a rorrecf estim:ite f A student recites three 

■J60 a ilay. ami yon siiiij.u«.«- that two hours are rii|u:reil in the preparation of each 

he recitations. 1 want lo get accurately at the niindier of hours that a young man 

kTerage ability will reipire to prepare him^-lf ior the scholastic work here. 

1. ' 

- I 


J Dr. Mendenhall. Last ni^lit (he whole time was stated as forty-ef gbt faonn 

, : week, exorcises, drilln, and all. 

.: I 

Commander Sigsdee. ProfesMor Hi^iulriekHnn, who is here to be heard, will gi 
yoa information of anything ooiiiHfcted with the niceties of the time of stm 
much more readily than I. When I was here as a stndent the work in the depai 
ment of drawing was chiefly a skylark. It was not serions work. In certain otfa 
departments it was not much better, rh the discipline was imperfect. 

Senator Teller here read a letter relative to the course pnrsned at the Academ 
[The letter complained of the severity of the course and that instruction wae n 
given to cadets at recitation.] 

Commander Sigsbee. Referring to the letter which Senator Teller has jnat read 
to the severity of the courHe, I will say wb graduate at this time double the numb 
of men who are required in the naval service under the law. The classes averaj 
thirty-five or thirty-six nienihers, while but stiveiiteen or eighteen of them have bei 
taken into the Navy. Since the i<Iea of the Academy is to educate oflScers fort] 
naval service, I think this shows tliat the. course is not too severe. If the conr 
were to be lowered the result would be, as it appears to me, that the cadets wl 
w<mld get in the Navy would not be ho well educated, and therefore the main pn 
pose of the Academy would not be as well carried out. The cadets who would fail' 
get into the Navy, and who would tlierefore be returned to civil life, would be Is 
well educcated than they are at present, but a few more would be graduated probabi; 
But, the main purpose of this Academy being to educate olticers for the naval servis 
we would make a great niisrake should we fail to get the most from men ^inginl 
the Navy, renienibering that the scope of the naval ofBcer in a scientific direction hi 
been very much incri*as<Ml during the last. lift^*en or twenty years. 

Your corresi)on<h'nt is wrong in his conclusions [addressing Senator Teller]. Tl 
scholars are instructiMl in the class mom. 1 was in Prof. Hendricksou's classroom oi 
<lay and be kept cadets continuously at the board, and as fast as they completed oi 
problem they r(*ceiv(Ml another. Prof, llendrii^kson tried to satisfy himself that tl 
scholar thoroughly understood tlu^ ])rin(fi])les involved in the exercise. I regaidc 
his practice as an ingeniouH luethod of instnu'tiou. I have issued an order in mydi 
partmcnt to thoetlect (hat a cadet shall be ke]it under instrnction in the instmotio 
room, that the instruct(U' may exphiin to him any past lesson or future leasbUi an 
this is done over and over again in my seetions. In addition we have a gV'Oatdsal < 
practice. It may be that the instnu'tiun might be done still better^ but I knowthsi 
IS an effort to instruct, in the instruction room. 

General Walkeh. You s])oke of explaining lessons in advance. Is that habitual 1 

Comnuind4;r SiGSBEE. It is in my department, because I think I can make hettt 
seamen of the cadets by much re])etitivm. In naval architecture and in conatra 
tion I allow it to a certain (>Ntent, though it is not so necessary in those studies. 
will say to the Senator tlnU during my time of study hero from 1*882 to 1885 I reoelTS 
letters of the kind he has read to us. from an old naval officer, who gave me snpposi 
statistics, stutwing that the course should be abated. I read his letters to membm 
of the academic board, as 1 supposed he wished. In seven out of ten instances hi 
inferences were wrong ; they were bas(>d upon the ideas of his son, a cadet, who VI 
not doing well and was accordingly di^satisiied. (.)f course, people outside haTO w 
the statistics at hand and th<Mr cont!lusions are likely to be erroneous. 

Senator lirTLEK. Do yon believe that more men are being graduated than will t 
required in the naval service? 

Commander SiGSBKK. Yes, I think so; as the Navy is now organized, and oadi 
the present system, we get the ln'st men as a rub' — those who arc at the top of tb 
class. We ]uiss srmie goo<l men. undoubtedly. It is almost impossible, at the NaTI 
Academy, to judge as to one of the most valnable traitsof the naval offlcer| that ft 
his ollieer-like ([ualities, and th<> only adviintag<' of the t wo-y ears course at sea il 
that we do then, in some measure, get a kimw ledge of those (pialities. 

Senator HiTTLKH. Wasihere aiiv resiriciinn jmii upon the number of cadets wh 
entered the stM'viee ]ueviniis to the ad of l*''*"^ .' 

Commander Skjsmkk. Not ^hat I remember. 

Senator IJuTLEU. Tlnn the j;nidu:ites prior to that were always absorbed by tt 
servic(>>. Do I nnderstand von to say that the inereased ]iopu1ation of this oonsti; 
and the ])robal>hi increase ot' tiie naval establishment will not cause all the gndl 
ates to be absorbed by the s«rvic<.'? 

Counnander SiosiiEi:. Von must inei'ease the innnber allowed in the several ffmr 
lirst, and with a change of jMiliey lhi> may bt» done with eeonomy. Our Navy sluH 
be capalde of sudden i'Xpaiision in time of war, bccuuse wi". never will have a 1* 
]>eaee Navy relativel\ to oilier eoniij ries. We now take our puy masters from < 
life while we return some nt'the giadnated eadets to civil life. If the latter wer>^ nd 
into tin' line and then as^ijgixMl with other line otlicctrs, in turn, to pay duties, ' 
cruise, they would be available in expanding the service in time of war, for we kw 
then till the places i n t he Pay Depa rt ment from ci vi 1 1 i fc. I would have no pemuu 


orp<. A line officer should be a.ssi<]rQcd to a ship as pay officer for a cruise, as 
)w assign one as navigator. In this way the officer and graduate would uot sur^ 
T his iiiilitarv character and usefulness. ' 

jresentativo Herbert. Do you thiuk the Revenue Service ought to be officered 
'a<luates from the Acadeniv f 


umauder Sigsbek. By all means, and by assignment in rotation or turn. The 
jie personnel should lose its identity in the Navy personnel. I would apply 
ime principle as iu the case of paymasters, the principle that now holds with 
oast Snrvev. 

ator IH'TLER. So you think by adopting that course the entire number graduat- 
ere could l>o taken up in the service? 

umaiuhT .Si«}'*nKR. I thiuk in time i% would provide for most of them, if not all. 
)rest'iitative IIkrbkkt. Senator Butler, referring to yonr question about the 
n»r of cadots hring all absorbed iu the service, you will remember that the num- 
' meiiilxTs of the House of Representatives was increased after the census of 
and inrn*ased again after the census of 1870; so that there are a very much 
r numbor of trailets allowed at the Academy than heretofore. This act of 1882 
Kissfd at a time when the number of line officers ran up to 1,100, and then 
'<l til*' nuuibtT to 7HU. I remember that the Navy was getting top-heavy with 
▼e nninlMT of officers. The act pn>vided that aft^r that the number of line 
rs sliojild be about 7^^ ; the number of engineers was limited to about 170 ; and 
umlHT of paymasters to 90; and to make this decrease it provided that until 
umbers in the ditferent ranks were reduced to these figures there should be 
)ne api>ointment to every two vacancies, and provided further that there should 
least ten graduates go into the lino every year from the Academy. That has 
th«» law up to the present time, except the change made in the last Con- 
when the limit of those who should enter the Academy was raised to 15. the 
•er ol line officers having been reduced to 7ri0. The number of the engineers 
down yet to the pres<'ribed limit, as is the case with the number of paymas- 
Congress believed at that time we wouM not> need more than that number 

ator HiTLKR. I n'member the legislation, and I never agreed with it. While 
true the ineivas4> in the number of Representatives has been going on, the 
»<Ar of gra<l nates has not incroascMl in the same proportion. The number of 
lates has lH>en diminished. 

>resentative IIeubkrt. There has been a considerable increase in the number 
val ot1ic(»rs by reason of the war. There was quite a number of volunteer offl- 
rho were kept in the service, and there has l>een no increase from that source. 
j»ert'e<'tly clear that otlicer* for the Revenue Marino Service should betaken 
this s4'ho(»l. and I think this board ought to recommend that it bo done. 
(rovernment already educates these officers for the lievenue Marino Service 
>ard of a seliool-slii]>. * 

ninauder Skjsbkk. In other words, there is an incipient Naval Academy there. 
)r«'s»'ntative lIiiiiBKur. All the officers should be taken from this school for 
^evtMiue Marine, and we might go further and put some of them iu the Liglit- 
e Sffvice, 

nmandtT Skisbkk. While we are speaking of our naval reserve it is well to 
tuber that you run not make a line officer of a second mate as vou did during the 
So it w(* can not retain the graduates of the Academy iu tho >avy, retain tliom 
where where they may keep in a reasouableamonnt of practice at least. In time 
kr those iu the('«»aHt Survey, Revenue Service, FishCommissiou, andon pay duty 
I Ih« P'Mtori'd to lin« duty without trouble, it would be very difficult lo get 
k men to <li>al with our liigh-])owf>r guns and varied mechanism in moments of 
geiicy. TIh' <'ountry i** beginning to n»cognize this now. 

neral Wai-KKR. Ir st-ems to me the minute familianty with our coast pos- 
d by i>ur Revenue Marine oilicers, which they get by going into every bay wuere 
ling t.ikcH plac>>. in time of war would lM*come very important. That alone is 
,.vMit ari;um«-nt of thfir value as naval officers iu time of war. 
uimander .^UiSbkk. If an otllcer should make a cruise on boanl a naval ship and 
one on hoard a n'venue vessel, that would be better than to separate the two 
ces. In r»*spi'<t to p. ly masters, I n»|>eat that I would not have them a separate 
e. I would have an officer detailed for paymaster*s <luty for a cruise. A Iieuten> 
for instance, would be detailed for paymaster's duty, and a great deal of clash- 
irould cease. In time of war this otllcer could take charge of a ship's battery, or 
'ision of it. 

. Mendkniiall. I suppose if the Revenue Marine were placed under the control 
e Navy the demand for officers would caus4^ all the grailuates of the Aca<lemy to 
t>sorbed. The iSecretary of the Treasury said a few weeks ago that there are 
) ships under his Department than there are in the United States Navy. 


Representative Herbert. The law would not propose to displace officers wlio am 
now there, but to liU vacancies a.s they occur. 

Commander Siosree. My opinion irt that every loophole in the Government aervice 
that can be tound that will ^ive a naval ofBcor an o])portunity to practice the legiti- 
mate functions of his profension shouhl be tilled with gradnafes from this Academy. 
Take, for instance, the positions of inspectors of steam-boats, the appointment to 
which mi<];ht be so arrani;cd that w» would have a great namber of people to draw 
from for the naval service in time of war. During the late war the officers (torn the 
Coast Survey were known for their excellent handling of ships in the blockades. 

Representative Herbert. And that contributed very largely to the efficiency of 
our blockades. 

Senator Butler. What is yonr opinion relative to the advisability of estahllshing 
a post-graduate course here t 

Commander Sigsbee : I Iiiive never given that enoagh thought to offer a valnahle 
opinion, but I think a ])ost-graduate course might be established here- I remembei 
you asked me, informally, why we could not establish a post-graduate course here 
for the study of naval nrchitecture. I hope to see the time when that may be done 
in this country, but the time for it has no yet come. If you want to make a finished 
musician, you must take the student to musical centers. A similar rule applies in 
making a naval architect. I think the advantages for the study of naval arohiteetors 
abroad, are much superior to those we have in this country at present. 

Senator Butler. Don*t you think this is a good time to make a be^nningf 

Commander Sigsbee. I think it will be in a few years. Perhaps m five years we 
may be able to do so. I think ibr the present it is better to send our young men to 
be educated in the higher branches of ship-building abroad. It is better for the serr- 
ice to continue that practice for a few years longer. When we are provided with 
models, and are properly equipped to instruct the men here, then will oe the time to 
go ahead with the work. 

Representative Herbert. We have already established a War College. We bftTS 
provided them with a building and started a torpedo school, and made very liberal 
provisions for carrying on the school. 

If you were to start a ])ost- graduate course, would yon do so in addition to this col- 
lege, or would you simply improve that f 

Commander SiiiSBEE. Without regard to the War College. Mathematical aad 
technical subjects ini<j;ht l)o taught here as a post-gradnate course. [Beading fhHii 
a pamphlet of Proceedings of the United States Naval Academy, called ProgreHiTS 
Naval Seamanship.] 

** It is believed that this tendency will serve to remind line offieers, more strongly 
than any (expressed opinion, that as a class they mnst give more study to the seienoa 
of mechanism. 

*^ Since the duty of engiuf^ers lies almost wholly with machinery, and their title 
implies the fart, it is not questioned that they should study that science, bat it seems 
to be not generally recognized that the line onicer\s duties now include a wider range 
of mechanism than the engineer's. Kor example, 1 nmy mention the instruments of 
precision, relating to astronomy, navigation, meteorology, electricity, and ordnance; 
the mechanism ot* small arms, great guns, torpedoes, rapid-firing guns, dynamite gnnSi 
steering apparatus, and deep-sea exploring apparatus; the machinery for the mana- 
fiicture of gn^at guns and their mounts; for the manufacture of rigging and other 
articles of equipment; and (inally, tho steam-engine, in degree 8«9COnd only to that 
of the engineer hims(^lf. Yet this enumeration <loe8 not fully state the case." 

My object in reading that is to show that there is reason for extending the stndy of 
mechanism in the Navy ; and again to emphasize the fact that it isimpossible longer 
to derive educated seamen for t1i<' naval service from the merchant service in tbs 
event of war. At this point it serves as an argument in favor of the employmeiit of 
naval oiDeei's in the rev<*nue marine and other services in order that we may zeteia a 
maximum of trained ol'iie(>rs at tli(» least ex])ense. When we had only one type of 
ship and one type of gun a ])ei'son might havt^ learned to operate tbem by a compara- 
tively small amount of ]>ractice. Hut this is no longer the case with our complioated 
mechanism, and the remot(^ possibilities of war must be provided for by a theontioal 
as well as a practical knowledge. Witli a post-graduate course both practical ^n^ 
theoretical ends would be served, of coursi'. 

Lieutenant-Connnander Asa Walker, T. S. Navy, head of department of !•• 
tronomy, navigation, antl surveying, Naval Academy, a xipeared before the Board. 

The PiiEsiDKNT. Mr. Walker, will you state to the Board when yon entered the 
Academy, wIkmi you graduated, and what your service has been here since gndaa- 
tion f 

Lieutenant-Commander Walkkr. I entered the Academy in 1862,' graduated ill 
186(), and in 187:> was ordered to the Academy as instructor in the department of 
mathematics, serving there for three years. In 1(^9 1 was again ordered here III ih$ 


■ame department, remainin<? for fonr years, and again in 1886 came here as head of 
the department of astronomy, navij^ation, and nnrveying. 

The President. Then you have been an instrnctor here for ten years. How does 
the coarse of studies in the department of which yoa are the head compare with 
the conrse daring the time you were a student and cadet f Is it about the same 
eonrse, or has anything been added to it since that time f 

Lieutenant Commander Walker. The study of the deviation of the compass has 
been added. At tlie time I was here as a cadet the study of navigation consisted 
simply of a solution of the astronomical triangles as applied to navigation. Since 
that time the study of the deviation of the compass has become a necessary study. 

Senator Butler. Does your instruction begin with the fourth class f What text- 
books have you f 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker. I begin with the second term of the second class, 
thence through the tirst class. The second class text-books are Whit-e's Astronomy and 
Chauvenet's Spherical and Practical Astronomy, Bowditch's Navigator, American 
Ephemeris, and Nautical Almanac. The texc-'book on navigation used by the first 
class is one compiled by myself, accompanied by Bowditch's Navigator. The text- 
books on deviation of tlie compass are selections made by Commander Howell, now 
Captain Howell, from the Admiralty Manual, *^ Deviation of the Compass," and 
Evans's Manual, •** Deviation of the Compass.^' ** Ho welFs Marine Surveying " is also 

Senator Butler. Do yon find that the cadets have time to go through that coarse f 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker. I think they have. They have all succeeded in 
getting through since I have been at the head of the department. 

Senator Butler. You think it is not too great a strain mentally or physically for 
them f 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker. No, sir. Navigation is simply the application 
of what they have learned in previous years to a new subject. They do not have to 
aoqaire any new prin<:iples. In the study of the deviation of the compass thev have 
the application of what tliuy have learned of magnetism, and in all of the other depart* 
ments their study is only a similar application of what they have learned. There is 
absolutely nothing new. 

Senator Butler. Are your appliances for teaching, in the way of practical demon- 
stration. sotHcientT 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker. They are very good. 

Senator Butler. Have you all the apparatus that is necessary and that yon would 
like to have for teaching astronomy f 

Lieutenant-Conimun<ler Walker. There is not time allowed to enable the students 
to become thoroughly accurate in the study of astronomy. For them to become 
thoroughly pmiieiciit. would rtMpiire a great (le:il more time than could be devoted to 
it. We giv» them an outline of jistronomy. The instruments that we do put in their 
hands are the sextant and tlie theodolite. These they manipulate and become famil- 
iar with. Each room (the studenU' room in pairs), is provided with a sextant, and 
they are allowed to handle it and work with it, at any time they may see tit, and 
after the weather becomes suitable in the spring, they take daily observations, using 
the artificial horizon and the azimuth compass, such as they are required to do in actuiQ 

Dr. Mkndrniiall. In your work with the students, do you teach the methods of 
determining latitude and longitude, and the position of the ship at seaf 

Lieatenant-Commander Walker. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Mkndenhall. Do yon go into the deviation of the compass thoroughly? Do 
yoa determine the constants of the compass f 

Lleatenant-Commander Walker. We endeavor to do so. We have been in the 
habit of swinging the monitor Pansaic and determining her constants. 

Dr. Mkndrnhall. Do yon work in the pendulum vibrations, determining the in- 
tensity of gravity, etc. T 

Lieatenant-Commandt.T Walker. No, sir. I do not. These experiments are per- 
fonoed in the department of physics and chemistry. 

Dr. Mendkniiall. I would like to know how accurately you can determine the 
position of a ship at sea ; how accurately you attempt to do it when afloat f 

Lieutenant Commander Walker. It depends entirely upon circumstances. Under 
faTorable conditions, I think I could assure the position of a ship within five miles. 
Underother circumstances, it might be within a radius of five miles, that woald be 
ten miles. At times I could determine the jxisition closer. 

Representative IIekbkrt. Do you know what new stndy the addition of which 
has crowded out the study of international law from the curriculum of the Academy? 
, Lieatenant-Commandcr Walker. I am under the impression it was astronomy, 
whieli is the new subject in my department, in the second class. 
I Senator Butler. Ilave the subjects of physiology and hygiene been the caose f 

Lleoteoant-Commander Walker. Partially. Astronomy was taken from the fir«t 
jtHmm and made a second class study. 


Representntive Hkkbrrt. Do yon think the study of astroDomy is more important 
to a naval otticor tliau is iiittrnntional lawT 

Lieutenant-Coninmnilor Wai.kkr. It i8 absolntely essential. 

Representative Hkkbrkt. Don't you think international lavr is absolutely essential f 

Lieutenant-Commander Walkkr. Yes, but not so essential to a yoang officer as 
astronomy. Every naval otticer is examined on the subject of international law, for 
promotion to command grades. 

Senator Butler. But a young man want-s to stndy lay when young. 

Representative Hkubkrt. In your opinion it would bebetter to exclude international 
law from the course hero than' to select one of the sciences and exclude it in order to 
give place to international law f 

Lieutenant-Commander Walkkr. I think so. This course was carefully considered 
by the Academic Board, and the argument advanced by Commodore Brown to the 
effect that the naval t^fhcer is not called upon to exercise a knowledge of interna- 
tional law until he reaches riper years, during which time he would have read np on 
the subject, as it would he a part of his profession, and in view of his examinations 
meets the objection to the study not being pursued now. Of course, such study would 
be advisable', hut when the Academic Board considered that it would be pursued at 
the sacrifice of more important brcanches, it concluded to exclude it. 

Representative Hkkhkut. Was the study dropped last yeart 

Lieutenant-Comnmnder Walkkr. Yes, sir. 

Rcpn!>soutative Hkkukrt. Had it not always been studied up to that time? 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker. Yes, to a certain extent. When I was a cadet 
we studied, or rather read, Kent. 

Senator Tkllku. W^ere ynu examined in that as in other studies f 

Lieutenant-Comuiaiider Walker. Yes, sir. 

Senator Teller. How much time <lo yon now devote to physiology and hygiene f 

Ijieutenant-Commanthn* Walker. Twenty periods. 

Professor Garland. Do you consider that the chronometer in its perfected state has 
displaced the ])ractice of determining the longitude by lunar distances f Do yon teach 
the cadets to determine the longitude by lunar distances? 

Lieutenant-Comm:in(l(>r Walker. No. They are told that if they wish to investi- 
gate the sul>ject further than they are taught in class, they will fintl it fully explained 
in a treatise by Professor (Miauvenet. 

Professor GaR!w\ni>. I think tli(> reward that was given by the Government was for 
the determinati(ui of the longitude within three marine leagues. 

Lieutt^nant-Commander Walker. 1 think the iirst reward was for the absolute 
dctcrminHti<m within :iO miles. As the ini]>rovoments for doiug the work have been 
perfected the distance has been shortened. 

J*rofossor Garland. Voti did not have reference to the determination of the longi- 
tude by lunar distance, when yon stated that yon could determine a ship's position 
within 5 miles, diil you J 

Lieuten:int-Coninian<Ier W^alkeu. No, sir. In any passage we are apt to make, in 
modern times in steam-vessels, the chronometer should be very accurate. 

Professor (f arland. Certainly the method by the chronometer is greatly superior. 

Lieuteiiant-CouMuander Walker. When we take into considers tioni that the proba- 
ble error of an observation is 40 or r>0 seconds in the measured distance, and that 10 
seconds error in a lunar distant^e makes l.'> sectuids of time in error in longitnde, we 
K(M> that the margin of error becomes very broad. That will be taking it nnder the 
most favorahlr »• i re u instances. 

J'roftssor (JAnLANi). Do you use Baldwin's repeating circle to give the position 
more exaet ? Tlu-oretirallv. it is much stijx'rior to others in use* 

Lieutfiiant-Comuiander Wai.keu. I have never used repeating circles. They are 
too h«Mvy Mul eumhersonif fur use »t sea. While the errors to which we are snbjeet 
are so imUiiown, as tiu'v an- at s(ia, critical accuracy of measurement is hardly prac- 

Dr. Mr:\i>rNirAT.L. How iriany chronometers do yon usually carry at sea? 

J/nMitr!iaMt-('i)iMMiani]«'r Walki.u. Three good ones and one that we call a hack. 
The hack is tlie din' we take on sliore and is not han(ile<l so can'fully as th« others. 

General WalivI'.r. Wlieu a class comes to .v<in for the second term of the second 
year, do tln'v have Tlnir iiiaMn'inatirs so \v<>]l in hand that you can assume their 
kiio\vliMl:;;(' tor all pui poses of your itjst ruction .' 

Jjjeu tenant -('<»iniuan<l»'r Walkkr. I ilo assuitie it, I never inquire about it. 

(leui-ral Wai.kki:. Ymi find vcnir stu<le!its have no trouble doing your work by in- 
ferior itistnii-; imi tln'v may iia\e had ]ni"viously 1^ 

Lieuteiiaiit-C'iiiiniiaiKlcr Wat.kku. I take their knowledgeof the matter for granted. 
I teach thiiri im mat licniatics. J tind 1 can take it for granted. 

Senator !>! ri r.n. In other \v(trds, you tind them i)repared to take the eonrse yoB 
liav(< to nive them from their ]»revious instruction f 

Lientenanr-CommamhT Walker. I have been throvigh the preYioos 
instructor, and know exactly what they have been through. 


General Walkkr. There Uas been some qaeHtion as to the methods pursued here in 
mathematics f 

Lieutenant-Commander Walker. I am a very partial wituess to speak of that. I 
am thoroughly in accord with that department on the snbject of its methods of in- 
Bt ruction. 

The President. A recent act of Congress has changed the minimum and maximum 
ages for admission to the Academy, from fourteen to eighteen to from fifteen to twenty 
years. What are your views on this subject t Will this change be beneficial T 

Lieutenaut-Couimiinder Walker. I thiuk the change from fourteen to fifteen is 
beneficial, but I think twenty is t<>o old. 

The President. What do you think the maximum age should bef 

Lieuteuaut-Commander Walker. I consider eight-een is the most preferable, and 
that nineteen is the extreme age that it is desirable to euter the cadets. When a 
student enters at twenty and graduat^^s at twenty-six, he would not be a junior lien- 
tenant until forty or forty-one years of age, and that is too old. 

General Walker. Do yon consider the two years* course at sea of any advantage? 

Lieutenant-Cotnmander Walker. I consider it of no advantage. The cadets come 
back better seamen than when they left, but if they were graduated as ensigns from 
the Academy ami sent into service they would know that active work is before them, 
which would be an incentive. Now, a part of them go to sea knowing that they will 
not enter the service, and they waste their time, study as little as possible, improve 
themselves very little, and come back to the Academy simply to pass their examina- 
tion and get the ve.-ir's paV, as ]>Tovided by Congress. It was recommended by the 
Academic Board last year, that the class bo finally graduated at the end of the four 
years' term and assigned to service, as at West Point. If that were done, the twenty- 
year limit would nor be so bad. 

Chief Engineer 11. W. FiTcii, U. S. Navy, head of department of steam engineer- 
ing, appeared before the Hoard. 

Senator Hutler. How long have you been at the Naval Academy T 

Chief Engineer FiTCii. Since August 9, 1888. The regular term' for instruction to 
cadets l>egan October the 1st. 

Dr. Mkndenhall. Do yon consider tliat the department of steam engineering, at 
the present time, is ]>ro])erly eqnippe<l for the work expected of itt If not, what 
wonid be desirable to complete that equipment? 

Chief Engineer Fitch. The toolsand appointments of the machine and boilershops 
are ample for ])resent retinirements, for practical instruction in these branches. The 
forges in the blacksmith's shop are ]>ortable, with one exception, and fitted with hand- 
bellows. This shop should be enlarged and a fun blast fitted. The pattern shopshould 
be enlarge<l ami some power-turning lathes added. The present course of practical 
instruction in the workshops is good and meets all the requirements for the limited 
time devoteilto it. For practical instructions in managing engines in operation, 
there is a marine engine, with boilers complete, in the steam building. Also the en- 
gines of the steamer IVifomhig, monitor ratmaic, and tng^fawdiffA, and engines of four- 
teen steam-launches. Theeiiji^inesin the steam bnildin;; were made twenty-five years 
ago, are <»bsol<»te, :ind not ealrnlated to give correct ideas of modern practice to the 
cadets. The n'»/o»ji/i//'«, is thirty years oUl; the Standish and /Mjj«aiV#, twenty-five. 
The engines of these vessels are antiquated, not in accordance with the instruction 
given in the t^xt-books. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Have yon any appliances for conducting experiments in thermo- 
dynamics, the theory of the steam-iqdicator and dynamics? 

Chief Engineer FiTCii. There are none for thermo-dynamics and dynamics. The 
eadets are instructed in the theory and practical use of the indicator. 

Dr. ME>rDENnALL. Where is instrnetion in thenno-dyuamics taught? 

Chief Engineer Fircii. To a limited extent, in the department of physics and 

Dr. Mendenhall. Are tliere facilities here for experimcnte in the comparative 
power an<l relativ«» innits of difierent fuels? 

Chief Engineer FiTrir. No, air. 

Dr. Mendenhall. Would it not be desirable if the department were so equipped ? 

Chief Engineer FiTCii. It would, if the limited time assigned to this department 
wonld permit such experiments to be carried out satisfactorily. 

Representative Hkhijkrt. Where are sneh tests of fuel made? 

Chief Engineer Vi mr. I think some have bei-n made in the New York navy-yard. 

Representative IIekhfrt. Von have made some tests on the steaming qualities of 
coal in the Navy, have yon not ? 

Chief Engineer FiTcrr. I do not recall any special tests now. I believe they have 
been made at the N(*\v York and Washington navy-yards. 

General Walker. Do the Cadets go <m board the vessels here and observe the 
work ? 

Chief Engineer Fitch. Yes, sir ; they are given practical instrnetion in managing 


the engines of the vossols here, aiul the steam-lannches nndor charge of engineer oiB* 


. Dr. Mrndbnhall. Ilau tbe course yon refer to been in operation up to the present 

time, or do you refer to a new course f 

Chief Engineer Fitch. I refer to the present course. 

Senator Butler. Does your instruction begin with the fonrth class f 

Chief Engineer Fitch. No, sir; the second class is the first to receive inetracUons 
in steam. ' . 

Senator Butler. The fourth and third classes have nothing to do with yonr d^ 
partment f 

Chief Engiueer Fitch. No, sir. 

Dr. Mbndenhall. Does this course inchide designing engines f 

Chief Engineer Fitch. The present course does not. The course to be adopted 
October 1 will include that branch. 

General Walkkr. Ought you not to have a new modern engine, with triple ex- 
pansion f Wouhl not that bo desirable f 

Chief Engineer Fitch. Yes, very desirable. The importance of having engines of 
the latest improved construction of tlie present time, for giving correct ideaa to the 
cadets, cannot be overestimated. 

Representative Herbert. You will have a triple expansion engine in the new ship 
you are to get. How far will it bo practicable to use such an engine in instrncting the 
cadets f 

Chief Engineer Fitch. Instruction can be given, when the vessel is used for the 
regular drills in gunnery and seamanship, during the season and when she goes on 
the summer cruise. 

Representative Herbert. Is it understood that the new practice ship will be used 
for the summer cruise f 

Chief Engineer Fitch. I can not say positively. I presume she ^syill. 

Representative Herbert. Will you need another engine in addition to the one yoa 
will get on the new praetiee ship f 

Chief Engineer P^iTCii. Yes, sir ; the engine in the steam building should be r^ 
placed by a new engine witli all modern ini])rovements. Much of the practieel 
instruction is given during the winter months, when ice or stormy weather might 
make it impracti<;able to use. the enginesof the ship, and, if forany cause the ship was 
ordered away, the instruction would Ix* sus])en<led. All the conditions of light, spaoei 
accessibility of the ])arts, are nnich blotter adapted for instruction in the steam build- 
ing than in the dark, coniined spaei^ on board hhi]>. 

Dr. Mkndeniiall. In taking the n(^w course in engineering proposed at the Aead- 
eniy, what will he omitted from tlM^ course of the Urst class, in order that the epeoifio 
studies can be undertaken 1 ^ 

Chief Engineer Fitch. Navigation, gunnery, and part of the branchy of aeameii* 

Dr. Mendexiiall. Can you state what it is ]n*o])o8ed to substitute for navigetioa 
and gunnery in th(5 proposed separate eoiirsci in en^int»eringf 

Chief Engineer FiTCH. More thorough study of marine engines, designing mechlil" 
ery, marine boilers, an«l fabrieaticm. 

Dr. Mendeniiai.l. To what extent arc tlie studies substituted theoretical and to 
what extent praetieal T 

Chief P^ngineer I-'iTCir. All the details of the new eon rse have not been arranged 
yet. The branehes in nuirine engines and <lesigning will be theoretical in part J m^ 
rine boilers, theoretical and ])ra('tieai, and fahrieaiion, ])ractical. • Drawings of the 
machinery of the new ships will be used in that (tourse to instruct the class in the 
beat types of modern mariut> engines. 

General Walker. Do you tind th<^ cadets eoniing to you have a snifioient nnder* 
standing of mathematics to eoin])rehend the work they have to do? . 

Chief Engineer FiTCii. Yes, sir. Their knowledge meets all the reqnirementa in 
this dejiartnient. 

Representative Herbert. How many assistants have youT 

Chief Engineer Fitch. There are four now. The new course will require six. 

Representative Heisbert. Taking the course as it has existed during the time yoa 
have been here, how many hours a day dors vno.h cadet in the second class d^ 
vote to instruction in yonr department, inelndin;; recitation and time of study or 
preparation ? 

Chief Engineer FiTCii. Eaeh cadet has a reeitat ion one hour long fonr days a Week 
the first term of sixteen weeks, and on«> recitation a dav three days a week tbe seoond 
term of sev(>nteen weeks. Allowing ouf* hour and a half forstndy for each reoitatlOBt 
the time eaeh day will be two and a half hours. Tliis will make sixty-four hours for 
recitation and ninety-six liours for study tlu^ lirst term, and fifty-one honrs for zesi- ' 
tation and seventy-six hours for study Ihe Ke<'(md term; total, one hundred aiid 
fifteen hours' recitation and one hundred and seventy-two hours' study for bsth 


Practical work in inacliine-sliop in Bunimer, two liimdred and sixteen hours; in win- 
ter, torty hours; total, two hundred and tiit.v-«ix honrH. Running steam-launches 
and overliaulinji: ouj^nies in steam building, filty-one hours. Total time for all prac- 
tical exercises, three hundred and seven hours. Summary of all time that is devoted 
to instruction in steam by each cadet of the second cliiss, iive hundred and eighty- 
live hours. During the tirst class year a cadet has sixty. four hours in the macnine- 
shop and twenty-eight ht)nrs in other practical exercises, amounting to ninety-two 
hours. This included with time of second class year makes six hundred and seventy- 
six hours, the total of all instruction in steam. 

Dr. Mbndknhall. Of what does a recitation or exercise consist? Is it devoted lo 
practical work or is it from th*i text-boots? 

Chief Engineer FiTcii. The recitations are from the text-books. The exercises are 
all practical, with oral instruction and explanations by the instructors. 

Dr. Mkndkxhall. Have you any practical work in your department, except dar- 
ing the summer f Have tlie cadets, in your classes, any regular ship or practical work 
in the engine room during the winter? 

Chief EngiiKicr Fircii. They have practical exercises, operating the machinery of 
the uumitor Tasnaic, St(indl>*h, IVyomingj and steam-launches during the fall and spring 
months; and during the winter, in the machine-shop and disconnecting and conneot- 
iug the marine engines in the steam building one and one-half hours daily for 
twelve weeks. They also o))erate the marine engine in the steam building one hoar 
and a half dailv lor twelve davs. 

Dr. Mkndeniiall. Do you think it desirable to spend so short a time in such 
work t Would it be better to double the time for it T 

Chief Engineer FiTcii. It -vonld, if the time could be spared from other studies. 
The course as now laid out, occupies certain periods of time assigned to each de- 
partment, and if the time in one department was increased the time in other depart- 
ments would have t(» be decreased, and the course wonld have to be revised. 

General Walk?:u. Do 1 understaml you to say that the cadets do not go to the 
ships until the si*cond year they have been here? 

Chief Engineer Fitch. Not until the third year of the course. The second class is 
thetirstto receive instruction in steam, at the beginning of their year, which is the 
third year of the course. 

Senator Butlkk. Do you think the course too severe f Should more time be devoted 
to it? Would tiiat be beneiicial to the catlets f 

Chief Engineer FiTCii. The coursti is not too severe. If more time were assigned 
to this departnient, it would be more beneiicial so far as it was directly concerned. 

Senator Butlkk. Do you think they have ample time to make themselves proficient 
in their profession an<l that the strain is not too great ? 

Chief Engineer Fitch. The time devoted to this department gives the cadets a' 
fair knowledgo of it ; which ap)>earHto be the aim and object of the course. To be 
proficient in all the details would require their whole time and attention. 

General Walkkh. Do you think, that if time were fouu<l, it would be useful to 
have the cadets to work on the ships, so they might be better acquainted with ship 

Chief Engineer Fitch. I do not think it would be any advantage to the third and 
fourth classes. I think they are too young. 

General Walkku. Do you mean they are too young to have strength to handle 

Chief £ngine<;r Fitch. In most cases, I think they are, and the work would be 
very irksome to them, i think l>etter results would be attained in all the practical 
work by waiting until they were older. 

General Walkkk. Is it liot harder to interest th«m the longer it is put off in their 
edncation ? 

Chief Engineer Fitch. I think not. Considering the limited time they have in 
this department, I think it better to wait until the cadets reach the second-class 

Chaplain E. K. Rawson, U. S. Navy, head of the department of English studies, 
history, and law, appeare<l before the board. 

The Pkeaidrnt. How long have you been at the Academy ? 

Chaplain Rawson. 1 have been at the Academy three years, though this is my first 
year in charge of a <lepartnieut. 

The Presidkxt. Who was at the head of the department before yonr time f 

Chaplain Rawson. Comtnaiider Schoiiler. 

The President. Please st<ate what classes are in your department and what text- 
books you use. 

Chaplain Rawson. Classes of ttie first and second years, the fourth and third olasees, 
tiike toe course iu our department. We use Whitney's Essentials of English Gri^mw#r| 


drew's Manual of the Constitution, and Sliuke$i>euTc'H Julius Cffisar, Rolfe*B edition. 
We use in addition Labberton^s Historical Atlas, MitchelPs Atlas/ the School Hermld, 
Martinis Statesmau't* Year Book,* and Webster's Dictionary. 
The President. Do von personally give instruction f 

Chaplain Rawson. I have delivered one or two lectures in connection with the 
study of English literature, but have done uothiuc more in the way of inatmotioii, 
thinking it better to get thoroughly familiar with too working of tho department be- 
fore attempting instruction. 
Senator Butler. How many assistuuts have you f 
Chaplain Rawson. Five. 

Senator Butler. What is the scope of the study fur the cadets in oonBtitational 

Chaplain Rawson. Wo use Andrew's Manual of the Constitntion. The differenl 
articles of the Constitution we explain and comment on. It is a very excellent book 
and 1 think we do pretty good work with it, as the examination papen woUld doab^ 
less show. 
Senator Butler. You have no law book T 

Chaplain Kawson. No, iuternutioual law was given up last year, in deference to 
the want of time in other departments. It was given up also under the snppoeitioD 
that it was not used until the men reachod tho rank of lieutenant commanderi 
which would give them time to study it u]) afterwards. But the idea of the deport 
ment is to give some lessons in international law, so that the students may get a gen« 
eral scope of the study and become familiar with the principal writers, in order to 
guide them in a study of it for tliemsi^lves. It was given up, I think, becaoae other 
departments needed more time. 
The Presidp:nt. Are your lectures printed and diHtributedf 

Chaplain Kawson. No, 1 have not got so far as that yet. I have only written one 
or two, but I have signiiied in them what I wanted the class to study partioalarly. 

Senator Butlkk. To what extent has the course in x>hysiology and hygiene die- 
placed tho stu<l y of international law f 
Chaplain Kawson. 1 think hardly any, because it comes in the firat-olaM year. 
KeprcseutatLvo IIekhkut. How much time <Ioes a class devote to finglieh litems 
tnre f 

Chaplain Kawson. Only one recitation a week for the last term. I wonld My^ 
that I have a Hchome for the organization of the departnieut. which has been befoce 
the Academic Board, though it has not been acted upon by the boanl. One ohanm 
is to put back American history on the pre])aratory course, for the reason thattSe 
students who come here are verv well informed in that branch. Of a class examined 
a few weeks ago, of fifty-six, only four failed in American history. Their knowledfi 
is very thorough. This change was reconuneiided by a board of visitors twenl^-iwo 
years ago. My intention is to put Knglish history in its place. 

Kepresentative IIekkkkt. Do you think the study of rhetoric is more important Ap 
the naval otlieer tiian international lawf 
Chaplain Kawson. 1 should say ye.s. That is, during his academic conne. 
Kepresiaitativo ni<:uBKnT. You <k')vote two lessons a week for fonr montha to 
oric t 

Chaplain Kawson. Yes, sir. 

The pKi:sii)i:N'r. Yoti gnulnatotl at what college f 

('iiaplain Kawson. At the Albany Academy and Y'ale University, claae of '00; 
Antlover Theolo^xical iSemiiiary. 

I'rofessor Root, lii your i)i-op()scd scheme do you nuike any room for Ameriennli^ 
Chat)lain Kawson. I have not made any room for it ho far. 

Professor KooT. Does it seem )>robable tiiat you eaii tind time to give thess olBam^ 
who arc to re]»rcsrnt the American Government, a knowleilgoof theUteratnreof fMt 
own country t 

Chaplain Kawson. 1 should touch upon American literature, though lam 

Professor Root. I should be very loath to see it left out of the cooraelbrei 
very young students. 

Kepresentative IIkkukkt. Mow much time is devoted to the study of the( 
tion of the I'nitejj States f 
Chaplain Kawson. \Vr givo it twr> h'»is(uis a week for three months. 
Re]n*escntativ(' IlKitHKHr. Diirin'^ what year is that given? 
Chaplain KaWS(>n. Tiiat is in the thinl ei;is>* yt-ar. 

* * liuoku uiMrk<Hl thus* used fur rfft-reucv only. 



Senator Tejlusr. How Ion p; are these leesoDS T 

Chaplain Rawson. One period each ; that is, one hour. 

Senator Teller. Then you give them twenty-four hours. I know some people 
who g^t along without that much, but it looks a little small from the importance of 
tibe sabject. 

Number of candidates examinedt admitted, and rejected in the following years : 


















































! US7 











































IT. 8. Naval Academy, 
Annapolis, Md\^ June 3, 1889. 

I think that the most important matter for the consideration of the Board of Visitors 
ifl the recent act to regulate the course at the Naval Academ}'. 

The objections to this act are two in number. Firnt in importance is the provision 
that the age of admission shall be between fifteen and twenty. 

The inclosed letter, addressed to the honorable Secretary of the Navy at the time 
this bill was under consideration, expresses my views upon this <]uestion of age: 

U. S. Naval Academy, 
Annapolis f Aid., October 5, 1888. 

Sir: I respectfully ask your attention to bill II. R. 9674, which passed the House 
September 25. 

The last clause of section 1 provides that after next March the maximum age of ad- 
mission to the Academy shall be twenty-one years. 

I think this is advancing the age far too much. Undoubtedly the reason for the 
liropoted change is to secure young men of more mature years, who will be more 
eftpable of mastering the course of study. I think a little couHideration will show 
that, so far as passing the entrance examination is concerned, the change would not 
improve matters. 

The mental requirements for admiasiou are very simple, and <'very lK>y in the 
eoontry who has ha<l onlinary advantages, has passed the point in bis education whore 
he stnaiee tho subjects rc(inired at admission here. It does not follow, however, that 
he can pass the examination, because it is found that many boys ** tinish'' arithmetic, 
geography, grammar and spelling, and are wofully deficient in them all. Nor would 
they be any better at twenty-one or twenty-five even. 

In the natural course of things they would not go back to these rudiments. Can- 
didates are constantly beurd to say that they have not studied these things for several 
jeers; they had bNcen studying more advanced mathematics, Latin, Greek, etc. 

Again, if a young man of twenty or twenty-one has l>een able to pursue his stndies 
m to the time he is appointed he is far in a<lvance, at least in tho branches he studies, 
ii not in aotual ac<inireinents, than is required to pass the entering examination. 

If he has had sucti continuous schooling and is not thus advanced, then he is not fit 
for the service, and never would be. On the other hand, if a young man has reached the 
age of twenty or twenty-one, and from lack of means, or other cause, has not been 
at school for three or four years, he is not as well prepared to enter as he was foar 
years previous. 

These two classes of young men — those who have had good advantages and those 
who have had none— may be widely separated in their mental acquirements at twenty 
years of age; they could not be associated in their subsequent edncation. The en- 
tering examination could not be adjusted to the more favored boys without i^Jostiee 
to those who had had little or no schooling for years. 

These two olasses, however, are not very different in their acquirements at the age 


of fifteen or sixteen years. Most boys are able to attend school till that age, and .ill 
should be able to pass the required examiDation, and, as stated above, if they are mot 
prepared at sixteen, they probably would not be at twenty. Again, the recorde of 
this institution show that a larger per centage gradaate of those who enter under fif- 
teen, than of those wbo enter over seventeen. The explanation of this is to be found 
in the fact that the boy under fifteen who can pass the entering examination has im- 
proved his opportunities and possesses a good degree of intelligence; whereas, the 
Doy over seventeen may be able to pass the examination though possessed of much 
less natural ability and without having made such good use of his opportunities. 
The consequence is that the younger boy has a better natural and equally good ac- 
quired preparation for the four-ycurs course. 

The average of admission ut present is between sixteen and seventeen, and nearer 
the latter age. If the age of admission is to be advanced then the recjuirementa 
should also be advanced, and, consequently, the whole course further developed. 

Considering that few enter below fifteen, and that the tipper limit is reached by a 
much larger number, I think it advisable to fix the limits at fifteen and eighteen. 

I consider it a serious objection to a plan that it requires the association of boys in 
the same class and requires the same degree of proficiency of them, when their ages 
difiier ho much as five years, which would be the case under the operation of the pro- 
posed bill. 

The mlvanced age at which ^aduates would receive their first commission is a 
consideration which is of considerable importance, if the age of admission is ad- 
vanced as proposed. A cadet when promoted would bo from twenty-two to twenty- 
seven years of age, whereas an officer at the ago of twenty-seven should have the 
experience and be capable of taking the responsibility belonging; to a lieutenant. 

Advancement in the lower grades is already too slow, and this bill would defer it 
two and a half years on the average, or, in 8X)ecial cases, three years later than is now 

The Academic Board, therefore, respectfully recommends that you will request the 
Senate committee to amend the bill so that the limits shall be fifteen and eighteen 

Very respectfally, 

W. T. Sampson, 
Commander f U. 8. Xavy, Superinteiidemt 

The Secretahy of the Navy, 

Washington J D, C, 

The second objection to the act is that it continues the six-years course of instme- 
tion. The general views of the Academic Board on this subject are expressed in the, 
printed slips herewith: 

'^The course of study at the Naval Academy was increased from four to six yenn, 
chiefly for the purpose of reducing the number of appointments to the Navy. This 
reason for a course of six years' duration no longer exists, since the number of appoint 
ments is now restricted by law to the aggregate number of vacancies occurring in eaeh 
year in the corps to which apimintments are made, the appointments of graduates Ix^ 
ing not less than ten annually. 

*' The return of each claHs to tho Academy for tl^e final cxamiuation coats the 
country aunnaliy the estimated sum of $1'J,00(). So far as those cadets who are hon- 
orably disoharued aro concerned, the two-years course at sea is without value to the 
Government, though en I ailing considerable exytense annually for their pay and rationSk 
estimated at .^:3H,0()() ; while the ]>iTsons ho discharged virtually waste two yean, dni^ 
ing which they might acquire soun^ ])hn'e in civil life. 

'*The final examination is uuneceM<4ary as a method of compelling those cadets who 
are to be api>ointed to tlu^ Navy to keep up their studies of professional subjects. The 
naval service re(iuires lil'e-long and continuous study on the part of its officers, and 
their advancement towards th(^ higher grades is guarded by examinations at every 
step. No other ])rofessional corps and nc^ other body of men in the world, except ths 
Zt^aftof China, is required to pass so many examinations. And the final examina- 
tion of cadets isnow similar in character to that which ensigns must pass befbxe pro- 

''From these considerations the Imard has arrived at the conclusion that the two- 
years course at sea of naval cadt^ts shcmld bo abolisliod. 

**The board believes that the country obtains at the end of the four- years oonroo 
all the advantages which now accrue from that of six years. The average age of cfr 
dots at the end of the four-years course is about twenty-one years. Those who re- 
turn to civil lifo at that time can enter upon any wt)rk which they may find with 
minds and bodies trained to systematic and methodical reflection and labor. Nor can 
it be doubt(*d that they acquir(^ such knowledge of the naval prufession and sneh in- 
terest in its duties as will sufilce to secure their returi) to the Navy in caaeof war. 
And it is the well-considered opinion of this board, that those who are selected fiir ap> 


pointment to the Navy are tilted to be^in, at the end of the four-yea^ coarse, their 
work in the Nayy, aud should be commissioned at that time in the lowest grades of 
the corps to which they shuU be appointed. 

"The board believes that the number of graduates of the Academy may be in- 
ereased adyautageously to the country by abolition of the six-years course. The 
necessary age of candidates now falls between fourteen and eighteen years, while 
the appointments recnr, by districts, once in six years only. It follows, therefore, 
that, in thoee districts whose candidates finally graduate, one-third of the boys are 
never eligible for admission to the Naval Academy. The reduction of the coarse 
from six years to fonr would give each Congressional district the appointment of a 
eadet once in fonr years instead of once in six years, and all boys of the country will 
be eligible at some time. The cadets at the Academy would be increased by the 
Domber now serving at sea ; that is, the total number of naval cadets would remain 
the same, but, as the pay of naval cadets at sea is greater than that of cadets at the 
Academy, the proposed course would be. in this respect, more economical than the 
existing one. And, while the number of cadets in any year will remain as at present, 
the number of graduates will be somewhat increased.^' 

*' The board concludes thaf the proposed reduction of course from six to four years 
will be advantageous to the country and the Navy, and it has sought, therefore, to 
ascertain the changes in exiHting laws which would effect the modification of the 
course in this respect an<l the selection of cadets for the several naval corps at the 
end of the third year or at the beginning of the first-class course of study. For this 
purpose the following scheme of law is submitted: 

"Amend the existing law (act of Aug. 5, 1882) so that it shall read as follows: 

"The course of study of naval cadets is hereby changed from six years to four 
years at the Naval AcfMleniy ; and the Academic lioard of the Naval Academy shall, 
on or before the ;^tli day of September in each year, separate the first class of naval 
cadets into two divisions in the proportion which the aggregate number of vacancies 
occurring in the preceding fiscal year, ending on the 30tn day of June, in the lowest 
icrades of commissioned oflleers of the line corps of the Navy and Marino Corps, shall 
bear to the number of vacnncies occurring during the same period in the lowest ^rade 
of commissioned otlicers of the Engineer Corps of the Navy ; and the cadets so assigned 
to the first division of the first class shall thereafter pursue a course of study arranged 
to tit them for service in the line corps of the Navy, nnd the cadets so assigne^l to the 
second division of the first class shall thereafter pursue a m^parato course of study 
arranged to fit them tor service in the Engineer Corps of the Navy, and the cadets 
•«b»ll I hereafter and until gra<lua1i()n take rank by merit with those in the same 
dirisiuH lUMonliiig to the merit marks of the four-years course; and the two divisions 
of the first class shall be graduated at the end of the four-years course; and from 
the gradnateh of the AVm/ division appointments shall be made hereafter as it shall be 
ueoessary to fill vacancies in the lowest grades of commissioned ofiicers of the line 
coriM of the Navy and Marine Corps, and the vacancies in the lowest grade of the 
commiHsioiied otUcers of the Engineer Coq>s of the Navy shall be tilled in like man- 
ner by ap]N»intmentH tVoni the graduates of the second dinnion : Provided^ That no 
greater number of appointments into the said lowest grades of comuiissioned ofiicers 
shall be made each yi ar than shall enual the inimher of vacancies which shall have 
occurred in tht* sani<> grades during tlie ))rec(ding Hscal year, such appointments to 
be made from the gratlnates of the year at the conclusion of their four-years course 
in the order of meiit as det«'iiiiined by the Academic Board of the Naval Academy; 
the aHNignment to the various corps to he nunle hy the Secretary <»f the Navy upon 
the recommendation ot' the Academic B(»ard ; hut nothing herein contained shall re- 
duce the uiimlN*r of a]>poiiitiiients from such grades below ten in each year, of which 
thrc<* shall be appointed to the Engineer Ct>rps: l*rorUltd further^ That from the class 
which graduated at th«> enil «>f four \ears in .lime, l^"*^>, there shall he ai>i>ointed in 
like manner, hut afr<T a tinal ;;iadiiating examination, upon the recommendation of 
the Academic Board, a^ luauv asshiilj equal ihetotal niiinher ot vacancies in the lowest 
pra*les <if c(Mnmissi<)iiiMl ntiirj-rs of the M*veral corps ncinrring in the year ending 
June:<i), IH'C. and that tnun ihcrlass which ;^'raduate*« at the end of the four-yeart 
course in .lune. I-'n'i, ilun* -^Iiall h«> appointed in like manner, but after a tinal grad- 
uating examiiiation. as :tt ihf-endof the prcMiit ><ix-y«'ars course, upon the recom- 
nien<lutioii of the Ar.ifliMriir Pxiard. as many as shall fqnal the total number of vacan- 
cies in the lowest ;;ra<U>ot the commissioned otlii-ers t)f the several corps occuriing 
in th»' year entlin;: ,Inn«* :'.n, l-J^T ; and if there he a surplus of gratliiates in any year, 
th«»!M* who do not reet'ive sncii api)ointments to the said lowest grades of the Navy 
and Marine I'oipA shal! hr given a certiticate of graduation and an honorable dis- 
charge, and thoM* cadets who hIi.-iII he htUKuably dischargeil from and out of the classes 
which com)deted the tour-years (>ours«,' in the years \^h and l^^> shall be given one 
year's sea |)ay, as now provideil by law for naval cadets so discharged after the six- 
years conrsc, and the said one year's pay shall not be given hereafter to other grad- 

NA 89 17 


nates of the foar-years course ; and if the number of Tacancies in the lowest grades 
aforesaid) occurring in any year, shall be greater than the number of graduates of 
that year, the surplus vacancies shall be filled from the graduates of following years, 
as they shall become available and all parts of laws inconsistent with the provisions 
herein contained are hereby repealed, and this act shall take effect on the 30th day 
of June, 1887." 

An apparent effect of the proposed law would be an increase in the lowest grades 
of the several corps to which appointments are made. 

The next matter to which I respectfully ask the attention of the Board is the ap- 
plication of the law in the cases of candidates who are rejected by the Academic 
Board and of cadets who are subsequently found deficient and recommended to be 
dropped from the Academy. 

It is particularly recommended that the physical examination and rejection be 
placed upon the same basis as the academic examination and rcgection. 

The law seems to apply equally to both, but it has been the custom to waive physi- 
cal defects, and permit rejected candidates to enter the Academy and to continue 
cadets at the Academy who have been found physically.disqnalified. 

If the law regarding the age of admission were changed as above recommended, 
the course reduced to four years, and the existing laws enforced, the academic coarse 
would be vastly improved. 

W. T. Sampson, 
Captain, U, 8, Navy, Superintendent 


Bureau op Yards and Docks, 

Navy Department, 
Washington, D. C, October 14, 1889. 

SiB: I have the houor to submit the following report of the opera- 
tions of this Bureau for th« fiscal year ending June 30, 1889. 

The tabulated statements at the end of this report show in detail the 
amount of expenditures during the last fiscal year, and the estimates 
for the next fiscal year, under the several heads of Improvements, re- 
pairs, and ])reservation, general maintenance, civil establishments, 
contingent, and support of the naval home. 

The total estimates from the different navy-yards and stations are as 
follows : 

Yard improvements (3,760,716.80 

Repairs and preeenration 980,168.96 

General maintenance 376,425.72 

Civil establishment 72,192.95 

Naval home 82,700.00 

Total 5,281,204.43 

The estimates of the Bureau differ somewhat from those submitted 
by the several commandants, and are summarized in the following 

Yard improvements $958,755.00 

Repairs and preservation 350,000.00 

General maintenance 300,000.00 

Contingent 40,000.00 

Civil esUblishment 65,:581.32 

Naval home 82,700.00 

BapportofBuean of Yards and Docks 11,4:)0.00 

Total 1,808,260.32 

The appropriations for the past year were expended judiciously and 
economically. The very small appropriations for the present year leave 
the Bureau in an extremely embarrassing ]>osition. The general condi- 
tion of the buildings, wharves, and other Government property is lam- 
entable, and Congress should make sufficient appropriations to arrest 
the decay and deterioration. The amounts for maintenance and for re- 
pairs must be largely increased, or the Bureau can not meet the abso- 
lutely necessary calls upon it from the several yards and stations. 

In the matter of improvements this Bureau only recommends what it 
considers in its best judgment to be for the public interests, and the 



wisdom of Congress determines if they are necessary ; bat regarding 
the preservation of the Government property in its charge, the Bareaa 
feels that it is its imperative daty to ask for saflBcient appropriations 
I therefore urgently request that Congress will allow the fall amonntB 
estimated for under the heads of ^^ General maintenance" aod ^'RepaiiB 
and preservation." 

True economy and sound administration require that oar present 
buildings, wharves, sea-walls, sewerage, and water systems, and all 
other valuable improvements at the navy-yards and naval stations 
should be ])ut in a good state of repair, and then sufficient appropria- 
tions should be made thereafter to keep them so. 

My estimate for '^ repairs and preservation " for the next fiscal year 
is $350,000, and for << general maintenance " $300,000, and I beg that 
they will not be decreased. 

For <^ contingent" I ask $40,000. There are always possibilities of 
sudden and great emergencies arising where so mach valaable property 
is concerned, and the amount estimated for might at saeh a time save 
far greater expense if the remedy could be promptly andertaken. 

The details regarding expenditures and estimates for improvements 
at the navy-yards and stations are mentioned under the headings of 
tbe several localities. 


Increasing wattTHuppIy ....•••.. 

C.ODipleting hydrant Hystem •• u 

I respectfully renew the recommendation made by my pre 
last year, and strongly urged with cogent reasons by the presi c 
mandant, that the above estimates for increased water supply e 
pleting the hydrant system be allowed. When these improv 
have been made all the buildings of the yard will have 
supi)ly of water and much better protection against Are. 


Repairing timber wharf No. I \ 

Now boilerH and pnmping machinery, taking down and resetting the end oi 

the granite dry-dock and putting iu the necessary backing and draioagie .. 

Electric-light plant jw 

Pair of steel HJiears , 8 

Remodeling of building No. 32, for offices of commandant, captain of tbe 

yard, and other officers 7 

The repairs to wharf No. 2 were completed during the ji 
of the other wharves are in a very bad condition. All the c i 
yard ia landed on timber wharf No. 1, and it should be repi i , 

The boilers of the dry-dock have boiqi condemned and two i 
ones are now in use. The pumping machinery is liable to give t » 
any time, and the entire puminnp: plant should be renewed. 

The end of the dry-dock is cracking again and a x)ortion of 
be taken down and reset secmely, with proper backing a id] 
Tlie new navy is composed of steel ships, and frequent do . 
cessity if the vessels are to be kept in an efficient condi , i 
docks should, therefore^ be always in a good state of r r. 

The gas ])lant at this yard is in a very bad conditiou i I it 
rccpiire a large sum to put it in order. I respectfully kn 
introduction of electricity. 

A small pair of steel shears are necessary for loading 
Jieavv weights, as the two pairs formerly in use have be 
and taken <lown. 


The old, nDsightly, and unhealthy wooden building, now used as 
offices for the commandant and captain of the yard, is in need of exten- 
sive repairs. It is suggested that the adjoining building, No. 32^ be en* 
larged and remodeled for oifices. 

A contract was entered into September 18, 1889, for rebuilding offi- 
cers' quarters, L, M, N, and O, under a special appropriation made by 
the last Congress. 


Extending railroad system, and purchase of necessary rolling stock $15, 000 

Completing approaches to timber dry-dock.'. 30,000 

Extending bnoK wall around navy-yard '. 50,000 

Improvement of Whitney Basin 25,000 

Repairing cob dock, and rebuilding sea-wall 100,000 

Relaying the water pipes in yard 20, 000 

Dredging 20,000 

luoreasing electrio-light plant 24,000 

In order to proceed intelligently in the development of the capa- 
bilities of this yard, the Department has organized a boar<l of officers^ 
to report a plan of permanent improvement, so that any money ap- 
propriated by Congress may be expended in carrying out a thoroughly 
well-digested project in a continuous and economical manner. Very 
large sums of money have heretofore been ex])en<led in disconnected 
and disjointed works of a temporary character, intended to arrest dete- 
rioration and decay, while the same aggregate amount; would have 
completed permanent structures had a systematic plan of improvement 
been followed. The sea-walls are a notable instance in point. As the 
report of this Board will be completed in time to lay before the two 
houses of Congress, I will reserve any remarks u])on the general im- 
provement of this yard until it is submitted to the Bureau. 

The sum of $15,000 was appropriated at the last session of Congress 
for laying a rallroml track. It will be expended in connecting the 
wharves and the principal shops in order to facilitate as much as pos- 
sible the ship-building work of the yard. This amount is, however, 
entirely inadequate, and a further sum of $15,000 is estimated for in 
order that means of rapid communication ma^' be established. 

The Simpson timber dry-dock will not be completed before December 
1, the contractors ha\ing been greatly delayed and much extra work 
occasioned by the discover^' of a stratum of quicksand. An appropria- 
tion is requested to complete the approaches to this dock in a substantial 

It is very necessary to extend a wall around the eastern part of the 
navy-yard to prevent encroachments. 

Congress appropriated $40,000 at its last session for the improve- 
ment of Whitney Basin, and this amount is being exi>ended, under the 
advice of the Boanl of Permanent Improvement, in building a qoay 
f wall along one side of it. This work should be continued. 

All of the crib-work of the cob dock, which has not been replaced 
during recent years, is in a very bad condition and can not be longer 
neglected. An appropriation is urgently requested for necessary re- 
pairs to the dock, and for replacing a portion of the crib-work by a 
permanent sea- wall. 

The water pii>eH of the yanl are reported to be in a very bad condi- 
tion, and that it is necessary to relay them. 

The channel in front of the dry docks has filltHl up to such an extent 
that a large amount of dredging is absolutely rei|uired in order to en- 
able vessels to i-each the ducks. 


Ad appropriation of $15,000 was made at the last session of Oonmress 
for an electric-light plant. As boilers will have to be parchased ia 
order to p^ive the steam pressure required, a Airtber appropriation of 
at least $24,000 is necessary to extend the electric lighting to the offloeSf 
shops, and dwelling-honses. 

Work on the boiler-shop wing of building No. 28 has been oontinaed, 
and is now being as rapidly pressed as possible. 

Progress on the reconstruction of building No. 7 is well advanoed| 
and a contract has been let for the erection of a house for the civil en- 
gineer at this yard. 


Extending permanent sea-wall $50,000 

Buildinj; permaiiout wharf at Fifteenth street 66»9S5 

Rebuilding Broad street, wharf 94,400 

Building and furnishing one officers' quarters lOpOOO 

Constructing 2,000 feet of light retaining- wall along water ftont of anufled 

portion of the island ••... 85^000 

Dredging and filling in * -.-...... 60,000 

Paving and improvement of grounds 14,1 

Work on the Simpson timber <lry-dock is progressing favorably. 

Speciticatious have been ])repared for a permanent sea-wall, and a 
section of it will soon be contracted for nnder an appropriation of 
$75,000 made by Congress in 1888. It is very necessary that a perma- 
nent wall be erected along the water front of the working part of this 

At its last session Congress appropriated $26,476.40 for a landing 
wiiarf at the foot of Fifteenth street, to be 75 feet wide and 400 feet 
long. The estimated cost of a permanent wharf of this sizeia $83^400, 
and an appropriation for the difference is requested. Broad street 
wharf is in a very bad condition, and should be entirely rebuilt. The 
wharf facilities estimated for are very essential if this 3'ard is to be 
again opened. 

The bureau is now paying $2,800 annually for the «rent of olBoen^ 
<]uarters in the city of Philadelphia. The oificers attached to this yaid 
should reside within its limits, as emergencies might arise reqauing 
their i)reseuce. 1, therefore, urgently recommend that dwelling-hooass 
be erectted. 

It is ])r()bable that one or more railroads will build branohes to tiia 
entrance of this yard duiing the ])resent year. An appropriation shonld 
be made for the coiistrnctioii of a railroad system on the Government 
])roperty, connecting with these outside systems. It will greatly fiMOit 
itate the handling of all freight, and give workmen residing in the eity 
quick and cheap transportation to and from their homes. 

The present dikes around the unused part of League Island Teqniie 
constant repairs. A light retaining- wall can be built of a permanent 
character at a comparatively small expense, and wonld be in the diie^^ 
tion of true economy. 

The usual appi o]>riation for dredging and filling in shonld be eon* 

An appro))riation for improvement of the grounds and for extending 
the present pavements should be made. 

As steel vessels are now being built at two of our navy-yards, and tt 
may be presumed that Congress will continue this policy, the gieat ad» 
vantages of League Island for this ])urpose should not be overlooked*^ 
Situated in the heart of the steel ship-buildinginduatry, where the h&i 
materials and workmen can be obtained without difficulty, and any 


manent plant, or vessels upon the ways, are perfectly secure from any 
possibility of destruction by an enemy during a war with a foreign 
power, it would seem that its location is unexcelled. The fact, also, that 
it is surrounded by fresh water, so essential for the preservation of un- 
sheathed steel vessels, and in which timber structures are not attacked 
by the destructive teredo, are unanswerable arguments in its favor. 

A board of naval officers has been constituted by the Department to 
submit plans and specifications for the permanent improvement of this 
yanl. This report will be completed in time to lay before Congress at 
its next session, and will contain full information regarding the advan- 
tages and possibilities of League Island as a naval station. 


Rebailding qaartcrs A and B $12,000 

ChaDginfc building No. 7 into an apartment honseof three stories for additiouiJ 

qnarters . 10,000 

Changing old paint shop into a dwelling with two apartments 6,000 

Dredging and tilling in 10,000 

Congress appropriated $15,000 at its last session lor a railroad system 
to connect with the Baltimore and Potomac. This has been built, and 
has greatly facilitated the delivery of the heavy forgings and other 
materials used at the yard. 

A contract has been made, and will be completed the present year, 
for an electric plant, which will light all the streets and gun-shops. 

Many of the officers on duty in this yard have to reside at a consid- 
erable distance (they are mostly junior officers with smaJ salaries), in a 
city where living is very expensive. As a mere matter of justice, Con- 
gress should grant the small appropriatious asked for to furnish them 
with quarters. 

Ad appropriation should also be made for dredging the channel to 
the river. 


Extending permanent sea-wall $25,000 

Completing railroad system 5, WO 

Completing water sy.stem 5, 000 

Extending wharf at St. Helena 20.000 

Completing approaches to timber dry -dock 10,000 

Connecting new pninps with old dry-dock ir>, 000 

Increasing electric-li^jht jdant 15, 000 

Extending macbinc-Hhop (ftteain engineering) 5, 000 

The permanent quay wall should be gradually extended along the 
front of this yard, as all timber structures in these waters, unless pro- 
tected, are rapidly destroyer! by the teredo. 

A small appropriation will complete both the railroad and water sys- 
tems, and should be made. 

The extension of the wharf at St. Helena is recommended, as it 
would not only increase the facilities there, but enable the removal of 
the receiving ship from her moorings in tiie middle of the stream. 

A small appropriation is necessary to com[)lete the approaches to the 
new dry -dock. This diy-dock has n'cently been completed and accepted 
by the Government. It is a splendid structure, and reflects great credit 
ou its builders, Messrs. J. E. Simpson & Co. Notwithstanding its great 
capacity, it was emptied in one hour and five minutes at the official 
trial. It is proposed to connect these very |H)werful pumps with the 
old granite dry dock, and an appropriation is urged for that puqwse. 
It now takes eight hours to discharge the water from the granite dock. 


— » 

% It is poor economy to have both gas and electricity in the same yar 

\ and an appropriation is urged for an incandescent installatiOD to ligl 

i the officers' quarters, marine barracks, etc . 

\ In order to increase the facilities of the Bureau of Steam Enginec 

I ing, an appropriation is requested for the extension of Uie present m 

'\ chine-shop. 


; Congress having provided for a commission to report upon the be 

site for a navy-yard upon the Oulf or South Atlantic ooast no appi 
j priation is asked for improvements at this yard. 



Completing repairs to sectional dry-dook $15^^ 

i Bridge across sectional dock basin .•••....... S,fl 

: Boat landings 3,fl 

I Sinking artesian well (as much OS may be necessary) 90^1 

\ Building wagon road towards cemet>eryy magazines, etc ••.. 5^fl 

Replanking wharves •••. ...... S|(] 

Completing electric-light plant •• 3l^fl 

Moving ferry slip back and straightening sea-wall SO^C 

Dredging • 10,0 

Gate andguard house ..•• 10,0 

An appropriation is asked for to put the sectional dry-dock in goi 
condition. There is a necessity for landings for small boats belongii 
to men-of-war, and the workmen who reside in Yall^o. 

Notwithstanding former unsuccessful attempts, an artesian vn 
should be sunk near tiie boiler-house, where the steam ean be ntilia 
in working the boring tools. The supply of water at this yaid OM 
the Bureau $0,000 per .year, and the breaking ot the water main leodii 
from Vallejo would cause the cessation of work in the sliope fofc mm 
time. A water supply on the island is very necessary. It is believi 
that water can be found by sinking a well of sufficient depth. 

The wagon road leading to the cemetery, magazine, light-honse. eti 
is frequently almost impassable in the rainy season. As there is plem 
of good stone on the island, this road should be improved. 

The wharves in rear of the sea-wall are represented to be in veiybi 
condition and n ed replanking. 

An appropriation ot $15,000 has already been made by Oonffressl 
the introduction of electricity at this yard. This amount shomd be i 
creased sufficiently to furnish an installation large enonjph to entirs 
dispense with the use of gas. The sum of $16,664.09 was estimati 
for in the annual report of the commandant to remove the gas bold 
from its present very dangerous situation to a place of seenrity. It 
located in the court of the smithery shops, and is surrounded by op( 
forges, smoke-Ktacks, etc. An explosion would probably destroy tl 
adjacent buildings, and, during working hours, occasion great loss 
life. The Bureau believes it would be much more economical to dj 
pense with gas and furnish a complete electric plant. 

The ferry slip should be moved inland and the present rotten wharv 
removed in order to straighten the water front and prevent deposits 1 
the interru])tion of the tidal currents. 

A small ap])ropriation is absolutely required for dredging. Mndb 
been deposited along the quay wall to such an extent that no des 
draught vessels can lay alongside of it. It was recently necessaiy 
dredge for several days in front of the dry-dock before the Frenoh 
of-war Duquesne could be admitted. 


A gate and guard house is greatly needed at the entrance to the yard. 
There is no proper protection for the guard now and the gate house is 
stated to be in such a dilapidated condition as to be a disgrace to the 


BnildiDff coal shed $500 

Eebaildmg wharf 6,500 

The coal at this station is unprotected fiom the weather. 

The wharf is in a bad condition and should be overhauled at once. 


The house appropriated for by Congress at its last session is being 
built. No estimate for improvements is submitted. 


CJiADging location of railroad tracks, scale-bonse and puoip-house, made 

neoesBary by new Trecisary baildings $1,000 

An appropriation was made the present year of $8,000 for two officers' 

Siusrters. Plans and specifications have been prepared, and a con tract 
or their construction will be made at an early day. 

An adjustable stern dock is being built for this station, and will be 
completed within a few months. 

The purchase of the Mallory lot would seem very desirable. It is in- 
creasing in value, and the Government may some day have to pay a 
much larger pric>e. 


The following table shows the changes among the beneficiaries during 
the last fiscal year : 

On onr rollB July 1, 16^ 197 

Original adini88>0D8 IS 

Be-adnii88ion« 6 


Died 10 

Dropped, abaent, and nnacconnted for 5 

Diaini9ie<l 4 

Transferred to Ooveruinent luRane Asylum 2 

Discharged at own request 5 

— 26 

Total on rolls Jiil.v 1, ldc{9 195 

Total expenditures at this institution during the fiscal year $77,900 

Tatol eeti mate for the fiscal year ending June :U), WJl 82,700 

A table is appended to this report showing the details of exiiendi- 
tares and estimates. 

Capt. Edward E. Potter, U. S. Navy, governor of this institntion, re- 
ports that ''the buildings and grounds of the Home have been kept in 
•o excellent condition of repair and preservation, and, as far as funds 
were available, improvements were made, making the place a comfort- 
able and beautiful home for the old and ilecrepit of the Navj." 

The brick building for kitchen, lanndrj, and dormitories for female 
employes is nearing com[>letion, and will relieve the crowding and 


greatly add to the comfort of the beneficiaries. This annex will neces- 
sitate the addition of two laborers to attend to the famaces, lights, 
halls, etc., and they are included in the estimates. The necessity of 
permanent painters and carpenters where there are so many buildings 
to look after is very great, and they should be included in the annual 

I repeat the recommendations, made for years past, for an increase 
in the pny of certain employes, whose services deserve the amount of 
compensation asked. Suitable cooks can not be obtained for less wages 
than the estimates, and the Bureau is solicitous that this matter, which 
so directly atfects the comfort and contentment of the beneficiaries, shall 
meet with favorable consideration. 

The hydraulic elevator asked for is an imperative necessity, in the 
opinion of the Bureau. The majority of the inmates are old and infirm, 
and as the dining-room is in the ba43ement, several laborious and pain- 
ful trips have to be made daily up and down the steep stairways. The 
small expense of this elevator, when compared with the humane and 
beneficial results, should lead to its construction at the earliest possible 

The money appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, for 
*^ fitting up bath-rooms for beneficiaries, (800," could not be made availa- 
ble, as these bath-rooms are to be placed in the annex building not yet 
completed. I therefore recommend that this amount be re-appropriated 
for this purpose. 

Some of the estimates are probably larger than may be required, but 
the nnniber of beneficiaries is fluctuating, and the rules governing their 
allowances fixed. The appropriation should be sufficient to make sore 
that the comfort of all the immates is attained, as the surplus annaally 
lapses into the Treasury. It should be borne in mind tiiat aJl the ex- 
penses of the Home are paid from the income of the naval pension 
hind, and that these ohl veterans helped to create it. 

I would renew the recommendation that the wharf-lot, situated on 
the east bank of the Schuylkill liiver, belonging to the Home, be sold, 
and the money received for it be placed to the credit of the Home, to 
be used in the introduction of steam-heat and electric lights in all tiie 


On September 7, 1888, Congress authorized the appointment of two 
commissions to select the most desirable site for navy-yards, one on 
or near the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic ooaati 
and the ot\wr north of the foity-second parallel of north latitude in 
the State of Ore^jjon and Territories of Washington and Alaska. 

Tliese coniinissions have been appointed, and the Bureau anticipates 
with niudi interest tlu*ir reports, and hopes that Congress will tfi^ 
immediate action rej^nrdiiig whatever sites are selected, as navy-yards 
are essential in the localities designated. 


At its last session Congress made an appropriation for the establish- 
ment of a ])ennanent <;oaiin<r station at Pago Pago, Samoa. Under di- 
rectir>n of Kear-Adiniral Kiinberly, U. S. Navy, commanding the Pacifle 
Station, snrveys of the harbor and a report regarding the best sites fbr 
a coaling station have been made. 




The chief clerk of this Bareaa has been employed in it since 1857. 
He has faithfally and efficiently discharged all his duties. There has 
been no change in the rate of pay for this position since July 1, 1853, 
while the salaries of men holding like positions in other departments of 
the Ck)vemment have been considerably increased. I respectfully rec- 
ommend, as a matter of justice, that the salary of the chief clerk of this 
Bureau be fixed at the same rate as is paid for the same service in other 


The detail of a line officer as assistant to this Bureau is a very neces- 
sary one, so that during the absence of the Chief of the Bureau, some 
one fully acquainted with his views may take his place. As it is im- 
portant that the services of an officer of the highest ability and profes- 
sional knowledge be secured for this position, I would respectfully urge 
opon Gongress the wisdom of giving the highest pay of his grade to the 
officer while serving in this capacity. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Chief of Bureau. 
Hon. B. F. Tracy, 

Seeretary of the Navy. 

H«* L — Bepcri of expendiiure§ at navy-yards f ttationSf and Naval Home for the year end- 

ing June 30, 1889. 

Tardt aad sUtioBs. 

PlOllMHOIlUlf X. H 

Boston, HiM 

Vow London, Conii 


LooroeliJAnd. P* 

WMhiagton, D. C 




Snekot'o Harbor, K. Y. 

Xbj Weot^FU 

Va^ Home, Pa 

WbMf *t Erie, Pa 







1, ooa 00 





and pres- 




89, 932. 02 


2:^,162. 1. 5 





3, 346. 26 




$13, 268. 88 
21. 820. 32 
3. 731. 25 
13, 073. 49 




1, 481. 50 

403. 49 

9, 248. 9.') 
3, 141, 
6. ZM\ 
1, 8oO 



$1, 684. 06 

li,944 00 



312.646,87 ' 170,266.98 I 45.039.91 I 19,229.86 


$40, 318. a 



622, 263. 74 











1, 547, 150. 51 

*TUs it for the antire support of the Kaval Home, is a sf«parate appropriation, and placed onder 
ilds head for oooTenienoe only. 







8S 9 SSS9 SSSeSSS;^ 9 

1^ 5 ^"'H B'aa'fjfS'* 




SS 3 S 















of -J" c4^ 




« f^ 


»Ht* 59 — '-J -^ 

si S S^S 




S 3 0330 




T^w7 »H Cf 


M t-00' 

















No. 4.— JSf Mma<M received from navy-yards, etations, and naval kameforfieeml year 

ing June 'SO, 1891. 

Yftrdt and ttatioiis. 

Portsmouth, K. H 

Boston, MasA 

New LoiidoD. Conn.... 

Brooklyn . . N. Y 

Leaj^iiA iHland, Pa 

WaHhington, D. C 

Norlolk, Va 

Pensacula, Fla 

Mare Island. Cal 

Snckf^t'e Uarbor, N. Y. 

Key West, Fla 

Naval Home. Pa 

Port Royal, S.C 



Yard im- 

$88, 430. 00 
195. 392. 97 

662, 716. 32 
1, 379, 190. 12 






Bepaint and 

$47. 650. 00 

244, 000. 00 





8a 213. 96 

87, 123. 45 

79, 936. 16 


6, 72a 00 








CiTll Mtab- 
liahment. - 





• • • • •• •••••••• 
















No. 5. — Detailed eaiimates from yards and stations for works of improvem$nt for fkefkmA 

year ending June '60, 1891. 

Yards, stations, and objects. 


Forcleaninp pondn (3) • 

For proponed reservoir 

For pipin<; , 

For completing hydrant syntem 

For building; plant, includin;; boiler, engine, etc., for construction and 
repair of iron and steel vessels 


For cart shed 

For pavin}{ nud jading . 
For 8lu»<»rH 

For tinibHr wharf No. 5. . 
For timber wharf No. 1.. 
For electric li^ht plant. . . 

For dry-tloek 

For remodeling buildin*;. 


For completing boiler-shop wing, building Xo. 28. 

For erecting Hhop 

For blackniiiith and cooper shop 

For railioad tiacks 

F(>r <ired.:iijg 

For .Naid wall 

For roads, walks, gutters, and drains 


For l.^th street wharf 

For Hiili HtH'et wluiTt" 

For ]>ioieit ion- wall 206 foot east of Hroad street wharf 

ForG'm feetiiinbri <lr\-doek 

For 17tli sln-et whaif. 

For pr (t'e'iiMi-wjiU west of 17th street 

For dri d;;iri:r ami tlllin<<: in 

For l,OiM» fett li::ht-ietaining wall. 

For conimand.uit'H ofliee building 

For <]narterH H. and (J 

For quait^-i.s I>. and E 

For t»rtiee of yard pa\ina'*ter 

For olHce of van! surgeon.... 

For seven otlicers' (juarters 

For Belgian pavement 


For support of bonoflclaries, improvements, and all expenses. 










7. 557 70 

47, 00. 
















Ko. 5— 2>«ta<20d eBttmates from yards and 8tat%on$for works of improvement for ihejieoal 

year ending Junft 30, 1891 — Continued. 

Yards, stations, and oljeots. 


For extension to quay wall 

For railroad extension 

For deep- water basin 

For water system 

For wharf at timber dry-dock and approaches. 

For wharf at St Helena 

For extension and inclosare of erecting shed. . 
For extension of machine shop 


For timber shed , 

For rolling mill, Bareaa of Steam Engineering. ... 

For boat undings 

For roads 

For gate and gatehouse «. 

For extension of quay wall 

For erection of two t2-ton swinging cranes 


For Artesian well 

For moving ferry-slip inland, etc 

For caisson 

For gaa-holder 

For road from stablee to light-house 

For bridge aoroHS sectional dock basin 

For mod dredger and scow 

For replacing wharf in rear of sea-wall 

For widening gauge in railroad tracks 



For grading 

For alterations and improTements in the ship-fitter and famishing shops, 
including leTcUng of floors, removal of partition wall and chimney. 
Ailing in of cistern, building pattern shops and galleries, laying founda- 
tion ready to receive new 250 L H. P. engine, and building house over 

For five sheds oomplete with floors, corrugated iron root sky-lichts, etc. 

For railroad tracks, turn-tables, and rolling stock 

For adaptation of dock basin for building sup 

For electric light plant 

For wharf in front of saw-mill 


For purchase of HaUory lot 


Total improvements 

For fitting and 
tion and Port 

nipping telegraph and telephone line between this sta- 




800, 000. 00 


































m 3 loram i-iMMFSmm 


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Report showing amount expended during the fincal jfear ending June 30, 1889, from apprt 
priations pertaining to the Bureau of Yards and JJocks, for civilians employed on cleria 
duti/y or in ami other ca}mcity than ordinary mechanics and workingmeH, at the seven 
naey-yardSy and submitting estimates for such cinllian employ^ for ihefiecal year 1ft): 
in compliance with tlw. third section of naval appropriation act approved January 3( 
1885 {for a year of 3(55 days). 

Navy-yardB and ratinfc and rato of pay. 

Amount paid 

t<i oi\iltana 


danng the 



Jane 30, 1880. 


Clork, at$1.400p()r nnnum 

Mail inc8Miin;;cr, at $600 per ununm 

M«'H!fen;;er. nt $1(00 per uuiinm 

KorAiuun laborer ami Iinid tearoHtcr, at $4 per diom* 

Janiior, at $000 per unuum 

i'ilut, at $3 pvrUiem* 



CliTk, at $1,400 por annum 

Fororoun laborer, at $ i )>(>r d iom 

MosMen^tT to comniamlant. at $1.70 per diem 

Mt'»*rteii;:er. at $1.70 ]M'r diem 

Mail roi«Hsc'ni;i>r, at $000 p<'r annum 

Writer, at $l,017.l'r) per annum (submitted) 
Drau^litAmau, at $5 pur diom (submitted) . . . 



CltM-k, at $1,400 ]>cr aimum 

"Writer, at $1.017.1.'r» p»T annum 

Two writ iTH, at l,017.1!5<'a4-h iu*r annum (submitted) 

Ono writer, at $90() |H>i-annnni (rtubmitte<l) , 

F()irni:in Inltonr, at $t.&) |>ei' diem 

MailmoHnen^^t-r. at $600 prr anuuui 

M t-MMnuer to coininrtndant, at $J.0O per diem* , 

Mf'^BeDger ti) eapiain. nt $J.l!r>]M'r iliom 

Drau^hihman, at $■*> ]Mr diem 

Siiperintendrnt of traniM or qnarterman. at $4 per diem — 

Mer'seniier to eivilenjiineer, at $*.2 per diem 

Druuulititmau to<>ivil engineer incbargeof dork, at $.'>per 


DraiiKtttMmau to board of impmyoiiifnt, at $.') per diem 

Writer to iHianl of iinprovenn-nt, at$:i.04per diem 

Two rodmeu to boar<l of improvement, at $2.48 each per 


Quart<'rman, at $4 ])er diem (aubmittcd) 


backett'b iiakbok, it. t. 

Ship-keepor. at $1 per diem* 


Cb-rk. at $1.4oo ]>er annum 

Writirr. at $l.Ul7.L'r> pt-r annum (Hubmitte<l) 

Mi'rt ruiier. at $1.70 ]>er dirm 

1' on-nian l.ibon r at $i ]>«'r diom 

Drauu'litMni.i n, at $ 1 inr diem 

DmuuiJtHnian. at. $.'i jMT «Iirm (rtubmitte<l) 

(^nartiTMian. at $J..'>0 per ilieni 

'l'rli';ir:ipb opi-rator and type-writer, at $1,000 per anunm 

(subniitt«'d; , 

Sn in'^ jH'f'tor. at |{ ]>»'r diem 

Subin"*jnctoi. ar $.{ 50 per iliem 

I.fVrb-r, at $.'I.SJ per d t'ni (snbmitted) 

Kodmau. at $'2.\tit por diem (Hubmitted) 



1. 248. 00 
143. Oi 


Eatiiiiat«a for drilian en 
plovte for the fiscal yea 
ending Jane 30, 1881. 

Rate of 












ttia. 20 

91-.'. oO 

70 J. 00 




8.%. 00 






800. (« 









2. 25 









510. 12 
205. 00 


HO. 50 











* Incladinc Snndayi 























H thawing amount expended during ike f»oal yoor eitded Jnnt 30, IStffl, «to.— Cont'd. 

• fiscal near tuding-lun. 


"1 vnrrnjiiia JMnaaO, l-t«>, an* 
r act approetdJaaumrp-JU, I8W, 







4^ BID. 11 


Statement of the appropriations for the Bureau of Tarda and Docks for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, lHri9, showing the amounts expended under each specific head of apprapria- 

tiony and the balances remaining unexpended June 30, as required oy section 4;£l, Herised 


Appropriation for ^cnerul maiutenance, 1S89 $165,000.00 

Expended from July 1, 1888, to June 30, 1889 150,153.84 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 14,847.16 

Which will be entirely absorbed. 

Appropri at ion for repairs and preservation, 1889 900, 000. 00 

Exi)ended from July 1, 1888, to June 30, 1889 371,383.13 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 28,616.87 

Which will be entirely absorbed. 

Appropriation for civil establishment, 1R89 46,580.70 

i:xpende<l from July 1, 1888, to June 30, 1889 45, 111.34 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 1,409.36 

W^liich will revert to the Treasury. 

Api)ropriation for contingent, 1889 SO, 000. 00 

Expended from July 1, 1888, to June :K), 1889 l*J,0b7.16 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 ,. I}\2,v4 

Which will be quite, if not entirely, absorbed. 

Appropriiition for naval asylum, 1889 H2, 367.00 

Expended from July 1, lK-^8, to June 30, 1889 ■ 46,'i5aU5 

B'llance on hand July 1, 1889 36,110.05 

Of which ii small amount will re> ert to the Treasury after liabilities arc 

Appropriation, nuvy-yard, Boston, water-pi]»cs 32,000.00 

Expended from July 1, 1888, to June :W, 1889 31,314.60 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 685.40 

Which will be entirely absorbed. 

Api)ropriatiou, navy-yanl, Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Kepairs to building on cob dock 5,000.00 

Bdih^r-Hliop and wing to machine-shop 68,340.47 

Quarters for civil engineers 10,000.00 

Keconstructing building No. 7 60,000.00 

143, :f40. 47 

Expended from July 1, 1888, to June 30, 1889 70,855.96 

I^alanceon hand July 1, 1889 72,485.21 

\Viii<li will he expen<led to complete several objects named. 

Apjunpriation fortimberdry-dor.ks, navy-yards, Bnuiklyn and Norfolk. ..1, 100,000.00 

KxjMMMlrd IVomJuly 1, 1>.':!8, to June IK), 18?9 9*20,399.58 

Malanroon hand July 1, 1880 179,600.42 

Whi<h will be cxp<'n<hMl in com])Ieiing the <U)cks. 

Ajjproprijilion. navy->ar<l, Lt-agur Island, Pa. : 

Iiii]uo\(MiuMit ofgroniids and construction of prott^ction wall 75,000.00 

Kxpt'inli'd iVom July 1, l?^Sr', to.JnncIlU, lH?il» 7,692.08 

lialanco on han<l July 1, I'^^l* 67,307.92 

Wliich ^\iil 1»»; rntirclv absorbed. 

Ai»pn>j>rialion. navv-vard, League Island, Pa.: 

Timber drv-<l<)i'k" 660,000.00 

i:xi»ended from July 1, 1^-H. to June :U), 18-^9 27,909.85 

Balance on lian<l July I, 18^9 628.73Q.7S 

Which will be expended in completing the dock. 


Appropriation, nayy-yard, Mare Island, Cal. : 

Cisterns $46,364.00 

Finishinj^ boiler and machine-shop 4,200.00 

Extending wharf i.0,000.00 

Crane scow 7,000.00 

Pile-driver 5,000.00 

Swinging orane 4,000.00 

Mnd-floow 4,f>00.00 


Expended firom Jnly 1, 1888, to Jnne 30, 1889 68,276.09 

Balance on hand Jnly 1, 1889 .- 32,787.91 

Which will be entirely absorbed. 

Appropriation navy-yard, Mare Island, Cal. : 

Continuing work on granite dry-dock 80,000.00 

Exi)ended from March 2, 1889, to July 1, 1889 18.4l«.9t) 

Balance on hand Joly 1, 1889 : 61,506.01 

Which will be entirely absorbed. 

Appropriation, navy -yard, Mare Island, Cal., 1887 191,59r>.00 

Expended from Jnly 1, 188(», to June :M), 1869 18r»,r>49.60 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 5,945.40 

Which will be entirely absorbed for granite. 

Appropriation, navy-yard, Norfolk, Va. : 

Iron and stell shop 75,000.00 

Railroad extension 10,(MK).0<) 

Boiler-sliop extension 14,4^8.00 

Water system 15,000.00 


Expended from Jnly 1, 1888, to Jnne 30, 1889 29,:)02.41 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 85,185.59 

Which wUl be exi>euded to complete the several objects named. 

Appropriation, navy-yard, Washington, D. C. : 

Electric fire-alamiH, time signals, etc 1,000.00 

Entire appropriation expended July 1, 1889, to meet outstanding obliga- 
tions lor the above. * 

Appropriation, navy-yard, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1887 : 

For repairing and presr«rving granite dry-dock 100,000.00 

£xi>ended from 8i>pttMnl)er 1, 1886, to June 30, 1889 95, 779. 11 

Balance on hand July 1, 1889 4,220.89 

Which will be expended in conix)hrting necessary n^pairs. 

Appropriation, navy-yard. Mare Island, Cal., 1886: 

Artesian well 10,000.00 

Expended from July 1, 1885, to June 30, 1889 9,852.56 

Balance on hand July I, 1889..-. 147.44 

Which will revert to thu Treasury. 

Appropriation, naw-vanl, Boston, Mass.: 

Rebuilding lloatiiig gatr 31,000.00 

Expeudwl from July 1, 1887, toJunoIttJ. 18-<) 12,916.47 

Balance on hand July 1, H89 18,063.53 

Which will revert to thu Trciutury. 

Appropriation, naw-vanl, Norfolk, Va. : 

Railntail ext«MiMif»n 20,000.00 

Expended from July 1, 1887, to June .30, 1889 20,000.00 



Appropriation, a^jnstable atom dock for naval station, Key West, Fla.. . f30, 000. 00 
No expenditures have been made ont of the above appropriation up to 
Jnly 1, 1889. 

Appropriation, naval station and coaling depot, Port Royal, S. C. t 

Fencing 228.00 

Artesian well 1,000.00 

Boat-hoase ..•.•..•......••• 400.00 

Expended from July I, 1888, to Jnne 30, 1889 728.00 

Balance on band Jnly 1, 1889 ^ 900.00 

Which will be expended for artesian well. 

Appropriation, commissioners on new navy-yards and dry-<locks, Gnlf of 

Mexico and Sonth Atlantic and Pacific coasts 15,000.00 

Expended from July 1, 1888, to June 30, 1889 8,002.51 

Balance on hand July I, 1889 6,997.49 

Which will bo quite, if not entirely, absorbe<l. 

Estimates of appropriations required for the service of the fiscal year entUng June 30, 1891, 

by the Bureau of Yards and Docks, Navy Department, 

l)etailc<1 objoctn of expouditure, and oxplanatlonn. 


One chiof o.lftrk. increaao of$4r)0. imbmitted (Feb. 26, 1880). 

Ont; ilrnuffhtHtnan iiiid clerk (Mamo iwt) 

Oiiu chtrk ofol.iHH four (Haiue act) 

One clerk of cluHrt three (Minu^art) 

One clerk of cIhhh two (Hani<i act) 

Ont^ dork of clanH one (Hanii« act) 

One mail nieHNou^er (naiuo act)..... 

Ouelaborur (aaiuoact) 

NoTR. — It ifl roRpectfully nnbmitted that the salary of 
the chief clerk U-.w remained iinchan<r«'d fronisFiily 1, 1853, 
to the proHcnl time, at the rate of #1,800 pur annum, while 
the HalarioH of the chii'f clerk h of the hurcaiiA, otticen. and 
IiciuIh of diviHionH (ho callod) of the othi*r departm<>ntH of 
the (jovemment ran^t«from$2.0(K) to $2,600 per annum, and 
it iH lN^licve<l that the dutieH of the are not more re- 
Hpoimihle and anluonn, or reouire ^n*ater profeaaional 
kuowI(>d^> or ti>chnical ability In their performance than 
in required of and performed vy the chief clerk of the Bu- 
reau (»f Yards and I)ock8, and an inci'oaAe of fl.'SO per annnm 
to liiH preHeut Halarv la urgently recommended.— G. B. 
W 1 1 ITK, Ch u/ of Bureau. 


For general maintenance of yards and dockn, namely : For 
frei^lir, trunr.portation of material and Htorea, bookn, 
mapH, iiKKlelH, and drawinso, purchane and repair of fire- 
on :;irH-M, machinery, repairs on nteam Are en^ineH. and 
attendanee on the same, pnrchaae and maint»'nanre of 
oxen. inirse<», and drivinji-teams, cartH, timber- wheidH, 
anil all veliiele?* tor use in navy-vardrt, tools and repairs 
of tlie ^4an)e, postage on letters and other mailable matt<>r 
on ])ul>lie xerviee sent lo foreign countries, and tele- 
irrains, stationery, furniture for ("lovornment houses and 
otliceM in tlie navy yards, coal and other fuel, candles, 
oil. and iras. rlfaninjr and cleurinir "p yanls ami eare of 
bnilijinixs, attenii:inr(> on tires, li^lits, tiro-en<;ineH, and 
ajiparatns, for incidentiil labor at navy-yanls. water-tax, 
to<ils. and forriajre, rent i>rfloiir iitlicerx' quarters at IMiila- 
delidiia. I*a., pay of watclinicii in navy-yanls, awnin^is 
and packin<j-boxes. and ailyertisin;; for yards and docks 
pur]K>8oa (March 2, 18b9) 


will be 

rexinired for 

each detailed 

object of 

Total Mnonnt 

to be 


nnder each 

head of 





for the 

onrrent flMal 

year eodlne 







Ettimtitei of appropriations required for the service of the fiscal year, etc, — Continned. 

Detailed oliiJeote of exi>6nditare, and explanations. 


will be 
required for 
eaou detailed 

olject of 


For oontingrait exi»enae8 that may arise at navy-yards and 
siatiooa (March 2, 1889) 


One anperintendent (March 2, 1889) 

One steward, increase of $120, submitted (same act) 

One matron, increase of $120, submitted (same act) 

Od« chief couk, increase of $240, submitted (same act) 

One assistant cook, increase of $192, submitted (same act) . . . 
One assistant cook, increace of $132, submitted (same act) . . 

One chief laundress (same act) 

Four laundresses at $1(K each (samo act) 

Foar scrubbers, at $168 each (samo act) 

Eijrht waiters, at $188 each (same act) 

Eight laborers, two at $240 i^ach, submitted (same act) 

One stable keeper and driver (samo act) 

One master-at-arms, increase of $120, submitted (same act) . 

One barber (same act) 

Two carpenters, one submitted at $845 (same act) 

Two painters, two submitted at $600 each (same acti 

Two boose corporals, increase of $60 each, submitted (same 

For water rent and jras (same act) 

For cemetery, burial expenses, and headstones (same act). 

Tor improrement of grounds (same act) 

For repairs to bnildings, furnaces, grates, ranges, fumitnre 

and repairs of furniture (same act) 

For music in chapel (same act) 

For fitting ap bath-rooms for beneficiaries (submitted) 

For cementing fioor of Uomo cellar (same act) 

For transportation of indigent and destitute beneficiaries 

(same act) 

For erecting elcTator in main building. Naval Home 


For rapport of beneflciariea (same act) . 


For navy-yards and stations (March 2, 1889). 


Kavv-yard, Portsmonth, N. H. : 

For increasing wat«'r supply (subro{tt4>d) . . . 
For completing hydrant system (submitted) 

Navy-yard, Boston, Mass. : 

For repairing timb«*r- wharf No. 1 

For new boiler and pumping niarhinery. taking down 
and resetting tho end of granlt4"4lr>'-d(>ck,and putting 
in tbenecessar}' b»cking snd draiua;!o 'submitted) 

Fur steel shears (nnbmitt*Ml) 

For e1<*ctric-llghting plant (submitted) 

For reniodi*lingbuiImiis No. 32 for olfir<»«rorroiiiiiian- 
dant, captain of the yard, and ot htToftict>rrt (Miibiiiittcd) 

























l.*!, 000. 00 


H. 000. 00 

15 OUU.OO 


For rebuilding offlcers' qnsrtvrs, *' L 
(March 2. Hk^9> 

M. N. and O" 

Total amount 

to be 


under each 

head of 



840, 000. 00 






for the 

current fiscal 

year ending 

June 30, 1890. 








16a 00 


1, 008. 00 


1. 344. (K) 







500. UO 










Kaval-3rard. New London, Conn. : 

For building coal-nlitMl (Hiibmitted) . 
For rebuilding whurf (riiibniitte4l) . . 

Navy-yard, Brooklyn, N. T. : 

For extending railroad system and neoe«isarv mlling 
■took (robmltted) 

. .10' > no 






Estimates of appropriations required for the service of ihefisoal year^ etc. — Continaed. 

Detailed objects of expenditare, and explanations. 

amount which 

will be 
required for 
eacn detailed 

object of 


Navy- Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y.— continued. 

For completing; approaches to timber dry-dock (sub- 
mitted) , 

For ext4*nding brick wall aiound navy-yard (submit- 
tod) ; 

For improvomt'ut of Wbitnoy Basin ^submitted) 

For repairing cob dock and rebuilding sea-wall (sub- 

For relay ill p wftt«*r-pip<iH in the yard (submitted) 

FordredpinK (Huhinittcd) 

For lucreoHinp olectric-lipht plant (submitted) 

For improving Whitney Basin and railroad throuph- 

oiit tlioyanl, (Marr.h2, 188U) 

Navy- Yard, Leapuo Island, Pa. : 

For oxt<.«ndinp permanent se^i* wall (submitted) 

For bni dinp ]>ermanent wharf, Sixteenth street (sub- 

For rebuildinp Hrood street wharf (snbmitt^'d) 

For buildlnp and fiirnishinponftolhcor'sqnartctrs (sub- 
mi tied ) 

Forcontitruetinp 2.000 feetof lipht retaininp wall alonp 
wat<*r front of iiimsed )>ortion of the island (snb- 

For «lre<Ipinp and iillinpin (Hubiiiiitod) 

For pavini; and improvement of proundH (subinitt^Ml).. 

For landlnj! wharf foot of Fiftx?onth street^ 75 by 400 
feet (Hiiiiie art) 

For dreilpinp and Ullin:: in (same act) 

Navv-Yurd, WaHhiniiton, 1>. C: 

For rebuildinp quartern "A" and " B " (Mul)mitt<>d) ... 

Forolianpinp bnildmp No. 7 into an apartment honso 
of three Htories for additional <iuartorH (Hubmitt4'd) .. 

For ehanpiiip old puint shop into a dwellinp with two 
n])artinentH (submit ted) 

For (Iredpinp and tilliiip in (submitted) , 

F(»r railroad traek with all ntK^essary switches, etc. 

(muiiio act ) 

Navv-.v«rd, Norfolk, Va. : 

i'or extendi up pennunent sea wall (siibmitted) 

For eonipletinp railroa<l s.VMtem (suhmittt'd) 

For eoinpli'tiiip water HVHtem (MulHuitted) 

For exteiidinp wharf at'St. H<>len» (Hubmitt«>d) 

For eoinidctinp apjiroaches to timber dry-dock (hiiIi- 


Foreomieetinp new pumps t-o oh I dry-<lork (Hubmitted). 

For in(;reasjiip eleetric lipht plaiii (suhiiiitleil) 

For cxtrndin!; machino-Hhop ftu* steam enpine<^rinp 


For biiiMin ir t wo oflUcers' qnart4«rs (same a<-( ) 

Navsl HtHtioii, Key West, Fla. : 

For rhaniriiii; location of railroad. seal«>house, aiwl 
])uiiip-houHe, made, ne<*essary by newTri-aHury bnild- 
iiip (siihinitted) ."...' '. 

For t wo otlieerH* <iuarterH (same act) 

Navjil Htatioii and <-oaliiip-depot. Port Koyal, S. (!. : 

For ollieeis' ijnarters (same, act) 

Klertri<: lii;hrinp of navy-yanl : 

For eH'ahlishnient "of plant and the inau<;uralion i»f 
electric liuhtinp in the navy-yanls at New York, 
Norfolk, Va., WaHliinpUm, 1).'(J., and Mare iHland, 

(Jal. (same act) 

Navv-vard, Man-'n Island, ('al,: 

i-^ir complrtiup repairs to sect dry-dock (sub- 
mitted) *. 

For bridpe tioross sectional dock-basin (sul>mitte<i) 

For boat lauiiinijs (submitted) 

For ninkinp artesian welt, :im much a.s may In^ neees- 
Siir> (submitted) 



100, 000. 00 
20. 000. 00 
20, 000. (M) 




hO, (MM). 00 


10, 000. 00 


5, 000. 00 


10, 000. 00 


l.'), 000. 00 
5, 000. 00 


Total amount 

to be 
nndt^r each 
head of 


for the 

icurreut li*<cal 

year eiulinp 

appropriation June 30,1^90. 


ir», 000. 00 

2, 000. 00 
a, 000. 00 








16^ OM 



1, oca 00 

00^ too. 00 

Report op the secretary of tflE navy. 


£$HmaU$ of appropriations required for the service of thefieoal year, etc, — Cotttiuued. 

Detailed ol(jeot« of expenditare, and explanations. 


Navv-yard, Mare's Island, Cal.— Continued. 

For building wagon-road toward cemetery, magazine, 

etc. (submitted) 

For replankinj; wharves (submitted) 

For i^mpletinje elect ric-Ii|;:bt plant (submitted) 

For movinfs ferry -slip back and straightening; sea*wall 


Fordretlginc (submitted) 

For gate ana guard-house (submitted) 

amount which 

will be 
reauired for 
eacn detailed 

object of 

For iron-plating shop (same act) 

For roa<ls along wat4*r-front and alxmt shops (siimo act). 

For extending qnay-wuU (sanio nr.t) 

For oontinning work (»n granlu> dry-4lock (same act)... 


Kavyyard, Portsmouth, V. II. : 

One clerk, at $1,400 ]K*r annum (namo set) 

One mail messenger, at $($00 p4>r annum (same act) . . ... 

One mesHonger, at $tVH) \wt annum (same act) 

One foreman laitorer and heiul teamster, at $4 per diom^ 

(same set) 

Onr .ianitor, at. $800 prr annum (same art) 

One pilot, at $lt i»er diem" (Hame act) 

KftTv-yanl, Itoston, Mass.: 

/>nnclt»rk,ai$l.-4()0por annum (same act) 

(hie foreman Liborer, at $t dit diem (same act) , 

Oni« mosseogi'r to e4imman(lant, at <1.76 per diem (same 


Onem«*ssenger, at$l.76 per <liem (same act) 

One mail messenger, at $OK) imt nnnu.ii (same act) 

One writer, at $1, 01 7.*3 per annum (submitted) 

Oiiedraughlsnnui,at|r» prrdiem (submitted) 

HaTy«yard. Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

One clerk, at $1,400 per annum (same act) 

One writer, at $l,017.'jri]M>r annum (same act) 

Three writers, one at $1H)0 fter annum ; two at $1,017.25 

per annum (siibmitt<Ml) 

One foreman lal»orer. at $4.r>0 per diem (same act) 

One msil messenger, at $750 jK^r aiinum, increase of $1S0, 

sul>mitt(sl (samu oi-t) 

Two messengers, at $2.25 per diem each (same act) 

One dranghtsmsn. at $5 per diem (same act) 

One quarternian, St $4 |H-r diem (Hiibniitt«'d) 

One superintendent of teams or quarterman, at $4 per 

diem (same act) 

One messenger to $2 SO per diem, in- 

crease of 26 cents per diem submitted (same act) 

Saekett's Harbor (naral station) : 

One ship-keeper, at $1 per diem * (same act). 

Nary-yanl. League Island. Pa. : 

One clerk, at $1.40o ]Mr annum (same act) 

One writer, at $1,U17.2.'> )N>r annum (submitted) 

One measenger. at $2 per diem (rtomeact) 

On*« foremsn laborer, ui $4 pitr diem (Nanm art) 

One draughtsman, ai $5 per diem (Mibmitted) 

On«« telegraph opt-rutor. at $1,()00 per annum (submit- 

Oneleveler, atf.TM |H*rdii'in (Mubmitted) 

One rodman, at $2.50 p<r diem (submitted) 

Kavv.yard, Washington. D. C : 

One clerk, at $l,4tH) |M>r tinnnm (same act) 

One messenger, at $2 p«Tdiem. increan** of 24 cents p<*r 
day snlnnitU^d tsame ma) 

Total amotmt, 

to be 


under each 

head of 



for the 

current fiscal 

year ending 

June 30, 1800. 




10, 000. 00 







550. 8H 






1, 40H. .'lO 



















431, 781. 80 

1. 400.00 





5riO &S 

1. 017. 25 








* Including Snndays. 



Eaimates of appropriations required for the aervioe of ike fiscal year, elo. — Coatinued. 

Detailed ol^eots of expenditnre, and ezplanatioDS. 

CIVIL E8TABLi8iuixinv-coiitixiaed. 

Navy-yard, Waahlnjjton, D. C— Ck>ntiiined. 

One foreman laborer, at $i per diem (same act) 

Ono mail nic^sonj^or, at $2.50 per diem * (snbmittod) . . . 
Que Janitor, at $2 per diem (aubmitted) 

Navy-yanl, Norfolk, Va.: 

One clerk, at $1,400 p(>r annum (Aame act) 

One writer, at $1,017.2'! per annum (same act) .. 
One writer, at $1,017.25 per annnm (sabmitte<l).. 
One foreman In borer, at $4 per diem (same act). . 
One mail mcHSon j;er, at $2 ])or diem * (same act) . 

Two mesAen^nrs, at $2 per diem (same act) , 

One pilot, at $2.26 per diem (same act ) 

One (Iran ghthman, at$5i)«rdiem (submitted) ... 

Estimated V^a-i «„«__# 


under each 

bead of 

will be 
reoairecl for 
each delaileil 

object of 

Navy-yard. Pensacola, Fla. : 

One clerk, at $1, 200 piT annum (same, act) 

One mail mexsenger, at $600 per annum («iame act) 
One lamp-li};ht(T, ut $560 per annum (submitteil) . . 

Navy-ysird» Man* Island, C'al. : 

Oiioclfrk, at $1,400 per annum (same act) 

One writ-cr, at $1, 017.2.') per annum (same act) , 

Ono loremun niHSon, at $6 per diem (Hamo act) 

( )ue fon'uiun InboitT, at $5.50 per diem (same act) 

One pilot, at $4 per diem (Hjune act) 

One rlraiijirlitsmnn, at$5pordiem (same act) 

Ono mail meHSonp^r. ut $2.74 per diem* (same act) 

Ono nu'ssenpT, iit$2.20 per diem (same act) 

One nioHMou^er and lanip-lij^htcr, at $2.20 per diem 

(same act) , 

Ono Ix^II-riu^er. at $2.20 per diem (same act) 

One janitor, at> $2.20 por diem (submitted) 

Naval station. Key West, Fla. : 

One messenger, at $600 per annum (submitti^), 






1. 000. 10 

68a 60 




for the 


yewendi z 
















* InclndiuK Sundays. 


Navy Department, 
BuBEAU OF Equipment and Beceuitino, 

Washingt^mj October 1, 1889. 

Sir: I have the honor to forward herewith the report of my prede- 
cesHor in of!ic«», showing the operations of the Bureau during the fiscal 
year 1888-'89, and to submit, as supplementiiry thereto, estimates for 
the fiscal year 1890-'91. 

A considerable increase in the estimate under equipment of vessels 
will be note<l.* The amount appropriated for the current year was 
•675,000, and the amount asked for is $900,000, $225,000 over the ap. 
propriation for the present year. 

1 have to state in explanation of this increase, that the needs of the 
Navy under this appropriation are gradually becoming greater with the 
ooustruotion of modern steel vessels of great steaming capacity and di- 
minished sail-power, and these increased demands upon the appropria- 
tion which supplies coal have now reached such a i)oint that only a small 
{lortion of the vessels of the Navy can be kept in commission, unless 
farther provision be made by Congress for their maintenance. The new 
ships are large coal-consumers, and I beg to direct attention especially 
to the consideration that, as the building of these high-powere<l vessels 
has become the i>olicy of the Government, the increased demands of the 
Navy in the matter of coal must be recognizee! to give effect to the pur- 
pose of Congress. 

As a basis of comparison, it may be state<l that the Dolphin^ which is 
the smallest of the new steel vessels in commission, consumeil during the 
fiscal year just closed coal of the value of about $35,000. The coal con- 
sumption of the larger vessels, such as the Chicago^ Atlanta^ Boftton^ 
Baltimore^ and CharleHton^ is much greater, but iissuming that it is no 
greater, and assuming further that twenty-five vessels are to be main- 
tained in commission (which is less than the usual number), it is appar- 
ent that for coal alone the sum of $875,000 is needed to keep the Navy 
in a serviceiible condition. But as the appropriation '^ Equipment of 
vessels " is also largely drawn upon for the numerous expenditures neces- 
sary to prepare and keep up equipment outfit and stores of vessels in 
commission and fitting for sea, the necessity of an appropriation of at 
leiist $900,000 readily becomes apparent. Under existing and coming 
conditions the service can not possibly l)e maintained in a state of effi- 
ciency, under these heads, with less money. 

During the last fiscal year (1888-'89) a deficiency of over $100,000 is 
ahowD in the final balances, which was caused largely by expenditures 



on foreign stations wLich coald not be foreseen. The appropriation waa 
$625,000, and was so far exhausted by the 1st of March that all work on 
tbe equipment of vessels fitting out was ordered stopped and a large 
proportion of requisitions for necessary supplies was disapproved, great 
enibarrasament to the service resulting. 

Prior to 1875 the appropriation for the equipment and coaling of 
vessels was $1,500,000 annually, and this was when all the ste^m- 
ciuisers had large auxiliary sail-power, which was employed where 
))0ssible, as at present under necessarily limited conditions, to save 
coal. The necessities of the service in this respect are now greater, 
and soon will be, with the placing in commission of vessels now in an 
advanced state of construction, very much greater^ than during the 
period referred to ; and yet, less than half the amount stated is appro- 
l)riated for this purpose for the presnt fiscal year. I am therefore con- 
vinced that at lea^st $200,000 additional for this year, which should be 
estimated for as a deficiency, is absolutely necessary, to avoid tbe em- 
barrassment and injury to the service which are inevitable under the 
present conditions. 

From the time of the large reduction in the appropriation the amounts 
gnintod have ranged from $1,250,000 to $625,000, and during this 
l)eriod the ships in commission have been kept in service only by the 
most rigid, and in some instances unprofitable, parsimony ; by the 
utilization of obsolete material and stores left over from the period of 
the Civil War ; by the practical laying up of vessels on foreign statious, 
owing to the want of fuel, and by sending the vessels to cruise withont 
a ])roper outfit. All old material which could be utilized for this pnr- 
I)ose has been consumed, and the fitting out of 8hii)8 for commission 
has thus become a most serious matter. 


I5y the operation of General Order No. 372, certain duties were taken 
from this Bureau and other duties were imposed upon it. The change 
in the personnel of the Bureau, as comi)ared with the provision for the 
current year, is thus accounted for. The Bureau is thereby able to drop 
one clerk of the second class and one of the first class and cue copyist 
of the $1)00 grade, but finds it necessary to ask for a clerk of the third 

Th(», following statement is submitted in explanation of the increase 
of $450 in the salary of the chief clerk of this Bureau: The present pay 
of this oilicor is *1,800, which was established about forty years ago, 
wluMi salaries were ])r()portionately low throughout the service, as it 
then existed, and which was ilu^), doubtless, regarded as adequate com- 
pensation for men of tlu^ qualifications required to fill this responsible 
position. Since that time there has been a great relati^'e increase in 
the. cost of living, which has been recognized in the pro\ sion for all 
oth(M* branches of the (xovernment by a corresponding increase in pay. 
Thus, there is no instance in any brimch of the civil service in whidi 
a Bureau chief clerk receives less than $2,(KK), while $2,600 is nsnaJIy 
l)aid in the larger Bureaus, and $2,250 is an average. 

It is also noted that as aniatterof fact in no other instance is a Boresa 
chief clerk, other than in the Navy Department, vested by law (see 
section 178, Revised Statutes), in thiwihsence of his chief, with the le- 
s])oiisil)iliti(\^ oftln* J^ureau by reason of a<'tingas chief and signing its 
corresi)ondencc and papers, which are i'requently of great importanoei 


and yet, with this increased responsibility, lie receives $200 less per an- 
num than the lowest pay for the corresponding grade elsewhere. The 
propriety of the proposed increase is therefore manifest. 
Very respectfolly, 

Oeoroe Dewey, 

Chief of Bureau. 

The Secbbtaby op the Navy. 

Navy Department, 
BuREAXT OP Equipment and £eoruiting, 

July 31, 1889. 

Sib : I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations 
of this Bureau for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, the following amounts 
were appropriated under the several branches of this Bureau : 

Equipment of vessels $625,000.00 

TranHp4»rtatioii aud recraitlDg :{0,000. 00 

Cuutiiigent eqiiipmont uud rocraiting > 15,000.00 

Civil e8tablisliiiient 11,52:>.00 

Training otation (for apprentices) 14,000.00 

To purchase the necessary stores and to refit partially or wholly ves- 
sels for sea, there were expended for materials $177,501.09, for labor 
•82,805 81, aggregating $200,306.90, from the '< Equipment of vessels." 

Owing to the appropriation of smaller amounts than were estimated, 
there will be considerable deficiency in equipment and tran8i)ortation 
ami recruiting. The appropriation for contingent and coasters harbor, 
being controlled directly by the Bureau, has not been exceeded, but 
that for equipment of vessels, being liable for expenditures abroad, 
that are always outside the direct control of the Bureau, has been ex- 
ceeded, owing to exigencies of service that could not be anticipated. 


To supply coal to vessels on home and foreign service, including 
original cost and exi)ense of handling, $415,900. 


There were purchased during the year tiS tons Russia hemp, costing 

And there were remaining on hand at the Boston navy-yard, June 
30, 1889, 50,704 pounds Manila hemp, costing $3,885.17, and 19,492 
pounds Russia hemp, costing $1,871.23. 


For the manufacture of the cordage needed by vessels in commission 
and for the cruisers building, the following amounts were manufactured, 
at the cost indicated: 

4'.l,:{51 pounds Ht<«el and iron rope t9t3^*99 

54i»7 |H>iiu<l8 ooppor-wire rope 160.20 

9l>4,00:( iioimdH niuiiila n>pe 38,279.47 

l'<2(),459 pouiidH hemp rope 10,154.02 

2rt,:<;«> iKimnlH Hinall Htiitl 4,519.14 

AKgrejfate 67,502.42 

There were remaining on hand June 30, 1889, 128,190 pounds steel 
aiid iron wire, costing $10,218J21. 



During the year a large amount of old scrap-iron has been bloomed 
up and rolled into bar-plate or worked into heavy forgings. The work 
done at Boston has been most satisfactory and economical. The con- 
centration of. this Bureau's plant at the Boston navj-yard hasaflbrded 
advantages of great value in the character of work prodaced, and in 
the fa€t that there abounds a large number of most excellent workmen 
to choose from in filling vacancies or when increase of force becomcH 


During this year there were rolled 370,216 poands of flnished iroD, 
costing $12,502.17. 


Two gaHeys No. 3 •2,994.85 

Four galleys No. 1 10,433.66 

Total 13,427.91 

liepairs to a greater or less extent have been made to the galleys of the 
folio wiug-uamed vessels: New Hampshire, Marian^ Bichmandf Trenton^ 
Yantic, IHnta^ Franklin, Jamestown, and Constellatum. 

In addition to the above, galleys for the San FraneiscOj Philadelphia^ 
Neicark, Concord, and Bennington were comnienceil and uearly com- 
])1etcd. The newer galley adopted has been supplemented by the ad- 
dition of a steam-cooker, which will obviate the use of a number of 
implements for boiling used in the original design of this galley. 


Tlie work in those shops has been mainly in making anchors and 
chains for the new cruisers. The quality of the work has been main- 
tained and the high standard of tests adhered to since my last report. 

Oliain nianufactured during the year, 223,152 i)onnd8y costing 
$15,0:39.75; thirty-five anchors of all kinds, weighing Ol^TSS poands, 
costing $2()450.17. 


All sail and canvas- work for the Navy, inclnding that for the new 
vessels buihling and in connnission, has been done during the past year 
at Hoston, 4»xcept with work lor vi*ss(»ls on the Pacific Coast fitting at 
Mare Islaihl. It. is helievcd this i^an be done at the Mare Island navy- 
yard with some saving. The following amounts have been exiiended: 

For material |51,7SI&nS 

For labor (», 


As with the sail-lofts, the work of fittinir new rigging is done at the 
Jioston navy-yanls, lor vessels in connnission and for the new cruisers; 
that of n»pair, usually at yards where shii)s refit. The following were 

the expenditures: 

For material $37,170.41 

Forla1>ur , ,•..•—. 4^866,0 



On Jane 30, 1889, there were 8,147 men and apprentices in the serv- 
ice. The number allowed by law has averaged during tbe year the 
lawful quota. 

Men aUowed 7,500 

Men enlisted at rendezvous 2,253 

Men enlisted on shipboard 1 2,446 

Discharged daring the year 4, 153 

Honorably •discharged and continuous-sorvico men in the Navy during the year. 2, 31H 

Desertions daring the year 749 

Deaths daring the year 85 

Men employed in Coast Survey 275 

Men employed in Fish Commission 124 

Men enlisted formerly apprentices 100 

Men enlisted under continuous-service certificate 593 

During this year inspections of the receiving-ships indicated a high 
standard of order and cleanliness. Much credit is due the various 
commanding officers for the care exhibited in enlisting men in accord- 
ance with the law and the regulations prescribed by the Department 
and for the excellent condition of the vessels. 

During the year the following vessels stationed at the several sea- 
board ports were used as recruiting stations : U. S. E. S. Wabash^ Capt. 
C. C. Carpenter, U. S. N., Boston; XT. 8. B. 8. Vermont^ Capt. A. W. 
Kirkland, U. 8. N., New York ; U. 8. B. 8. 8t. Louis, Capt. W. White- 
head, (J. 8. N., League Island ; U. 8. E. 8. Dale, Commander Yates 
Stirling, U. 8. N., Washington ; U. 8. E. 8. Franklin, Capt. A . P. Cooke, 
U. 8. N., Norfolk; U. 8. E. 8. Independence, Capt. J. W. Philip, U. 8. N., 
Mare Island. 

These vessels were at one time engaged in other service, and are at 
present moored alongside the dock and covered in. I can foresee in 
the near future that repairs of such extensive character will be needed 
by these old vessels to keep them habitable as will equal that of build- 
ing new ships. In this event it will be well to consider the advisability 
of substituting barracks at each of the naval stations for all pur- 
poses of recruiting and for housing men. 

During the la«t session of Congress three bills of importance were 
passed in the interest of the enlisted men of the Navy. 

One other still remains to be acted upon, a bill relating to retirement 
from active service after a consecutive and continuous service of twenty 
years. I would especially recommend this measure to your considera- 
tion as one which would place the men of the Navy on a footing similar 
to their comrades of the Army. No measure that could be adopted in 
the interest of our enlisted men would tend with greater benefit to 
maintain and keep good seamen in the Navy. I would advert to the 
fact that the Department should adopt some more rigid standard than 
at present prevails reganling citizenship of those who are to serve on 
board our new ships now beginning to appear. The Bureau holds that 
a man or boy offering to enlist, should be a native-bom American, 
or he should be a naturalized American, or if not naturalir.ed he shoula 
have declared his intention to become a citizen. The principles which 
the law sets up to govern a man's right to vote as a means to main- 
taining the integrity of the Union, should also prevail to govern his 
right to defend this union of 8tates in war. I am of opinion that these 
matters could be settled by G^eneral Order of the Department without 


One otlier matter closely related to the discipline of the Navy is the 
noed ot a more uniform system of i)iini8hmeut8 for the minor oitVnse^s 
committed on board ship. After a great number of years with the ^reat 
variety of reports of punishment made quarterly it would seem i>ossible 
to so classify them alphabetically and to have assigned to each oflVnso 
a suitable punishment, so that the same oll'ense should be punished 
alike in every ship of the Navy. At the present time i)uni8hmenta for 
the same oU'ense diil'er as widely as the station, separating ships from 
each other. 


Theindis])utal)le advantage of having men equipped with knowledge 
of the new im])Iements applied to all the new ships can hardly be over- 
stated. The frequent applications received during the year from men 
anxious to secure the benelits of the instruction alforded at Washington 
and New))ort, indicate their ai)i)reciation of the great importanco of 
this benefit. The otti(iers at the Washington navy-ysird and at the Tor- 
pedo station at NewiHut have be^n most diligent and ciireful iu their 
instruction of the classes under their charge. The manner iu wliich 
their w^4)ik is done is best illustrated by the elllciency of those X)assiug 
into the service from these schools. 

During the year, the number taken from the general service for this 
instruction. has not ex(*eeded forty-hve; this number is not sulliciently 
large to give the new ships going into commission the numbers ueocled 
by tliem in the several dei)artment8. At least one hundred to one hun- 
dred an<l fifty should be taken each year for this instruction to serve as 
the legal ({uota will i)ermit. I would suggest that all appointments as 
boatswains and gunners should be made from the list of those qualiUed 
by this advanc(?d course of instruction. 


Coasters' Harbor Itfhmd. — This permanent headciuartera of the traiu- 
ing service is still under the connnand of Commander F.J. iligginson, U. 
S. Navy. Under the Judicious management of this oflicer and his untir- 
ing interest in all tiiai concerns the afVairs of this important nursi*ry of 
nciw seamen, the institution has grown into a most flourishing condi- 
tion. During tlie hist year the l>ureau issued a complete sot of regula- 
tions thi-on<[;li which more uniformity in the methods of instruction and 
drill is attain<'(l. 

There still remains a number of improvements needed at this station 
to imj>rove its fitness for the better training of a])preutice.s and to se- 
cure the property against the a('cridents of lire. 

For example, a s(»a -wall should be. built from a point near where the 
U. S. S. X(:fr lldmpshnr lies moored, to a |)oint in the causeway, and 
then filled in from shore-lineup to the wall, thus increasing the availa- 
bl(» drilling ground for artillery and infantry drills. A new engine 
shonhl be lumght toi)rotee.t the outbuildings and <»ther property now 
on the islaml; this seems to tin* bureau imperatively nee«led. 

The following exhibit shows the number of a])prenticcs iu the Navy 
on June;jO, hSSt> : 

Oil ])<»}ir<l .sljitioiiary jukI c.niisini; train! !i<; sliip 661 

On board ciuisiiig ships in ;;tMieral aorvict* 491 

Total 1,158 



These apprentices in tbe general service were distribnted on the fol 
lowing stations : 

North Atlantic 235 

8oath Atlantic Station 134 

Pacitio Station 57 

European Station 42 

Asiatic Station 23 

Total 491 

There were 2,738 applicants for enlistment dnring the year. Of this 

inmber 1,846 were rejected for physical and other disqualifications, 

leaving 892 accepted. Of the number accepted, 194 failed to report 

after preliminary examination, so that the number actually admitted 

amounted to 698. 


The Portsmouth^ Jamentoicn^ and Saratoga were found by survey to be 
in need of such extended repairs to make them seaworthy after their 
last summer cruise, they were put out of commission and were exten- 
sively refitted. The Saratoga was transferred later to the city authori- 
ties of Philadelphia, and is at the present time completing her repairs 
at Portsmouth, N. U., for the new duty assigned to her. The James- 
town is now abroad on her summer cruise and the Portsmouth has just 
been recommissioned for the same service. 

During the last winter cruise to the Windward Islands the Constella- 
tion took the phice of the other cruisers, and under the command of 
Commander 0. J. Train, U. S. Navy, made a most instructive cruise as far 
south as Trinidad in the Windward (ironp. This otiicer reported the 
most gratifying progress in the higher duties of the young apprentice's 
life on shipboard at sea, and the Bureau takes great pleasure in com- 
mending his interest and zeal in performing his duties. 

The Bureau is of opinion that it wouhl be wise policy to foster this 
apprentice system and to increace tlie number of enlistments annually 
to 1,500 instead of 750 as now allowed by law. It is believed that in the 
near future all the men of the service to fill the higher grades of petty 
officers will be drawn fn)m these apprentices. It can be said now that 
commanding officers have brought to the Bureau's attention in flatter- 
ing letters on many occasions the great value anil I'filciency of the ap- 
prentices under their command. The wish is frequently expressed for 
an increase in the number now allowed which can not be acceded toon 
account of the limited number available under the law. 


The following table exhibits the pension cases acted upon by the 
Bureau during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1880, under the opera- 
tions of sections 4750 and 4757, Revised Statutes of the United States. 

Toft ■erriofi of twenty jean . 
For •QfTlre of ten yrai a — 
For rrnewml of p«-n!«ioiii» — 
For indVAita of p«»nH)<iDA .... 

For arream of pensioDt 

Far reatoration of penaiun^ 



filed, y»-ar ^.^..^ ^„ ., ' , 


p«uUin2 " 1,,.' • t^^nJy^^^ ending year eodiug. 
JuV 1, 1&8. ^^"^'''JLo J«at» 30. June 30. 




















year enduig 

June Ml 






NA88 19 




Work has continued tlirougbout the year upon the new steel cruisers 
Baltimore^ Charleston^ Fetrel^ Philadelphia, Bennington^ Concord, and 
Xeicark, in making chains, anchors, galleys, rigging, sails, aiid other 

The reduced weights of all equipment outfit and stores being so im- 
portant now, special allowances have been made looking to the reduc- 
tion as tar as practicable. Work upon most of these vessels is now 
going forward and in some entirely completed. A new feature of great 
importance in point of economy in their anchors has been the use of 
new cast-steel ancliorsof the Dunn type. The demand for high physical 
])roperties and superior tests has been met by the steel works, so that 
we now secure a more reliable, stronger, and cheaper anchor of steel 
than of iron. 

In closing this oflicial report of the Bureau's operations daring the 
year, J close my immediate oilicial connection with the Department. I 
desire therefore to express my sincere thanks for the contidence and 
uniform kindness accorded to me, and to wish your administration the 
most conjplete success. 

With high regard, your obedient servant, 


Chitf of Bureau. 
ilon. n. ¥. Tracy, 

iSecreiary of the Xavy. 

Slafrtncvt of mlrs of cnmlennicd matrr'uth Huder cognizance of the Bureau of Eqttipmeut 
ami Iic<rnUiiuj diiriinj Jixnil i/var nidiiiji Janv :U), 1889, showing the materiah eold, the 
pariicn buyinfj the vaniv.f und Iheamounl naliztd tlurefroin. 

Duti- of 

Juiici 1.. 

WluTO MOUl. 

Mntcrials sold. 



Key Wi'Hl, FI.1 2 ancliora, bower 

Do do j 134 iio('<ll»'rt, rc»ping, 

Do ilo I r>8:< iH'cdli'H. Mi'wiii;; 

Do do ' 1 wiitt'i' t'ooh.'i ..... 

Do J <lo 1 wator loidi'i- 

Do ilo 1 waller «'oi»l« r . .... 

Do i do ;{7 liooks, ll>liiriLr ... 

I)o j do ; 10 i>alms, si'.viiijj... 

Do di> ITi palms. to]»iii;; ... 

D<»... df» 'J stovt's, di\ in;: 

Do do .j :{ st«»Vi'y., ilr\ iii^. ... 



Key West Commercial 

n. W. Johnson 

Alloii Carry 

Joliu Williame 

F. Slmvcr^ 

li. W. Johmuin 

Allcu Curry 

11. W. JoluMon... 




lo i :; ».tov«'s, dryiiiij I. K. Chnm* 

d<» 17 stov»H, ili> ini: ! Itoman Stevenii 

]><! do L'o st<ivi .X. dryiiiix B. W. Johniton 

l)o j .. i!o I 4 liai-Ks.iw Idadrs (ji<N>r>iO If . liier 

Do I... do I 1 riilf, L'-fool. lM).v\vood ('aHli •& Curry . 

Do tUt ' 'j:;.>1m •• Knivi-h ilo 

Do do ■ 17 aw Is. Kiddli'lH* ,, do 

Do do :<■_• awl.-. >i wiiiiT 

Dii ■ do 'JO ]Hiiirid.s c'oni]»ositioii, snil- 


An«;tloii»Mr*.s !.•<' 

A Urn Curry.., 
11. W. Jokntton 

Amount n-ali/.i d.-.j j ". 

I 1 ^_^___^_ 





















E9iimaies of appropriations required far the service of the fUtval year ending June 30, 1891, 
by the Bureau of Equipment and lieoruiting. Navy Department, 

Detailed olitjects of expenditure, and explanations. 


One chief clerk, increase of $450, submitted (act Febmary 


Ooeclerkof class four (sabmitted)) 

«>neck>rk of claMtliree (Mubmitted) 

One of class two (act of Febmary 26, 1880) 

Two clerks of class one (same act) (one sabmitted) 

T wo copyists (same act) 

One assistant messenf^er (same act) 

One laborer (same act) 


For the purchase of coal, inclndinf; expenses of trauApor- 
tation, Mtoraire. and handling of same ; hemp, wire, acd 
other niateriala for the in an ii fact n re of ropo and conla^e ; 
iron for the maniifactureof anchors, cables, f^allt^ys, and 
chains; canvas for the •manufacture of sails, awncn^s, 
hammock cloths, lM>om covers, tarpaulins, hammocko, 
bmfSM ; water for steam launches ; stntion**ry for eiiuip- 
ment officers, and fttr the purchase of all other articles 
of eqnipment at home and abroad ; and for the pay- 
ment of labor in equipping vessels, and manufacture 

it'lt* in " 


will be 
re<iuirt»d for 
each detailed 

object of 

of e<inipment arti 
March 2, iSS») . 

the several navy-yards (act 

For nurrbasins and installing electric search-lights and 
their appurtenances on board ships of war (submitted) .. 

For installing an electric welding machine in the Boston 
navy-yard (submitted) 


For foreign and local pilotage and towage of ships of war; 
services and materialn incoirertirg c^mpaHMeH on bounl 
abip. and for afUustiu;; and tesiing eo in parses on shore ; 
naofical and astrooonii^'al instruments and lepairs of 
nautical iuMtruments for Hhi]>s of war ; naval signals 
ani apparatus, namely, hignal lights, lantenis, rockets, 
ninnin*^ lights; compass tiitiniis. including binna<'les. 
trip(»ds8nd other appendages of ships con)pass<>s: 1oi;h 
and other sppltHnces (or measuring t)i«^ Hhip's way, and 
leads and other applianccH for wiundinz ; lanterns and 
lamps, and their appendages, for general uno on iHxml 
•hip, inclodini! those for i he cabin, ward nMmi, and steer- 
age, for the holds andntore rooms ; for decksaud quarter- 
master's us<* ; bnnt ng and other niaterials lorHagH.and 
making aou repairing tla^s of all kindH; oil for ships 
of war other than us«*d in the engiuet^r department; 
candles, when ns*'d nn a suhMtitut*' tor oil in binuncles 
and running liixhts ; chininesMand wicks, and map used 
In thenaviffatlon department; photographic instruments 
and matetiiils: Htatiuin-rv for (-oniinanders and navi'jii- 
tors of vesH4*li of w.-ir. snd for UH4* of courts-niurtiul ; niu- 
•icul instruments and nniMic for vessels of war ; Hle<'Hng 
signals and indicatont, and f«iMaking tulM*sand gong^ 
aicnal communications on lM>.ird vesselsof war: and lor 
introducing and maintaining <-le<.'tric lights on Isiard ves- 
aelMof war (act March LMii8U) 

EI.K(TRIC Lfoimxo ruixTs. 

For installing the monitor Puritan with an electric light- 
ing plant (submitted ) 

For installing the Uniteil States ship LamcaUer with an 
electric lighting plant (submitted) 

1 600.00 
i; 400. 00 

Total amount 
to be 

under each 
head of ap- 



for (he 

current fiscal 

Tear ending 

June 30, 1880. 






125, 000. 00 


100. 000. 00 




Eatimate of appropriations required for the fecal year ending June 30, 1691, 0/r.— Cont'd. 

Detailed defects of expenditare, and explanations. 

amount whioh 

required for 
each detailed 

object of 

Total amoant 
to be 

nnder each 
head of ap- 


for the 





Navy .yard, Portsmontli, N. H : 


1. 878.00 




Navv-vanl, BoHton, Muah: 

One Huperiiitcna«iit of rope-wallc (appropriated) 

Ofii) <*lArlc fAnnronriiitiMl) ...... ..•*•.••■»•■••••••••.•»• 

( )ni\ writer /AnnrcniriAtecl) ......••••.•••••■••••■•••••••• 

Navvy.ird, Now Yorle: 

Navvyani. Leat^ue Iriland, Pa.: 

Navvynni, Nortolk, vs. : 

^)no clt<rlc faiiDronriatHl 

Navy-yurd, Mare Iriland. Cal. : 

One (.'If^rk ( anuroDriatud) ............................... 



Navy-yard, rortsmouth, N. IL : 

I )ii(k f 'Ii^rlc ( AnnroDriutuil ) .............................. 







Navy-.vnrd, Now York : 

()ii« w ritor f utmroDriated) .............................. 

OiiA htftro-kAi'iior fiiDnrDiiriatetl) ........................ 

Navy->ar<l. Norfolk, Va.: 

On 11 i'l<'rk fiLi>i>ronriate<1). .............................. 

Navyyaid. Wafthin^ton. D. C: 

Out* clurk f annroni'iated) ............................... 



For fn'iiihtaiid trnn.«*portation nf «'qnlpnient and navif^a- 
tion HtftrcH, uarkini; Imixom and m.itoiialH. printin;;, ail- 
voitiHiu<r, toic^rupliiuij, b«x>kH nitd UKNioIs, noMtaf^o on 
li'tttTri Hint abroad, forriaj^e, ice, li];;1it<'ru<;eof aalica.and 
(>n)«'i-^<'ii(-i(>H ariHinf; uitd<>r ro^riiiKanco of tho ISan>au uf 
KqiiipiiHMit. and liorruitinir uuloresern and iuipuHsiblo to 
i-luMHil'v (act Maruli 2 18810 


Ml 000. 00 



U. S. Naval Obskkvatort, 

WoMkingUm^ June Iri, 1899. 

Sir: In complianoo with tlio Bureau's order of tbo 17th inotaut (No. f>534), I Iwto 
...(i lionur to Hiihmit cstimateH, in diiplicato, of up propriatiODH required for the sup- 
port oFtlio Naval 01»s»'rvatory tor tin* fiscal yoar cixlin;; Jiine^tt), loi>l. 

TIio ri'i'oniineiHlation for an in<>n'aM> of rlir pay of tlio UHKiatant astronomers and of 
thu inHtriimuut-iiiaker is respiTt fully rvue wed. Tlio Ralarieoof tho former are not 
coinintMLsiiratu with tho iiiiportanco of their work; nor aro they sufficient to indnee 
coiiipet(Mit men tore;;ard tht^irconnection with the Ohnervatory as permanent. Resig- 
nat iiMis, toaeee])t hotter appointments, have been very fnuiueiit. One assistant ostron- 
nnicr resit^ned hist year, and another may h'av<' within afow months. These Hrequent 
rhan;:es, wliieh are niani lest ly in.jnrionH to the work of tho Observatory, can be pro- 
vtMited only by ])ayin;^ tho^e K<*ntl<un"n wliai tlieir .servicen are worth, and what twy 
so ot'teii ea'n oi>tain in oth<T sit nations. 

Tin' instrninent-inaker now ne«'ives, after nioro than twenty years' continnons senr- 
ir<', iinicli less puy than is <^iveii to thosi' Iioldin;; Himilar positions in other branches 
ot'tln' ( Jo vernnient service. His dnti«*s are many, and tliey have been thoroughly and 
haiislaeiorily performed, and the increase jisked for is deemed Justly due to him. 

The computation ot the obtM-rvations wiili the transit-circle is several years in 
arrears. In order tt> hrin<^ the work up to date, that it may be promptly published, 
an estimatt^ for an additional com]tuter is Huhmitted. It is extremely desirable that 
this work 1m' coniph'ted at th«* rarliest m<»m«'nt possible. 

The library has ^rown to Hu<'h proportions as to refpiiro the services of an assistant 
librarian. The make-shift of assii^nins an otlicer of the Navy to that duty has been 
Hhown by experience to be a lamentable failure, not through want of ability, but be- 
cause of the frequent ehanges of ollicers so assigned. 



The extensioD of the field at the ObstTvatory during tbe past years has increased 
the amount of clerical labor to such a degree as to warrant the recommendation for a 

The estimate for the extension and maintenance of tbo time service is rouev^'ed. 
This service has proved very valuable to the public generally, and it is boped tbat. it 
will be encouraged. At present, signals to the several time-ball stations are trans- 
mitted by the Western Union Telegraph Company without cost, and several of the 
time-balfs are hoisted and cared for by private individuals without compensation. 
Tbe importance of the time-service demands tbat it should be established on a firm 
and indeiieudent basiH, which can be done only by an adeqnate appropriation. 
Very re8i>ectfully, 

R. L. Phythian, 
Captairif U. 8. Xavy, Superintendent, 


Navy Department. 

Katimaten of appropriation h required for the nerritu of the fiscal year ending June^Oy 1891, 

by the C. S. Naval Ohnervatory. 

IMailetl ohJectH of oxpeiiditiiro, and explanationn. 


One aiMiHUut aNtmnonier (actn Awfg,. 5. 1882; Feb. 26, 1Rri9) 

Two aiwiHtant uHtrononiiTH. at $l.suo each (Hame aotH) 

Od«* vl«Tk of claiw four (Maino :ictrt) 

Ou» init:runii'Ut-Hiakrr (HaiiM> u(*tt») 

Koar watohnifn, inrlndiu^c one for new Naval ObMorvatory 

eround* (mauio actn) 

Onif skilled laborer, at $1,000; one akille<1 laborer at $720 

iaamr acta) 

8fTen laborern, at $060 each (luimoat^tH) 

Two compatcrra, at $1,200 uach (Hauie acta) 

NOTB.— The following afhlitionalentiniatoHareaubmitted: 
Increaae ti) pay of one ikHHUtant aHt»iiioiiier .. $600 
Inrreaae to itay of two aMLHtant urflronoiuvrH, 

off400ea4>h «00 

Increaae to pay of inHtraineiit maker TiO') 

Onecotnpoter 1,200 

One copviwt «0t» 

One aaaUtant librarian 1, 2(H) 

Onelaborer for care4>f conipana honHcA 060 

Total 6,860 


ICiac^naneona compntationa (iictH Aiif:. 5, 1882; Feb. 26, 

Booka, periodicala, eni;raviu;;H. ptioto;:rai)hfl. and fixtures 
for the library (Hanio acta) 

Apparatua ana inatninieuta au«l tur repaira of the aame 
(asme acta) 

Rapairaof buildin|;it, fixtuifw. uiid fenrea; f(»r fuel, ftiriii- 
tare, gaa. chemicalH, niationtTv. fn-i^ht. forfiiiii pnHta;:**, 
azpreamiK**! fenilir.erH. idaiitH, and all continuent ex- 
penaea (aame actii) 

Payment to Smithaonian InHtitiition forfreitsht on OhMerva- 
tory pnblicationa M*nt to ttireiuu <-oiuitrieH (Kiinie iu-tm) . 

XztfMuion and niainteuauce of the time aervice (aubinittetl) 

KhU mated 
amount which 

will be 
renuired for 
eaeh detailed 

objeet of 

' Tot;il amount 
to be 

under ea4>h 
head of up- 

! propriation. 

3, 600. 00 
], HOO. 00 
1, 500. 00 


1.7 JO. 00 
4. 620. 00 
1!, 400. 0*) 

2, TiOO. 00 

4. .'lOO. 00 

i:w.oo ; 

5.000.00 ! 


for the 

current fiAcal 

yejir endiiiit 

June 30, 1880. 

r-20. 520. 00 






Nautical Almanac Office, Navy Dbpartmext, 

Washington, D, C, September 3, 1889. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following explanation of the eatiniare of |300 
to purchase materials for multiplying copies of work on new tables ot the planets. 

The work itself comprises a recalculation of the more imporrant astronomical ob- 
servations mode upon the planets at the leading observatories of the world since ITCiO. 
and has been carried on with the expectation of its becoming a standard among as- 
tronomers which will endure at least until the middle of the coiiiin^i; centnry. 

The printing of the work would require several quarto volumes, costing several 
thonsand dollars each. Instead of printing, it is proposed to distribute about twentv 
copies among the loading observatories and astronomical institutions of the world, 
with the view of securing examination and criticism before the results are finall}' ob- 
tained, and also to save the time and expense of printing in detail. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. Nkwcomr, 
Superintendent Nautical Almanac Office, 

The Chief of the Bureau of Equipment and RBCRUiTixa. 

EetimatcH of appropriation ft required for the service of the fiscal year ending June 30, ISSlf 

by the yauiical Almanac (Office, 

Detailod ohJoctH of cxponiliturc and explanationfi. 

! Estimated 
'BDKmDt which 
will be 

n>q Hired for 



SnlaiicH of aHHiHtnntH in pro])arin^ for puhlioatiou tho American Ephem- 
eriM and Nautical Almanac, vix : 

Thrc.o aHHitt'nits at $1,000 (•4io.h, actH Aug. 6, 1882; March 3, 1880).., 

Two assiHV.uitfi at 1,400 each ^namo act8) 

Tlireti aHHJHtantH nt$L,20u etich (Kamcac.tH) , 

TwoaMHlHtant^ at $1,000 each (Hame actH) 

Ono ci>]>v*^t and typcwriu^r (Hamo acts) 

Olio HHM^Mtant nii'Hrtcii^or (Hiimo act«) , 

Oiin lalioicr (Haiiui artn) 

Pay of coiiiputf>rH on i>i«>ce-woik in pn'parinj; for publication the Ameri* 
can KpluMiK^riH and Nimticul Alniana<'. and in improving the tables of 
tho plauetH 


For purchane of materials for multii>lyin^ copieH of work on tables of the 

plau(>tH (Hiibmit-rt'd) ' 

Note. — For exidanation of thitt CHtimato Hoe Appendix. 

Total amomt 



under each 

oiU9h detailed k— i ..r ..^ 

object of . Jiiri^tK 

eziM^ditare. I Pro|»ri*t«»^ 


s. 00a 00 







Bureau of Navigation, 

Navy Department, 
Washington, October 15, 1889. 

Sm: I have the honor to submit the annual report of the operations 
of the Bureau of Navipition for the past fiscal year, together with the 
estimates for its support and that of the offices under it for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1891. 

Included in this re))ort and transmitted herewith are the reports of 
the Sni>erintendent of Compasses; the Naval Inspector of Electric 
Lighting; the Ilydrographer to the Bureau of Navigation ; the Super- 
intendent of the Naval Observatory; the Superintendent of the Naval 
Academy ; the Sui>erintendent of the Nautical Almanac, and the officer 
in charge of the Navy Department Library and War Records. 

A provision of the act making appropriations for the Navy for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, joined the Naval War College and 
Tor|)edo Station under one command after January 1, 1889, thereby 
transferring the former to the control of the Bureau of Ordnance. The 
operations of the War College for the session of 1888 are described in 
my report of that year. 

General Order No. 372, dated June 25, 1889, transferred the Compass 
Office, the Nautical Almanac Office, the Naval Observatory, and P^lec- 
tric Lighting to the Bun^au of Equipment and liecruiting. 

Therefore, while noting the operations of these offices for the year 
covered by this rei)ort, I leave recommendations respecting them to 
the chief of the Bureau to which they are now attached. The Naval 
Academy was, by the provisions of the same order, placed under the 
control of this Bureau. 

Compass Office. — During the past year ten TJ-incli compasses, eight 
tell-tale compasses, seventy -one boat compasses, and thirteen azimuth 
circles of obsolete pattern have been altercil to conform to the stand- 
ard patterns. 

Four horizontal vibrating circles for observation of magnetic forces, 
four vertical force instruments, six clinometers, and eight peloruses were 

Owing to the exhaustion of the apj>ropriation for instruments i>er- 
taining to the Compass Office, it has been necessary to defer the repairs 
of a number of compasses until the next fiscal year. 

The ten comi>eiisating binnacles for use in the steel ships, spoken of in 
my last report, were delivered by the makers and placed on board the 
ships needing them. 



A set of magnetic instruments, for use in connection with the oom- 
pensating binnacles, is now supplied to aU steel or iron vessels. 

Magnetic surveys of the new cruisers, and observations for magnetic 
forces on board of them, have been made whenever opportunity offered. 

I beg to call attention to the appended report of the Superintendent 
of Compasses, in which he refers to the danger liable to arise from the 
proximity to the compasses of dynamos and electric motors. 

Electric lighting. — The report of the Navjd Inspector of Blectric 
Lighting, Commander R. B. Bradford, U. S. N., indicates in detail the 
large amount of work performed under the direction of that officer 
during the past year. I commend his report and recommendations to 
your favorable consideration. 

At an early date this Bureau interested itself in the subject of in- 
troducing electrical appliances, and especially incandescent electric 
lighting on board ship. In 1882 1 asked for a special appropriation for . 
installing a trial lighting plant on board ship, and the result was the in- 
stallation of electric lights in the Trenton^ which was the first man-of-war 
in the world to be lighted by electricity. When she was re.-commi8- 
sioncd last this plant was renovated and put in thorough order, and was 
so successful that light was furnished by it up to the time of her de- 
struction at Samoa on the 16th of March last, the dynamo having stopped 
only when steam failed. Commander Bradford superintended this in- 
stallation, and since that time has been identified with similar work 
In the new ships, and in such of the old ones as have received plants, 
as ^N'aval Inspector of Electric Lighting. Under his instruction and 
control a number of young officers have been trained in all the practical 
details of installation on board ship, the result being that there is now 
a small corps of naval experts in this important branch of equipment. 

Since the 1st of July last the duties of this office have been carried 
on under the direction and supervision of the Chief of Bnreau of Equip- 
ment and Recruiting. Up to that date Commander Bradford, in ad- 
dition to his duties as Naval Inspector of Electric Lighting, was my 
senior assistant and liad supervision of all Bureau work. On acoonnt 
of his knowledge of the subject of electric lighting, I regarded it as im- 
])ortant that he should continue to have chargeof that work, and there- 
fore his connection with the Bureau of Navigation ceased on the 1st of 
July much to my regret. 

I believe that the consolidation of electrical appliances under one 
bureau will be of much benefit to the naval service. 

Hydrographic Office. — The report of the Hydrogapher gives an inter- 
esting account in detail of the operations of this valuable office, which 
has now been thoroughly reorganized. 

The demands upon it have been so much increased that the appro- 
])nati<)ns to maintain its various services should be materially enlarged. 

The necessity for a sepjfrate building, completely equipped and 
adapUMl to the technical work of the office, in which all its functions 
can be ct^ntralized, is imperative. Time will continue to be wasted so 
lonj^ as its different divisions are widely removed from each other. The 
building occupied by the draughtsmen an<l engravers is inadequate to 
their wants both in space and a<;commodations, and is withont a snitable 
stoiJigc* room for th(^ engraved coppt^r plates, which have cost more than 
$;>(H),<H)0. Besides the chart-)>rintiug ])resses more room is needed fiir 
type-])rinting facilities tor Notices to Mariners, Pilot Chart Supplements, 
and Sailing Directions, while a plant for lithographic work for the 
Oniee of Naval Intelligence as well as the Hydrographic Office woold be 
a valuable economical addition. 


I recommend, therefore, an appropriation of $200,000 for the con- 
8tmction of a special building, and in the mean time, pending such 
construction, an increased current appropriation for the renting of suit- 
able buildings. 

Three new branch hydrographic offices have been established during 
the past ye^r, making nine in all, situated in our most important mari- 
time |>orts. The officers attached to them have visited 14,274 vessels, 
distributed more than 1,000,000 publications of use to mariners, com- 
]>ared and corrected thousands of charts and many nautical and me- 
teorological instruments, and collected valuable nautical information 
which would otherwise have been lost. 

These offices have become a recognized necessity at all points where 
they are in operation, and the system should be extended to include all 
ports of importance on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts and on 
the Great Lakes. 

In conjunction with the Signal Service, steps have been taken by the 
Hydrographic Cilice to organize a corps of voluntary meteorological 
observers in the West Indies during the hurricane season. 

This valuable service should be aided and encouraged by the Gov- 
ernment in order to give shipping a proper warning of the approach of 
these destructive storms. 

The Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean has been instrumental 
io calling general attention to the subject of floating wrecks by show- 
ing graphically their tracks from month to month, and has called the 
attention of the maritime world to the subject of lessening the risk of 

I indorse the recommendation of the llydrographer that a similar 
Pilot Chart for the Pacitic Ocean be established, and recommend the 
necessary appropriation. 

Upon information furnished by the Hydrographic Office and its 
branahes nmny derelicts have been destroyed by public vessels, and 
others have been towed into i)ort. 

I repeat my recommendation of last year that a small vessel be 
assigned to tlie duty of destroying or removing these many floating 
wrecks and portions of wrecks in the tracks of vessels near our coasti 
which form a great and constant danger to navigation 

It will be observed that the removal of derelicts is one of the subjects 
included in the programme for the consideration of the International 
Marine Conference, (juoted in this report. The matter is one of inter- 
national importance, and it is to be IiojumI that the Conference will 
adopt a resolution assigning to each maritime power a certain ocean 
area with the duty of immediate removal of any floating obstruction 
which shall be n*ported as existing within that area. 

Surveying work has been carried on Xm a greater or less extent by 
nearly all of our (jruising vessels. 

The Ranger has made valuable additions to our hydrographic, to|)0- 
gnipliic, an<l magnetic knowledge of the west coast of Lower California, 
and the charts of this survey are highly commended by the growing 
commercial interests of the Pacific. 

Special attention has been i»aid by the Uydrographer to the exten- 
sion of our charts to cover those parts of the gh)be frequented by 
American vessels. Sixty-six new charts have been engraved and pub- 
lished during the year, covering localities in Newfoundland, on the 
coasts of California, Mexico, Central America, and Alaska, iu the 
Pa<diic Islands and the East Indies. 


Great circle charts of .all tbe oceans have also been completed. 

Longitude measarements and magnetic observations were snooess- 
fully carried on last winter in Central America and Mexico, ander the 
direction of Lieut. J. A. Norris, U. S. Navy. A party under the same 
officer is now preparing to spend the coming winter in Bimilar work in 
the West Indies and along the Spanish Main. 

Lieutenant Dyer, the present Hydrographer, who will probably soon 
be relieved from the charge of this office, has continued with energy and 
efficiency the excellent work commenced by his predecessor, Commander 
J. B. Bartlett, and I take this opportunity of expressing my apprecia- 
tion of his services. 

The Hydrographic Office is now by law placed under the control of 
the Bureau of Navigation. I strongly recommend that its transfer to 
the Bureau of Equipment and Eecruiting be authorized by appropriate 
legislation. The charts, books, sailing directions, etc., suppli^ by tUs 
ofiice form part of the equipment of ships, and the transfer reoommended 
should be made to carry out more fully the reorganization of the busi- 
ness of the Navy Department directed by General Order Uo. 372. 

Naval Observatory. — The report of the Superintendent of the Ha- 
vai Observatory details the work performed with the great equatorial, 
transit circle, and other instruments. The estimates submitted by the 
Superintendent embrace one additional computer, one oopyiat, and one 
assistant librarian. The Bureau approves the request, and urges ttat 
the small appropriation asked for may be granted. 

The chronometer and time-service department has been oonducted 
satisfactorily. The daily time-signal at noon of the 75th meridian has 
been sent over the wires of the Western Union TelegrapU Oompany,aiid 
time-balls have been dropped at various points on the coast. • In the 
estimates for the Observatory, an appropriation is asked for to maintidn 
this service properly, and to extend its benefits to other oommeieial 
cities.' This estimate meets with the hearty approval of the BuresQi 
and the special attention of the Department is invited to Uiis impor- 
tant item. 

The Gardner system continues successfully to supply the public build- 
ings in this city with the standard time from the Observatoiy. 

The field of work of the Magnetic Observatory has been greatly en- 
larged. Magnetograph curves of declination are received from Toronto 
and Los Angeles. A comparison of the disturbances, on disturbed di^ySi 
at these points an<l at Washington, is ma<le by tracing the three curves 
reduced to the same scale over each other on the same sheet. Gopiei 
of those tracings are sent to observatories and persons interested in tUs 
class of observations. 

Tbe report of Lieut. A. G. Winterhalter, on the International Astvo- 
])liotographic Congress, and on the various observatories of EnropS^ 
will soon be <lelivered by the Public l*rinter. Work upon the new 
Observatory on Georgetown Heights is i>rogressing satisfactorily. 

Naval Academy. — I beg to call your attention to the report of As* 
Sn)K'nnlen<lent of the xs'aval Academy, and his cogent arguments -to 
support the rec'oniniendations which he makes. 

Tiie building of the gymnasium, and the renewal of furniture In the 
cadets' cjuarters, are matters which all'ect the health and oomfort of As 
ca«l('ts, and slionUl not be deferred. 

J nrgently request your favorable indorsement of the proposition ts 
build ten small houses for additional oilicers' quarters. The offloenand 
assistant profiMKors, Konie twenty in number, who now are obliged ts 
rent houses outside of the Naval Academy, are those who reeeive the 




smallest pay, and who are the least able to bear this extra expeose. 
This increased cost of living is a frequent obstacle to obtaining the 
services, as instructors, of young oflQcers, recently graduated, who are 
fiuniliar with the constantly improving course of study and methods of 
teaching, and in this manner operates against the best interests of the 

Following Captain Sampson's line of argument, with which I am en- 
tirely in accord, I recommend that the course be limited to four years; 
that the graduates to l)e retained in service be commissioned at once, 
and that the limits of the age of admission, now 15 and 20 years, be 
changed to 15 and 18. 

Office of Naval Intelligence. — This office has continued, during the 
year, its current work of compiling and arranging intormation collected 
irom all sources, and supplying this information, in a serviceable form, 
to the several bureaus of the Navy Department, and to the naval com- 
mittees of Congress. Its value to naval legislation, and to naval ad- 
ministration, is now fully recognized. 

In addition to this current work the usual annual publication has 
been issued, containing complete information as to the naval progress of 
the year in all part8 of the world, and a number of papers upon lead- 
ing professional topics. 

Lieut. R. P. Roilgers, U, S. Navy, to whose energy, industry, and 
ability, during the last four years, the office largely owes its increased 
scope and facilities and its present excellent organization and condi- 
tion, has been relieved as Chief Intelligence Officer by Commander C. 
H. Davis. 

Library. — The usual increase of books has taken place during the 
past fiscal year, and the catalogue is now nearly ready for the press. 
The selection of l>ookR, in accordance with the principle established 
seven years ago, has been confined exclusively to such as are needed in 
the various branches of professional study and investigation. In order 
to keep abreast of naval development, it is necessary to devote a con- 
siderable part of the appropriation to tlie purchase of professional jour- 
nals. Technical works, as is well known, are expensive, and an increase 
in the appropriation for the library to $2,500, as allowed prior to 1885, 
is desirable. 

War Becords. — Tlie progress of the [)reparation of the War Records 
for publication is still delayed by tbe want of a sufficient clerical force. 
A slight increasi*. was made by Congress last year, wbich took effect at 
the beginning of tbe current fiscal year. The force, however, is still far 
from lining equal to the needs of the office. Estimates for an increase 
are herewith submitted. The additional force needed includes one clerk 
of class 4, to be employed in the preparation of statistical tables; two 
clerks of class .S, tor the work of verification and classification; two 
clerks of class 2, for the examination of Bureau and fleet reconls, navy- 
yard records, log-books, and official papers received from officers and 
their lepresentatives. The work laid out for the above clerks requires 
absolute accuracy, without which the publication will Le worthless, an 
it is impossible to retain in the lower grades of the clerical service men 
of the ])roper standing and ability. Four additional copyists are asked 
for, at $000 eaeh. These are urgently needed for the actual work of 
copying records. At present no copyists of this grade are allowed to 
the office. 

An assistant messenger is needed in the office in order to facilitate 
its work and avoid delay. 


Au appropriation of $600 has been asked for necessary traveling ex- 
penses for the collecting of records. In order to secure the Confederate 
records it is indispensable that such an allowance should be made. 

The importance of this work to the veterans of the war on both sides, 
and the lively interest with which they, as well as the citizens generally 
of all sections of the country, regard it, will, it is hoped, lead to its tavor- 
able consideration. 

kShips^ libraries. — The addition of books, both professional and miscel- 
laneous, to the libraries of ships of war has been continued. It is now 
l)roposed to still further increase these libraries by about three hundred 
volumes more es])ecially intended for the instruction and amasement of 
the enlisted men. A better educated and more intelligent class of men 
now enters the naval service. The training system, the favor of public 
opinion, and the changed conditions of life at sea tend to raise the 
standard and to retain good men, and it is probable that these influences 
will all be gradually strengthened. The leisui'e of these men must be 
looked to, and the careful selection of a library for their use is a wise 
provision to this end. 

Inteniational Marine Conference, to secure greater safety for life and 
property at sea. — In my report of last year I called attention to the im- 
portance of adopting n^easures to increase the safety of navigation, and 
quoted the act of Congress, approved July 9, 1888, providing for au in- 
ternational marine conference to consider and recommend such meas- 
ures. This conference is now, after much discussion of the subject^ on 
the eve of entering upon its labors. The time of its meeting waA fixed 
in the first instance by the President for the 17th of April last, but was 
afterwards postponed to the IGth of this month, because of the delay 
caused by the diplomatic correspondence necessary to a full understand- 
ing of the conference and its objects by the powers intending to partic- 

The American delegates to the conference were appointed several 
months ago, in accordance with the act above referred to. They are 
liear- Admiral S. li. Franklin, U. JS. Xavy ; Capt. W. T. Sampsou/U. S. 
Navy ; S. I. Kimball, General Superintendent U. S. Life Saving Serv- 
ice; Capt. James W. Non^roas, master merchant marine; Capt. John 
W. Shackford, master merchant marine; William W.Goodrich, a lead- 
ing admiralty lawyer, and Clement A. Griscom, president of the Inter- 
national Navigation Company. 

This delegation was called together in March last, and under the di- 
rection of the State Department formulated the following detailed pro- 
gramme of subjects to be considered by the International Marine Con- 

Gknekal Division 1. 

marine skjxals or otiikr means ok i»lainly indicating thk dikkction ix 
which vessels are moving in for,, mist, falling snow, and thick wkathek, 



1. Visilulity, iiuinbcr, and position of li«;lits to bo carried by vesfielp 

(a) Steanirrs nnd^r way. 

(b) Sti'aiiirrs tow in;;. 

(«•) VcsM'ls ntidt>r w.iy, but not niider coniniund, incIudiugsteamerB laying cable. 

(<l) Sjjilin^ v<'8sc1h under way. 

(e) Sailiuy: vesHclH towing. 

(/) Vt'sHols at anchor. 

(a) Pib)t vt'Hsols. 

(if^) Fishing vessels. 


2. SoiiDd aignaU; their charnctor, luimber, raii^o, and poHition of iiiHtnimentH: 

(a) For use in fo;^, uiiKt, falling huow, and thick weather, as poititiou signals: 

For Hteanioirt nnder way. 

For HtoanuTs lowinj;. 

For Nailin«j^ vessels under way. 

For sailing vessels towing. 

(Thos<; signals to show tlie approximate course steered if possible.) 

For vessi'ls at anchor. 

For vessels under way, but not under conmiand, iucludiD>; steamers laying 
(6) For use in all weathers as helm si<rnals only: 

For steamei-s meetinjj or crossing. 

For steamers overtaking. 

For steamers baeking. 
(c) Whether Iielm signals shall be made compulsory or remain optional. 
S. Steering and sailing ruh>s : 

(a) Sailing vessels meeting, crossing, overtaking, or being overtaken by each 

(6) Steamers meeting, crossing, overtaking, or being overtaken by each other. 
((•) Sailing vesselsnieeting, crossing, overtaking, or being overtaken by steamers, 
(rf) Steamers meeting, crossing, overtaking, or being overtaken by sailing yes* 

(e) Special rules for cliannels and tide-ways, where no local rales exist. 
(/) Contlict of international and local rules. 
{g) ITniform syst«Mn of eommands to the helm. 
(A) Speed of vessels in thick weather. 

(iKXKKAL Division M, 


(a) Construction of veswls. 

(ft) Equipment of vessels. 

(c) Discipline of erew. 

(</) Snfticiency of crew. 

(e) Ins])ection of vessels. • 

(/) Uniform certificate of inspection. 

(iENEKAL Division :\. 


Uniform maximum load mark. 

CfENERAL Division 4. 


(a) l*ositi>»n of nafiM' on vessrN. 

{h) r<»Hition oi njiiiu* «»}* p«>rt of re;:istry on vessels. 

(#•) Siz«' iif li'ttrrni;^. 

Id) Uniform system of draft marks. 

riExriiAi. Division r>. 


1. Saving of lift' and pmiM rt\ frnm shipwn'ck at m»a : 

(a) Dutirh ol v«'-'«iU •it'itT <'olli>i<»n. 

(h) Apparatu^^ I'ni ht'i- >.;iviii<4 to !>.' <-;irri('d on board ship. (Lifodnuits, life-pi6- 

M*r\<'is. iitr i:ilr>. piiiiip-. aii'l liif-cxtingni^hing apparatus.) 
(r) Tlir u.s<> of oil :t:id t lit' nt(-fs>i .ly apparatus for its use. 
( (/) I'nifonii in^pt'it imis as t«> (/* » and {t ). 

2. Saving t)f lift* and pn»|M«rty fnun hhipwrt-ek l»y operations from shore: 

(rt) Orj^anizati«»n «»!', and mt-thtMls finplovftl hy, liff-savinj: iustitntions. 

(b) TIm^ eniploN uwwx t>f tlrillftl and tliHciplinetl crews at life-saving stations. 

(c) The niaintenanti' <»f a patrol upon tlan;:erous coasts hy nigft and during 

thick weather hy day, (or warning <►!!' ve^st^ls standing into danger, and 
ft»r the early tlist-tivery of wrecks. 

(d) Unitorm means of transmitting information between stranded vessels and 

the shore. 
(c) Life-b(Mits, life-saving apparatus and appliances. 
& Official inquiries into causes and ciruu instances of shipwrecks and other casoaltiet. 



GuNEKAL Division C. 



(a) A uniform system of examiuation for tho diiTeroot grades. 
lb) Uniform testH for visual power and color blindness, 
(o) General knowledge of methods employed at life-saving stations. 
(d) Uniform certilicates of qualification. 

General Division 7. 


(a) With repjard to the avoidance of steamer collisions. 
(6) With regard to the safety of fishermen. 

General Division 8. 


(rt) A code to be used in connection with the International Code signal-book. 

(b) Or a Hupi>Iemet]tary code of limited scope to convey information of special im- 

portance to passing vessels. 

(c) Distress signals. 

Gkneral Division 9. 


(a) The transmission of warnings. 

(b) The uniformity of signalu employed. 

General Division 10. 



(a) A uniform motlKxl of riiporting and marking dangerous wrecks and derelicts. 

(b) Tlii) division of tiu; labor, <;ost, and res]>onsibility among tho several maritime 

nations, citlur by g«'ograpiiical apportionment or otherwise: 
Of th(> nunoval of tlan^iTous derelicts; 
And of scarcliini; for (loiibtl'iil dangers with a view of rooioving them ftom thA 


Genkkal Division 11. 
notice of dangers to navigation. — notice of changes in ligiits, buots, axd 


(a) A uniform method of taking bearings, of designating them (whether tme or mag- 
netic), Mild of reporting them, 

(h) A uiiitbnii metli()<l of reporting, indicating, and exchanging information by the 
several niaiitinie nations — to include* the lorrn of notices to mariners, 

(c) A nniforni method of distributing this information. 

Gkni^ual Division 12. 

a i'nifokm systicm of liuoys and beacons. 

(a) T^niforniity in color of bnoys. 

i^b) L'liil'oriinty in niiniberiiig of ])noys. 

Genki:al Division I'X 

Tin: i:<TAiiLisnMFA'T or a tm:kmanknt ixteunational MARITIME COMMISSIOir. 

(a) Tile coniiM)sition of the commission. 
{b) Its powers and authority. 


This programme has been sabinittcd to all foreign countries^ and 
will form, subject to such alterations as may be decided upou by the 
conference in session, the basis of its deliberations. 

The following countries have announced their intention of participat- 
ing in the conference: Austria-Hungary, Brazil, Belgium, China, Chili, 
Costa Kica, Denmark, France, .Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, 
Hawaii, Honduras, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Nicaragua, Bussisi, 
Spain, Sweden, Siam, The Netherlands, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Of 
these the greater number have appointed their delegates. 

The conference will probably open on the 16th instant, with not less 
than fifty delegates present, representing the important maritime powers 
of the world. 

At the request of the American delegation, the Secretary of the Navy 
recently caused exi)eriments to be made by naval vessels to determine 
the practical value of certain systems of running-lights and fog-signals 
which had been proposed for the consideration of the conference. 

The experiments were satisfactorily carried out under the direction 
of Commander Chad wick, commanding the United States steam-ship 
Yorktoicny and the report which he has made upon the subject will be 
of much value to the delegates. These experiments are the most thor- 
ough and complete which have ever been made in this country in con- 
nection with this important subject, bearing more directly than any 
other upon the safety of life and property at sea. 

Enlisted men, — By the provisions of General Order, No. 372, dated 
June 25, 1889, the recruiting, training, discipline, and control of enlisted 
men for the Navy were transferred to this Bureau. 

This charge, always important, has assumed new features and re- 
sponsibilities, with the application of modern naval developments to 
our service, and it becomes my duty to call your attention to certain 
recommendations which I believe to be in the direction of increased 

(1) The term for which men are enlisted for general service, at present 
three years, should be extended to four. This change can be brought 
about by Department action, the law permitting enlistments for a period 
not exceeding five years, an(l its imjiortance justifies the departure from 
long established custom. The regular ami recognized duration of a 
cruise is three years. The men brought together in receiving ships, to 
form the crew of a vessel preparing for the pennant, frequently accom- 
plish several months of their time before she is commissioned, and there 
is always more or less delay after commissioning to complete the out- 
tit. It results that if a vessel be sent to a foreign station, the times of 
ber men begin to expire soon after the second year of her cruise, and 
the 25 per cent, additional pay, which all men held over time receive, 
adds seriously to the expense of maintaining the enlisted force. This 
ditliculty would be remedied and a considerable saving effected by a 
longer term of enlistment. 

(2) There should be a change in the provisions relating to continuons 
service. 1 make the following recommendations with reganl to men 
who wish to engage for continuous service: 

(a) They shall permanently enlist, to serve until reaching the age of 

(/i) At the expiration of the first four years of their service, they 
shall, if they so elect, l)e discharged, but failing to so elect, they shall 
continue in the service. 

(c) Any application for discharge after entering upon the fifth year 
of service, may be grantea or refused at the discretion of the Navy De- 


(d) A coiitinuoiisscrvice man sluill be entitled to one montk'8 leave 
for each year of Hervice, to be ^raute<l at any time when convenient tu 
the Navy Department, and to be cunmlative np to four months. This 
is equivalent to the three months' bounty now paid for re-enlistment. 

{e) A continuouHserviee man shall be entitled to 91 per month addi- 
tional pay for each completed term of four years' service, this increase 
to be added to the pay of any rate held by him. 

{f) A discharge at any time shall cause the loss of all advantaf^es in 
increased and retired pay accruing to the service already performed. 

(g) A continuous-service man, after thirty years of service, shall be 
entitled to retirement, with half pay of the rate last held by him. 

(h) The names of all continuous-service men. who have completed the 
first four years of service, shall be borne upon the Navy register. 

(}■) Present continuouS'Service men shall be permitted to enter upon 
the permanent enlistment and count their previous continnous-service 
time and receive all its advantages under the proposed scheme, bat no 
new men, over twenty-five years of age, shall be accepted iu this cate- 

(;$) An age limit should be placed upon first entry for general serv- 
ice. Much more is dem$inded of naval seamen now than formerly* The 
standards of both general and technical acquirement have been mnch im- 
I)rovcd, and a man must begin younger and work harder to become ex- 
pert in the management of new weapons. I recommend that no men, 
without previous naval service, above the age of thirty-flve, shall here- 
after be enlisted. 

(4) The enlistment of aliens for general service should be discour- 
aged, with a view to its final discontinuance. There are certain special 
services, such as those performed by musicians and servants, for which 
aliens are hirgely employed, to the great convenience and advantage of 
the naval service, especially upon foreign stations; bat entries for the 
seaman and combatant force of foreigners who take service in oar Navy 
as a transient occupation, for its temporary advantages, perhaps merely 
to obtain a passage from one part of the world to another, affect seri- 
ously the discipline and military efficiency of the Navy. I recommend, 
as a first step in this direction, that, with the exception of musicians 
and servants, who shall be enlisted for the crnise only of the ship in 
which they are to serve, no foreigners shall be enlisted, at home or 
abroad, unless they fairly speak and understand the English language, 
an<l have made ap])licatiou in ])roper form for naturalization papers. 
This will preserve the liberal policy of the United States Government 
to all foreigners who intend, in good faith, to become its citizens, and 
will dignify and improve the naval service. 

(5) A change should be ma<le in the apprentice system, with the view 
of retaining a larger percentage of trained apprentices in continaoos 
service. We enlist them now to serve until the age of twenty-one. We 
lose (*onimand of them at })recise)y the age when there is the greatest 
necessity of retaining it, at the most critical time of their lives, when 
tlie sense of manhoovi's independence and the natural desire to escape 
from an apprenticeship which, at its best, like all educational careers, is 
frequently irksome and fatiguing, is unchecked by the wisdom that a 
few more years would bring. 

It results that we lose the maj(»rity of them; and the cost of training 
the wiiole, dividcil among those who remain in the service, amounts to 
an alarming sum toreaeh man so obtained. In England the training sys- 
tem wiii<li keeps bovs in the service iiiitil the age of twenty -eight or thirty 
has revolutionized tlxM'haracterof the personnel. In America the train* 
ing system which lets boys go at twenty one, has appreciably improved| 


biit lias not radically cbanpfed the character of our crews. We liave a 
training system ainl an untrained service, and the results are not likely 
t4i elian^e while the prcvsent system continues. 

We sliould keep the trained boys in the service until their habits are 
formed, until they have thorou<;hly taken the shai)e of the naval inouhl, 
and beumie attracted by naval associations, and are much more likely 
to seek a re-eidistment, with its ])resent advaiita^ros of bounty and fu- 
ture advantages of retirenn^it, than to attempt to make new be<::innings 
in untried fields. If there are any objections to establishing;' such a 
chan<xe in the relations of our naval apprentices to the service, I do not 
perceive them. It would Ik^ based, as the present serviw* is, upon a vol- 
untary contra(!t which, if bc»yond tlie comprehension of the boy himself 
at the early a«;e of entry, would be fully undcrstoo<l and aj>preciated by 
his ))arentsor guardians. The training should be for the ^oo<l of the 
Navy, not for the good of the boy. It is partial, not general ; it ap- 
plies to individuals, not like a system of public instruction to the mass 
of the ]K*ople, and the St:ite which bestows it has an undoubt'ul right 
to make such coiulitions of future service as will aiVord a return for its 
cost. A logical feature of the system would be the obtaining of dis- 
charge ouly by purchase, /. r., refunding to the state which is to lose 
the service of the boy tin* expense of his training. This purchase 
money would be a certain suui for each month spent in the training- 
fillip, would rea<'h its maximum at the end of the perio<l of training 
pni|K*r, and would then gradually diminish to the end of the term tit' 
service. Such a condition woid*! discourage iiUMUisiderate entry, w(udd 
diminish the number of a)>plications for discharge, and woukl add sta- 
bility to the training system. 

1 recommend that apprentices be enlisted to serve till the figci of 
twenty four, cou))led with the condition that an a[)prentice, upt)ii at- 
taining his majority, shidl Xnt entitled to his dis<'harge, if he so elects, 
uiK)n refunding to the (invernment a certain sum as a partial vompeii- 
sation for the expenses of his training. 

1 recommend further an increase in the numlx'r of apj)reutices from 
7541, as now allowed by law, to 1,500, thus increasing the t(»tal enliste<l 
force of the >»avy ti) !>,000. An increast* of the enlisted strength of the 
Navy in the n<»ar future is inevitable. It is no longer dependent now, 
aii in the past, oidy upon the inimber of ships maintained in commis- 
HioD. The care and preseivation of nnxlern vessels of war while in re- 
nerve is an im]HU-tant feature of naval organization; and it has been 
found that this is most ellieiently ami economically accomplished by 
maintaining in them. \\\i\\v laid up, a certain ])ercentag<* of their regu- 
tar crews. This insuies the keeping in good comiition of motive power 
and gun nniehiner\ . an<l enables the vessels to be speedily brought for- 
ward for active S4*rviet» when re(|uiretl. it is tlesirable that this in- 
crease in the number of men sliould be antieipattnl by increasing the 
nuiulK.*r of apprentices who wilt Im* pn»]M'iIy tiained. Of the proposed 
number I reenniUM'nd that one third may be enlisted betW(*eii the ages 
of eighteen and twenty-(uie to form a special class, which shall remain 
in the training ships only oneyi^ar, rcj-eiving n<» gentMal sclmol instruc- 
tions, but <tevoting their time wholly to learning their military and 
naval duties, and a! tin' end of tlnit tim<* to pass into tlu' li(*et. 

The provision of the act of .March, is.v.i, j)n*M'iibing that an appren- 
tice should re«'eive a giaiuili)us t>ullil not lo exceed J?l.") in, has 
been carrie<l into effect. 

(0) The tenure of ratings and the regular advancement of men froui 

NA Si) 1*0 


one to auotber, subject to certaiu qiialiiicatiou« of service and ca|)acity, 
is an important subject which demands immediate attention. Our serv- 
ice is chaotic in this respect. As a rule the rates in a ship are the 
creations of the commanding officer, who has power to '' redace any 
rating established by himself" and who, upon taming over his com- 
mand, ett'ects a general disrating, in order that his successor may have 
the same free scope. At the pleasure of the commanding oflScer the 
chief petty officer of a ship may be disrated to landsman, and a lands- 
man from the crew may be advanced to his position. I believe this 
power is, in the majority of cases, employed with good judgment, and 
generally with a conscientious sense of the obligations that are joined 
to it. It is a fact also that good, well-behaved petty officers are rarely 
disturbed in their rates, but it is also true that they have no certain 
right of property in them which they can assert and defend, and that 
they can be deprived of them at any moment without reason giveo 
or charges preferred, the regulation merely requiring the fact to be 
noted in the log. 

This is as well understood on the berth-deck as it is in the cabin, and 
it diminishes the ambition to obtain a petty office and the pride in the 
possession of one. When a man may be elevated from the ranks o 
day and degraded to them the next, he looks with inditfereuce a] 
his ephemeral honors and does not exert himself materially to get th' 
or to keep them. The fi)ct that petty officers do not have saffi ta 
control and command over their men, and do not lead and iuH nee 
them to subordination and good behavior, has constantly been deplored. 
It can not well be otherwise when our system of ratings keeps the level 
of the whole service at the level of the mass of unrated men. Our 
petty officers should be required to have more capacity, and should be 
clothed with more authority and given more importance. They )i 
constitute a class apart. The distance between the rated aud oii h» 
])ersonnel should be irreater than it is, and that between the rat 
sonnel and its commiNsioned superiors should l>e less. So much may ue 
demanded from any individual in the crews of our new ships A 
numerous dilVerent grades of capacity and intelligence must be ] 
nized, encouraged, rewarded, and i>reserved. A mtfb who, by 
ability and iaitlifulness, has obtained a rate should be deemed to 
acquired pro[>erty in that rate, similar in kind, if less in degree, ton 
which an otlicer enjoys in his commission. 

It ought to depend on certain qualifications of service as well as of 
capacity, to be conferred by a board, and taken away only by a board, 
or by the sentence of a court-njartial. 

I have iK^t overlooked the fact that our existing regulations proYidOi 
in certain cases, for enlistments of petty officers, thereby conferring 
rates which can not be reduced by a commanding officer. But the ood- 
(litions are onerous and dithcult to fuUill. In the first instance, twelve 
years^ continuous service is nHpiired. three good-conduct badges most 
also he had, and very high marivs must always have been obtained. It 
is anomalous thut in a servicte whose requirements are low and discip- 
line mild, where a man may be lated to any position in theicrew with- 
out previous service or certitied (pialilications, a seaman can obtains 
crrtain, assuied, and permanent position as a petty officer only afker 
a period ot service amounting to a third of his active life-time. 

I recommend a (taret'ul consideration of this subject, with a view to 
the establish n lent of such methods of advancement and tenure of 
ratin;^s as shall secure merit in our ])etty officers and enoourage tiiem 
in the maintenance of a higher standard. 


I siiprp'St a board of ratings for each s<iua(lroii, working under the 
])rovisions of a general order. 

By General Order ^^o. 37(J, of September G, ISSl), the Department has 
in^*atly facilitated the remittance of money by enlisted men, for the 
support of their families, or for savings dejmsit, by recpiiring the pay 
officer of each vessel in commission to keei> <^" <leposit uith the assist- 
ant treasurer at New York a suflicient sum of public money upon which 
to uiake drafts. 

Naval renertes. — I again repeat my former opinion, that the subject 
of Ri)eedily establishing a system of naval reserves, to meet the de- 
mands of the country, for rapidl}' manning and increasing its lleet upon 
the outbreak of war, is vitally important; and I beg to invite your 
favorable attention to the effort which has been made in Congress and 
ill several of the States to effect the practicable^ and etlicient solaliou 
of this problem. 

I presented the following arguments in my report of last year : 

At prewMit no iiu>ans exiHt for providing tlio tlcet \\\\\\ a si iijl^Io trained man, be- 
yond tlitY nnuibtr ])rett('ril»(*d by hiw for the p(>a(H> cstublisbtiicnt, and it- would 8ueui 
tbnt no ar^nnicnt sliould be necessary toHCcnre tbe rtMjnired lej^islative antliority. 

Tlio Htndy and ener;;y of maritime nations is beinj^ devoted to plaeinj; tbe irro- 
serves of men, as weU as materials, in sueb a statu ot tiainin^r and roadiness as to 
make tbeni available for elective servieo on t\venty-f>)nr bours' notice. 

Knpid mobilization may be said to be tbe leadTD<; naval (question of tbe day, and tbe 
reccni uaval manenverH abroad bave ^iven occasion for the fre(|ueiit stat(*ment of 
tbe opinion tbat to readine-s of sbips and ^nns must be joined an eipial readiness of 
trained men, [o make any system of mobilization com))lete and effective. 

The bill presented by Mr. Whitthorne, of Tennessee, and known 
throughout the country by his name, is a carefully framed and compre- 
faeiisive measure, which authorizes the enrollment of a naval militia, 
and the foruuition of a naval rest»rve in the several sea and lake board 
States, and )>rovides (lovernmenraid in sup]>lying arms and equipments, 
and facilities for training ainl drills. 

This bill has been received with much favor, and would doubtless 
bave passed the last Congress but lor Mr. Wliilt home's serious ilhiess. 
1 am infornuMl that it will again l)e presented, and 1 urge upon the De- 
partment its hearty support. .Massachusetts, Hhode Island, New York, 
aud PennsylviAiia have already ))laeed upon their statute-books laws 
which anticipate ami supplement the ]»rovisions of this nationnl meas- 

It would be most unfortunate for tin* Xavy an<l for coast <lefense, 
abould <'ongress fail to take advantage of tin* favoral)le state of public 
opinion on the subject of creating a naval reserve, and jiass an act to 
encourage, utilize, and bind together the State and individual etl'ort, 
wliich has been niadt? and is making, to\v;ird this end. 

AHHiHtant Chiefs of' llurvauH, — I Ix'g to eall vour attention to the de- 
sinibility of legislation which shall providt^ for the appointment, by the 
St^cretary of the Navy, ofaii assistani to tlieCliict of each Bureau, who 
aliall be an olllcer of the Navy, <ii' the saine corps as the Chief, and shall 
act in his place in rwa^v of absence. A idli to thisetlect was iiitnxluced 
in the last Congress, but failed of pa >sa;:e. I urgently recommend such 
a measure in the interest of the better organizatitm of the Department, 
and incn*ased facility in tlie transaction of public business. The l^\x^ 
reaiu of Medicine and Surgery has im»w such an assistant, and the same 
system should In* extended to the (»ther IWireaus. 
Very ivspectfully. your obe«lient servant, 

J. Vt. Walker, 
Chief of Bureau, 

The Secret Auv of the Navv. 






Chief clerk ($1,800, increase of $450 submitted) 82.aufl 

Four t'lerks of class four (appropriated February *2€), 1889) 7,*JiH) 

One clerk of class four* (submitted) l,nm 

Five clerks of class tlireet (submitted) - 

Four clerksof class twot (Kul)ii]itted) ^^C4M 

One clerk of class one (submitted) — l.av 

One clerk at 81,O0O^S (submitted) 1,000 

One copyist (submitted) UUO 

One copyist (submitted) TJii 

Two assistant iiiessen^ersll (1 submitted) 1,44U 

Two laborers .' 1,;WU 


Salaries^ Office Xaral Intelligence, 

One stonorjraplierir (appropriated February 'JO, W^J) $1,600 

Two clerks of class two (submitted) 2,600 

One laborer (submitted) 6G0 



Salaries f Office of Xaral lUconU of the JtehvUion. 

Two cb'rks of class four (Febrnary *J0, l?^^l>) |3,600 

Two clerk of class one (Febniarv "JO, l*:'^.)) 2,400 

One elerk at sl,0(M) (Febrnary -it"), l-.-^O) l,UliO 

Fonr eopyist's at Js7;i() <>acli (February 2<;, IHSD) 2,i5rO 

One clerk <dass four (subniitti'd) .--.-..,. 1,H00 

Two clerks ilass tlin't^ (submitted) 3,200 

Two ehiiks class t wt) (submittiid) .•••••.. 2,dtN) 

Four eopyists at SiMlO (snbmilled) ,^ 3,600 

Oni' assistant messen«»er at s7:20 T20 

For necessary traveling expenses for collectiou of records 600 


I. — ASnIarirft, Libra r if, \artj Department. 

One elerk at sl,(i()0 (iM'bniarv 'J**!. 1>-'.)) $1,000 

< >:ir a-^sistaiit m»'.ss»'ni;er at >7*J(J {l'\ bniary •-*(», l"**^i>) TlfO 

Olin lalniHT at ^OtllL. ". 6«i0 


"'riuri' previtnihly e>tiniated loi- l»y Secirtai\\'s Dllicf^ ; omi by Hureaii E<iuipm«ut 
an<l liiMi iiifin;;;. 

ffwo pi«'vi()iisly e.>iiniate«l foi- by SnictarN '^ «»niri' ; 1 by Ilurean of Navi(;utiuii, I 
by ])iire;iii nt NaviiiMtitMi (IncieaM- of >'Ji)t' Milmiif ted)and 1 by Sccrvt^iry's uflice ^n- 
crea«<«' nt" >".'i)m -.Mbniit !»m1 i. 

KMic jtU'viMiiKly estimated for by I'liri'an «»!* l-!(|nipn\,entaiid Recrnitiiij; ; 2 by fmme 
Ibnraii I inrii'Mse ot >'.'ii(i tor ea<-}i siihiiiii led and I bv Huroauof i*ruvuuona aad Cloth- 
inii { inrn-asi' of >.-j(K» sulimiitiMr). 

v>rrf\ iDU-iv rstiniaii'd U}i' h\ Sren-tars'M «tllice. 

iirrevitni»Iy «'>tiMi;ni-il for as laborer. 

* Pri'vionsly estintaifd for bv Secret ar\'s ollice. 



II. — Books, Library^ Navy Department. 

For professional books and periodicals 81,000 

For professional books and periodicals, additional (submitted) 1, r>00 

2, 500 

NoTK. — The amonnt estimated for ($2,500) is that appropriated previous to the fiscal 
year 1iS85-^86. The reduced amount is inadequate to meet the necessities of the 


I. — Salaries, JJydrographic Office. 

Two clerks of class two (appropriated) $2,800.00 

One clerk of class one (appropriated) 1, 200. 00 

Olio assistant messenger (appropriated) 720.00 

One watchman (appropriated) : 720.00 

Draught^tmen, engravers, assistants, nautical experts, computers, custo- 
dian of archives, copvists, copper-plate printers, apprentices, laborers, 

and helpers in the Hydrographic Otlice 40,000.00 

Total 45,440.00 

II. — Contingent and misceUaneous expenses. 

For copper-platee, steel -i>lates, chart paper, tools, instruments and material, 
fordrawing, engraving, and printing; materials for and mounting charts; 
data for charts and sailing directions; n^duction of charts by ])hoto- 

f^raphy; reproduction of charts by phott)lithography and other processes 
or immediate use; electrotyping co]>per-plates; cleaning copper-plat«s, 
and othcf labor relating to chart-making; care and repairs of printing- 
presses, furniture, instruments, and tools; extra drawing and engrav- 
ing; translating from foreign languages; expert work in compiling 
and arranging data for charts, sailing directions, and other nautical 
publications; works and periodicals rtdating to hydrography, marine 

meteorology, navigation, and surveying (appropriated) 20,000.00 

For expert marine meteorological and other work and expenses in the 

preparation of the Atlantic Pilot Chart and supplements, materials for 

and printing and mailing the same, including postage (appropriated) .. 15,000.00 

For expert marine mete<)rologi(;al and other work and expens«*s in the 

preparation of t