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Latest Editions always on hand and mailed to any address on rece 
of price. Illustrated with numerous Maps, Plans, Panoramas, 
and Views. 12mo, Cloth. ALL PRICED NET. 



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the Loire, excluding Paris and its Environs, with 9 Maps and 

Plans, $2. 

PRANCE (SOUTHERN), from the Loire to the Spanish and Italic 

Frontiers, including CORSICA, with 14 Maps and 19 Plans, . $2. 
GERMANY (NORTHERN), with 35 Maps and 54 Plans, . . . $2. 
GERMANY (SOUTHERN) AND AUSTRIA, including Hungary, Halmati 

AND BosiNA, with 16 Maps and 31 Plans, $2. 

GERMANY (RHINE) FROM ROTTERDAM to CONSTANCE, with 39 Ma 

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GREAT BRITAIN, with 15 Maps and 30 Plans and a Panorama, . $3.i 
GREECE, with 6 Maps, 14 Plans, and a Panorama of Athens, . . $3 ( 
ITALY (NORTHERN) including LEGHORN, FLORENCE. RAVENNi 

AND Routes through Switzerland and Austria, with 16 Maps and j 

Plans, $2.^ 

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TRAVELLER'S MANUAL OF CONVERSATION, IN English, Ger' 

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CONVERSATION DICTIONARY, IN FOUR Languages, English, Fb 

GERiiAN, Italian , 

OHAELES SOKIBNEE'S SONS, 743-745 Broadway, Ne^ /k 

Sole Agents for the United States, 4 

■ y 



r~~\ 



fff. 







BS 



- J 



r ■» 



r 



Advertisetnents, 



ARTHUR & BOND'S 

FfME AMT &AMMEMWf 

No. 12, Water Street & Bund, Yokohama. 



Is ONE OF THE SIGHTS OF YOKOHAMA, AND OWING TO 
the Liberal Lines on which it is conducted, has in its Collection 
some of the mpst superb pieces of both Ancient and Modebn Art 
Workmanship in the country, embracing 

Sold Lacqaer, Chased, Hammered, and Inlaid Hetal Work, iTory Garyinp, 
Embroideries, Cloisonne, Porcelains, Kakemono, Ac, Ac. 



Douglas Sladen says in his Tourist's guide to Yokohama and 
Tokio : — " For all sorts and conditions of buyers I consider the 
Fine Art Gallery 

THE MODEL CUEIO SHOP." 



T. in N. C. Daily News says: — "The Fine Art Gallery is certainly 
WELL WORTH A VISIT and I, for one, imtil I had seen it, had no con- 
ception of the exquisite work the Japanese can produce." 



The Hongkong Telegraph says: — "NO ONE should go to Yokohama 
without visiting the Fine Art Gallery." 



Visitors to Japan are cordially invited to inspect our collection, and 
will find all articles marked in Plain Figures at Moderate Prices. 



TATTOOING. 

HoriChiyo. — The celebrated tattooer, patronised by T. R. H. Princes 
Albert Victor and George, and known, all over the world for his fine and 
artistic work, is retain^ by us ; and designs and samples can be seen at 
the Tattooing Booms. 

ARTHUE & BOND'S 

No. 12, Water Street & Bund, Tokohama. 



\ 






A 

V 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 



m 



JAPAN 



8i:i)irb (Sbition 



RBYISBD AND FOB THE MOST PART BE-WBITTEN 



BY 



BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN 

XMEBITUS FROFE8SOB OF JAPANB8B AND FHILOLOOT IN THB IMPERIAL 

UNIYBBSITT OF JAPAN 



AND 



W. B. MASON 

LATE OF THB IMPERIAL JAPANESE DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS 



WITH FIFTEEN MAPS 



r^ut • 



NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

LONDON JOHN MURRAY 



-,.♦*. 



YOKOHAMA 
SHANGHAI 
HONGKONG 
SINGAPORE 



.KELLY/ WALSH, LIMITED 
1893 

[ ALL RIGHTS RBSERYED ] 



Ti. Preface, 

Foss, T. B. Glover Esq., J. K. Goodrich Esq., Lafcadio 
Heam Esq., Dr. J. L. Janson, Professor J. Milne, F.R.S., 
Bunyiu Nanjio Esq., Arthur Norman Esq., H. V. S. Peeke 
Esq., F. Plate Esq., J. B. Rentiers Esq., F. Ringer Esq., W. 
J. S. Shand Esq., Rev. G. T. Smith, Professor T.' Wada, 
Captain R. N. Walker, Dr. H. Weipert, and several other 
gentlemen. They would furthermore acknoivledge their in- 
debtedness to the works of Dr. J. J. Rein, Rev. W. E. Griffis, 
Dr. W. N. Whitney, and Dr. E. J. Eitel, as also to the columns 
of the *■ Japan Mail.* 

i 

Any corrections or suggestions will be gratefully received. 
Tokyo, July, 1891. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Page. 

1. General ; Books on Japan ; 
Maps 1 

2. Steam Communication ... 2 

3. Cnstom-House 3 

4. Treaty Limits ; Passports.. 3 

5. Guides 4 

6. Posts ; Telegraplis ; Banks 5 

7. Currency, 5 

8. Weights and .Measures ... 5 

9. Inns ; Travelling Expenses 7 

10. Climate; Dress; Time of 

Visit 8 

11. Provisions 9 

12. Means o£ Locomotion ; 

Luggage 10 

13. Places best worth Visiting 12 

14. Purchases ; Objects of Art. 12 



Pack. 

15. Shipment of Curios 13 

16. Shooilfcig 14 

17. Fishing 14 

18. Miscel£bneous Hints 15 

19. Language 17 

20. The Shinto Religion 21 

21. Japanese Buddhism 24 

22. List of Go4s and God- 
desses 27 

23. Christian Mission Stations 33 

24. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory 34 

25. Celebrated Personages 36 

26. Population of the Chief 
Cities 47 

27. Outline Tours 48 



EOUTES. 
Section I. — Eastern Japan. 



BouTV. Page. 

1. Yokohama 53 

2. Excursions from Yoko- 
hama* 55 

3. Yokohamato Tokyo by Rail 62 

4. Tokyo ,_. 63 

5. Excursions from Tokyo ... 91 

6. The Hakone District : Mi- 

yanoshita, Hakone 97 

7. 'Hie Peninsula of Izu 108 

8. Vries Island Ill 

9. Fuji and Neighbourhood... 114 

10. Ways to and from Kofu ... 121 

11. Kumagai to Omiya in Chi- 
chibu 139 

12. The Tokyo-Takasaki-Yoko- 

kawa Railway. [Maebashi.] 
Isobe, Myogi-san 140 

13. Karuizawa and Asama- 
yama 142 

14. Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neigh- 
bourhood 146 



Route. Paos. 

15. The Ryomo Railway 150 

16. Nikko and Neighbourhood. 152 

17. Prom Nikko to Tokyo or 
Ikao ind Ashio and the 
Valley of the Watarase- 
gawa. Chuzenji to Ashio... 167 

18. Prom Nikko to Ikao over 
the Konsei-toge ' 169 

19. Trips in the Provinces of 
Hitachi, Shimosa, Kazusa, 
and Boshu 171 

20. The Shiobera District 182 

21. Bandai-san 184 

22. From Niigata to Waka- 
matsu (Aizu), and to Moto- 
miya on the Northern 
Railway 186 

23. From Koriyama through 
the Province of Iwaki to 
TairaandMito 187 



vm. 



Contents. 



Section II. — Nobthern Japan. 



Bouts. . Page. 

24. The Northern Eailway and 

theOshuKaido 191 

25. From Sendai to Yamagata 
and Yonezawa 202 

26. From TSkyo to Akita on 
the North- West Coast ... 203 

27. From Sendai to Tsnruga- 
oka, Sakata, Honjo, and 
Akita 204 



Route. 

28. From Niigata to Tsuru-ga- 
oka 

29. From Akita to Aomori. . . . 

30. Matsushima and Kinkwa^ 

zan 

31. The North-East Coast 



Section III. — Central Japan. 



32. 

83. 
84. 



The Karuizawa - Naoetsu 
Bailway and Niigata. The . 

Island of Sado 

The West Coast from Tsn- 

ruga to Naoetsu 

The Mountains of Etchu 
and Hida 

Section IV. — Koutes 



85. 



The Bapids of the Tenryu- 
gawa. The Ina Kaido ... 
From Nagoya through the 

Potteries to Nebane 

37. The Shinto Temples of Ise 



36. 



219 

227 

230 

Connecting Tokyo and Kyoto. 



38. 
39. 



41. 
42. 
43. 

AA, 

45. 
46. 



TheTokaido 257 

TheNakasendo : 270 

Section V. — Western Japan and the Inland Sea. 



40. By Steamer from Yoko- 
hama to Kobe 



K5be and Neighbourhood.. 279 
Osaka and Neighbourhood. 283 

Kyoto 287 

Lake Biwa 317 

Nara and Neighbourhood.. 324 
Through Yamatb to the 
Monastery of Koya-san in 
Kishu 331 



47. From Kyoto through Tam- 
ba to the Se^. of Japan. 
Ama-no-Hashidate 

48. TheSan-indo 

49. The Island of Awaji 

50. The Inland Sea and the 
Chief Towns 
its Shores .... 



on or near 



Section VI. — The Island of Shikoku. 



61. From Matsuyama jbo Kochi 
over the Mountains of lyo 
andTosa 371 



Section VII.— The 

54. Nagasaki and Neighbour- 
hood 379 

55. Excursions from Nagasaki. 384 

56. Through North - "V^stern 

Kyushu by Eoad and Rail. 391 

57. From Kokura to Oita by 
the North-East Coast and 

to Kumamoto 897 

58. From Kumamoto to Nobe- 
oka and Oita 404 



52. From Kochi to Tokushima 
down the Eapids of the 
Yoshino-gawa 

63. Outline of other Trips in 
Shikoku 

Island of Kyushu. 

59. Nagasaki to Kagoshima ... 

60. Kagoshima to Kirishima- 
yama and via the Bapids 
of the Kumagawa to Ku- 
mamoto 



61. From Nagasaki to the Go- 
t5 Islands and Tsushima ; 
to Fusan and Gensan in 
Korea; and to Vladivo- 
stock in Siberia 



Contents. 



IX. 



Section VIII. — The Island of Yezo. 



Bouts. Page. 

62. Ha«kodate and Neighbour- 

hood 415 

63. Excursions from Hakodate 418 

64. Hakodate to Fukuyama ... 420 

65. Hakodate to Esashi 422 



Route. Page. 

66. Hakodate to Sapporo and 
VolcanoBay 42a 

67. The South-East Coast and 
the Southern Kuriles 426 

68. From Kushiro to Abashiri. 
The North-East Coast 427 



APPENDIX. 



I. From Inawashiro to Yone- 
zawa viA Bandai - san 
and the Hibara Pass ... 429 

n. From Yonezawa to Mura- 
kami ind Miomote 430 

m. From Murakami to Tsuru- 
ga-oka tnd the Agari-toge. 431 

GLOSSARY 

INDEX 



IV. From Tsuru-ga-oka to 

Sendai Tnd the Bokuju- 
ri-goe and the Seki- 
yama-toge 432: 

V. Note on Yudono-san 482 



433 

438 

EBBATA 460 



«f 



MAPS AND PLANS. 



*•« ••• ••• •«• ••• ••• ••• 



Japan 

8hintd Temple of Izomo 
Buddhist Temple of Ikegami 
Neighbourhood of Yokohama 
Tokyo and Neighbourhood ... 
Fuji and the Hakone District 
Ikao and Kusatsu 

NikkO 

Eastern Japan 
Northern Japan 
Central Japan... 
Kdbo and Osaka 

Kydto 

Western Japan and the Inland 
jvy ubuvi ... ... ... ... ... 

Neighbourhood of Nagasaki 
South-Western Yezo 



!•• ••• •«• 



• •• ••• ••• 



• •• ••• ••■ 



• • • ■ • • 



*•• ••• •mi 



••• ••• ••• ••• 



• • ••• •«• 



) • • • ■ • 



• • ••• ••• •(• ••• ••• ••! 



• • ••• ••• ••• 



• • ■•• ••• 



• • • • • • 



• • ••• ■•• ••• ••• 



Sea 



• • • • • 4 



••• ••■ ••! 



• •« •«• ••• ••• ••« 





PAGE. 


to face 


Title-page. 


f> 


23 


»> 


26 


a» 


53 


a 


63 


99 


97 


>» 


145 


»» 


152 


» 


188 


99 


216 


99 


254 


>• 


279 


99 


287 


** 


368 


» 


377 


99 


379 


*• 


413 



A 



Handbook for Travellers 



IN 



JAPAN . 



INTRODUCTION. 



Page. 

1. General; Books on Japan; 
Maps 1 

2. Steam Communication ... 2 

3. Custom House 3 

4. Treaty Limits; Passports 3 

5. Guides 4 

6. Posts ; Telegraphs; 

Banks 6 

7. Currency 5 

8. Weights and Measures ... 5 

9. Inns ; TraveUing Ex- 
penses 7 

10. Climate; Dress; Time of 
Visit 8 

11. Provisions j 9 

12. Means of Locomotion; 

Luggage : 10 

13. Pla^s best worth Visit- 
ing 12 



Pagk. 

14. Purchases; Objects of 
Art 12 

15. Shipment of Curios ... ..... 13 

16. Shooting 14 

17. Fishing 14 

18. Miscel£.neous Hints 15 

19. Language 17 

20. The Shinto Eeligion 21 

21. Japanese Buddhism 24 

22. List of Gods and God- 
desses .f 27 

23. Christian Mission Sta- 
tions .^....... 33 

24. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory 34 

25. Celebrated Personages ... 36 

26. Population of the Chief 
Cities 47 

27. OutUne Tours 48 



1. — ^General ; Books on Japan ; Maps. 

Japan, secluded for over two centuries from contact with the outer 
world, was burst open by tlie American expedition in 1853-4 under the 
command of Commodore Perry. Making a virtue of necessity, her 
rulers soon determined to Europeanise the country as the best means of 
preserving its independence. Ships were bought, foreign naval and 
military instructors engaged, feudalism replaced by a centralised auto- 
cracy, education re-organised on the pattern offered by Western 
nations, posts, telegraphs, and railways introduced, European dress, 
European manners, European amusements adopted. Buddhism dis- 
established, Christianity — if not encouraged — at least no longer perse* 
ented. In short, in every sphere of activity the old order gave way to 



2 Introduction: — Steam Communication. 

tbe new. Bat even Japan, great as is the power of imitation and 
assimilation possessed by lier people, has not been able completely to 
transform her whole material, mental, and social being within the limits 
of a single lifetime. Fortunately for the tourist, she continues in a 
state of transition — less Japanese and more European day by day, it 
is true, but still retaining characteristics of her own, especially in the 
dress, manners, and beliefs of the lower classes of society. Those who 
wish to see as much as possible of the old order of things, should come 
quickly. 

It is impossible within the limits of this Introduction to enter into 
those details of race, history, customs, religion, art, literature, etc., 
which, together with the more recent influence of Europe and Ame- 
rica, have made Japan what she is to-day. The traveller who desires 
to travel intelligently — to do more than merely wander from hotel to 
hotel — may be referred for a summary of such information to a small 
work entitled " Things Japanese," where, if he wishes for still more, 
he will . find references to the original authorities in each special 
branch. Of religion alone, a short sketch seemed indispensable, as 
the temples are Japan's chief sights ; and we have added an outline 
of history and a list of celebrated personages, in order to assist the 
traveller to thread his way through tbe maze of proper names with 
which he will be confronted. In Japan, more than in any European 
country, is it necessary to take some trouble in order to master such 
preliminary information. For whereas England, France, Italy, Ger- 
many, and the rest, all resemble each other in their main features, 
because all have alike grown up in a culture fundamentally identical, 
this is not the case with Japan. He, therefore, who should essay to 
travel without having learnt a word concerning Japan's past, would 
run the risk of forming opinions ludicrously erroneous. We would 
also specially recommend Griffis's "Mikado's Empire" and Rein's 
"Japan" and **The Industries of Japan," as books which it would be 
profitable to read on the way out. Rein's works are, it is true, fitted 
only for the serious student, who is prepared for hard words ard tech- 
nical details ; but " The Mikado's Empire " is calculated to appeal to 
all classes of readers. Of books on Japanese art, we may name Ander- 
son's admirable work, "The Pictorial Arts of Japan," and Huish's 
more handy " Japan and its Art." Morse's " Japanese Homes " is an 
excellent description, not only of the dwellings of the people, but of all 
the articles belonging to their daily life. 

By far the best maps are those now in course of publication at the 
Imperial Geological Office, and to be obtained of Messrs. Kelly and 
Walsh at Yokohama. 



2. — Steam Communication. 

Japan may be reached either by the Pacific Mail or the Occiden- 
tal and Oriental Company's steamers from San Francisco in about 
19 days, or from Vancouver by the Canadian Pacific Company's 
steamers in a day or two less ; or else from Europe vid the Suez Canal 
by the Peninsular and Oriental steamers from London and Brindisi \ 



Cmtom.' House. Treaty Limits ; Passports, 3 

by the Messageries Maritimes from Marseilles, and by the Norddeu- 
tscher Lloyd from Bremerhaven, Southampton, or Genoa in about 40 
days. There are also outside steamers from London, especially those 
of the "Glen" and "Shire" Lines, with good passenger accom- 
modation. 

Yokohama, the connecting port of all the above, is also the chief 
centre of the local steamship traffic. The principal Japanese company 
is the Nippon Yusen Ewaislm (Japan Mail Steamship Company), which 
runs steamers thrice weekly to Hakodate, almost daily to Kobe; weekly 
to Nagasaki and Shanghai; fortnightly vilt the Inland Sea to Vladivo- 
stock in Siberia, calling at Fusan and Gensan in Korea, for Tientsin v'i§L 
the Inland Sea, calling at Korean ports; weekly from Kobe to Sakai, 
Tsurnga, Niigata on the West Coast, and Hakodate, occupying altoge- 
ther about six weeks on the round trip; also, at longer intervals, to 
the Loochoo and Bonin Islands. The Kobe Domei Kisen-Gwaisha 
maintains communication with the principal ports in the Inland Sea, 
and there are numerous smaller companies which run boats to most of 
the ports on the coast as well as on some of the larger rivers and lakes. 

Boats — known in the Treaty Ports as sampans — ply in all the 
harbours, and land passengers from the steamers. The usual fare 
from ship to shore, or vice versd^ is from 10 to 20 sen per head. 
Hotel boats are in attendance at the. larger places. 

8. — CusTOM-HousE. 

A strict examination of the luggage of passengers is made at t]^ 
Custom-house ; but it is rare for any difficulty to arise, as opium is the 
only article prohibited in the tarifE. All dutiable articles, however, should 
be entered on the ship's manifest, as otherwise the owner renders 
himself liable to a fine. (See also section on Shipment of Curios.) 



4. — Tbeaty Limits; Passpokts. 

Foreigners® have the right to reside without passports at the "Open 
Ports" (also called "Treaty Ports") of Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka, 
Nagasaki, Hakodate, and Niigata, and at any place within a radius of 
10 ri, that is, nearly 24^ miles from those ports. The last place on 
the Tokaido railway, coming from Yokohama, at which one may stay 
without a passport is Kozu. . Tokyo, though not properly an Open Port, 
may be visited without a passport, as may also its immediate neigh- 
bourhood ; and the night may be spent at the Imperial, Tokyo, Club, 
and Seiyoken Hotels, or at a friend's house without let or hindrance. 

Passports for visiting other portions of Japan may be obtained 
by tourists and all others not in Japanese employ by application 
to the diplomatic representative of the country to which they 
belong, these diplomatic representatives obtaining them from the Japan- 
ese Foreign Office. Tlius, Englishmen mUst apply to the British 

* *' ForeigpaerQ '* (Jap. gwaikokujin or ijin) is the word uni^^sally employed in Japan 
to denote all persons or Caucasian race. It will sound o«d to new-comers to hear 
KngUshmen speaking of themselves as ** foreigners," *' we foreigners." 



4 Introduction : — Guides. 

Minister, and Americans to the United States Minister, both of whom, 
also the majority of the representatives of other countries, have the 
Legations in Tokyo. Foreign employes must apply through the 
Japanese employers. 

It should be distinctly understood that passports, though never r 
fused, are of the nature of a favour. They cannot be demanded of tl 
Legation authorities. Properly speaking, the tourist should presei 
himself in person at the Legation to make the application. When th 
is impossible, a note should be written to the Minister, explaining tl 
circumstances and requesting that the passport be sent to such and sue 
a place. This application should be forwarded through the Consul ( 
the port at which one is staying. The Hakone-Miyanoshita-Atari 
district is an exception. Passports for it can be obtained of the Kencl 
^Prefecture) or of the Consuls at Yokohama on payment of a small fe 
A similar rule holds good at Kobe with regard to passports for tl 
Kyoto-Nara and Lake Biwa district, and at Nagasaki for the baths c 
Ureshino and Takeo. 

The Japanese authorities generally insist on being exactly informe 
of the route the traveller purposes taking. He is therefore advised 1 
make out his application with great minuteness, mentioning as man 
routes and places on each route as possible. This he can best do eitlu 
by copying portions of the headings and names of the chief places i 
the itineraries given at the beginnfng of each Route in this volume, ( 
by taking counsel with some resident friend. After all, he is not ol 
liged to visit every place on his programme, which had therefoi 
better err on the side of over-fullness than on that of scantiness. ] 
would be highly convenient if the Japanese authorities would grac 
passports for all Japan ; but this they almost invariably refuse to d< 
Passports are, however, granted for certain routes termed * Fixed * c 
* Regular Routes,Mists of 'which are kept at the British and America 
Legations. The word * Fixed * or ' Regular,' as tlius used, is not mean 
to imply that travel is in any way restricted to the routes in questior 
The arrangement is meant only to save trouble to the applicants as we! 
as to the authorities. 

An application for a passport should state the time for which th 
passport is desired. From one to three months is the time which it i 
generally advisable to mention, applications for longer periods beinj 
liable to be refused. It is also desirable to state that the journey i 
intended " for the benefit of my health." 

6. — Guides. 

Guides understanding English can be procured of the Guides' Associa 
tion i^Kaiyiisha) at Yokohama and Kobe, with branches at Tokyo ant 
Kyoto. Apply at any of the hotels. The fixed charge at presen 
(1891) is advertised as follows : — "One dollar per day for a party o 
one or two tourists ; over two, 25 cents added for each tourist. In al 
cases the guide's travelling expenses must be paid by his employer, anc 
he is to be allowed one dollar per day additional for his hotel expenses. 

A guide is an absolute necessit}' to persons unacquainted with tli( 
language. Those knowing a little Japanese may feel thembelve 



Posts ; Telegrwphs ; Banks. Currency, Weights d Measures^ 5 

more their own masters by hiring a man-servant, or "boy," also 
able to cook, and having neither objection to performing menial 
functions, nor opinions of his own as to the route which it wiU be 
best to take. 

6. — Posts ; Telegraphs ; Banks. 

The Imperial Japanese Post and Telegraph services are excellent. 
Letters and papers can be forwarded with perfect safety to the 
different stages of a journey. The Post-oflSce Order system is 
thoroughly efficient, and will be found useful by travellers who wish 
to avoid carrying about much money. 

In most' towns of any size the Post and Telegraph Offices are 
combined. Telegrams in any of the principal Eumpean languages 
cost 5 cents per Word, with a minimum charge of 25 cents, addresses 
being charged for. A telegram in Japanese of 10 Karva characters 
costs 15 cents, addresses not being charged for, and the foreign 
residents therefore often avail themselves of this means of com- 
manication. 

There are at Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagasaki branches of the 
Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, the New Oriental Bank, and the 
Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China. The 119th National 
Bank, a Japanese institution in Tokyo, issues cheque-books for the 
use of foreigners, and is a convenient medium for making payments to 
the larger Japanese hotels and trading firms. 

7. — ^CuRRENCY, 

The values are decimal, with the yen^ or dollar, as the unit. One yen 
contains K)0 sen or cents ; one «6w contains 10 r'ln. The currency 
consists of gold which is practically never seen ; of silver pieces of 1 
y«n, 50 «6w, 20 «e», 10 «ew, and 5 sen ; of nickel pieces of 5 sen ; of 
copper pieces of 2 «e«, 1 sen^ 5 rm, and 1 r'ln^ besides others issued 
during feudal days representing 1 J rm, 8 riw, (these are oblong pieces 
called tempQ)y etc.; and of paper money worth 20 sen, 50 sen, 1 yen, 
5 yeji, 10 yen, and various larger sums. Mexican silver dollars circulate 
only at the Treaty Ports. 

It is best to travel with paper money, both because of its superior 
portability, and because it is better known to the inhabitants of the 
interior than the silver yen. One of the first things the tourist should 
do is to learn the difference between the various notes for the values 
above-mentioned. He is advised to take with him no notes of a 
larger denomination than 10 yen, as it is often difficult to get change 
except in the large towns, 

8. — Weights and Measures. 

Distances are reckoned by ri and cho, 36 cho going to the ri.*^ 
One ri is equal to 2.44 English statute miles, or, roughly speaking, 
to a trifle under 2^ miles. One cho is equal to 358 English feet, or 
TTj of a mile. The cho is subdivided into 60 ken (1 ken=6 ft. 

* Some mountain districts have a longer n of 50 cho. 



Introduction : — Weights and Measures, 



approximately), and the ken into 6 shahu (1 8hahu=l ft. ap- 
proximately). The subdivisions of the shahu follow the deciiiiul 
system. Throughout this work, the distances are given in ri and 
cho as well as in miles, as visitors to Japan invariably fall very soon 
into the Japanese method of reckoning, which indeed must be learnt in 
any case, as coolies, jinrikisha-men, and others know notiiing of 
English miles. A word of caution may here be given against the habit 
of certain Japanese having a superficial knowledge of English, who 
mistranslate the word ri by " miles." The following table, borrowed 
from Dr. Whitney's " Dictionary of Roads, Towns, and Villages of 
Japan," will be found useful : — 



EQUIVALENTS OF JAPANESE £1 AND CSO IN ENGLISH MILES, 


Japanese ri. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 




Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


1 


2.44 


24.40 


26.84 


29.28 


31.72 


34.16 


36.60 


39.04 


41.49 


43 93 


46.37 


2 


4,88 


48.81 


61.26 


63.69 


56.18 


58.67 


6101 


63.45 


6.-..H9 


68.33 


70.77 


3 


7.32 


73.20 


76.66 


78.09 


80.68 


82.97 


85.41 


87.85 


90.29 


92.71^ 


96.17 


4 


9.76 


97.61 


100.05 


102.49 


101.93 


107.37 


109.81 


112 25 


114.69 


117.13 


119.68 


5 


12.2(' 


122.01 


124.46 


126.90 


129 3J 


131.78 


134.21 


136 66 


139.10 


141.64 


143.98 


6 


u.e4 


146.43 


148.87 


151.31 


153.75 


156.19 


158.63 


161.07 


163.51 


166.95 


168.39 


7 


17.08 


170.83 


173.27 


176.71 


178.16 


180.69 


183.03 


18647 


187.91 


190.35 


192.79 


8 


19.52 


195.23 


197.67 


200.11 


202.55 


2fi5 00 


207.44 


209.88 


212..32 


214.76 


217.20 


9- 


21.96 


219.64 


222.08 


J24.62 


226.96 


229.40 


231.84 


234.2b 


286.72 


239.16 


241.60 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


Cho 


Miles 


1 


0.07 


7 


0.47 


13 


0.88 


19 


1.29 


25 


1.69 


31 • 


2.10 


2 


O.U 


■ 8 


0.54 


14 


0.9o 


20 


1.36 


26 


1.76 


32 


2.17 


8 


0.2^ 


9 


0.61 


15 


1.02 


21 


1.42 


27 


1.83 


S3 


2.24 


4 


0.27 


10 


0.68 


16 


1.08 


22 


1.49 


28 


1.90 


84 


2.30 


6 


0.34 


11 


0.76 


17 


1.15 


23 


1.66 


29 


1.97 


35 


2.37 


6 


0.41 


12 


0.81 


18 


1.22 


24 


1.63 


80 


2.03 


36 


2.44 



Long Measure (Jcane). 10 hu=X sun (often translated 'inch,* but 
=1.19 inches of Ehglish measure); 10 8un=\ shahu \ 6 8hahu=\ hen ; 
10 8hahu=l jo. Tiie jo, equal to about 10 English feet, is the unit 
empl'>ye<1 in measuring heights and depths. 

Cloth Measure (Jcujira), 10 hu=\ stm ; 10 «mw=1 shahu, or nearly 
12 inches ; 10 8hahu=l jo. In this measure, the shahu is ^ longer 
than in Long Measure. 

Land Measure {tsubo). The unit is the tsuho, nearly equivalent to 
4 square yards English. An acre is nearly equivalent to 1,210 tsuho, 

1 cho^^ Hcres, and 1 ri (Rquare)=6 sq. miles, approximately. 

Measure of Capacity. 10 ^o=l sho which contains about 108J cubic 
inches, and is a little larger. than IJ quart ; 10 «/?d=l to, nearly half 
a bushel, or, for liquids, 4 gallons ; 10 to=l hohu, which is a fraction 
less than 5 English bushels. 

Weight's. The hin is about IJlb. avoirdupois; 1 lb. avoir.=abont 120 
momrne. The kwan, which became the legal unit in 1891, is equal 
to 1,000 momme (fi\ hin or a little over 8j Ibn.) 



Inns ; Travelling Expenses, 7 

9. — Inns; Travelling Expenses. 

The inns are given from personal knowledge or from the best 
accessible aathorities, an asterisk being sometimes prefixed to the name 
of a house specially worthy of mention. Wliat is termed hatago at 
a Japanese inn includes supper, bed, and breakfast, for which a single 
charge is made. This varies in different parts of the country; at present 
it ranges from 20 sen to 50 sen per head. Anything in the way of food 
or liquor ordered in addition to the meals supplied has to be paid for 
separately. There is no charge for firing, lighting, attendance, or 
bath, provided always the traveller is content with what is given to every 
one else, neither is there any for tea. But it is usual, shortly after 
arriving and being shown into a room, or in paying one's account just 
before leaving, to make a present, known as chadai or * tea-money.' 
The latter course is recommended. With Japanese travellers, this 
tea-money varies with the rank of the individual, the amount of extra 
attention which he desires or has received, and with the quality of 
the accommodation. The foreign tourist is on a somewhat different 
footing, and there are seldom gradations of rank in his case to be con- 
sidered. As a fair and practical solution of a vexed question, those 
who travel d la japonaise and who are charged in accordance with the 
above scale, may be recommended to make the amount of their 
chadai also vary from 20 sen to 50 sen per night. Therefore, for 
a single night's entertainment, the cost, hatago and chadai included, 
may be put down at from 40 cents to $1. If two or more persons are 
travelling together, the chadai is increased say to one half more for 
two, and double for three persons. The first guest to arrive has 
the prior right to the bath. In some parts, especially at bathing 
resorts, there is a fixed rate for accommodation only, the food being 
charged for separately according to order. In such places, it is. usual 
to make a present for distribution amongst the servants in addition to 
the chadai, whereas in the ordinary inns such presents are not looked 
for. 

It is but fair that foreigners should pay more than natives, both for 
hotel accommodation and for jinrikishas. They generally weigh more, 
they almost always want to travel more quickly, they give infinitely 
more trouble at an inn with their demands for separate rooms, fresh 
water in the bath, the occupation of a portion of the kitchen to cook 
their European food in, and a dozen other such requirements, to say 
nothing of the necessity under which the host lies of reporting their 
presence to the police. 

. In the Europeanised hotels at such frequented spots as Nikko, 
^ Kamakura, Miyanoshita, Kyoto, Shizuoka, etc., the general charge is 
$2.50 or $3.50 a day, everything included except liquors. The charges 
at the hotels under foreign nianagement in the Open Ports are generally 
slightly higher. The charge per diem for a native servant is generally 
50 sen a day. The average charge (to foreigners) ior jiwrihishas in the 
most frequented portions of the country is now (1891) from 10 to 15 
sen per n, the same per hour, and $1 per diem. About 50 per cent, is 
added to these rates in bad weather and at night. But the tendency of 
late years has been towards constantly increased rates, owing to the 



8 Introduction : — CUmate ; Dreu ; Time of Vint. 

ride in the price of rice and other staple commodities. It is i 
give It small gratuity (_sakale) to jiorikiHtia-men after a hard ran 

Perhaps one might Ba.y that the total cost to a traveller of i 
habits, travelling at a reasonable speed, and having with him a 
servant, should not exceed $8 per diem. If he restricts him 
mountainODB districls, the expense will be considerably leas. 

It will be seen from the above that the hostelries at which tn 
in Japan put np are of three kinds : the European hotel, the 
peanised or half-European half-Japanese hotel (Aateru), and the 
native inn Q/adoya). The tea-honse (chaya) is different again, 
place where people neither sleep nor dine, but only halt for a she 
to rest and take slight refreshment. Reeidenta in Japan, howeve 
include inns under the denomination of tea-honses. 

The best style of Japanese inn is now generally supplied »itl 
chairs and tables ; or if there are ijone in the house, some can be I 
in from tlie school or the police-station hard by, where thej 
rigueur. Beds are still rare ; but good quilts (futon') are lai 
on the mats, wherever may be most convenient ; a smaller qoilt 
rolled into a pillow, and in summer a mosquito-net will be provid 

It is a common Japanese custom to carry letters of introductic 
inn to inn (annai-jo). This has advantages, especially in seai 
epidemic disease or under any other circumstances liable to cai 
traveller to he viewed with Buapicion, or when, for the purposes 
special investigation, he wishes to bo brought iuto intimate ri 
wilh his hosts along the road. Many inna keep printed fo 
annai-jo which they will fill in with the traveller's name. Occai 
these, and the little paper slips in which toothpicks are brougl 
the fans which it is the custom to present on departure to those 
who have given a suitable chadai, are charming specimens of Ji 
taste in small matters ofevery-day life. 

10. — Cliuate ; DsEss ; Timb of Visit. 

Bemeinber that Japan is not in the tropics, and bring warm c 
with you, whatever be the season of your visit; also ver; 
clothing, if your visit be in the summer. Even in July, 
the mean temperature of Tokyo is about 76° Fahrenheit, daj 
come when yon will be glad of all your winter things. This 
still more to the mountains. On the other hand, be more cai 
exposing yourself to the sun than you would be in England, J 
not 20° nearer the trofncs for nothing. A sun helmet and a wh 
brella are useful additions to the traveller's wardrobe. 

Though clothes of the roughest description will suffice for the< 
districts, bring something better — something such as might b 
at home — in which to appear at the larger hotels, and to mis, . 
be, in Tokyo or Yokohama society, whether Japanese or foreign, 
regard to boots, it is advisable to wear such as can be pulled < 
on easily, as it i» neceuary to remove one's boots every time one ■ 
houte or temple, m order not to »oil the matt on which the Japa/. 
Grave offence is given, and naturally given, by the disregard 



Provisions. 9 

cnstom. Light shoes or boots with elastic sides are therefore to be 
preferred, except for mountain work. If your boots give out, try the 
native straw sandals {waraji) with the native sock {tdbi). Many 
foreigners have found them excellent foot-gear, the only addition re- 
quired being a small piece of cotton-wool to prevent chafing by the 
tliong which passes between the great and the second toe. Boots barely 
holding together can be made to last a day or two longer by tying 
waraji underneath them. 

Roughly speaking, the Japanese summer and early autumn are hot 
and wet ; the late autumn and early winter cool, dry, and delightful ; 
February and March disagreeable, with occasional snow and dirty 
weather, which is all the more keenly felt iij Japanese inns devoid 
of fire-places ; the laie spring rainy and windy, with beautiful days 
interspersed. The average temperature of January, which is the coldest 
month, is between 36° and 37° Fahrenheit at Tokyo; but there are 
frequent frosts at night during five months of the year, namely, from 
November to March inclusive. Skating is rare in Tokyo. The climate 
of Northern Japan from Sendai onwards is much colder in winter, 
though not appreciably cooler during July and August. A similar 
remark applies even more forcibly to the entire West coast, which is 
exposed to icy winds blowing direct from Siberia. 

Each traveller must judge for himself from the above remarks which 
season to select for his tour. If possible, he should be either in Tokyo 
or in Kyoto during the first week in April to see the magnificent 
display of cherry-blossoms, which are followed throughout the early 
summer by other flowers — peonies, azaleas, wistarias, irises — well-worth 
seeing both for their own sake and for that of the picturesque crowds 
of Japanese sightseers whom they attract. If not able to visit Kyoto 
early in April, he should try to be there at the end of October or early 
in November, when the autumn leavegf are in all their glory of red and 
gold. Tokyo is less favoured in this respect, but the chrysanthemums 
there early in November are magnificent. The summer may most 
advantageously be devoted to Nikko, Miyanoshita, Arima, or Unzen, 
or to travelling in Yezo and in the high mountainous districts of the 
interior of the Main Island, which are practically inaccessible except 
between June and October. Fuji can only be ascended during the hottest 
period of summer. 

1 1 . — ^Provisions. 

Except at a few of the larger towns and favourite hill or sea-side 
resorts, meat, bread, and the other forms of European food are unknown. 
Even chickens are but rarely to be obtained ; for though plenty may 
1)6 seen in almost every village, the people object to soil them — partly 
because they keep them for the sake of their eggs, partly on account 
of a lingering Buddhist dislike to taking life. Those, therefore, who 
cannot live on the native fare of rice, eggs, and fish (tliis, too, not to 
be counted on in the mountains), should carry their own supplies with 
them. Winee, spirits, and cigars are equally unobtainable; but beer is 
to be met with in most towns, excellent beer being now brewed both at 
Yokohama {KitinBeer) and at Tokyo {Yehisu Beer), It is advisable to 



10 Introduction: — Means of Locomotion ; Luggage, 

take one or two knives, forks, spoons, a corkscrew, a tin-opener, and 
most elementary cooking utensils. Plates and glasses can be borrov 
almost everywhere. Those who are fairly easy to please and who wisl 
travel lightly, can reduce the size of their provision basket by us 
the rice, fish, and eggs of the country as auxiliary to what they ca 
with them. When starting off for the first time, it is best to err on 
side of taking too much. Many who view Japanese food hopef u 
from a distance, have found their spirits sink and their tempers eml 
tered when brought face to face with its unsatisfying .actuality. 

Milk may now sometimes be obtained at the towns along the Tokaii 
Nakasendo, and other chief highways, but should not be counted • 
The yolk of an egg beaten up is considered by many to be a gc 
substitute for it in tea or coffee. 

It is essential to avoid all water into which rice-fields may ha 
drained. In the plains all water should be filtered and boiled bef( 
drinking. 

The following Japanese articles of food are considered palatable 
most foreigners: 

Miso-ahiru^ bean-soup. 

Sakana no shio-yahi^ broiled fish. 

SaJcana no tempura^ a fish fritter. 

Saki^ a strong liquor made from rice and generally taken hot. 

Tamago-yaki, a sort of omelette. 

Tori-nabe, chicken cut up small and stewed. 

dshi-nahej beef similarly treated. 

Unagi-meshi, rice with eels done in soy. 



12. — Means op Locomotion ; Luggaqe. 

Take the railway wherever available. On those plains which i 
railway yet traverses, take a jinrikisha. Avoid the native basl 
(carriage), if you have either nerves to shatter or bones to shake, ar 
be very chary of burdening yourself with a horse and saddle of yoi 
own in the interior, as all sorts of troubles are apt to arise with regai 
to shoeing, run-away grooms (bettos)^ etc. Such, in a few words, 
our advice, founded on long personal experience. Other possible coi 
veyances are pack-horses (but the Japanese pack-saddle is torture 
cows, the kago — a species of small palanquin, uncomfortable at first, bi 
not disliked by many old residents, — and lastly chairs borne by foi 
coolies; but these have but recently been introduced from China, an 
are only found at Miyanoshita, Nikko, and a very few other plact 
much resorted to by foreigners. The pleasantest sort of trip for 
healthy man is that in which jinrikisha-riding and walking are con 
bined. In the hilly districts which make Japan so picturesque, walk 
ing is the only possible, or at least the only pleasant method c 
progression. The luggage is then taken on a pack-horse or on 
coolie*8 back. 

Persons intending to go at all off the beaten tracks are advised t 
compress their luggage within narrow limits. This is specially necee 
sary in the thinly populated mountainous parts of the country, wher< 



Means of Locomotion ; lAtggage, 11 

one coolie — not improbably a grandfather superannuated from regular 
■work — is often the sole means of transport that a village can pro- 
duce, all the horses being generally with their masters miles away in 
the mountains. 

It is always best to avoid large boxes and portmanteaus, and to 
divide the luggage into two or three smaller pieces for convenience in 
piling on a coolie's hod or for balancing the two sides of a pack-horse. 
The. Japanese wicker baskets called yanagi-gori are much recommend- 
ed, as cheap, portable, capacious, and contractable. The yanagi-gori 
(sometimes called hori for short) consists of an oblong basket, with a 
second fitting over it to any depth as a cover, and is consequently 
convenient, not only for clothes and books, but for provisions, since 
the size of the basket can be diminished as the stores are consumed, 
without there being any empty space for the remaining articles to 
rattle about in. A pair of these yanagi-gori — one for personal efiEects, 
the other for provisions — should suffice to him who intends to rough 
it. They should be provided with a large wrapper of oil-paper 
against the rain, and fastened either with cords which can be pro- 
cured anywhere, or with stout leather straps. 

As to Japanese roads, no general opinion can be expressed. Some- 
times excellent when first made, they are often kept in insufficient 
repair. Travellers must therefore not be astonished if they come across 
roads, which, though mentioned in this work as good for jinrikishas, 
have become almost impassable even for foot passengers — the result of 
a single season of frosts and typhoons. The changes in this respect 
are in proportion to the violence of the Japanese climate. It is further- 
more probable that the distances given in our itineraries differ slightly in 
some cases from the actual truth, notwithstanding all the care taken to 
obtain as accurate information as possible. It is hoped, however, that 
euch discrepancies will never be so great as seriously to affect the rat- 
veller's plans. An apparent error of \ mile will occasionally be observed 
in the total mileage of the itineraries. This arises from the fact that the 
mileage of each stage of a journey being given only within \ mile of 
the actual distance, the fractional errors thus arising, though balanced 
and allowed for as carefully as possible, sometimes unavoidably ac- 
cumulate. * On the other hand, the so-called total mileage is obtained, 
not by adding up the mileage column, but by direct calculation 
(also within \ mile) of the value of the total in ri and cho. 

On the railroads, men desirous of practising economy will find the 
second class quite good enough, and those who wish to make a near 
acquaintance with Japanese life will meet in the 2nd class with far 
more subject-matter for their investigations. But ladies are advised to 
travel 1st class, as smoking is general, and the ways of the Japanese 
lower middle class with regard to clothing, the management of 
children, and other matters, are not altogether as our ways. On 
some lines there is a non-smoking 2nd class compartment. There are 
as yet no sleeping-cars. The Railway Regulations permit holders of 
tickets for distances of over 50 miles to break their journey at the 
more important places. Luggage is checked as in the United States, 
each passenger being allowed to carry a liberal amount free of 
charge. 



12 Introdution : — Places Best Worth Vistting* Purchases. 

13. — Places Best Worth Visiting. 

The choice of places to be visited must depend greatly on whether 
scenes of » natural beauty or the works of man form the chief object 
which the tourist has in view, and also to a certain extent on considera- 
tions of health. Those who desire to investigate Buddhist temples will 
find what they want in fullest perfection at Kyoto, at Nara, at Tokyo, 
and at Nikko. The chief shrines of Shintoism are at Ise, and at 
Kitsuki in the province of Izumo. 

Those in search of health and comparative coolness during the 
summer months, to be obtained without much " roughing," are advised 
to try Miyanoshita, Nikko, orlkao in the Tokyo district, Arima in, the 
Kobe district, or (if they come from China and wish to remain as near 
home as possible) Unzen in the Nagasaki district All the above, 
except Ise and Kitsuki, may be safely recommended to ladies. Yezo 
is specially recommended to persons residing in Japan proper, and 
desiring thorough change of air. At Hakodate they will get sea- 
bathing, at Sapporo they will get fishing if they go in June or early 
in July. But Japan is more especially the happy hunting-ground of the 
lover of the picturesque. Every variety of scenery, from the gracefully 
lovely to the ruggedly grand, is here to be found. Of the former 
character are the neighbourhood of Yokohama (Kamakura, Enoshima, 
Kanazawa), the whole Hakone district, Fuji and its surrounding ring 
of lakes, Nikko, Haruna, the Inland Sea, the Kiso valley, North- 
Eastern Kyushu, Matsushima in the North of the Main Island, and many 
more. Rugged and sublime in their character are the Etchu-Hida 
range, Koma-ga-take in Koshu, the whole enormous mass of mountains 
lying between the rivers Fujikawa and Tenryu-gawa, and the district 
near the North- Western coast including Mounts Chokai, Gwassan, and 
Haguro-san. But the travelling amidst these rough mountains is itself 
rough in the extreme. None but thoroughly healthy men, inured to 
hardship, should attempt it. 

As for what is called " seeing Japanese life,*' the best plan is to avoid 
the Open Ports. You will see theatres, wrestling, dancing-girls, and 
the new Japan of European toilettes and uniforms, political lectures, 
clubs, colleges, hospitals, and Methodist chapels, in the big cities. The 
old peasant life still continues almost unchanged in the districts not 
opened up by railways. 

14. — PuBCHASES, Objects op Aet. 

Travellers will find the greatest facilities for purchases of every des- 
cription in the large stores of Yokohama and^Kobe. They will also find 
much to attract them in Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, and Nagasaki. The 
names of the best shops are given under each of these towns. Though 
now sometimes sold in large stores, Japanese objects of art are not 
produced in large workshops. In old days, when the best pieces were 
made, few masters employed as many as half a dozen workmen in 
addition to the members of their own family, and chefs d^ceuvre often 
originated in humble dwellings, where perhaps a single artisan laboured 
in the most primitive style assisted by one or two children. At th6 



Objects of Art. Shipment of Curios* 1^ 

present day, foreign influence is causing the gradual introduction of 
commercial principles, larger manufactures, and splendidly decked out 
shop-windows, but as yet only in two or three of the larger towns. 
Even there, the best things must often be sought in narrow lanes. 

It was also formerly, and is still to some extent, characteristic of th& 
Japanese tradesman and artisan -artist to object to bringing out hi» 
finest specimens at once. Tlie rule is that several visits are necessary 
before he will display his choicest articles, and that even then a long- 
time must be spent in bargaining. A few establishments of the more 
modern sort have fixed prices. 

Japan is now almost denuded of old curios. Some have found their 
way into the museums of the country, while priceless collections have 
crossed the sea to Europe and America. But many of the production* 
of the present day are eminently beautiful, more especially the em- 
broideries and cloisonrd. It is not possible within the limits of a 
travelling Handbook to enter into a disquisition on Japanese art — its- 
origin, its characteristics, and the great names that adorn its history. 
A whole library on this subject has come into existence within the 
last decade, and the views of connoisseurs differ widely even on points 
of prime importance. We must content ourselves with mentioning th& 
names of certain art-forms unknown in Europe, and for most of which 
no appropriate English equivalents exist. The objects embodying 
these art-forms will constantly come under the traveller's notice if he 
frequents the curio stores. Such are 

The Inro, a medicine box in segments, generally made of lacquer. 
The segments are held together by means of a cord, to one extremity 
of which a netsuke is often attached. 

The Kakemono or banging scroll, generally painted, sometimes em- 
broidered. 

The Koro, or incense-burner, generally in bronze or porcelain. 

The Mdkimono, or scroll, not meant to be hung up. It is used chiefly 
for manuscripts which are often beautifully illustrated. 

The Netsuke^ a kind of ornament for the tobacco-pouch, carved out 
of wood or ivory. Larger carvings in the same materials are often 
miscalled netsuke by foreign dealers. 

The OkimonOj a general name for various snaall ornaments having no 
special use, but intended to be placed in an alcove or on a cabinet. 

We may also mention various gear appertaining to the Japanese 
sword and often beautifully wrought in metals and in alloys, of 
which latter the best known are shihu-iehi and shakudOj both formed 
of a basis of copper with varying admixtures of silver and gold. 
Specially noteworthy among these articles are the tmbay or guard, and 
the menuki, small ornaments fixed one on each side of the hilt, and 
held in place by the silk cord which binds together the various parts of 
the bundle. 

15. — Shipment of Curios* 

A reference to the local Directories (or Hong^ Lists, as they ar& 
also called) will furnish the names of those firms in Yokohama and 
Kobe which, from tiooe to time, make a business of shipping travellers^ 



14 Introduction : — Shootbig, Fishing, 

purchases to Europe, America, and elsewhere. As a rule, too; the 
foreign firms which deal in curios will undertake to forward anything^ 
to destination. Remember, when sending a box for shipment to a 
shipping firm, to nail it down but slightly, as it will he opened and 
examined at the Custom-House. The shipping firm shoirld be fur- 
nished with a detailed list of the contents and their value, and be 
requested to see to the box being secured in a more solid manner after 
examination. 

16. — Shooting. 

In the mountainous districts of Japan, especially in the Northern por- 
tion of the Main Island, there are plenty of deer and boar, while ia 
Yezo many bears still remain. Duck of various kinds, the green 
pheasant, quail, woodcock, snipe, and hares, are to be found in the 
plains and on the lower ranges of hills bordering the flat country, while 
on somewhat higher ground the copper-pheasant has its abode in the 
thickest cover. Japan, with its rich plains and hills giving ample 
shelter to game, is naturally a good sporting country.. It would be 
still better if a law were enforced giving protection to birds and ani- 
mals during the breeding season. Be this as it may, heavy restrictions 
are placed upon the foreign sportsman. The license which he has> to 
obtain at a cost of $10 yearly only entitles him to shoot within a radius 
of 10 ri (24J miles) from the Treaty Ports and' witlun an irregular 
boundary of less area round Tokyo. But the game having been almost 
entirely shot out within this area, the majority of resident sportsmen 
have abandoned the field. In the event of existing conditions being 
replaced by others which will allow foreigners to travel and shoot all 
over Japan, there will be excellent sport for one provided with good 
dogs and not afraid of hard walking. Meanwhile, a gun-case k a 
useless piece of baggage to the foreign visitor. 

The shooting season begins on the 15th October, and ends oo the 
14th April. Shooting licenses may be obtained at the. Treaty Ports 
from the Prefecture (Kencho). Applications by residents in Tokyo 
for shooting licenses must in the first instance be made to the Police 
Bureau (Keishi-cho) by letter, stating the full name, agey and residence 
of the applicant, who must afterwards apply in person for the license 
at the Chief Police OfiQce, on being informed that it has been issued. 
The applicant has to enter into a written engagement to observe certain 
regulations, the violation of which involves the forfeiture of tlie license 
and the payment of a fine of $10 more. Shooting beyond Treaty 
Limits is strictly prohibited. 

17. — ^Fishing. 

Locality, Fly-fishing may be said to be confined to that portion of 
the East Coast of Japan, North of Tokyo, where the water is sufficient- 
ly cold for salmon and trout. In Yezo, the river Yurap on the East 
Coast, and the Siiiribetsu on the West Coast are recommended. Both 
are in season about June. In former years good trout fishing was 
obtainable in the river Toyobira near Sapporo ; but owing to the refuse 
from the flax mills now established there being allowed to discharge 
into the stream, only few fish run past it. Most of the other rivers 



Miscellaneous Hints. 15 

of Y€Zo and of the Northern provinces of the Main Island contain 
troat. The lakes of Yezo also abound in ao-masu and ami-mcLsu^ the 
former a pink, the latter a white-fleshed fish. These take the fly 
greedily, and are caught up to 2 lbs. in weight. Near Fukuoka in the 
province of Rikuokn is a good stretch of water, which would probably 
ne best worked by staying at Ichinohe. These places will be included 
in the Northern Railway line when the latter is completed. Farther 
South, near Furusawa and close to the railway, is a fishing river called 
the Nagagawa, and in the N. W. of the Main Island the rivers Iwaki 
and Noshiro are believed to be worth a visit. Trout are also found in 
Lakes Biwa and Chu/enji. Lake Hakone also has been recently stocked. 
Fly-fishers can have good hope of sport during June, July, and the 
early part of Au<»u8t. , 

Fish, There are two classes of sporting fish, — the shake, or salmon 
as known in Europe, and the masu {Salmo japonicus). The shake is a 
full-sized salmon, and ascends the rivers in great quantities during 
autumn and early winter. All the Northern rivers hold these fish, which 
in Yezo are so plentiful that they fall an easy prey to crows and bears. 
Many salmon must weigh ns much as 30 lbs. when caught ; but 
tliey Hfford no sport to the angler, since like salmon in other Pacific 
waters, they neither rise to a fly nor run to a spinning bait. At new 
year tlie shops in Tokyo are full of smoked shake^ which have been 
sent down from the North. 

Of the masu, there are several varieties ; bat they are all of the 
trout or salmon-trout description, and they are all sporting fish. The 
true masu run up the rivers from May to August, their ascent depend- 
ing on the temperature of the water. Between 56° and 65° these fish 
are in the best condition. Below 50° they are not taken. An 8 lb. fish 
!« a lar^re one, the usual size being 5 lb. or 6 lb. 

Tackle, Ordinary salmon tackle is used, with flies of medium 
salmon size and plenty of bright colour, especially orange and yellow. 
The fl}' is but rarely taken on the surface, and should therefore be well 
drowned. A rod of ahout 16 ft. is most convenient, as the fish are 
strong and the pools often large. Wading trousers are useful. Spin- 
ning with a spoon-bait or a phantom minnow is often successful. In 
Lake Cliuzenji, the fish are caught during the summer months by 
trolling from a boat with 60 or 70 yards of line heavily leaded. The 
bait used is a kind of Colorado spoon, and can be obtained from Nishi- 
inura in the Ginza, Tokyo, where also Japiinese lines can be had to 
supplement the angler's gear for this kind of fishing. 

Accommodation. Except in Yezo, fair accommodation can be had 
everywhere. In Yezo generally one must be prepared for rough 
quarters, and many districts there are quite uninhabited, so that a 
tent must form part of the sportsman's outfit if he is to be free in his 
movements. 

18. — Miscellaneous Hints. 

Take plenty of flea-powder or camphor ; also, if going off the beaten 
tracks, take soap, candles, and carbolic acid — the latter to counteract ' 
the unpleasant odours that often pervade Japanese inns. 



16 Introduction : — Miscellaneous Hints, 

Tnke towels, a pair of sheets, and a pillow, or at least a pillow-case 
to put on the extempore pillow which the tea-house people will arrange. 
Instead of loose sheets, souie prefer to sew two sheets together to form 
a bag which is tied round the sleeper's neck. 

Entrust your passport to your guide or servant. This will obviate 
interruptions from police officers at inconvenient hours. 

If your servant seems honest and intelligent, entrust him with money 
for current expenses. This will save a world of petty bother and vexa- 
tion as to change, bargaining, and such matters. 

If you have much money with you, entrust it to the host of each 
respectable hotel you stop at, and get his receipt for it. 

Start early, and do not insist on travelling after dark. You will 
thus most easily obtain good coolies or hor^ses for the day's journey. 
By arriving at your destination before sunset, you will be likely to find 
the bath as yet unused, and will thus avoid tlie trouble and delay en- 
tailed by the necessity of having other water heated. You will also 
have a choice of rooms. 

When planning out your da)^*s journey, allow an hour for each ri 
to be done on foot, which should be sufficient to cover stoppages 
and unavoidable dela3^s. Ten ri (24^ miles) is considered by the 
Japanese a proper day's work. 

However inconvenient to yourself, never refuse the coolies' request 
to be allowed to stop for food, as they can do no work on an empty 
stomach. 

The Japanese, whose grande passion is bathing, use water at higher 
temperatures — 110°-120° Fahrenheit — than European physicians, con- 
sider healthful. No one, however, will be injured by taking baths of 
between *100° and 106° Fahrenheit, unless he has a weak heart or is 
liable to congestion. Owing to some unexplained peculiarity of the 
climate, hot baths are found by almost all Europeans in Japan to suit 
them better than cold. It is advisable to pour hot water over the head 
from time to time, and strong persons may advantageously end up 
with a cold douche. In any case there is no danger of catching cold. 
The hotter the bath, the greater the impunity with which one may 
afterwards expose one's self to the cold air. The reason why people 
at borne entertain the notion that hot baths give a chilly reaction, is 
that they do not take them hot enough, or do not immerse themselves 
up to the neck. The Japanese have the habit, to us disagreeable, of 
:getting into the same bath, one after another, or even at the same time. 

Massage is much practised in Japan, and is a capital restorative 
from fatigue after mountain climbing. The services of a blind sliam- 
|>ooer {amma san) may be obtained at almost every inn. 

Never enter a Japanese house with your boots on. The mats take 
the place of our chairs and sofas. What should we say to a man who 
trod on our chairs and sofas with his dirty boots ? 

It is next to impossible to get windows opened at night in Japanese 
inns. The reason is that it is considered unsafe to leave anything 
open on account of thieves, and there is a police regulation to enforce 
closing. 

In the event of trouble arising with regard to accommodation, the 



Language. 17 

procuring of coolies, etc., always apply to the police, who are almost 
invariabl}^ polite and serviceable. 

Take visiting cards with you. Japanese with whom you become 
acquainted will often want to exchange cards. 

Above all, be constantly polite and conciliatory in your demeanour 
towards 'the people. Whereas the lower classes at home are apt to 
resent suuve manners, and to imagine that he who addresses them 
politely wishes to deceive them or get something out of them, every 
Japanese, however humble, expects courtesy, being himself courteous. 

Never show any impatience. You will only get stared at or laughed 
at behind your back, and matters will not move any the quicker in 
this land where an hour more or less is of no account. The word 
tadaima, which the dictionaries, in tiieir simplicity, render by " im- 
mediately," may mean any time between now and Christmas. Storm- 
ing will not mend matters, when you find (to take one instance out of 
a hundred) that your jinrikisha coolies wish to stop for a meal just 
after you have started and have been calculating that you will arrive 
at such and such a place at such and such an hour. It is best to resign 
oneself at the beginning, once for all. While waiting patiently, you 
have an opportunity of studying Japanese life. Neither be moved to 
anger because you are asked personal questions. To ask such questions 
is the Japanese way of showing kindly interest. 

19. — Language. 

Thft Japanese language, though extremely difficult to learn correctly, 
is easy to acquire a smattering of ; and even a smattering will add im- 
mensely to the pleasure of a tour in the country, by bringing the 
traveller into personal relations with the people, and by delivering him 
from the constant tutelage of guides and interpreters. 

Remember, in pronouncing Japanese, that the consonants are to be 
sounded approximately as in English, the vowels as in Spanish or 
Italian, that is to say : — 

a as in father i as in pin 

e as in pet o as in pony 

u as in put 

U is sometimes almost inaudible, as in arima8(u), de8(u), 8(u)ko8hi, 
etc. W is often omitted after k or g^ as kashi^ " cake," for kwashL 

There is scarcely any tonic accent ; in other words, all the syllables 
are pronounced equally, or nearly so. But care must be taken to dis- 
tinguish short o and u from long o and u. G is always hard as in 
" give," never soft as in " gin " ; but in Eastern Japan it is pro- 
nounced like ng when in the middle of a word. 

The adjective precedes its noun, and the genitive precedes the nomi- 
native. Prepositions follow their noun, and are therefore really " post- 
positions." The verb comes at the end of the sentence. There is no 
distinction between singular and plural, or between the difEerent persons 
in the verb. 

The following vocabulary of words and phrases connected with food 
and travelling will be found useful. Those ambitious of learning more 



18 



In&odiiction : — Language, 



can provide themselves witli Chamberlain's " Handbook of Colloquial 
Japanese." Satow and IshibaHhi's English-Japnnese pocket dictionary 
is excellent. Hepburn's pocket dictionary is to be recommended for 
Japanese-English. 





Vocabulary. 




Bag 


fukuro 


Fruit 


mizn-gwashi 


Baggage 


nimotsu 


Grapes 


hudo 


Bath 


furo 


Guide 


annm-sha 


Bathroom 


furo-ha 


Horse 


uma 


Beans 


mame 


Hotel 


yadoya 


Bed 


nedai 


Ice 


'kori 


Bed -room 


nema^ nebeya 


Inn 


yadoya 


Beer 


biiru 


Kitchen 


daidokoro 


Bell 


kane 


Knife 


hocho 


Blanket 


furanken, ketto 


Lemon 


yvzu 


Boat 


fune 


Lemonade 


ramune 


Boatman 


sendo 


Luggage 


nimotsu 


Bottle 


tokkuri 


Lunch 


hiru gozen 


Box 


hako 


Mat 


tatami 


Brazier 


hihachi 


Match 


haya-tsukegi 


Bread 


pan 


Matting 


goza 


Breakfast 


asa^han 


Moat 


niku 


Bridge 


hashi 


Melon (musk-) 


makuvoa-uri 


Cake 


kxjoashi 


„ (water-) 


suikwa 


Carriage 


hasha 


Milk 


chichi 


Charcoal 


8umi 


Money 


kane^ kinsu 


Chicken 


niwatori 


Mosquito-net 


kaya 


Chopsticks 


hashi 


Mustard 


karashi 


Coachman 


gyosha 


Napkin 


kuchi-fuki 


Coffee 


kohiy kahe 


Oil 


abura 


Coolie 


ninsoku 


Omnibus 


nori-ai-hasha 


Cucumber 


ki-uri 


Onions 


negi 


Dining-room 


shokudo 


Orange 


mikan 


Dinner (late) 


yushoku 


Oyster 


kaki 


Door 


to 


Pass (between 


tdge 


Downstairs 


shita 


mountains) 




Driver 


gyosha 


Passport 


(ryokd-)menjd 


Duck (tame) 


ahiru 


Peach 


momo 


Duck (wild) 


karao 


Pear 


na.sh.i 


Eels 


unagi 


Peas 


endo-mame 


Egg 


tamago 


Pepper 


kosho 


Egg-plant 


nasu 


Persimmon 


kaki 


Feast 


gochiso 


Pheasant 


kiji 


Ferry 


funa-watashi 


Plum 


sumomo 


Fish 


sakana 


Post-office 


yubin-kyoku 


Food 


tahemono 


Potatoes 


imo 


Food (foreign) 


yoshoku 


„ (sweet) 


satsuma-imo 


Fork 


niku-sashi 


Quail 


uzura 


Fowl 


tori 


Railway 


tetsudo 



Language. 



19 



Bailway train 


kisha 


Tomato 


ai(;a-na«2i 


Bice (boiled) 


meshif gozen 


Tooth-pick 


koydji 


Boom 


heya^ zaahiki 


Towel 


te-nugui 


Salmon 


shake 


Train 


kisha 


Salmon trout 


masu 


Tramway 


tetsvdo-basha 


Salt 


shio 


Trout 


aiy yamame 


Sardine 


iwashi 


Tunnel 


ana 


Ship 


fune 


Turnip 


kabu 


Snipe 


shigi 


Upstairs 


nikai 


Soap 


shahon 


Vegetables 


yasai 


Soap 


soppu 


Vinegar 


su 


Soy 


shoyu 


Waiter I 


boy! 


Spinach 


horensd 


Waitress I 


msan ! 


Spoon 


saji 


Water (cold) 


mizu 


Stamp (postage) yubin-gitte^ inshi 


Water (hot) 


yu, yu 


Steamer 


jokisen 


Water-closet 


benjOf chozuba 


Strawberries 


ichigo 


Window 


mado 


Sagar 


Sato 


Wine 


budoshu 


Sapper 


yumeski 


I 


watakmhi 


Tea 


chay cha 


You 


anatxiy omae 


Tea-hoase 


chaya 


He 


ano otoko 


Telegram 


dempo 


She , 


ano onna 


Telegraph-office denshin-hyohu 


It 


sore 


Ticket 


kippu 


We 


watakushi 


Ticket (return) ohen-gippu 1 


They 


ano hitO'tachi 


1 hiiotsu 




No. 1 ichi'ban 


2 futatsu 






, 2 ni-ban 




3 mitsu 






, 3 sam-ban 


4 yotsu 






, 4 yo-ban 




5 itsutau 






, 5 go-ban^ 




6 mutsu 






, 6 roku-ban 


7 nanatsu \ 




, 7 shichi-ban 


8 yatsu 






, 8 hachi-ban 


9 kokonotsu 




, 9 ku'ban 




10 to 


1 




, 10 ju-ban 




20 ni-ju 


50 go'jii 


i 80 


hachiju 


30 san-ju 


60 roku 


ju 90 


ku'ju 


40 8hi-ju 


70 shich 


i-ju 100 


hyaku 




$ 1 ichi-en 


$ 2 ni-en 




10 cents jis-sen 


Ist class jbto 


20 cfents ni-jis-aen 


2nd „ 


chuto 


30 cents san-jis-sen 




3rd „ 


kato 



Many of our words have no Japanese equivalents, because the things 
for which they stand are not known in Japan. Such are, for instance, 
jam, lamb, tin-opener. The following Japanese words, for which there 
are no exact English equivalents, are constantly heard in travelling : 

Bento, luncheon carried with one. 
Bentd-bako, a box to hold such luncheon. 



20 



Introduction : — Language. 



Betto, a rnnning groom. 

Kago, a kind of basket or litter in which travellers are carried. 

Yanagi-gori, a very usefal sort of trunk made of wicker-work. 



Useful Sentences. 



Please come here. 
That will do. 
Thank yotr. 
How do you do ? 
What o'clock is it ? 
Good night. 
Don't do that. 
That won't do. 
Is that all right ? 
Please excuse me. 
You had better go and ask. 
Where is it ? 
I don't know. 
Wait a little. 
Go more quickly. 
I mean to start at 7 o'clock to- 
morrow morning. 
Is the luggage ready ? 

Please take care. 

Is nothing forgotten ? 

Please order the jinrikishas. 

Please order three jinrikishas with 
two men each. 

We will start as soon as every- 
thing is ready. 

What 18 this place called ? 

What is the name of that 

mountain ? 
How far is it to the next town ? 

Please to accept this small offer- 
ing lis tea-money. 

Many thanks for your trouble. 

I will rest a little. 

Please engage a coolie to carry 
the luggage. 

What is the charge per ri ? 

Which is the best hotel ? 

Have you any rooms ? 
Have you any beer ? 



Oide noMLu 

Mb yoroshiii 

Arigaio. 

Konnichi toa I 

Nan-doki desu ha f 

yasumt nasai. 

So shicha ikenai. 

Sore ja ikenai. 

Sore de yoroshii ka f 

Gomen nasai. 

Elite kuru ga it, 

Doko desuf 

Shirimasen, 

Sukoshi mate. 

Hayaku ! hayaku ! 

Myo-asa shichi-ji m, shuttateu ski- 

masu, 
Nimotsu no shitaku toa^ yoroshii 

kaf 
Ki wo tsukete kvdasai. 
Wasure-mono wa nai ka f 
Kuruma no shitaku too, shite ku- 

dasai. 
Ni-nin-biki ujo, san-cho atsuraete 

kvdasai. 
Shitaku shidaif dekakemasho. 

Koko wa^ nan to iu tokoro desu 

kaf 
A no yama wa^ nan to iimasu ka f 

Koko hara^ saki no shuku made^ 

ri-su wa dono kurai desu f 
Kore vHi sukoshi desu ga, o char 

dai desu, 
O sewa ni narimashita, 
Sukoshi yasumimasho. 
Nimotsu no ninsoku wo, yatotte 

kudasau 
Ichi-ri ikura no wari desu ka f 
Yado wa, nani-ya ga yoroshii 

kaf 
Zashiki wa^ arimaMu ka f 
Biiru loa, arimasu ka f 



Tlie Shinto Religion, 



21 



Have you change for a dollar ? 

This room will do. 

Is the bath ready ? 

Let me know when it is ready. 

Can you give us European food ? 

Please let me look at it. 

Are there any mosquitoes here ? 

I suppose you haven't bedsteads, 

have you ? 
Please let me have more quilts. 

I am going by the first train 

to-morrow morning. 
At what o'clock does the first 

train start ? 
Please wake me early. 
Shall we be in time r 
I don't want a lamp. 
Please bring a candle. 
Where is the W.G.? 
Please show me the way. 
Where is the ticket- office ? 

Where is the Telegraph Office ? 

(Give me) one 1st class ticket to 

Nikko. 
Please book this laggage for 

Nikko. 
Where do we change carriages ? 

How many hours does it take to 

get to Nagoya ? 
Please bring the account. 
Please give me some water. 

Please give me some more. 
Please take away these tilings. 
How much is it ? 
That is too dear. 
You must go down a little in 
price. 



Ichi-en no tsuri wa^ arimasu ha f 
Kono zashiki de yoroshii. 
Furo ga dekimashita ha f 
Dehitara^ shirashite hudusai, 
Ybshohu ga dehimasu ha f 
Mifiete hudaaaL 

Kono hen toa, ha ga imasu ha f 
Nedai wa arimasumai^ — ne t 

Shihi-huton wOj motto hiite huda- 

sai. 
Myonichi toa^ ichi-han-hisha de 

ihimasu. 
Ichi-banhisha wa^ nan-ji desu f 

Hayahu ohoshite htcdasai. 
Ma ni aimasu ha f 
Rampu wa^ irimasen. 
jRosohu wo^ motte hite hudasai. 
Benjo loa, dochira desu t 
Chotto annai shite hiukbsai, 
Kippu wo uru tohoro wa^ doho 

desu ha f 
Denshin-hyohu wa^ dochira desu 

ha f 
Kihkb made, jotb ichi-mai. 

Kore dahe no nimotsu wo^ Nihho 

mxide. 
Doho no ^^ station" de nori-hae- 

masu ha f 
Nagoya made^ nan-Ji-han hahari- 

masuf 
Doha^ hanjo-gahi vx>. 
Mizu wo ippai (motte hite huda- 

sai). 
Motto hudasai. 
Kore wo sagete hudasai. 
Ikwra desu ? 
Sore wa tahai, 
Suhoshi maJce nasai. 



20. — The Shinto Religion. 

Thb Japanese have two religions, Siiintd and Biiddiiism — the former 
indigenous, the latter imported from India vi& China and Korea ; but 
it must not be supposeil that the nation is therefore divided into two 
distinct sections, each professing to observe one of tiiese exclusively. 
On the contrary, the two are so thoroughly interfused in practice, that 



22 Introduction : — The Shinto Religion, 

the n amber of pare Shintdists and pure Buddhists must be extreir 
sma]l. The only exception is the province of Satsuma, from wl 
the Buddhist priesthood has been excluded ever since some of tl 
number betrayed the local chieftain into the hands of Hideyo 
Every Japanese from his birth is placed by his parents under the ] 
tection of. some Shinto deity, whose foster-child he becomes, w 
the funeral rites are conducted, with few exceptions, according to 
ceremonial of the Buddhist sect to which his family belongs. I 
only in recent years that burial according to the ancient ritual of 
Shintoists has been revived, after an almost total disuse during sc 
twelve centuries. This apparently anomalous condition of things ii 
be explained by the fact that the Shinto religion demands little m 
of its adherents than a visit to the local temple on the occasion of 
annual festival, and does not profess to teach any theory of the dest 
of man, or of moral duty, thus leaving the greater part of the fi 
free to the priests of Buddha, with their apparatus of theologi 
dogma aided by a splendid ritual and gorgeous decorations. Mu 
tudinous as are its own deities, Buddiiism found no difficulty 
receiving those of the indigenous belief into its pantheon, this cath 
city having been previously displayed with regard to Hindoo deil 
and other mythological personalities. In most cases it was pretenc 
that the native gods were merely avatars of some Indian deity ; e 
thus it was possible for those who became converts to the forei 
doctrine to continue to believe in and offer up prayers to their anci 
gods as before. 

Shinto is a compound of ancestor-worship and nature-worship, 
has gods and goddesses of the wind, the ocean, fire, food, and pei 
lence, of mountains and rivers, of certain special mountains, cerfc 
rivers, certain trees, certain temples, — eight hundred myriads of deit 
in all. Chief among these is Ama-terasu, the radiant Goddess of 1 
Sun, born from the left eye of Izanagi, the Creator of Japan, wh 
from his right eye was produced the God of the Moon, and from 1 
nose the violent God Susa-no-o, who subjected his sister to vario 
indignities and was chastised accordingly. The Sun-Goddess was t 
ancestress of the line of heaven-descended Mikados, who have reign 
in unbroken succession from the beginning of the world, and s 
themselves living deities. Hence the Sun-Goddess is honoured abo 
all the rest, her shrine at Ise being the Mecca of Japan. Other shrin 
hold other gods, the deified ghosts of princes and heroes of eld, sor 
commanding a wide popularity, others known only to narrow loc 
fame, most of them tended by hereditary families of priests believ 
to be lineal descendants either of the god himself or of his chi 
servant. From time to time new names are added to the pantheo 
The present reign has witnessed several instances of such apotheos 
Indeed, the present reign stands out as a season of special offici 
favour to the Shinto cult, numbers of temples that had for centuri 
been devoted to a hybrid between Shinto and Buddhism, known 
Ryobu'Shinto^ having been, as it is termed, " purified " from Buddhi 
"contamination," and handed over to the exclusive keeping of tl 
Shintoists. This so-called purification has consisted in the effacing i 
the Buddhist architectural and other artistic embellishments whi( 







^'>5^ 







^<^ 



The Shinto Religion. 23 

made the temples most worth visiting, and not infrequently in the 
destruction of the entire edifice. 

Shinto has ecarcely any regular services in which the people take 
part, and its priests (kannushi) are not distinguishable by their ap- 
pearance from ordinary laymen. Only when engaged in offering the 
morning and evening sacrifices do they wear a peculiar dress of their 
own. This consists of a long loose gown with wide sleeves, fastened 
at the waist with a girdle, and sometimes a black cap bound round the 
bead with a broad white fillet. The priests are not bound by any 
vows of celibacy, and are free to adopt another career whenever they 
choose. At some temples young girls fill the office of priestesses; 
but their duties do not extend beyond the performance of the panto- 
mimic dances known as hagyra^ and assistance in the presentation of the 
daily offerings. They likewise are under no vows, and marry as a 
matter of course. The services consist in the presentation of offerings 
of rice, fish, fruits, vegetables, the flesh of game, animals, and rice- 
beer, and in the recital of certain formal addresses, partly laudatory 
and partly in the nature of petitions. The style of composition em- 
ployed is that of a very remote period, and would not be comprehended 
by the common people, even if the latter were in the habit of taking 
any part in the ritual. With moral teaching, Shinto does not profess to 
concern itself. ' Follow your natural impulses, and obey the Mikado's 
decrees :' such is the sum of its theory of human duty. The sermon 
forms no part of its institutions, nor are the rewards and punishments 
of a future life used as incentives to right conduct. The continued 
existence of the dead is believed in, but whether it is a condition of joy 
or pain is nowhere revealed. 

Shinto is a Chinese word, meaning the * Way of the Gods,' and was 
first adopted after the introduction of Buddhism to distinguish the 
native beliefs and practices from those of the foreign religion. 

The architecture of Shinto temples is extremely simple, and the 
material used is plain white wood with a thatch of chamaBcyparis 
bark. The annexed plan of the Great Temple of Izumo {Izumo no 
0-yaiihiro\ taken from a native drawing sold to pilgrims, and printed 
on Japanese paper (mino-gami) after the usual fashion of such me- 
mentos, will serve to exemplify this style of architecture. Few Shinto 
temples, however, are quite so elaborate as this, the second holiest in 
the Empire. We find then : — 

1. The Main Shrine (honsha or konden)^ which is divided into two 
chambers. The rear chamber contains the emblem of the god (mi- 
iama'Shiro) — a mirror, a sword, a curious stone, or some other object 
— and is always kept closed, while in the antechamber stands a wand 
from which depend strips of white paper intended to represent the 
cloth offerings of ancient times. The mirror which is seen in the 
front of not a few temples was borrowed from the Shingon sect of 
Buddhists, and has nothing to do with the Shinto Sun-Goddess, as is 
often supposed. 

2. An Oratory (haiden) in front of the main building, with which 
it is sometimes, but not in the case of the Izumo temple, connected 
by 

3. A Corridor or Gallery (ai-no-ma). A gong often hangs over 



24 Introdtu:tion : — Japanese Buddhism^ 

the entrance of the Oratory, for the worshipper to attract the attention 
of the god, and beneath stands a large box to receive contribations. 

4. A Cistern (mitarashi) at which to wasli the hands before prayer. 

5. A low Wall, or rather Fence (tama-gakij lit. jewel hedge), en- 
closing the chief temple buildings. 

6. A second Enclosing Fence, often made of boards and therefore 
termed ita-gakL 

7. A peculiar Gateway (Jtorii) at the entrance to the grounds. Some- 
times there are several of these gateways. Their origm and significa- 
tion are alike unknown. 

8. A Temple Office (shamusho)^ where the business of the temple is 
transacted, and where some of the priests often reside. 

9. Secondary Slirines (sessha or maasha) scattered about the grounds, 
and dedicated not to the deity worshipped at the main shrine, but to 
other members of the crowded pantheon. 

10. A Library (bunko). This item is generally absent. 

11. A Treasure-house (hdzo), 

12. One or more Places for Offerings (shinaenjo). 

13. A Gallery (ktoairo). 

14. A Dancing-stage {bugaku-dai). A more usual form of this is 
the kagura-dOf or stage for the performance of the kagura, an ancient 
symbolic dance. 

15. A Stable in which is kept the Sacred Horse (jimme), usually 
an albino animal. 

16. An Assembly Hall. This is generally missing. 

17. Gates. 

Frequently there is some object of minor sanctity, such as a holy 
well, a curious tree, the image of the bull on which the god Tenjin 
rode, etc. 

The curiously projecting ends of the rafters on the roof of the 
honsha are termed chigu . The cigar-shaped logs are termed hatsuo- 
gu Both these ornaments are derived from the architecture of the 
primitive Japanese hut, the katsuogi having formerly served to keep 
in place the tw^o trunks forming the ridge of the roof. 

Shinto temples built during the period of the predominance of 
Buddhism often show such traces of Buddhist influence as the pagoda, 
the handsome mmmon^ or outer gate, and elaborate carvings utterly 
repugnant to the Shinto purists of the present century. The two 
figures with bows and arrows, seated in niclies right and left of the 
gate to keep guard over the approach to the temple, are called Zuijin, 
or "attendants," more popularly Ya-daijin^ or "ministers with arrows." 
The stone figures of dogs — or lions as some suppose them to be — 
which are often found in the temple grounds, are called Ama-inu and 
Koma-inu, lit. " the heavenly dog " and " the Korean dog." They are 
credited with the power of driving off demons. 

21. — Japanese Buddhism. 

Buddhism, in its Chinese form, first entered Japan via Korea in the 
6th century of the Christian era, the first Japanese pagoda having been 
erected about A.D. 584 by one Soga-no-Iname. The Constantine of 



Japanese Buddhism. 25 

Japanese Buddhism was Shotoka Taislii) prince regent under the Em- 
press Suiko (A.D. 593-621), from whose time many of the most 
celebrated temples date. Tiience for ward, though Shinto was never 
entirely suppressed, Buddhism became for centuries the favourite 
national religion, appealing as it did to the deepest instincts of the 
human heart, both by its doctrine and by it§ ritual, in a way which 
Shinto could never emulate. Buddhism was adopted by the very 
Mikudos, descendants of the Shinto Goddess of the Sun. During the 
6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, Korean and Chinese monks and nuns 
visited Japan for purposes of proselytism, much as Christian mission- 
aries visit it to-day. From the 8th century onwards, it became more 
usual for the Japanese monks to visit China to study the doctrines of 
the best-accredited teachers at the fountain-head. From these histori- 
cal circumstances results the general adhesion of the Japanese Bud- 
dhists to the Chinese, Northern, or " Greater Vehicle *' school of that 
religion. It must not be supposed, however, that all Japanese Bud- 
dhists agree among themselves.^ Buddhism was already over a thousand 
years old when introduced into this archipelago, and Chinese Buddhism, 
in particular, was split into numerous sects and sub-sects, whose quar- 
rels took new root on Japanese soil. Some of the Ciiinese sects of that 
early day still survive. Such are the Tendai and the Shingon, Others, 
notably the Nichiren and Shin sects, are later Japanese developments. 
The following are the chief sects existing at the present day : — 

Tendai (3 sub-sects). 
Shingon (2 sub-sects). 
Jodo (3 sub- sects). 

CRinzai (9 sub-sects), 
^n, divided into < Soto. 

( Obaku, 
Shin, MontOy or Ihko (10 sub-sects). 
Nichiren or Hokke (7 sub-sects). 
Ji, % 

Yuzu Nemhutsu. 

The points in dispute between the various sects and sub-sects are 
highly metaphysical and technical — so much so that Mr. Satow, speak- 
ing of tlie Shingon sect, asserts that its " whole doctrine is extremely 
difficult to compreiiend, and more difficult to put into intelligible 
language." Of another sect he tells us that its *Miighest truths are 
considered to be incomprehensible, except to those who have attained 
toBuddhaship."® 

Under these circumstances, the general reader will perhaps do best 
simply to fix in his mind the following few cardinal facts : — that 

* The following may serve as a specimen of the difficulties to be encountered in this 
study :—** The doctrine of the sect is compared to a piece of cloth, in which the teach- 
ing 6t Shaka is the warp, and the interpretation or private judgment of the individual, 
corrected by the opinion of other monks, is the woof. It is held that there is a kind 
of intuition or perception of truth, called 8hin-gy6 suggested by the words of scripture, 
but transcending them in certainty. This is said to to in harmony with the thought 
of Shaka. The entirety of doctrine, however, results in one central truth, namely 
that Nirvftna is the final result of existence, a state in which the thinking substance, 
while remaining individual, is unaffected by anything external, and is consequently 
devoid of feeling, thought, or passion. To this the name of Mu-i (Asamskrita) is 
given, signifying absolute, unconditioned existence. When this is spoken of as an* 



r 

26 Introdiuition : — Japanese Buddhism. 

Buddhism arose in India, some say in the 7th, others in the 11 
century before Christ ; that its founder was the Buddha Shaka Mu 
a prince of the blood royal, who, disenchanted first of worldly pleasu 
and then of the austerities which he practised for long years in i 
Himalayan wilderness under the guidance of the most self-denyi 
anchorites of his time, at length felt dawn on his mind the truth tl 
all happiness and salvation come from within,-~come from the reoog^i 
tion of the impermanence of all phenomena, from the extinction 
desire, which is at the root of life, life itself being at the root of i: 
happiness and imperfection. Asceticism still reigned supreme ; but 
was asceticism rather of the mind than of outward observances, ai 
its ultimate object was absorption into Nirv&na, which some interpi 
to mean annihilation, while others describe it as a state in which t 
thinking substance, after numerous transmigrations and progressi 
sanctification, attains to perfect beatitude in serene tranquillity. Pra 
tical Buddhism, both in China and Japan, has been unable to mainta 
itself at these philosophic heights, and by the aid of the doctrine of hobe 
or " pious frauds," the priesthood has played into the hands of popuL 
superstition. Here as elsewhere there have been evolved charm 
amulets, pilgrimages, and gorgeous temple services, in which peop 
worship not only the Buddha who was himself an agnostic, but h 
disciples and even such abstractions as Amida, which are mistaken f( 
actual divine personages. 

Annexed is the plan of the temple of Hommonji at Ikegami nes 
Tokyo, which may be regarded as fairly typical of Japanese Buddhif 
architecture. The roofing of these temples is generally of tiles, f ormin 
a contrast to the primitive thatch of their Shinto rivals. The chie 
features are as follows : 

1. The SamTnoTij or two-storied Qate, at the entrance to the tempi 
grounds. 

2. The Ema-ddy or Ex-voto Hall, also sometimes called Gahu-do. 

3. The Shdro, or Belfry. # 

4. The Hondo^ or Main Temple. 

5. The Soshi-ddy or Founder's Hall, dedicated to Nichiren, th 
founder of the sect to which this temple belongs. 

6. The Taho-tOy or Pagoda-shaped Reliquary, containing portions o 
Nichiren's body. 

7. The RinzOy or Revolving Library, containing a complete copy c 
the Buddhist canon. 

8. The Shoiuy also called Zashikiy or Priests* Apartments, includin, 

nihilation, it is the annihilation of conditions, not of the snbstanoe, that is mean 
Pushed to its logical result, this would appear to the ignorant (i.e., the unregeneratf 
to amount to the same thing as non-existence ; but here we are encountered l^ on 
of those mysteries which lie at the foundation of all religious beUef , and which mni 
be accepted without questioning, if there is to be any spiritual religion at all. . 
follower of Herbert Spencer would probably object that this is an ' ill^timate syn 
bolical conception.' 

" Ignorant and obtuse minds are to be taught by kohent that is by the presentatio 
of truth under a form suited to their capacity. For superior intellects tihaka, auittin 
the symbolic teaching appropriate to the vernacular understanding, revealed tb 
truth in itself. Whoever can apprehend the Ten Abstract Truths in their prpp< 
order may, after four successive births, attain to perfect Buddhaship, while the ii 
f erior intelligence can onlv arrive at that condition after 100 Kalptu, or periods of tin 
ferazuMsending calculation/'— (Satow.) 




1/ ^^ '>'v'i^\-i^ 






LfciasTT. „',««■ 










List of Gods and Goddesses, 27 

9. The Kyaku-den^ or Reception Rooms. 
10.. The Hozo^ or Treasure-house. 

11. The Daidokoro, or Kitchen. 

12. The Chozu-bachif or Cistern for washing the hands before 
wornhip. 

13. The Drum-tower (Koi^o). 

14. The Pagoda. 

15. Stone Lanterns presented as offerings. 

All temples do not possess a Founder's Hall in addition to the Main 
Temple, and very few possess a Tdhd-to or a Rimo. In the temples of 
the Monto or Hongwanji sect, wliich always comprise two cliief edifices, 
the larger of the two unites in itself the functions of Main Temple and 
Founder's Hall, while the lesser, with which it is connected by a 
gallery, is sometimes specially dedicated to Amida^ the deity chiefly 
worshipped by this sect, and is sometimes used for preaching sermons 
in, whence the name of Jiki-doj or Refectory, alluding to the fact that 
sermons are food for the soul. 



22. — List op Gods and Goddesses. 

The following are the most popular deities, Buddhist and Shinto. We 
place them together in one list, because all through Japanese history 
there has been not a little confusion between the two religions : — 

Aizen My do, a deity represented with a fierce expression, a flaming 
halo, three eyes, and six arms. Nevertheless he is popularly looked on 
as the god of love. Andersoti describes him as ^* a transformation of 
AtchalS the Insatiable." 

Ama-terasu^ lit. "the Heaven-Shiner," that is, the Sun-Goddess 
Born from the left eye of the Creator Izanagi, when the latter was 
performing his ablutions on returning from a visit to his dead wife 
Izanami in Hades, the Sun-Goddess was herself the ancestress of the 
luiperial Family of Japan. The most striking episode in her legend 
is that in whicli she js insulted by her brother Susa-no-o, and retires in 
high dudgeon to a cavern, thus plunging the wiiole world in darkness. 
All the other gods and goddesses assemble at the cavern's mouth with 
music and dancing. At length curiosity lures her to the door, and she 
is finally enticed out by the sight of her own fair image in a mirror, 
which one of the gods pushes forward towards her. The origin of the 
sacred dances called kagura is traced to this incident by the native 
literati. Other names under which the Sun-Goddess is known are 
Shimmei and Ten Shoko Daijin, 

Amida (Sanskrit, Amitdbha), a powerful deity dwelling in a lovely 
paradise to the West. Originally Amida was an abstraction, the ideal 
of boundless light. His image may be recognised by the halo {goko) 
surrounding not only the head but the entire body, and by the liands 
lying on the lap, with the thumbs placed end to end. The spot on the 
forehead is emblematical of wisdom. The great image (Daihutsu) at 
Eamakura represents this deity. 



28 Introduction : — List of Gods and Goddesses. 

Anan (Sanskrit, Anandu)^ one of Buddlia^R cousins nnH earliest con- 
verts. He is often called Tamon (^K)i lit. " hearing mucli," on account 
of liis extensive knowledge and wonderful memory. 

Bknten, or Bbnzaiten, the Goddess of Luck, Eloquence, and 
Fertilit}'. She is often represented riding on a serpent or dragon. 

BiNZDRU, originally one of the Sixteen Kakan^ was expelled from 
their number for having violated his vow of chastity by remarking 
upon the beuuty of a female, whence the ukuhI situation of his image 
outside the chancel. It is also said that Buddha conferred on him the 
power to cure all human ills. For this reason, believers rub the imnge 
of Binzuru on whatever part may in their own bodies be causing them 
pain, and then rub themselves in the hope of obtaining relief. Binzuru 
is a highly popular object of worship with the lower classes, and his 
image is often adorned by some of his devotees with a red or yellow 
cotton hood, a bib, and mittens. 

BiSHAMON (Sanskrit, Vdisramana)^ explained in Eitel's " Hand- 
book of Chinese Buddhism" as the God of Wealth, has been adopted 
by the Japanese as one of their Seven Gods of Luck with the special 
characteristic of impersonating war. Hence he is represented as clad 
in armour and bearing a spear, as well as a toy pagoda. 

BoNTBN, Brahma. 

BosATSU (Sanskrit Bddhisattvd)^ the general title of a large class of 
Buddhist saints, who have only to pass through one more human exist- 
ence before attaining to Buddhahood. 

Daikokd, the God of Wealth, may be known by his rice-bales. 

Dainichi Nyorai (Sanskrit, Vdirdtchana Tathdgata), one of the 
persons of the Triratna, or Buddhist Trinity, the personification of 
wisdom and of absolute purity. He is popularly confounded with 
Jizo, the images of the two being difficult to distinguish. 

DosojiN, the God of Roads. 

Ebisu, one of the Gods of Luck, is the patron of honest labour. He 
bears in his hand a ^i-fish. 

Emma-0 (Sanskrit, Ydma-rdja)^ the regent of the Buddhist hells. 
He may be known by his cap resembling a judge's beret, and by the 
huge mace in his right hand. Before him often nit two uiyrmidons, 
one of whom holds a pen to write down the sins of human beings, while 
the other reads out the list of their offences from a scroll. 

FuDo (Sanskrit, Achald), Much obscurity hangs over the origin and 
attributes of this popular divinity. According to Sir Monier Williams, 
Achala, which means " immovable *' {Fu-do^ 7f9i, translates this mean- 
ing exactly), is a name of the Brahminical God Siva and of the first of 
the nine deified persons called *' white Balas" among the Jainas. 
Satow says : — " Fudo (Akshara) is identified with Dainichi (Vdir6A?una), 
the God of Wisdom, which quality is symbolised by the fiames which 
surround him: it is a common error to suppose that he is the God of 
Fire. According to the popular view, the sharp sword which he grasps 
in the right hand is to frighten evil-doers, while in his left hand he 
holds a rope to bind them with." 

Fug EN (Sanskrit, SanfianUihhadra) is the special divine patron of 
those who practise the Hokkezammai^ a species of ecstatic meditation. 
His image is generally seated on the left hand of Shaka. 



List of Gods and Goddesses, 29 

FuKUROKUJU, one of the Gods of Luck, is distingnished by a 
preternatural ly long head, and typifies longevity and wisdom. 

Qo-CHI Nyorai, the Fi^e Buildhas of contemplation or of wisdom, 
namely, Yakuslii, Talio, Dainichi, Asliuku, and Shaka. But some 
authorities make a different enumeration. 

GoNGKN. This is not the name of any special divinity, but a general 
term used in Ryobu-Shinto (see p. 22) to denote such Shinto gods as are 
considered to be " temporary manifestations," that is, incarnations of 
Buddhas. It is, liowever, applied with special frequency to leyasu, the 
deified founder of the Tokugawa dynast}^ of Shoguns, who is the Gongen 
8ama^ that is. Lord Gongen par excellence. 

Hachiman, the Chinese name under which the Emperor Ojin is 
worshipped as the God of War. The Japanese equivalent is Yawata. 

HoTKi, one of the Seven Gods of Lack, typifies contentment and 
good-nature. He in represented in art with an enormous naked abdomen. 

HoToKB, the genera] name of all Buddhas, that is, gods or perfected 
saints of popular Buddhisui. The dead are also often spoken of as 
hotoke. 

Inari, the Goddess of Rice, also called Uga-no-Mitama. The image 
of the fox, whicli is always found in temples dedicated to Jnari, seems 
to have been first placed there as a tribute to the fear which tliat wily 
beast inspires ; but in popular superstition Inari is the fox deity. 

Iz&NAOi and IzANAMi, the Creator and Creatress of Japan. The 
curious though indelicate legend of their courtsliip, the striking legend 
of the descent of Izanagi into Hades to visit Izanami after the latter's 
deatii and burial, and the account of Izanagi's histritions will be 
found in pp. 18-43 of the translation of the Kqj'iki, forming the Sup- 
plement to Vol. X. of the ** Transactions of the Asiatic "Society of Japan." 

Jizo (Sanskrit, KshiHgarbha)^ the compassionate Buddhist helper of 
those who are in trouble. He is the patron of travellers, of pregnant 
women, and of children. His image is often loaded with pebbles, which 
eerve in the other world to relieve the labours of infants who have been 
robbed of their clothes by the hag named Shozuka no Baha^ and are then 
set by her to perform the endless task of piling up stones on the bank of 
the Buddhist Styx. Jizo is represented as a shaven priest with a bene- 
volent countenance, holding in one hand a jewel, in the other a staff 
with metal rings (shahujo). His stone image is found more frequently 
than tlrat of any other object of worship througliout the Empire. It 
need scarcely be said that the resemhiance in sound between the names 
Jiao and Jesus is quite fortuitous. 

JuROJi^f, one of the Gods of Luck, often represented as accompanied 
by a stag and a crane. 

Kami, a general name for all Shinto go<la and goddesses. 

Kasho (Sanskrit, Kdsyapa)^ one of Buddha's foremost disciples. 
He is said to have swallowed the sun and moon, in consequence whereof 
his body became radiant like gold. 

KiSHi BoJiN, the Indian goddess Hdritl or Ariti^ was originally a 
woman, who, having sworn to devour all the children at R^jagriha, the 
metropolis of Buddhism, was reborn as a demon and gave birtli to five 
hundred children, one of whom she was bound to devour every day. She 
was converted by Bu Idha, ami entered a nunnery. The Japanese 



80 Introduction : — List of Gods and Goddesses. 

worship her as the protectress of children. She is represented as a 
beautiful woman, carrying a child, and with a pomegranate in one 
hand. The lanterns and other ornaments of the temples dedicated to 
her are marked with the crest of the pomegranate. The ofEeringa 
brought to her shrine by bereaved mothers are such as may well toucbi 
any heart. They are the dresses, dolls, and other mementos of their 
lost darlings. 

KoHPiRA (Sanskrit, Kumbhira). Much obscurity shrouds the origin 
and nitture of this highly popular divinity. According to some he is a 
demon, the crocodile or alligator of tlie Ganges. Others aver that Shaka 
Muni (Buddha^ himself became *Hhe boy Kompira,** in order to over* 
come the heretics and enemies of religion who pressed upon him one 
day as he was preaching in " the Garden of Delight," — the said " boy 
Kompira" having a body 1,000 ft. long, provided with 1.000 heads 
and 1,000 arms. The mediasval Shintoists identified Kompira with 
Susa-no-o, brother of the Japanese Sun-Goddess. More recently it has 
been declared, on the part of the Shinto authorities whose cause the 
Government espouses in all such disputes, that the Indian Kompira is 
none other than Kotohira, a hitherto obscure Japanese god whose name 
has a convenient similarity in sound. Consequently the great Buddliist 
shrine of Kompira in the island of Siiikoku, and all the other shrines 
erected to Kompira throughout the Empire, have been claimed and 
taken over as Shinto property. 

KosHiN, a deification of that day of the month which corresponds to 
the 57th term of the Chinese sexagesimal circle, called in Japanese Ka- 
nO'S saru. This being the day of the monkey, it is represented by three 
monkeys (sam biki-zaru) called respectively, by a play upon words, 
mi-zarUy kika-earti, and itoa-zaru^ that is, " the blind monkey," " the 
deaf monkey," and ** the dumb monkey." Stone slabs with these three 
monkeys in relief are among the most usual objects of devotion met 
with on the roadside in the rural districts of Japan, the idea being that 
this curious trinity will neither see, hear, nor speak any evil. 

KwANNoN (Sanskrit, Avaldkitisvara)^ the Goddess of Mercy, who 
contemplates the world and listens to the prayers of the unhappy. 
According to another but less popular opinion, Kwannon belongs to the 
male sfix. Kwannon is represented under varying forms — many-heade<l, 
headed like a horse, thousand-handed. The two figures often represented 
on either side of her are Fudo and Aizen Myo-o. With reference to 
the images of Kwannon, it should be stated that tlie so-called Chonsand- 
Handed Kwannon has in reality but forty hands which hold out a 
number of Buddhist emblems, such as the lotus-flower, the wheel of the 
law, the sun and moon, a skull, a pagoda^ and an axe — this last serving 
to typify the cutting off of all worldly cares. A pair of hands folded 
on the image's lap holds the bowl of the mendicant priest. The Horse- 
Headed Kwannon has three faces and four pairs of arms, a horse's 
head being carved above the forehead of the central face. One of the 
four pairs of arms is clasped before the breast in the attitude 
called renge no in^ emblematical of the lotus-flower. Another pair 
holds the axe and wheel. Yet another pair grasps two forms of the 
tokko (Sanskrit, vdjra)^ a sceptre or club with which the foes of the 
Buddliist faith are to be crushed ; while of the fourth pair of hands, 



List of Gods and Goddesses* 81 

tlie left holds a cord wherewith to bind the wicked, and the right is 
stretclied out open to indicate ahnsgiving. A title often applied to 
Kwannon is Nyo-i-rin^ properly the name of a gem which is supposed 
to enable its possessor to gratify all his desires, and which may be 
approximately rendered by the adjective " omnipotent." 

Marishitbn (Sanskrit, Marichi)^ the personification of light in 
tlie BrahminicMl theology ; also a name of Krishna. In Chinese and 
Japanese Buddhism, Marishiten is considered to be the Queen of 
Heaven, and is believed by some to have her residence in a star 
forming part of the constellation of the Great Bear. She is represented 
with eight arms, two of which hold up emblems of the sun and moon. 

Maya Bunin, the mother of Buddha. 

Mid A, see Amida. 

MiKoTO, a title applied to Shinto deities. It is generally translated 
Augiistness. 

MiROKU (Sanskrit, Mditi^eya)^ Buddha's successor — the Buddhist Mes- 
siah, whose advent is expected to take place 5,000 years after Buddha's 
entry into Nirvlina. 

MoNJU (Sanskrit, Manjusri), the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom. 
His image is nsunlly seated on the right hand of Shaka. 

Ni-6, lit. " the Two D^va Kings," Indra and Brahma, who keep 
guard at the outer gate of temples to scare away the demons. Each 
bears in his hand the tokko (Sanskrit, vdjra), an ornament originally 
designed to represent a diamond club, and now used by priests and 
exorcists as a religious sceptre symbolising the irresistible power of 
prayer, meditation, and incantation. The figures of the Ni-6 are of 
gigantic size and terrific appearance, and are often bespattered with 
little pellets of paper aimed at them by devotees who think thus to 
secure the accomplishment of some desire on which they have set their 
hearts. 

Nyorai (Sanskrit, Tathdgata)^ an honorific title app'ied to all 
Buddhas. It is compounded of Chinese nyo (in)i ** like," and rai (^), 
** to come," the idea being that a Buddha is one whose coming ami 
going are in accordance with the action of his predecessors. 

Onamdji, or Okuni-nushi, the aboriginal deity of Izumo, who re- 
signed his throne in favour of the Mikado's ancestors when tliey came 
down from heaven to Japan. He is also worshipped under the titles 
of Sanm and Hie. 

Rakan (Sanskrit, Arhdn^ or Arhat)^ properly the perfected Arya or 
" holy man," but popularly used to designate not only the perfected 
8;iint, but all Buddha's disciples, more especially his ^* Five Hundred 
Disciples" (Go- hyaku Rakan) and his "Sixteen Disciples" {Juroku 
Rakan). Few art-motives are more popular with Japanese painters 
and sculptors. The holy men are represented in various attitudes, but 
mostly very thin and scantily clad. 

Senoen, the Goddess of Mount Fuji. She is also called Asama or 
Ko-no-Hana-Saku-ya-Hiine, that is, " the Princess who makes the Blos- 
soms of the Trees to Flower." 

Shaka Muni, the Japanese pronunciation of S'dkya Muniy the name 
of the founder of Buddhism, wlio was also called Gautama and is gene- 
rally spukeu of by Europeans as " Buddha," though it would be more 



^ I 



82 Introduction : — LiU of Gods and Goddesses, 

correct to gay " the Buddha." In his youth he was called Shitta Taislii 
(Sanskrit, Siddhdrtha), His birth is asually placed by the Chinese anci 
Japanese in the year 1027 B.C., but the date accepted by European 
-flcholars is 653 B.C. The most accessible account of Buddha's life and 
doctrine is that given by Professor Rhys Davids in his little work 
entitled "Buddhism," published by the Society for Promoting ChriHtian 
Knowledge. The entombment of Buddha — all creation standing weep- 
ing around — is a favourite subject of Japanese art. Such pictures are 
called Nehamd, that is, " representations of the entry into Nirv&na." 
The birth of Buddha (tanjo Shaha) is also often represented, he then 
appearing as a niked infant with his right hand pointing up and his 
left hand down, to indicate the power which he exercises over heaven 
and earth. 

Sharihotsu (Sanskrit, S'driputtra)^ the wisest of Buddha's ten chief 
disciples. 

Shiohi Fukujin, the Seven Gods of Luck, namely Benten, Bishamon^ 
Daikoku, Ebisu, Fukurokuju, Hotei and Jurojin. 

Shi-Tenno, the Four Deva Kings, who guard the world against the 
attacks of demons. Their images differ from those of the Ni-o by hold- 
ing weapons in their hands and generally trampling demons under foot. 
Moreover they are placed, not at the outer gate of temples, but at 
an inner one. 

Shozuka no Baba. See Jizo. _ 

SuKUNA-BiKONA, a microscopic god who aided Onamuji to establish 
his rule over the land of Izuiuo before the descent to earth of the an- 
cestors of the Mikados. 

SUvSA-NO-o, lit. *' the Impetuous Male." The name of this deit}- is 
justified by the violent conduct which' he exhibited towards his sister, 
the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, whom he iilarmed so terril)Iy by his mad 
freaks that she retired into a cavern. Born from the nose of the 
Creator Izanagi, Susa-no-o is considered by some to be the God of the 
Sea, b}^ others the God of the Moon. He was the ancestor of the gods 
or monarchs of the province of Izuino, who finally renounced tiieir 
claims to sovereignty over an}' part of Japan in favour of tlie descen- 
dants of the Sun-Goddess. Siisa-no-o is also stvled Gozu Tenno, ** the 
Ox-headed Emperor," — a name apparently derived from that of a cer- 
tain mountain in Korea where he is supposed to have been worshipped. 
The temples dedicated to Snsa no-o are called Gion or Yasakn. The 
former are Buddhist or Ryobu-Shinto ; the latter are pure Shinto 
shrines. 

Taishaku, the Brahminical god Indra. 

Tamon, see Anan. 

Tenjin is the name under which is apotheosised the great minister 
and scholar Sngawara-no-Michizane, who, having fallen a victim to 
calunmy in A.D. 901, was degraded to the post of Vice-President of 
the Dazaifu or Governor-Generalship of the island of Kyushu, at that 
time a usual form of banisiiment for illustrious criminals. He died 
in exile A.D. 903, his death being followed by many portents and dis- 
asters to his enemies. He is worshipped as the God of Calligraphy, 
other names for him being Kan Shojo and Temman«;u. He is repre- 
sented in the robes of an ancient court noble, and the temples dedicated 



Christian Mission Stations in Japan. 83 

to him bear in several places his crest of six stars. A recumbent 
image of a cow frequently adorns the temple grounds, in allusion to 
tlie fact that Michizane used to ride about on a cow in the land of 
liis exile. A plum-tree is also often planted near the temple, because 
that was his favourite tree. Indeed, tradition says that the most beauti- 
ful plum-tree in his garden at Kyoto flew after him through the air to 
Dazaifu. 

ToSHoGu, the name under which the great Shogun Teyasu, also called 
Gongen Sama, is worshipped. It signifies " the Temple (or Prince)' 
Illaiuinating tiie East," in allusion to the fact that leyaeu's glory centred 
in Eastern Japan. 

ToYO-UKE-BiMK, also Called Uke-moohi-no-Kami, the Shinto Goddess of 
Food. The Nihongi^ one of the two principal sources of Japanese 
mythology and early history, says that the Sun-Goddess sent the Moon- 
God down from heaven to visit Uke-mochi-no-Kami, who, turning her 
face successively towards the earth, the sea, and the mountains, produced 
from her mouth rice, fish, and game, which she served 'up to him at a 
banqnet. The Moon -God took offence at her feeding him with unclean 
viauils, and drawing his sword, cut off her head. On his reporting this 
act to the Sun-Goddess, the latter was very angry, and secluded herself 
from him for the space of a day and night. From the body of the 
murdered earth sprang cattle and horses, millet, silkworms, rice, barley^ 
and be?ms, which the Sun-Goddess decreed should thenceforth be the 
food of the human race. In the Kojihi version of the myth, it is 
Susa-no-o who slays the Goddess of Food, and there are other differences 
of detail. 

Yakushi Nyorai (Sanskrit, BMishajyaguru), lit. *the Healing 
Buddha.' His name is explained by reference to a prayer, in which he 
is called upon to heal in the next life the miserable condition of man's 
present existence. 



23. — Christian Mission Stations in Japan. 

The Roman Catholic Mission in Japan dates from the time of Saint 
Francis Xavier, and though Christianity was sternly repressed during 
the 17th and 18th centuries and down to 1873, the flame continued to 
smoulder, especially in the island of Kyiishu. The Roman Church now 
has Bishops at Tdkyo, Osaka, and Nagasaki, and a total following of 
over 40,000. 

The labours of the Protestant Missionaries commenced in 1859, and 
a network of mission stations now covers the greater portion of the 
Empire. Tokyo and the Open Ports are the head-quarters of most of 
the denominations, and are, for shortness' sake, not mentioned in the 
following list of mission stations, given for the benefit of travellers 
interested in mission work. 

The United Church of Christ in Japan (Nippon Itchi Kyokwai)^ an 
amalgamation of American and Scotch Presbyterian Churches, has the 
largest number of members, over 10,000. Stations ; — Hiroshima, 
Kanazawa, Kochi, Kyoto, Morioka, Nagoya, Okazaki, Sapporo, Sendai, 
Tokusbima, Ueno, Wakayama, Yamaguchi, Yokkaichi. 



34 IfitrodiicUon : — Outline of Japanese History, 

Tlie Kumi-ai Oiurclies, in co-operation with the American Board's 
Mission, over 9,000 memhers. Stations : — Kunianioto, Kyoto, Mae- 
bashi, Matsuyaiua, Nagaoka, Okayama, Sendai, Tot tori, Tsu. 

The Nippon Set Kokwai^ including tlie niiHHions of tiie Cliurch of 
England and of the Protestant Episcopa] Church of America, 4.000. 
Stations: — Fukuoka, Gifu, Kumamoto, Kushiro, Maebashi, MalKue, 
Nara, Tokushima. 

American Methodist Episcopal Churchy over 4,000. Stations: — Fuku- 
oka, tiirosaki, Hirosliima, Matsuyauia, Nagoya, Oita. Yonezawa. 

Methodist Church of Canada, 1,700. Stations: — Kanazawa, K5fu, 
Kumamoto, Nagano, Shizuoka. 

American Baptist Missionary Union, over 1,000.' Stations: — Morioka, 
Nemuro, Sendai, Shimonoseki, Toyoura. 

The above stations are those at wliich foreign missionaries reside. 
Native pastors carry on the work at other places. Numerous smaller 
denominations, chiefly American, are also represented. 

The Orthodox Russian Church has a flourishing mission, whose head- 
quarters are at Tokyo. 

24. — Outline of Japanese History. 

Nothing is known concerning the origin of the Japanese people, or 
t]»e period at which they reached their present habitat. The dawn of 
trustworthy history in the 5th century after Christ finds the Mika<io8 
— Emperors claiming descent from the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu — 
already governing all Japan except the North, which was still occupied 
by the Aino aboiigines, and Chinese civilisation beginning to filter into 
what had apparently liitherto been a semi-barbarous land. The chief 
pioneers of this civilisation were Buddhist priests from Korea. From 
that time forward Japanese history consists, broadly speaking, in the 
rise of successive great families and chiefs, who, while alwa3's pro- 
fessing a nominal respect for the divine authority of the Mikado, 
practically usurp his power and are the de facto rulers of the country. 
By the end of the 12th century, the old absolutism had been converte<l 
into a feudalism of which Yorit.omo, the successful leader of the 
Minamoto family or clan, became the acknowledged head under the 
title of Shdgvn, which closely corresponds in etymology and in mean- 
ing to the Latin Imperator, Thus was inaugurated the dual system of 
government which lasted down to the year 1868, — the Mikado supreme 
in name, but powerless and dwelling in a gilded captivity at the old 
capital Kyoto, the Sho^un with his great feudatories, his armed re- 
tainers, and his well-filled exchequer, ruling the whole empire from 
his new capital in Eastern Japan — first Kamakura, then Yedo. During 
the latter period of the nominal supremacy of the Minamoto family of 
Shoguns, the real power was in the hands of their chief retainers, the 
Hojo family — the political arrangement thus becoming a triple one. 
The rule of the Hojo was rendered memorable by the repulse of the 
Mongol fleet sent by Kublai Khan to conquer Japan, nince which time 
Japan has never been attacked by any foreign enemy. The Ashikapi 
line of Slioguns grasped the power which had fallen from the Hojo*s 
hands, and distinguished themselves by their patronage of the arts. 



Outline of Japanese History, 85 

Tlie second 1m1£ of the 16tli century was a period of anarchy, daring 
^vliich two great sohliers of fortune wlio were not Shoguns — Nobunaga 
and Hideyoslii— Fuccessively rose to supreme power. Hideyoshi even 
went BO far as to conquer Korea and to meditate the conquest of China, 
an enterprise whicli was, however, interrupted by his death in A.D. 
1598. Tokugnwa leyusu, Hideyoshi's greatest general, tlien succeeded 
in making Japtin his own, and founded a dynasty of Shoguns who. 
ruleil Japan in profound pence from 1603 to 1868. •Among the means 
resorted to for securing tliis end were tlie ejection of tlie Catholic 
inissioniiries und the closing of the country to foreign trade. Nagasaki 
was the only place in the Empire at which any communication with the 
outer world was permitted, no European nation but the Dutch was 
allowed to trade there, and even Dutch commerce was restricted within 
narrow limits. At last, in 1853, the government of the United States 
Meut a fleet uuder the command of Commodore Perry to insist on the 
ceHsation of the Japanese policy of isolation. This act of interference 
from the outside gave the coup de grdce to the Siio^unate, which had 
previounly been weakened by internal discontent. It fell, and in its 
fall dragged down the whole fabric of mediaeval Japanese civilisation. 
On the one hand, the Mikado was restored to the absolute power which 
iiad belonged to his ancestors centuries before. On the other, Euro- 
peanism (if one may so phrase it) became supreme in every branch o£ 
thought and activity. The natural outcome of this has been the Euro- 
peanisation of the monarchy itself. Not only has the Court adopted 
foreign manners and etiquette. It has granted a Constitution modelled 
on that of Prussia; and tlie first Diet, as it is termed, sat from Novem- 
ber, 1890 to March, 1891. The session was somewhat stormy. 

The following are the chief dates of Japanese historv : — 

B.C. 
.» Accession of the first Mikado, Jimmu Tennu 660 

rs'C ■{ Prince Yamato-take conquers S.W. and E. Japan ... 97-113 

^£ I Conquest of Korea by the Empress Jingo 200 

iFirst Chinese books brought to Japan 285 

Buddhism introduced from Korea 552 

Sliotokn Taishi patronises Buddhism 593-621 

Government remodelled on Chinese bureaucratic plan 600-800 

Chinese calendar introduced 602 

Fujiwara family predominant : 670-1050 

TIte Court resides at Nara 709-784 

First extant Japanese book published (Kojiki) 712 

Printing introduced 770 

Kyoto made the capital 794 

Invention of ffira-gana syllabary , 809 

Struggle between the Taira and Minamoto clans 1156-1185 

Yoritomo establishes the Shogunate 1192 

Hojo family pre<lominant •••• 1205-1333 

Repulse of the Mongols 1274-1281 

Two rival lines of Mikados, the Northern and Southern 

GburU , 1332-1392 



86 Introdiiction : — Celebrated Personages, 

Asliikaf^a dynasty of Shoguns 13B8-1565 

The Portuguese discover Japan 1542 

St. Francis Xavier arrives in Japan 1549 

First persecution of the Ciiristiuns 1587 

Yedo founded by leyasu 1590 

Hideyoshi invatfcs Korea 1592-1.598 

Battle of Seki-ga-imra 1600 

Tokugawa dynasty of Shoguns 1603-1868 

Japan closed and Christianity prohibited 1624 

The Dutch relegated to Deshima 1639 

Kaempfer visits Japan 1690-92 

Last eruption of Fuji » 1707 

Arrival of Commodore Perry 1853 

First treaty signed with the United States 1854 

Great earthquake at Yedo 1855 

First treaties with European Powers 1857-59 

Yokohama opened 1858 

First Japanese embassy sent abroad 1860 

Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864 

The Shoganate abolished and the Mikado restored to absolute 

poNver 1868 

Civil war between Imperialists and partisans of the Sliogun 1868-69 

The Mikado removes to Yedo (Tokyo) 1869 

Abolition of feudal systeni 1871 

Tokyo-Yokohama railway opened 1872 

Adoption of Gregorian calendar / 1873 

Expedition to Formosa 1874 

The wearing of swords interdicted 1876 

Satsnma rebellion 1877 

New Codes published 1880-90 

Constitution proclaimed 1889 

First Diet met 1890 

25. — List of Celebrated Personages. 

The following list of celebrated personages referred to in this book, 
and likely to be mentioned by guides when explaining objects of histo- 
rical or artistic interest, ma}^ be found usefid. 

Benkki, or Musashi-bo Benkei, was Yoshit8une*s famous henchman* 
How many of Benkei's valorous achievements are historical, it would 
be hard to say. According to the orthodox account, he was eight feet 
in heiglit, strong as a himdred men, and had even in early years per- 
formed so many deeds of violence as to have been nicknamed Oni" 
waka, " the Devil Youth." Having attempted to cut down Ynshitsunei 
then a mere stripling, on t\\e Gojo Bridge in Kyoto, he found in him 
his master in the art of fencing, and was made to sue for quarter. So 
great was the veneration thus inspired in his breast, that he thenceforth 
attached himself to Yoshitsuno's fortunes and die<l battling in hii 
cause. The fight between Yoshitsune nnd Benkei is a favourite subjeol 
with the artists of Japan. Another is the subterfuge by which Benkei 
made way for hi& muster -and tlieir Utile- band through one of the 



Celebrated Pei'sonages, 

l»arneT« where at tliat time all travellers were liable to be stopped:' 
He pretended that he was a priest sent to collect subscriptions for the 
iMiikHn<^ of a new temple, and therefore privileged to travel free, 
Tlie .pictures represent him reading out his supposed ecclesiastical 
coiiMuission from a scroll to the barrier-keepers, who were too ignorant 
of letters to discover the feint. This story is also the subject of a 
drauia called Kavjin-cho. 

HusON (1716-1783), a highly original and vigorous artist of the 
Chinese scliool. 

Ck^ Dknsu (second half of 14tli century), the best an<l most, 
original painter of the Buddhist school, is termed by Anderson '* the 
Fra Angelico of Japan." 

Dkngvo Daishi (flourished about A.D. 800) wns the first Buddhist 
abbot of Hiei-zan. He made a long sojourn in China for the purpose 
of esoteric 8tu<ly, and brought back with hmi the doctrines of the 
Tendai sect. 

Ex NO Shokaku, a famous Buddhist saint and miracle-worker of the 
7th century, and the first human being to ascend Uaku-san, Daiseir, 
Tate^'ama, and others of Japan's highest mountains, it being part of his 
wiission to bring all such remote and inaccessible places under the 
sway of 6u«ldha. Having been slandered as a magician and con- 
demned to death, he so fortified himself by the use of mystic signs 
and formulae that the sworls of the executioners sent to behead him 
Knapped in pieces; but afterwards he flew away through the air, and 
was never again seen by mortal eyes. 

EsHiN (942-1017), a Buddhist abbot who is famous as a sculptor. 

Go-Daigo Tenno (reigned 1319-1839) was a Mikado celebrated for 
liis misfortunes. At the beginning of liis reign, the throne and the 
nation were alike trampled un<ler foot by the Hojo "llegents" at 
Karnakura, and his endeavour to Khake off their domination oidy result- 
ed, after nmcli shedding of blood, in his being taken prisoner and 
banished to the Oki Islands. When the Hojos fell in 1333 under the 
«word of the loyalist warrior Nitta Yoshisada, the Emperor Go-Daigo 
was recalled from exile. But the times were not ripe for the abolition 
of military rule, nor was Go-Daigo wise in his^ choice of counsellors 
after his restoration. Ashikaga Takauji, who had posed as the cham- 
pion of Imperial rights, desired nothing so much as to become 
Shogun himself, and bribed the Mikado's concubine Kado-ko to 
poison her master's nn'nd against those who had served him most 
faithfully, and even against his own son, Prince Moriyoshi, who 
was declared a rebel, cast into a dungeon at Kamakura, and there 
murdered. Go-Daigo , repented of his folly and weakness when 
it was too late. Takauji left Kyoto, and the army Sent to 
Kmite him received such a crushing defeat tliat Go-Daigo was forced to 
f$eek safety in flight. Thereupon Takauji set another Mikado on the 
throne. But as Go-Daigo continued to be recognised by many as the 
rightful sovereign, the Mikadoate was split into two rival branches, 
Called the Southern (legitimate) and the Northern (usurping) Courts. 
After sixty years of strife and misery, the Northern Court triumphed 
in 1392, the representative of the Southern dynasty handling over to it 
the Imperial regalia. Go-Daigo perished at an early period of the 



38 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

struggle. His Court — i£ we may so call the monntafn fastneRs wliere 
he mostly encamped — was at Yosliino, whose position to the South of 
Kyoto was the origin of the epithet ** Southern'- applied to it by 
liistorians. 

Gyooi Bosatsu (670-749), a Korean by birth, and a Buddhint abbot 
and saint, is the subject of many artistic fictions. He is credited not 
only with the invention of the potter's wheel, which whs certainly used 
in Japan before liis time, but with a number of iuiportant wood- 
carvings and other works <»f ?irt. 

HiDARi JiNGORo (1594-1634), Japan's greatest carver in wood, was 
a simple carpenter whose nickname of Hidari arose from his being 
left-handed. Among the best known of his works, are 4he carved 
gateway of the Nishi HoTigwanji Temple in Kyoto, the ramma^ or 
ventilating panels of the principal apartments in the same temple, and 
three carvings, — two of elephants after designs by Kano Tan-yu, and 
one of a sleeping cat, in tiie mortuary chapel of leyasu at Nikko. 
The notice attracted by his labours was so great that tiie architectural 
wood-cnrvers, whose artistic efforts had previously been liuiited to the 
execution of mechanical designs and conventional flowers, now came 
to be regarded as a body distinct froui the carpenters to whom they 
littd hitherto been affiliated. 

HiDRVOSHi (1536 — 1598), commonly known as the Taiko Hideyoshi — 
Uie word Taiko being a title indicative of exalted rank — has sometimes 
been called the Napoleon of Japan. Of low birth and so ugly as to 
earn the nickname of " Monkey," Hideyoshi worked his way up by 
alieer will, hard fighting, and far-sighted ability, to the position of 
Nobunaga's most trusty lieutenant ; and when that ruler died in 
1582, Hideyoshi, having slain his chief enemies and captured Kyoto, 
became practically monarch (»f Japivn witli the title of Uegent {Kv:am- 
haku), which till then had never been accorded to any but the highest 
nobility. Hideyoshi carried out many wise measures of interna] 
policy, such as_financial reform, the improvement of the great citie? 
of Kyoto and Osaka, and the encouragement of maritime trade. He 
was also more merciful to his foes and rivals than his predecessoi 
Nobnnaga had been. His greatest failing was the vulgar ambition oi 
the parvenu. His dream was to conquer China and become Emperoi 
of the whole East. As a first step towards this, he sent an army acrosf 
the straits to Korea undercommand of the celebrated generals Kati 
Ktyomasa and Konishi Ynkinaga — the latter a Christian, as were man^ 
of the soldiers of the expedition. Korea was ruined, and Japan no 
wise benefited. Hideyoshi's death resulted in the withdrawal of tin 
Japanese troops from the peninsula, and in the speedy overthrow oJ 
his own family power which he had hoped to render hereditary. 

Iemitsu (1604-1651), the third Sho^un of the Tokugawa dynasty, ia 
herited the administrative abiUty of his grandfather leyasu, and devotee 
bis peaceful reign to perfecting the system of government establishec 
by the latter, including the elaborate system of espionage of whid 
early writers on Japan have so much to say. To him is due the rah 
according to which all the Daimyos were obliged to resido durinc^ halii 
tlie year in Yedo, and to leave their families there as hostages durinj 
Hie other half. It was also Iemitsu who suppressed ChristiuniCy ai 



Celebrated Personages, 29 

<1angerons lo the state, and closed up the country against all foreignem 
•except the Dutch and Cliinese, who were permitted to trade at Nagasaki 
under Ituniiliating conditions. In fact, it was Jeniitsn who consolidated 
what we call " Old Japan." His tomb is at Nikko near that of IeyaFu« 

Ieyasu (1542-1616), one of tlie greatest generals and altogether the 

|j;reatest ruler that Japan has ever produced, was a Samurai of the 

province of Mikawa, and a scion of the great famil}- of Minainoto. fli» 

own surname was Tokugawa. Having served under both Nobunaga 

nnd the Taiko Hideyoshi, he profited b}^ the hitter's death in 1598 to 

f uake war on his infant son Hideyori. seized the great castle of Osaka, 

burnt the Taiko's celebrated palace of Momoyama at Fushimi, and 

iinally in the year 1600 defeated all his eneinjes at the battle of Seki-ga- 

hara, a small village in the province of Omi, now a station on the 

Tokaido Railway. Meanwhile he had, in 1590, moved his own head- 

•quarters from Shizuoka, where they had been for many years, to Yedo^ 

then an unimportant fishing-village, which he chose on account of the 

strategic advantages of its position. In 1603 he obtained from thefaineant 

Court of Kyoto the title of Shu;^un, which was borne by his descendants 

■during two and a half centuries of unbroken peace, till Commodore 

Perry's arrival in 1853 led to the revolution of 1868, and to the break- 

•up of Japanese feudalism and dualism. The statecraft which caused 

-no long a reign of peace under one dj'iiasty to take tlie place of the 

-secular struggles between i^etty warring chieftains, consisted greatly in 

jn balance of power whereby the rivalries of the greater Daimyos were 

played off against each other, and in the annexation to the Shogun'» 

own domain or to those of his ne.irest relatives of large strips of 

territor}' in all portions of the Empire. These served as coignes of 

vantage, whence in those days of difficult communication, the actions 

•of eacli Daimyo could more easily be controlled. Ieyasu held in his 

own grasp all the military resources of tliQ country, and forced all tlie 

Daimyos to regard themselves as his feudatories. He likewise had the 

•Courtof Kyoto strictly guarded — nominally as a protection for the sacred 

Mikado against rebel foes, but in reality to prevent His Majesty, who 

«till retained the semblance of Imperial power, from endeavouring to 

«hake off the fetters which made him a passive instrument in the 

tShogun's hands. Ieyasu furthermore built powerful strongholds, made 

new highways, established a system of posts, and promulga'ted laws, 

which — if we accept the theory of paternal government alike in politics 

and in the family — were very wise, an^l which were in any case far in 

advance of anything that Japan had known before. When the govern- 

aneut had been established on a iirm footing in 1605, Ieyasu followed 

the usual Japanese plan of abdicating in favour of his son. He 

retired to Shizuoka, and spent the evening of his life in encouraging" 

the renahsance of Japanese literature which had just begun. To his 

munificence is owing the ecUtlo imnceps ot many an important work. 

Ieyasu was first buried at Kuno-zan, not far from Shizuoka, in a beautiful 

•shrine on a castle-like eminence overlooking the sea. In the year 1617, 

his remains were removed to their present still grander resting-place at 

Nikko. The dynasty of Shoguns founded by Ieyasu is called the Toku- 

.gawa dj'nasty, from the surname of the family. 

IWASA Matahei (16th century) was the originator of the Vhlya^ 



40 Introducjtion : — Celebrated Personages, 

e-Bya^ or " popular school," of Japanese art, which, ubaruloning the- 
prescribed subjects and conveiuioiuil routine of the clussiciii schoola, 
undertook to paint life as it is. 

JiMMU TennC), that is, the Emperor Jiinnui, is accounted by thfr 
Japanese annalists the first human sovereij^n of their country, whicli 
liad till tlien been ruled over bv tlie Shinto ffotls. Jimmu Tenno was- 
liimself descended from the Sun-Goddess Ania-terasu, and consequently 
semi-divine. The orthodox account of his career is, that starting? from 
Kyushu in the extreme West of Japan, he rowed up the Inland Sea 
with a band of devoted warriors, subduing the aborigines as he went 
along, in virtue of the commission which he had received from heaven^ 
After much fighting in what are now the provinces of Bizen and 
Yamato, and many miraculous occurrences, he died at the age of on& 
hundred and thirty-seven, and was buried at Kaslnwabara in Vamato,. 
where his capital ha<l been established after the conquest. The date 
assigned for his accession is the 11th February, OGO B.C., the anniver- 
sary of which day has been made a public holiday during the present 
reign, and was chosen for the promulgation of the new Constitution, 
evidently with the desire to strengthen the popular belief in the authen- 
ticity and continuity of Japanese history. Jimmu Tenno and his suc- 
cessors during many centuries have, however, been condenuied as myths 
by competent European investigators, though it is allowed that the- 
Jimmu legend may possibly be an echo of some actual invasion of cen- 
tral Japan b}' Western tribes of adventurers in very early days. 

Jingo Kogo, that is the Empress Jingo, ruled over Japan, according- 
to the native annalists, from A.D. 201 to 269, when she died at the age 
of one hundred; but Aston, the greatest authority on early Japanese 
history, while not <lenying the existence of this Japanese Semiramis^ 
relegates most of her great deeds to the realm of fable. The chief 
legend connected with her is that of her conquest of Korea, to which 
country she crossed over with a gallant fleet, aided by the fishes botU 
g^reat and small and by a miraculous wave, and whence she returned 
only after receiving the abject submission of the King. Duringthe 
three years of her absence in Korea, she held in her womb her son Ojiii 
who is worshipped as Hachiman, the God of War. Next she turned her 
attention Eastwards, and, going in her fleet up the Inland Sea, smote 
the rebels of Yamato, as Jimmu Tenno is said to have done before her. 
Indeed, it has been suspected that the two legends are but slightly 
varying versions of the same story. 

JuSKTSU (flourished about A.D. 1400), a priest and celebrated painter. 
Anderson calls him the Japanese Cimabue. 

Kano, the family name of a celebrated school of painters, which 
originated in the 15th century and is not yet extinct. Its manner, 
which appears highly conventional to Europeans, is classical in the eyes 
of the Japanese. The greatest of these painters was Kano Motonobu 
(born 1477). Other noteworthy members of the family were K. Shoei, 
K. Eitoku, and K. Sanraku (16th century), K. Sansetsu, and especially 
K. Tan-yu. K. Naonobu, K. Yasunobu, I\. Toun, and K. Tsunenobu 
were also famous. All these names, from Sansetsu onwards, belong to 
the 17th century. The Japanese custom of a<loption is the ke}' to the ap- 
parent mystery of bo many men similarly gifted arising in one family. 



Celebrated Personages, 41 

Kato Kiyomasa was one of Hideyosbrs generals in the invasion of 
Korea at i\\e end of the 16th century, anil a fierce enemy of the 
Christians. He is one of tlie most popular Japanese lieroes, and is 
worshipped — chiefly by the Nichiren sect of Buddhists — under the 
name of Seishoko. 

KiYOMORi (1118 — 1181), whom Satow calls <he Warwick of Japanese 
liistory, was head of the great house of Taira during its struggles with 
the rival house of Minamoto, and during the brief period of triumph 
which preceded its final overthrow at Dan-no-ura. From the year 1156 
until his death, Kiyoniori was all-powerful, engrossing all the highest 
offices of state for his own kinsmen, and governing the Palace through 
his kinswomen where boy Mikados succeeded each other like shadows 
on the throne. To suit his own convenience, he moved the capital for a 
time from Kvolo to Fukuwara near the site of modern Kobe — an act 
of high-handed autocracy which was bitterly resented by the courtiers 
and the nobility, whose habits were interfered with and resources 
taxed by the double move. While irritating the upper classes by his 
nepotism and overbearing demeanour, he ground down the common 
people ])y his exactions, and endeavoured uiterly to exterminate the 
Taira clan. The famous beauty Tokiwa, handmaiden to Yoshitomo, 
was forced to yield to his embraces in order to save the life of her 
infant, the future hero Yoshitsune, and every woman that pleased him 
had to minister to his lust. His eldest son Shigemori remonstrated 
with him in vain. But the storm did not break in his time. He died 
in his bed, leaving his whole house to perish four years later iu a sea 
of blood. 

KuBo Daishi (774 — 834), the most famous of all Japanese Buddhist 
saints, was noted equally as preacher, painter, sculptor, calligraphist, 
and'travcller. Had his life lasted six hundred years instead of sixty, 
lie could hardly have grav.en all the inuiges, scaled all the mountain- 
peaks, confounded all the sceptics, wrought all the miracles, and per- 
formed all the other feats with which he is popularly credited. 
Byobu-ga-ura, near the modern temple of Kompira in Shikoku, was his 
birth-place. His conception was miraculous, and he came into the 
world with his hands folded as if in prayer. He entered the priesthood in 
A.D. 793. Various legends are told of the trials to which he was subjected 
by evil spirits during his novitiate. At Cape Muroto in Tosa, dragons 
and other monsters appeared out of the sea* and disturbed him in his 
prayers. These he drove away by repeating mystic formulae called 
Darani, and by spitting at them the rays of the evening star which 
hail flown from heaven into his mouth. At a temple built by him on 
this spot, he was constantly annoyed by hobgoblins who forced him to 
enter into conversation ; but he finally got rid of them by surrounding 
himself with a consecrated enclosure into which they were unable to 
enter against his will. Having been sent to China as a student in 804, 
much as promising Japanese youths are sent to Europe and America 
torday, he became the favourite disciple of the great abbot Hui-kwo 
{Jap, Kei kwa), by whom he was charged to carry back to Japan the 
tenets of the Yog^charya, or, as it is called in Japan, Shingon sect, which 
occupies itself greatly with mystic formularies, magic spells, and 
iucantations. Eobo Daishi returned home in 800, bringing with him a 



42 Ititroductiofi : — Celebrated Personages. 

lar^e quantity of BuHdliist books and religious parapliernalia, and in 
810 was appointed abbot of Tuji in Kyoto. A few years later he found- 
ed the great monastery of Koya-san, where his last days were spent 
at the close of a life of incessant toil. It is asserted that he did not die, 
but merely retired into a vaulted tomb, where he still awaits the coming 
of Miroku, the Buddhist Messiah. Among the innumerable great deedi 
with which this saint is credited, is the invention of the Hiragana 
syllabary. It should be noted that tiie name Kobo Daishi (lit. the 
Great Teacher Spreading abroad tlie Law) is a posthumous title con- 
ferred on him b}^ the Emperor Daigo in the year 921. His name while 
alive was Kfikai. 

KoJiMA. Takanori, a high-born warrior of the 14th century, is 
celebrated for his loyalty to the ill-starred Emperor Go-Daigo. 

KoRiN (latter half of 17th century) was a famous lacquer artist and 
painter. 

KoSE NO Kanaoka (second half of 9th century) was the first great 
Japanese painter. A number of quaint legends testify to the effect 
which his skill produced on the minds of his contemporaries. 

Kdmagai Naozane, a warrior of the latter half of the 12tli century, 
took his surname from the town of Kumagai in Muaashi, which he received 
as a fief from Yoritomo. The most famous incident in his life was his en- 
counter with Atsumori at the battle of Ichi-no-tani not far from Kobe, in 
the year 1184. Atsumori was a delicate youngnobleman of the Taira clan, 
scarcely sixteen years of age, who, when the city of Fukuwara had been 
taken by the Minamoto, soughtsafety like the rest of his kindred in flight 
on board a junk, but being pursued by Knmagai Naozane, had to fight 
for his life. He succumbed to the veteran, who, tearing off his helmet 
the better to cut off his head, beheld the youthful face and was struck 
with pity and sympath)^ his own son having fallen earlier in the day. 
He reflected, however, that to spare the boy's life would only cause 
him to fall into more. ruthless hands. So partly out of compassion, and 
partly for the sake of his own reputation, he resolved to carry out his 
first purpose. Atsumori submitted to his fate with heroic courage, 
while Naozane, overwhelmed with bitter remorse, vowed never more to 
bear arms, but to forsake the vvorld and devote the remainder of his 
days to praying for the soul of the fair youlh whose life he had so 
unwillingly taken. He restored to Atsumori's father the head and 
the other spoils which life had won, and after the conclusion of the war 
he went to Kyoto, and took monastic vows in the temple of Kurodani, 
\vhere numerous relics of him are shown to this day. The story has 
been- dramatised under the title of Atsumori. 

KusuNOKi Masaseiigk (first half of 14th century) is celebrated 
for his courage and for his unswerving lo3'alty to tlie throne. Had 
the Emperor Go-Daigo listened to his advice, the rising power of 
the house of Ashikaga might have been crushed. As it was, Masa- 
shige was unequally pitted against a superior foe; and when his army 
had been annihilated at the battle of Minato-gawa in 1336, he and a 
little oand of personal followers committed haraJciri rather than 
surrender. A scene which artists often represent, is Masashige abont to 
die, presenting to his son the ancestral roll in order to stimulate him to 
deeds worthy of the family renown. 



Celebrated Personages. 48 

MiTO KuMON (1622-1700), eecond Prince of Mito, a near relative 
•of tlie Tokiigawa Slio^uns, helped greatly tliougli iinconsciouHly to the 
tinul overthrow of tlieir house, and of the whole feuihil system a 
•century and a half later, by means of his celebrated historical work, the 
Z}ai Nihon SJii, which first caused men to suspect that the SliGguns were 
usurpers, and the Mikados the only rightful rulers of Japan. He also, 
patironised the new school of Shinto literati, whose studies le<l them, and 
iinally the majority of the educated public, to endeavour to bring back the 
«tate of things which had existed in pre-Buddhistic an<l pre-feudul days. 
Popular tradition ascribes to this prince many fanciful undertakings, 
-eiicli as the endeavour to raise the great bell from the river at Kunodai, 
and to find the bottom of the Kananie-hhi at Kashima, which is 
supposed to be the pivot of the world. 

MuRASAKi Shikibu (flourished about A.D. 1000) was a Court lady, 
And the most celebrated of Japanese romance-writers. Her chief work 
is the Genji Monogatari, 

♦ NiCHiREN was born at Kominato in the province of Awa at the 
mouth of Yedo Bay in A.D. 1222. At the age of twelve, he became a 
neophyte in the Shingon sect of Buddhists, and was a<)mitted to the 
priesthood three years later. Shortly afterwards, he a<lopted the name 
by which he is known to histor}-. It signifies * lotus of the sun,' and is 
derived from a dream dreamt by his mother of thestm on a lotus-flower, 
in consequence of which she became pregnant. He-acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the whole Buddhist canon by a miracle, and met in the 
course of his studies with words which he converted into the formula 
Namu myoho renfje kffo, *0h, the scripture of tiie Lotus of the 
Wonderful Law ! * — a formula which is still constantly used as an 
invocation by his followers. Having attracted the attention of the 
Regent Tokiyori by the unsparing manner in which he attacked other 
sects, he was banished to the peninsula of Izu in 1261, but pardoned soon 
after. Ten years later, his enemies persuaded the Regent Tokinmne that 
Nichiren'sdtKJtrines tended tosubvert the state. He was seized and thrown 
into a cave with his six cliief disciples, and condemned to be beheaded 
the same niglit ; but when brought to the place of execution, was saved 
by a miracle, the executioner's sword failing to act on the head of so holy 
a man, and Tokinmne, warned in a dream, spared his life. Nichiren was, 
however, banished to the island of Sado in the North, but was 
permitted in 1274 to return to Kamaknra, then the military capital of 
Eastern Japan. He next retired to live among the mountains o£ 
Minobn in a hut, which he quitted in order to take up his abode with 
the lord of t)ie manor, Nambu Rokuro, a devotee so zealous that he 
bestowed on the saint and his sect for ever all the lands in his 
possession. As crowds of disciples flocked to Nichiren for instruction 
in the faith, he erected a small shrine which became the nucleus of ihe 
now famous monastery of ISIinohu. In 1282, feeling that death was 
approaching, he removed from Minobu to Ikegami, near the modem 
city of Tokyo, and thnre <lied. His body was burnt on the spot and 
the bones conveyed to Minobu, only a small portion being retained at 
Ikegami as a precious relic. His zeal and his intolerance appear to 
iiave been inherited by his spirituid children, — the Nichiren-ahu, or 
Hohhe-sha^ as the sect derived from him is also called, having paslied 



44 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages, 

ilie odium fheologicum to n degree otiierwise rare in tTapan. The chief 
outwiird and visible — or ratlier audible — sign c»f tlieir temples is the 
drum, which the devotees beat for liours to^etiier to keep time to their 
chanting of the sacred formula Namu myoho renge Jcyo, 

NiTTA YoSHiSADA, a Warrior of the 14th century, famed for hiB 
• courage and for his devotion to the Mikado's cause against the usurp- 
ing families of Hojo and Ashikaga. 

NOBUNAGA,^ properly Ota Nobunaga (1534-1582), was a warrior 
wlio, in the general scramble for land and power which went on in the 
latter lialf of the 16th century, gained possession of the provinces 
of Surnga, Mino, Omi, Mikawa, Tse, and Echizen. Having next taken 
Kyoto, he built the fine castle of Nijo, and sided wiih Ashikaga Yoshi- 
aki, who bv his influence wa/3 made Shoffun in 1558. Six vears later 
the two quarrelled. Nobunaga arrested and deposed Yoshiaki, and the 
power of the Ashikaga famil}*, which had lasted two hundred and 
thirt3'-eight years, came to an end. By the aid of his generals. Hide- 
yoshi and leyasu, he brought large portions of the Empire under his- 
sway, but never obtained the title of Shogun, which custom had limited 
to members of the Minamoto family, whereas Nobunaga was of Taini 
descent. Though a great soldier, iJCobunaga lacked the administrative 
ability to foUow up and consolidate the advantages gained in war. Conse- 
quently, when he was assassinated by an offended subordinate named 
Akechi, his power died with him. Nobunaga was a bitter enemy to 
Buddhism. Among his many acts of violence, was the destruction of 
tlie great monastery of Hiei-zan near Kyoto and of the Hongwanji at 
Osaka, on both which occasions frightful scenes of massacre ensued. 
On the other hand, he encouraged the Christians: but it is not to be sup- 
posed that a nuin of his stamp did so out of any appreciation of their 
reljgious doctrines. _ 

Okyo (1733 — 1795), properly called Maruyama Okyo, was the 
founder of the Shijo school of painting, whose watchword was fidelity 
to nature, though, as Anderson points out, their practice was far less 
radical than their theor}', and did not lead them actually to reject the 
conventionalities of tlieir predecessors in art. Okyo was specially 
successful in his paintings of birds and fishes. 

Saico, a Samurai of the Satsuma clan, whose youth coincided vith 
the closing years of the Japanese ancien regime^ conspicuously dis- 
tinguished himself on the Imperialist side. Before the triumph of the 
latter, he was thrice exiled to Vries Island as a political suspect ; but 
after the revolution of 1868, to the success of which he contributed 
80 materially as to earn the title of Commancjer -in-Chief of the Imperial 
army, he became one of the most important personages in the state. 
His programme, however, was no radical one. When his colleagues in 
the government showed tint their aim was not, as had at first been 
asserted, a return to the Japan of early histoj'ic days, but the complete 
Europeanisation of the country and the abandonment of all national 
usages and traditions, Saigo broke with them, and retired to the city of 
Kagoshima in Satsuma, where he founded a military school to. which 
all the ardent youth of Satsuma and Osumi soon began to flock. The 

• This article is taken almost verbalh- frr m Griffis's " Mikado's Empire," Cliap> 

xxni. . 



Celebrated Personages. 4& 

influence of tliis scliool precipitated the inevitable conflict between the 
old and the new order of idejis. It broke out in 1877, and is known to 
history as the Satsunia Rebellion. After a struo^gle of several months, 
tlio Imperialists triumphed, and Saigo himself fell on the 24th Septem- 
ber, as did the whole of the little band of three hundred that had re- 
mained faithful to him till the end. Saigo still lives in, popular estima- 
tion as the most perfect example of a brave warrior and a true patriot; 
and even the Imperial Court now honours his memory, the ban of 
degradation having been removed in 1890, and the dead Commander- 
in-Chief re-instated posthumousl}" in all his honours. The common 
people say that Saigos spirit has gone to dwell in one of the brightest 
stars of heaven. The visit of the Czarewitch to Japan in 1891 helped 
to give credence to a wild notion according to which Saigo had, like 
Yoshitsune centuries before, escaped to Siberia. The possibility of his 
returning to Japan in the Czarewitch's train was seriously discussed by 
several newspapers, and one adherent of the old school of Japanese 
etiiics went so far as to commit haralclri when told by his friends that 
he must be mad to believe such a tale. 

, Sesshij (1421-152.7) was the greatest Japanese artist of the Chinese 
sclwud of painting. Anderson says of him : 

'* It is difficult for a European to estimate Sesshu at his true value.. ► 
Notwithstanding the boast of the artist that the scenery of China was 
his only teacher, and the credit bestowed upon him by his admirers of 
having invented a new style, he has in no respect departed from the 
artificial rules accepted by his fellow painters. He was, however, an 
original and powerful artist, and his renilerings of Chinese scenery 
bear evidences of local stud}' that we look for in vain in the works of 
his successors. The grand simplicity of his landscape compositions, 
their extraordinary breadth of design, the illusive suggestions of 
atmosphere and distance, and the all-pervading sense of poetr}', 
demonstrate a genius that could rise above all defects of theory in the 
principles of his art." 

Shinran Shoxin (1173-1262) was the founder of the powerful Ikko- 
sliu sect of Buddhists, also called Shinshu or Monto, whose splendid 
temples, known b}^ the name of Ilongii-ftuji or Monzehl^ are among 
the chief sights of most Japanese cities. Hongwanji means * the 
Monastery of the Ueal Vow,' in allusion to the vow made by Amida 
that he would not accept Buddhahood except under the condition that 
salvation was made attainable for all who should sincerely desire to be 
born into his kingdom, and signify their desire by invoking his name 
ten times. It is upon a passage in a Buddhist scripture where this vow 
in recorded that the doctrine of the sect is based, its central idea being 
that man is to be saved by faith in the merciful power of Amida, and 
not by works or vain re petition of prayers. For this reason, and also 
because its priests are permitted to marry, this sect has sometimes 
been called the Protestantism of Japan. h\ the year 1602, political 
reasons caused a split in the sect, which since that time has been 
divided into u Western and an Eastern branch — N'lM Ilongicanji and 
Higa^hi Hongwanjiy — each branch owning a temple in every considerable 
city of the Empire. Shinran Shonin was descended from the Imperial 
family. The abbots of the sect therefore bear the title of Monzeki, or. 



46 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

Imperial Offspring, while tlie walls enclosing its temples are allowed 
tlie Hiiji-kabe., or Mtripe<l plaster onianientatiou, otherwise reserved for 
hnilditigs inhabite^I by Imperial princes. Daring the present reigo, 
-Shinran Shunin has beon honoured by the bestowal of the posthnnHiiui 
title of Kenshin Daiflhi, that is * the Great Teaclier who Sees the Truth.* 

Shotokc Taishi (572-621), the Constantine of Japanese Buddhism, 
was son of the Emperor Yoinei and regent nmler the Empress Suiko, 
hnt never liimself actually ascended the thrune. Ue foumletl a large 
number of monasteries, framed a short coile of laws, and is stiid to 
have intnKluced the use of the calendar into Japan. He is also the 
reputed author of numerous paintings and sculptures, which AndersoD, 
however, inclines to consi<ler apocryphal. 

ShObun (loth century), one of tlie greatest Japanese painters of the 
-Chinese school. 

80SRN (1747-1821), an artist of the Shijo school, famed for his 
paintings of monkeys. 

Takkxouchi no Sdkuxk, the Methuselah of Japan, is said to have 
Jived two hundred and iifty-five years (according to others, three 
iiundred and sixty years), and to have served six successive Mikados. 
His birth is supposed to have taken place about 200 B.C. 

ToBA SoJO, an abbot of tlie 13th century, is famous as the originator 
' of a quaint, coarse style of picture called Toba-e. 

Yamato-take no Mikoto, one of the eighty children of the Emperor 
Keiko, was a great hero of the pre-historic age. While )-et a stripling, 
he was sent by his father to destroy the rebels of Western Japan, — 
an object wliicli he accomplished by disguising liimself as a girl, ami 
making the rebel chieftains fall in love with him while carousing in the 
•cave where they dwelt. Then suddenly drawing a sword from his 
bosom, he smote them to death. He next subdued the provinc*e of 
Izuiiio, and iinally conquered Eastern Japan, which was at that time 
a birbarous waste. After many adventures both warlike and amorous, 
he died on the homeward march to Yamato where the Emperor his 
father held his Court. 

YoRiTOMO (1147 — 1199) was the founder of the Shogunate, the first 
Japanese Mayor of the "Palace, if we may so phrase it. A 
scion of the great house of Minamoto, as shrewd and ambitious 
as he was unscrupulous and inhuman, he was left an orphan at an 
•early age, and barely escaped deatli as a lad at the hands of 
Kiyomori, the then all-powerful Minister, who belonged to the rival 
Taira clan. Kiyomori's exactions having roused the indignation of 
the whole Empire, Yorit(mio saw that the moment had come to essay 
the restoration of his own fortunes. All the malcontents eagerly 
ilocked to his standard, and first in Eastern Japan, then at Kyoto, 
and lastly at the great sea-fight of Dan-no-ura near Shimonoseki 
at the S.W. end of the Inland Sea, Yoritomo defeated the Taira and 
utterly exterminateil them, putting even women and children to the 
«word. Yoritomo established his capital at Kamakura, wliicli soon^rew 
into a great city, thoroughly reorganised the government by the ap- 
pointment of military governors chosen from among his own clan to 
4ict conjointly with the civil governors who received their nominations 
from the Mikado, by the levy of taxes for military purposes payable 



Population of the Chief Cities. 



47 



into his own trensury, nnci by otlier fiir-siglitecl innovalions made in the 
joterests of a military femialisni. At last in 1192, lie obtained — in 
other words forced — from the Court of Kyoto the title of Sel-i Tai 
Shojun^ that is ^ Barbarian-subduing Generalissimo/ which soon 
came to denote the military or achial king of the country, as distin- 
Kaished from its theoretical head, the heaven-descended Mikado. 
Yoritoino, whose life had been spent fighting, died peucefnily in his 
lieci. Among the many on whom he trampled to satisfy the dictates of 
|>er8onal ambition, was his own brother Yoshitsune, a far nobler hero. 
Though Yoritomo's system of government rt*mained in vigour for well- 
nigh seven centuries, the sceptre dropped froui his own family in the 
next generation after his death, his sons Yoriie and Sanetomo being 
weaklings who both perished by assassination at an early nge. 

YoSHlTSUN^E (b. 1159) was younger halt'-hrotlier to the first Shogur> 
Yoritomo, V>eing the son of Yoshitomo by a beautiful concubine named 
Tokiwa. By yielding to the wicked desires of the tyrant Kiyomori^ 
Tokiwa nbtained pardon for her son on condition that he shaved hi» 
liead and became a monk. Accordingly he whs placed in the Buddhist 
raonustery of Kurama-yama near Kyoti». But theological exercises 
were so little to his taste that he ran away to Northern Japan in com- 
pany with. H friendly merchant, and at once distinguished himself by 
the valour with which he repelled the assaults of the brigands, slaying 
oeveral with his own hand, though then himself but sixteen years of 
age. When Yoritomo rose in arms against the Taira clan, Yoshitsune 
naturally joined him. and became his greatest general. Indeed, the real 
guerdon belonged rightfully to the younger rather than to the elder 
brother. Yoritomo, far from feeljng any gratitude, began to burn 
with jealousy and to detest Yoshitsune as a possible rival. He even 
went 8o far as to compass his death. But Yoshitsune escaped again to 
Northern Japan, where, according to one account, he was discovered by 
spies, and killed after a desperate fight on the banks of the Koromo- 
gawa, his head being sent to Yoritomo at Kamakura preserved in mke^ 
Others say that he committed harahWi when he saw that all was lost. 
liaving previously killed his own wife and children. A more fanciful 
account is that he escaped to Yezo, and then re-appeared on the main- 
land of Asia as Genghis Khan. This fable probably originated in an 
accidental similarity between the Chinese characters used to write the 
namefl of these two famous men. But it is a remarkable fact that to 
this day Yoshitsune remains an object of worship among the Ainos of 
Yezb. To the Japanese his name is a synonym for single-minded 
bravery and devotion. The traveller will often hear mentioned in con- 
nection with the name of Yoshitsune those of Benkei, his faithful 
retainer, and Yasuhira, the traitor suborned by Yoritomo to slay him. 



26. — Population of Chief Cities. 



Fakui (Echizen). . 
Fakuoka (Chikuzen) 
Hakodate .... 
Hirosliinvi. . . . 



41,000 
53,000 
53,000 
89,000 



Hirosaki 30,000' 

Kagoshima .... 57,000^ 

Kanazawa (Kj>ga) . . 94,000 

Kobe 135,000 



48 



Introduction : — Outline Tours, 



Koclii 32,000 

Kofii 31,000 

Kunicamoto .... 53,0()0 

Kyoto 279,000 

l^Iutsne 3G,000 

•MatPiiynnia (Tyo) . . 32,000 

Morioku 31,000 

Nagasaki .55,000 

Nagoya 102,000 

Niigata 46,000 

Okayama 48,000 

0.saka 476,000 



Sakai (Izunii) . . 
Sen<iai .... 
Slninonoseki . . 
Sliiziiokn. . . . 
TakamatfiU (Sannki) 
Tokiisliiina (Awa) 
Tokyo (district of) 
Toyama (EtcliQ) 
Utsnnoniiva . 
Wakayania . . 
Yokohama . . 
Yokosuka . . 



4«.000 
1)0,000 
33,000 
37,000 
32,000 
61,000 
1,389,000 
58,000 
30,000 
56,000 
122,000 
32,000 



27. — Outline Tours. 

1. One monlirs tour from Yokoliama : — 

Tokyo 2 (laye. 

Kamaknru and Eiiosliiina 1 „ 

IVIiyanosliita 3 „ 

From Mi3'anosliita to Nagoya by Tokaido Railway •... 1 „ 

^agoya .\ i „ 

From Nagoya to Kyoto 1 „ 

Kyoto 4 „ 

Xake Biwa and back to Kyoto 2 „ 

From Kyoto to Nara, Osaka, and Kobe 3 ,, 

Back to Yokohama by steamer or railway 1 J „ 

From Yokohama to Nikko 1 ,» 

Nikko and Chuzenji .^ 4 „ 

From Nikko to Ikao by rail via Oyama and Maebashi 1 „ . 

Ikao (visit Harima) 2 „ 

From Ikao to Myoo^i-san via Takasaki 1 ,. 

Hyogi-san and back to Yokohama by rail 1 „ 

Spare days 2 „ 

31 „ 



This tour is practicable for ladies throughotit. With it may be com- 
bined the ascent of Fuji from Yokohama (see Route 9). 

2. One month's tour from Nagasaki : — 

Nagasaki and Onsen (Unzen) 4 daj's* 

From Nagasaki to Ko!)e by steamer 2 „ 

Nara, Kyoto^ and Lake Biwa i 5 „ 

From Kyoto to Nagoya by Tokaido Railway 1 „ 

From Nagoya to Miyanoshita 1 „ 

Miyanoshita 3 „ 

From ^livanoshita to Kamakura and Yokohama 1 ,, 

Yokphama 1 ,^ 

Tokyo *........ ..;; 2 ^, 



Outline Touts* A9 

•From Tok^o to Nikko and b«ck 4 dayq^ 

Steuiuer from Yokohaiiiu to Nagasaki 4 ,^ 

Spiire days 3 ,) 

31 „ * 

This tour, like tlie last, is practicable for ladies. Sliortcr tours can 
easily be arranged by omitting certain portions of the above. 

3. Yokohama to Mi^'anoshita, Hakone, an(i Atami (see Routes 6 and 7). 

4. YokoliJima to Nikko, tlie copper-mines of Ashio, down the valley 
of the Watarase-gawa to Oinama, and back to Yokohama by train. 
Five da^'s. ^ One day extra for Kosliin-zan (Routes 16 and 17). 

5. Yokohama to Nikko, Chu/.enji, and Yumoto ; thence over the 
Konsei-toge to Maehashi, and back to Yokoliama by train. One week* 
Two extra days to visit Ikao at end of trip (Routes 16 and 18). 

_ 6. Yokobaiiia to Tachikawa on the Hachioji Railway ; thence vi^ 
Ome up tbe valley of the Taniagawa to Kofu. Kofu to Kajikazawa, 
and down tiie rapids of tlie Fujikawa (visiting Minobn) to Iwabuchi on 
ihe Tukaido Railway. One week. If Mitako be visited, one day more. 
All this is included in Route 10. 

7. Y^'okohama to Ikao, Ist day ; Ikao to Knsatsu, 2nd day ; Kusatsii 
to Sliibu over Shirane-san, 3rd day ; Shibu to Toy(»no and Nagano, 4tli 
^la}' ; Nagano vki Karuizawa to Myogi-san, 5th day. Train to Yoko- 
liama in 4J hrs. One day extra for ascent of Asama-yama from Karui- 
zawa (Routes 14, 32. 13, and 12). 

8. Yokohama to Nagano by train, back to Ueda to rejoin the Naka- 
«endu, thence along the Nakasendo to Gifu, and by train to Kyoto. 
Eight or nine days (Routes 32, 39, and 38). 

9. Yokohama by the Koshu-kaido or Nakasendo to Shimo-no-Suwa, 
and down the rapids of the Tenryu-gawa to the Tokaido Railway. 
Five or six days (Routes 10, 39, and 35). 

10. Yokohama by train to Shiogania, by water to ^latsusliima, Ishino- 
maki, Kinkwa-zan, and Oginohama, whence steamer back to Yokohama* 
Six days. Three extra days to visit Bandai-san from Motomiya on 
Northern Railway. Two extra days from Sendai for Ichinoseki by train, 
an<l descent of the Kitakami-gawa (Routes 24, 30, and 21). 

11. Kobe to Nagoya by rail ; steamer from Atsuta to Kami-Yashiro 
for temples of Ise; by land to Seki, and by the Kwansei Railway to 
Kyoto._ Four days (Routes 38 and 37). 

12. Osaka through Yamato to Koya-san and back. Five days (Route 
46). 

13. Kyoto to Tsurnga on the Sea of Japan ; overland or steamer to 
Fnshiki, steamer to Naoetsu, rail to Tokyo. Five or six days (Routes 
33, 32, and 12). 

14. Tour of the Inland Sea and Shikoku. Time uiy^ertain (Routes 
50 to 53). 

* 15. Nagasaki to tbe solfataras of Onsen (Unzcn) and back. Three 
days (Route 55). 

16. Naga<;aki to the hot-springs of Takeo, and back via the potteries 
of Arita. Three days (Routes 55 and 56). 

17. From Nagasaki by steaiier to Misumi, 8 hrs.; overland to Kuma- 



90 Introduction : — Outline Totirs. 

moto; tlience viA Yatstisliiro and Hitoyoslii for the descent of tlifr 
rapids of tlie Kuinagawa. Six days. Tlie trip to Hitoyoslii and back, 
omitting Kuummoto, may be made from Misumi in three or four days 
(Route 57). 

18. From Nagasaki by steamer v'ld Hyakkwan to Wakatf^u, Ist day ; 
jinrikisha to Hida, 2iid day; by the Yabake valley to Kakatsu, 3rd day; 
0ita, 4th day; Takeda, 5th day; Sakanashi, 6th day; Knmamoto, 7tli 
day; back to Nagusuki by steamer from Misumi, 8lh day. Three or 
four extra days are required for the descent of the rapids of tlie Kuma- 
g^awa (Routes 56 and 57). 

19. From Hakodate by steamer to Olaru; thence to Sapporo, Volcano 
Bay, and back to Hakodate overland. Five or six days (Route ^Q), 

20. By steamer from Hakodate up the East Coast of Yezo and to the 
Southern Ku riles (Route 67). 



SECTION I. 



EASTERN JAPAN. 



(Routes 1 — 23. 



M Introduction : — Outline Tours. 

tnoto; thence viii Yatsnshiro and Hitoyoslii for tlie descent of tli» 
rapids of tlie Kiiinagawa. Six days. The trip to Hitoyoslii and back, 
omitting Kuummoto, may be made from Misumi in three orfmir day» 
(Route 57). 

18. From Nagasaki by steamer vid Hyakkwan to Wakatfu, Ist day ; 
jinrikisha to Hida, 2nd day; by the Yabake valley to Nakatsu, 3rd day; 
Oita, 4th day; Takeda, 5tli day; Sakanashi, 6th day; Kiimamoto, Tth 
day; back to Nagasaki by steamer from Misumi, 8lh day. Three or 
four extra days are required for the descent of the rapids of the Kuma- 
gawa (Routes 56 and 57). 

19. From Hakodate by steamer to Olaru; thence to Sapporo, Volcano 
Bay, and back to Hakodate overland. Five or six days (Route ()&). 

20. By steamer from Hakodate up the East Cuust of Yezo and to the- 
Southern Kuriles (Route 67). 



SECTION I. 



EASTERN JAPAN. 



(Routes 1 2^, 



Handbook for Travellers 



IN 



JAPAN. 



ROUTES. 



KOUTE 1. 



Yokohama. 

Tokohaina> the place where 
most visitors first touch Japanese 
soil, is the largest of the Treaty 
Ports and practically the port of 
Tokyo. 

Hotels.— Grand Hotel, No. 20 j 
Club Hotel, No. 5-b, both on the 
Bund facing the sea; Haefker's 
Hotel, No. 87, Main Street. 

Begtauranis. — (Muropean food). 
Nissei-ro, in Benten-dori. — (Japor 
Msefood). Edoko, in Minami Naka- 
dori, noted f orbits eels (unagi-meshi); 
Sanomo, in Ota-machi ; Fukki-ro, 
near the Railway Station. 

Japanese Inns. — Yamazaki-ya, 

Tawara-ya, Takano-ya, Imamura- 
ya. 

Banks. — Hongkong and Shanghai 
Bank, No. 2; New Oriental Bank, 
No. 11 ; Chartered Bank of India, 
Australia, and China, No. 78. Also 
Agencies of the Chartered Mer- 
cantile Bank and the Comptoir 
d'Escompte ; Yokohama Specie 
Bank (Japanese). 

Con«*Za<€8. — British, No. 172; 
American, No. 234; French, No. 
84; (German, No. 81. 

Post and Telegraph Office.— Thia, 
together with the Telephcme Ex- 



chcenge, the Custom House (Zeikwan), 
and the Prefecture {Kenchd), stands 
near the British and American 
Consulates on the space between 
the Foreign Settlement and the 
Japanese town. 

Steam Comfmunication. — Japan 
Mail Steamship Company (Nippon 
Yusen Kwaisha), close to the Rail- 
way Station ; Peninsular and Orien- 
tal, No. 15 ; Messageries Maritimes, 
No. 9; Norddeutscher Lloyd, No. 
29; Pacific Mail, Occidental and 
Oriental, No. 4-a ; Canadian Pacific, 
No. 200 ; Agents for " Glen" line, 
Jardine, Matheson & Co. ; '' Castle " 
line and " Shire " line, Adamson, 
Bell & Co; "Ben" line Comes & 
Co ; " Holt's " line, Butterfield and 
Swire. 

Churches. — Christ Church (An- 
glican), No. 105 ; Union Church 
(Protestant Episcopalian), No. 167; 
Roman Catholic, No. 80 ; Methodist 
Church, No. 221. 

Clubs. — Yokohama United Club, 
No. 5-A.; Club Q«rmania, No. 235. 

Photographs of Japanese scenery 
and costumes. — Farsari & Co., No. 
16 ; Welsh & Co., No. 86 ; Kimbei, 
in Honcho-dori; Tamamura, in 
Benten - dori ; Suzuki, near the 
Cricket Q-round. 

Books and Maps relating to Japan. 



54 



Pioute 1, — YokoJiama. 



—Kelly and Walsh, No. 61 ; Good- 
enough & Co., No. 56 ; Farsari, No. 
16. 

Foreign Stores for Japanese Works 
of Art. — Deakin Brothers & Co., 
at the Grand Hotel and No. 16 ; 
Kuhn, No. 67 ; Shinagawa, No. 35 ; 
Arthur & Bond's Fine Art Gallery, 
No. 12 ; Welsh & Co., No. 86. 

Japanese Curio Dealers. — Minoda 
Chojiro, in fionchd-dori, fine lac- 
quer, enamels, and ivories ; Inoue, 
44, Honcho-dori, screens, embroid- 
eries, etc. ; Musashi-ya, in Honcho- 
dori, jewellery, ivories, silver-ware, 
etc. ; Nagasaki-ya, in Honcho-dori, 
jewellery, metal- work, ivories, etc. ; 
Matsuishi-ya, in Honcho-dori, 
porcelain in European shapes ; 
Tashiro-ya, in Benten-dori, porce-. 
lain ; Watano, in Honcho-dori, 
porcelain ; Kosaka, 25, Benten-dori, 
paper fans ; Shamokame, 15, Hon- 
cho-dori, embroidery, porcelain, 
and enamels ; Fine Art Exhibi- 
tion, in Asahi-machi. 

SiUc Stores. — Shobei, Shieno, both 
in Honcho-dori; Noboru-ya Saku- 
bei, in Benten-dori; also, for 
cheaper articles, Yamaguchi in 
Ot«>-machi, and Matsura, 52, Ben- 
ten-dori. 

Emhroideries, Silk cmd Cotton 
Crapes, Japanese Cottons, etc. — No- 
zawa-ya, '30, Benten-dori, Nicho- 
me; Tamagata-ya, opposite No- 
zawa-ya. 

Japanese Note-paper. — ^Tanikawa, 
in Minami Naka-dori Itchome. 

Toys, etc. — Nagai, in Honcho-dori. 

Bamboo and Bead Blinds, Cabinets, 
etc. — Moriyasu, 62, Benten-dori Shi- 
cbome. 

Japanese Theatres, etc. — ^Tsuta-za, 
in Isezaki-ch5 ; Minato-za, in Sumi- 
yoshi-cho, in the native town, 
where there is also generally a sort 
of fair. Fairs are held in honour 
of Yakushi in Motomachi Itchome 
on the 8th and 12th of every 
month, and at Nogeyama in honour 
of the Sun-Goddess and of Fud5, 
on the Ist, 15th, and 28th. 

Pvhlie Garden and Cricket Ground. 



n 



n 



— At the back of the Settlement, 
behind the American Consulate; 
Bluff Gardens, No. 230. 

Hfevoapapers. — " Japan Ga.zette, 
" Japan Mail," and "Japan Herald, 
daily. 

HiBTOBT.— Yokohama owes its com- 
mercial importance to the foreigners who 
have settled there. It was an insignificant 
fishing village when Commodore Perry 
anchored off it in 1864; and when it vras 
agreed to open a Treaty Port in this part 
of tlapan, tne choice naturally fell, not on 
Yokohama, but on the thriving tofvn of 
Kanagawa, on the opposite side of the 
small Day now partially filled in. But the 
Japanese Government, finding Kanagawa 
inconvenient because of its situation on 
the Tdkaid5, at a time when collisions 
between foreigners and the armed re- 
tainers of the Daimyds passing to and 
from the capital were to be appre- 
hended, gave facilities for leasing 
ground at Yokohama instead. Thither 
accordingly the merchants, anxious to 
open up trade, repaired in 1869. The 
consuls protested against the change ; 
but the only lasting result of their pro- 
test is the retention of the name Kana- 
gawa in certain ofS-cial documents. The 
superiority of the Yokohama anchorag^e 
doubtless reconciled the foreign com- 
munity to the inferior position of the 
place on a mud flat facing North. The 
greater portion of the Settlement, aa it 
now exists, dates from after the fire of 
1866, and the filufE on which most of 
the well-to-do residents have their 
dweUings was first leased for building 
purposes in 18'{7. A large and rapidly 
growing native town has sprung up 
outside the foreign Settlement. The 
government of the Settlement, at one 
time in the hands of a mixed foreign 
municipality, is at present administered 
by the Prefect of Kanagawa. The last 
of the English soldiers, by whom the Set- 
tlement was at one time protected, left 
Japan in March 1875. Waterworks were 
constructed under the dii'ection of Major- 
General Palmer, R. B., and opened in 
October 1887 to supply Yokohama from 
the Sagami-gawa, 28 m. distant. 

It should be explained that 
although the streets have names, 
these are comparatively little used, 
as the numbering of the whole 
Settlement is continuous, irrespec- 
tive of street names. A similar 
remark applies to the Bluff. 

Yokohama possesses a Public 
Hall where theatrical and other 
entertainments are given, a fine 
Masonic Hall, and a Race Oourso. 



Route 2, — Excursions from Yokohama. 



55 



Sace meetings, often attended 
l)y His Majesty the Mikado, are 
lield in spring and autumn. 
Though Yokohama offers little to 
1>he sightseer^ the curio-hunter 
'will here find himself in his ele- 
ment, and the lover of the pictur- 
esque wiU revel in the beautiful 
landscapes for which the neigh- 
bourhood is famous. 



ROUTE 2. 

EXCXTBSIONS FBOM YOKOHAMA. 

1. KAHAETTBA AND THB DAIBUTSU. 
2. ENOSHIHA. 8. DZT7SHI AND 
HOBIUCHI. 4. EANAZAWA AND 
MINE. 6. SUeiTA AND TOMIOKA. 
6. TOK08UKA, XTBAGA, AND MI- 
BAKI. 7. THE CAVES OF TOTSUKA. 
8. OTAMA. 9. disc. 10. EOZIT. 

1. — Kamakttba. 

Kamakura is reached from Yoko- 
hama in 50 min. by the Tokaido 
Kailway, changing carriages at 
Ofuna Junction. This branch line 
continues on to Dzushi and Yoko- 
suka, being altogether 21^ miles in 
length. 

Kamakara, once the populous 
capital of Eastern Japan, has now 
shrunk into a sea-side village 
which is a favourite health resort 
of the Yokohama residents. The 
*£[aihin-in Hotel or Marine Sana- 
torium, situated under a pine- 
grove near the shore, is 20 min. 
walk from the Bailway Station. 
The Japanese inn, Mitsuhashi, may 
also be recommended. Both pro- 
vide hot and cold salt-water baths. 

Kamaknra was the seat of govern- 
ment in Eastern Japan from the end 
of the 12th to the middle of the 16th 
century. Yoritomo, who established the 
Shdgnnate in 1192, chose this place as 
his capital, and here was laid the found- 
ation of that peculiar system of govern- 
ment by the military class which pre- 
vailed up to the year 1868. The city of 
Kamakura, in the time of Yoritomo's 
immediate successors, extended all over 



the plain and into the recesses of the 
different yatau, or dells, which branch 
off from it among the hills. Its popula- 
tion is believed to have exceeded one 
million in the days of its glory. Kama- 
kura was the scene of innumerable con- 
tests between rival feudal factions, and 
of many bloody deeds. Here on the 
sea-shore were beheaded the Mongol 
ambassadors from Kublai Khan, who 
had imperiously sent to demand the 
submission of Japan to his sway. The 
city was repeatedly sacked and laid in 
ashes, and seems never to have fully 
recovered from the disasters of the year 
1466. The neighbouring city of Odawara, 
which next rose into importance as the 
seat of the powerful Hoj5 family, at- 
tracted to itself large numbers of the 
inhabitants of Kamakura, the ruin of 
which town was completed by the found- 
ing of Yedo in A.D. 1603. 

The chief sights of Kamakura 
are the Temple of Hachiman, the 
Daibutsu or colossal bronze Bud- 
dha, and the great image of the 
goddess Kwannon. They all lie 
within a mile of the hotel. 

The Temple of Hachiman, the 
God of War, dating from the end 
of the 12th century, stands in a 
commanding position on a hill 
called Tsuru-ga-oka, and is ap- 
proached by a stately avenue of 
pine-trees leading up the whole 
way from the sea-shore. Though 
both avenue and temple have 
suffered from the ravages of 
time, enough still remains to 
remind one of the ancient glories 
of the place. Three stone torii 
lead up to the temple, which 
stands at the head of a broad 
flight of stone steps. Notice the 
magnificent ichd tree, nearly 20 
ft. in circumference and said to be 
over a thousand years old. 

Before ascending the flight of 
steps, the minor shrines to the 
r. deserve passing notice. The 
nearer one, painted red and called 
Wakamiya, is dedicated to the 
Emperor Nintoku, son of the God 
of War. The further one, re- 
novated in 1890, is called Shira- 
hata Jinja and dedicated to Yori- 
tomo. The style and structure 
are somewhat unusual, black and 
gold being the only colours em- 



66 



Route 2. — Ejccursions from Yokohama, 



ployed, and iron being the mate- 
rial of the four chief pillars. In 
the interior is a small wooden 
image of Yoritomo. 

A side path leads up hence to the 
main temple, which is enclosed 
in a square colonnade painted red. 
The temple, which was re-erect- 
ed in 1828 after having been 
destroyed by fire seven years ear- 
lier, is in the Ryobu-Shint5 style, 
with red pillars, beams, and 
rafters, and is decorated with 
small painted carvings chiefly of 
birds and animals. In the colon- 
nade are several religious cars {mi 
koshi) used on the occasion of the 
semi-annual festival (15th April 
and 15th September), a wooden 
image of Sumiyoshi by Unkei, 
and a few relics of Yoritomo. 
Most of the relics once preserved 
in the temple have been removed 
to the residence of the Chief 
Priest {Hakozaki Oyatsu-kwan), and 
are only exhibited at festival time. 

Immediately behind the temple 
of Hachiman, is a small hill called 
8hirdhata-yama, whence Yoritomo 
is said to have often a-dmired the 
prospect. The base of the hill has 
recently been enclosed and laid out 
as a garden. 

The Daibutsu, or 'Great Bud- 
dha,' stands alone among Japan- 
ese works of art. No other gives 
such an impression of majesty, or 
so truly symbolises the central 
idea of Buddhism — ^the intellect- 
ual calm which comes of perfected 
knowledge and the subjugation 
of aU passion. But to be fully 
appreciated, the Daibutsu must be 
visited many times. 

There hfiui been a temple in this plswje 
eince the 8th century, but the image is 
of much later date. Its precise history is 
involved in obscurity. Tradition, how- 
ever, says that TJoritomo, when taking 
part in the dedication of the Daibutsu 
at Nara, conceived the desire of having 
a similar object of worship at his own 
capital, but died before he could put 
the plan into execution. One of the 
ladies of his court undertook to collect 
funds for the purpose, and in the year 



1252 Jhe Kamakura Daibutsu was cast 
by Ono Goroemon, History tells of 
two such imHges. The first, a wooden 
one, was designed by a priest who col- 
lected money far and wide amon?st all 
classes, and in 1238 the head of the 
image, so ft. in circumference, was in 
its place, while the temple in which it 
stood was completed in 1241 and dedi- 
cated in l'i!43. This image is said to 
have represented Amida, and to have 
been destroyed by a tempest. The 
second is spoken of as a gilt bronze 
image of Shaka, and the casting is said 
to have been begun in 1252. The pre- 
sent one represents Amida, and notwith- 
standing the difference of name, is pro- 
bably the bronze image spoken of above 
as dating from 1252. It was enclosed in 
a large building 60 yds. square, whose 
roof was supported on sixty-three mass- 
ive wooden pillars. Many of the stone 
bases on which they stood are still in 
situ. The temple buildings were twice 
destroyed by tidal waves in 1869 and 
1494, after which they were not rebuilt. 
Since that time the image has remained 
exposed to the elements. 

The Daibutsu is best seen from 
about half-way up the approach. 
Its dimensions are approximately 
as follows : — 

• FT. IK". 

Height 49 7 

Circumference 97 2 

Length of face 8 5 

Width from ear to ear 17 9 

Eound white boss on fore- 
head 1 3 

Length of eye: 3 11 

„ of eyebrow 4 2 

„ of ear 6 6 

„ of nose 3 9 

Width of mouth 3 2 

Height of bump of wisdom. 9 
Diameter of bump of wis- 
dom 2 4 

Curls (of which there are 

830): Height 9 

Do. Diameter 1 

Length from knee to knee 35 8 
Circumference of thumb ... 3 

The eyes are of pure gold, and 
the silver boss weighs 30 pounds 
avoirdupois. The image is formed 
of sheets of bronze cast separately, 
brazed together, and finished off on 
the outside with the chisel. The 
hollow interior of the in age 



Kamnkura and Enoshima. 



67 



contains a small shrine, and the 
visitor may ascend into the head. 

The Temple of Kwannon stands 
not far from the Daibutsu on 
an eminence commanding a 
beautiful view of the sea-shore 
towards Misaki, and over the 
plain of Kamakura. The great 
image of the Goddess of Mercy, 
for which this temple is cele- 
brated, stands behind folding 
doors which a small fee to the 
attendant priest will suffice to 
open ; but the figure can only be 
indistinctly seen by the dim 
light of a few candles. It is of 
brown lacquer gilded over, and 
its height is 30 ft. 5^ in. The 
admirable bronze seated figure 
of Dainichi Nyorai on the 1. was 
presented by the Shogun Ashi- 
kaga Yoshimasa (b. 1436, d. 1490). 

Close to this temple is a cliff 
called Inamura-ga-saki, from the 
top of which a magnificent view 
can be obtained. 

In 1333, when the, city of Kamakura 
was attacked by the partisans of the 
Emperor G-o-Daigo. part of the force led 
by Nitta Yoshisada advanced along the 
strand from the W. of this hill, but were 
unable to pass under the cliff owing to 
ehevaux-de-frite being placed against it 
down to the water's edge, while their 

{)as8age in boats was prevented by a 
ong row of war- junks lying some 500 or 
WiO yds. out at sea. Yoshisada there- 
fore climbed the cliff, and after praying 
to the Sea-God, flung his sword into the 
sea, whereupon the tide miraculously 
retreated, leaving a space a mile and a 
half wide at the foot of the cliff, along 
which he marched his army into Kama- 
kura. 

2. — ExosHnncA. 

This most picturesque spot, 
though called an island, is more 
properly a peninsula ; for only at 
very high tides is it surrounded 
by the sea. The prettiest way 
there is by the road called Shichi-ri- 
ga-hama * skirting the beach from 
Kamakura, and through the vi lage 
of Katase. The distance from 

•Literally, the "seven ri shore," the 
r» \n early times having oqI.y consisted of 
six eho in Eastern Japan. 



Kamakura is 4 miles. Jinrikishas 
can be taken as far as Katase, 
whence it is a short walk across the 
neck of sand joining Enoshima to 
the mainland. 

A sKghtly more direct way of 
approaching Enoshima is from 
Fujisawa station on the Tokaido 
Railway, whence it is 1 ri by jin- 
rikisha to Katase. 

Half way is the Yukial-gawa, which, 
though but an insignificant streamlet, 
is worthy of mention on account of the 
following incident :— 

When Nichiren was miraculously de- 
livered from the hand of the executioner 
at the neighbouring village of Koshigoe, 
a messenger was at once despatched to 
KfCmakura to ask for further orders, 
while at the same moment a reprieve 
was sent from the palace of the Regent 
Tokiyori. The two messengers happen- 
ed to meet at this stream, whence the 
name of Tuldai-gavoa^ which means 
* the river of meeting.* 

Enoshima, being a popular holi- 
day resort, is full of excellent inns. 
The best are the Iwamoto-in, Klinki- 
ro, and Ebisu-ya. There is fair sea- 
bathing. The shops of Enoshima 
are full of shells, corals, and 
marine curiosities generally, many 
of which are brought from other 
parts of the coast for sale. The 
beautiful ' glass rope sponge ' 
(Hyalonema sieholdi), called hosu- 
gai by the Japanese, is said to be 
obtained from a reef deep below 
the surface of the_seia, not far 
from the island of Oshima, whose 
smoking top is visible to the S. 
on a clear day. 

From the earliest ages . the 
island was sacred to Benten, the 
Buddhist Goddess of Luck; but 
this cult has now been exchanged 
for that of three Shinto god- 
desses. To these objects of wor- 
ship several temples have been 
re-dedicated. But the spot con- 
sidered most sacred of all is the 
large cave on the far side of the 
island. It is 124 yds. in depth, 
the height at the entrance being 
at least 30 ft., but diminishing 
gradually towards the interior. 
The rocks near the cave are 



68 



Route 2, — Excursions from Yokohama, 



frequented by divers, who for a 
few cents bring up shell-fish 
from the deep, which, however, 
they are suspected of having pre- 
viously concealed about their 
persons. 

At Katase stands the temple of 
Bynkdji, founded after Nichiren's 
death by six of his disciples, and 
built on the spot where his ex- 
ecution was to have taken place. 
It possesses a number of excellent 
wood-carvings. 

3. — DZXJSHI AND HOBITJCHI. 

Dznshi, on the railway, 2^ 
miles to the S. E. of Eamakura, 
is the station for Horiuclii, li 
miles distant, which has lately 
risen into favour as a sea-side 
resort, some of the wealthier 
residents of Tokyo and Yokohama 
having built villas there. The 
road from Dzushi to Horiuchi is 
practicable for jinrikishas, and the 
view from it one of the loveliest in 
Japan, — Fuji, which rises straight 
from the waters of Odawara Bay, 
forming the central feature of 
the scene. The Hikage-no-Chaya 
inn at Horiuchi may be recom- 
mended. A little nearer, the 
station, across a ferry, there is 
another inn known aB the Onsen, — 
rather a poor plsice, but with 
better bathing. From the Hika- 
ge-no-Chaya, bathers have a walk 
of about 3 min. to reach a good 
beach. Half a mile beyond the 
Hikage-no-Chaya there is a beauti- 
ful wooded promontory called 
Morita Myojin, and the whole 
walk for 2 m. further along the 
coast unfolds a succession of ex- 
quisite scenes. 

4. — Kanazawa and Mine. 

Jinrikishas may be taken the 
whole way ; two men required. 
The total distance is 4 ri 30 chd 
(IJf miles), the road being flat 
for the first 6 m., as far as the 



hamlet of Seki {Inn, Ishikawa-ya), 
and after that, very hilly. 

[At the hamlet of Tanaka, 10 
cho beyond Seki, a road prac- 
ticable most of the way for 
jinrikishas, turns off r. to a 
hiU called Mine, which com- 
mands a wonderfully extensive 
view. The finest prospect is 
towards the N., looking down 
on a multitude of furrowed 
ridges that stretch away to 
the mountains of Kotsuke. To 
the W., the sea is_visible near 
Hiratsuka and Oiso on the 
T^aido, and beyond it, Fuji 
with the Oyama and Hakone 
ranges. The distance from 
Tanaka to Mine is 28 cho, s&y 
2 mUes.] 

On reaching the crest of the 
ridge, the wondrous beauty which 
has led the foreign residents to 
bestow on this neighbourhood 
the name of the Plains of Heaven, 
suddenly reveals itself. A scene 
of perfect loveliness may be en- 
joyed from a wayside tea-house 
called NoJcendo, which nestles 
under a pine-tree known as the 
Fvde-sute-matsu, because a Japa- 
nese artist of oMen times here 
flung away his pencil in despair. 
At the spectator's feet is a wide, 
cultivated valley, bordered by 
pine-clad hills and opening out 
to the shores of an inlet, whose 
still waters are partly hemmed 
in by smaU peninsulas and islets, 
with to the 1. the promontory 
of Kwannon-saki, and on the op- 
posite side of Tokyo Bay the long 
crest of Nokogiri-yama. The 
most conspicuous of the islands 
are Natsushima (Webster Island) 
with Sarushima (Perry Island) 
beyond it, and Eboshi-jima which 
is much smaller and to be re- 
cognised by its triangular shape. 
But a mere catalogue of names 
can avail nothing towards con- 
veying an idea of the peculiar 
magic of a scene which might be 



Route 2, — Kanazawa, Sugita, Yokosuka, 



59 



the original that inspired the 
Japanese landscape painter's art. 

KanazAUva (Inns, Chiyo-moto, 
Azuma-ya), on the shores of the 
Mutsura Inlet, is chiefly noted 
for its Hak-kei, a characteristically 
Japanese view from a small 
height just outside the village. 
Close to the ferry at Nojima {Inn, 
Nishino - ya) is a celebrated 
peony garden, which attracts 
crowds from Tokyo during the 
season of flowering. Some of the 
plants are said t^ be over 300 
years old. Kanazawa may also 
be reached by the coast road 
vid Tomioka on foot in 3 hrs. 
The way back to Yokohama 
may be pleasantly varied by 
taking the jinrikisha road across 
the neck of the little peninsula 
of Misaki to the Dzushi station 
on the Yokosuka branch of the 
Tokaido Railway, a distance of 
24 ri (6 miles). The run in from 
Dzushi to Yokohama takes 1 hr. 

This trip may advantageously 
be combined with a visit to Kama- 
kura, the station beyond Dzushi. 

5. — SuaiTA AND TOMIOKA. 

It is a very pleasant walk or 
jinrikisha ride of about 2 ri, or 4f 
miles, from Yokohama to Sngita 
(Inns, AzumsL-ya and others), 
famous for its plum-blossoms ; 
and 1 ri further on to Toiiiioka 
(Inns, Kimpa-ro, Kaihin-ro), a 
favourite resort of the Yokohama 
residents, on account of the good 
searbathing in Mississippi Bay. 
Tomioka may also be easily 
reached by boat from the cutting 
at the back of the Settlement 
in about 40 min., the distance from 
the Settlement to the point where 
the boat is taken being approxi- 
mately 1 ri. . The whole neighbour- 
hood is delightfully picturesque. 

A favourite afternoon's walk is 
to Macpherson's Hill {JAoritsvika), 
on the way to Sugita. This hill 
commands a fine view of Missis- 



sippi Bay and of the country 
towards Fuji. 

6. — Yokosuka, Ubaga, and 
Misaki. 

Yokosuka is the terminus of 
the Of una - Eamakura - Dzushi - 
Yokosuka branch line of railway, 
and is reached from Yokohama in 
\\ hr. Steamers also ply between 
Yokohama and Yokosuka several 
times daily. The little line of rail- 
way passes through characteristic- 
ally Japanese scenery — wooded 
hiUs rising up abruptly from valleys 
laid out in rice-fields, with here and 
there a cottage or a tiny shrine 
half-hidden in a rustic bower. 
Tlie train darts in and out of 
short tunnels under some of these 
hills before reaching the sea-shore 
at Yokosuka. 

Yokosuka (Inn, Mitomi-ya ; ¥w- 
eign restaurant, Kaiyo-ken), which 
but a few years ago was a poor 
village, is rapidly growing in im- 
portance, on account of the Govern- 
ment Dockyard established there. 
Foreigners can usually obtain ad- 
mittance by presenting their cards 
at the gate; but it is safer to provide 
oneself with an introduction from 
the naval authorities. The town is 
prettily situated on a landlocked 
bay. Its chief interest for English- 
men lies in the fact that here lived 
and died Will Adams, the first 
Englishman that ever reached the 
shores of Japan. 

Will Adams, a native of Gillingham in 
Kent, was chief pilot to a fleet of Dutch 
ships which reached the Southern coast 
of Japan on the 19th April, A.D. IfKK). 
Brou^t as a prisoner into the presence 
of leyasu, Adams soon won the favour 
of that astute ruler, who employed him 
both as a ship-builder and as a kind of 
diplomatic agent when other English and 
Dutch traders began to Hrrive. Adams* 
constantly reiterated desire to behold his 
native land again and the wife and 
children whom he had left behind, was to 
the last frustrated by adverse circum- 
stances. He consoled himself by taking 
another wife, a Japanese, with whom he 
lived until his death in l620atHemi, a 
suburb of Yokosuka, where the railway 
station now stands. 



60 



Route 2. — Excursions Jvijin Yokohama, 



His grave and that of his Japa- 
nese wife are situated on the top of 
a hill, i hr. walk from the rail- 
way station. The Japanese call 
the place Anoin-zuka, from Anjin 
which means " pilot," that having 
been the appellation by which 
Adams was commonly known. The 
tombs are of stone in the ordinary 
Japanese style. Will Adams' monu- 
ment is without an inscription, 
while that of his wife bears the 
posthumous title which every good 
Buddhist receives from the priests 
of the parish temple. The site has 
been well-cared for ever since the 
discovery and identification of the 
tombs in 1872 by Mr. James Walter 
of Yokohama. Not only is the 
situation of the graves most pictur- 
esque, but the eminence on which 
they stand affords a lovely view of 
land and sea. The place is to be 
recommended as a pleasant spot 
for a picnic. 

Another vantage-point just out- 
side the opposite or E. end of Yoko- 
suka^ is Kome-no-yama, a cliff on 
which stands a temple of the Nichi- 
ren sect called Ryuhonji, possessing 
some good carvings. The level 
stretches at the foot of the cliffs 
have recently been reclaimed from 
the sea. 

The distance from Yokosuka to 
Uraga is 1 n 32 cho (4^ miles) 
along an excellent road. A little 
more than _ half-way lies the 
hamlet of Otsn, where there is 
excellent^ Japanese accommodation 
at the Otsu-kwan, with a good 
beach for sea-bathing. 

llratra (Inn, *Yoshikawa in 
Nishi-Uraga) is built on both sides 
of a very narrow fiord-like har- 
bour, and the two divisions thus 
formed are called respectively Higa- 
shi Uraga and Nishi Uraga, i.e.. 
East and West Uraga. They are 
connected by a bridge and a ferry. 

In former times all junks entering the 
Bay of Yedo were stopped at Uraga for 
inspection, and it was here that Com- 
modore Perry anchored on the 8th July, 
1853, bearing with him the letter of Pre- 



sident Fillmore to the Shogun, the result 
of which was to open J apan to foreign 
intercourse. 

Uraga is noted for its manu- 
facture of mizu-ame, a sweet and 
wholesome preparation from sake- 
malt, somewhat resembling honey 
in taste. It is worth while devoting 
^ hr. to the climb up Atago-yama, 
a hill at the back of Nishi Uraga, 
close to the Yoshikawa Inn, com- 
manding a fine view of the town 
and harbour. The hiUs beyond the 
sea to the E. are the Boshu range. 

Uraga is in daily steam com- 
munication with Tokyo, the 
steamers touching at Eachiyama, 
Tateyama, and other ports on the 
Boshu side. The passage from 
Tokyo takes about 4 hours. 

It is a walk or jinrikisha ride 
of 4 n 3 chd (10 miles) to Misaki, 
first along the sands, and then over 
a cultivated upland commanding 
a fine view of Fuji, the Hakone 
and Oyama ranges, and the op- 
posite shores of the bay. 

Misaki (Inns, Ki-no-kuni-ya, Ao- 
yagi ; accommodation can also be 
obtained at Jogashima) offers, as 
a somewhat unusual attraction, 
a Marine Biological Laboratory 
(Misaki Rinkai Jikken-jo) connect- 
ed with the Science College of 
the Imperial University. The 
marine fauna of this district being 
particularly rich in rare forms, 
dredging has produced results 
highly interesting to the zoologist. 
A lighthouse stands on the island 
of Jogashima, 15 cho from the 
mainland, with which it is con- 
nected by a ferry. 

One may complete the tour of 
the Sagami Peninsula, at the ex- 
tremity of which Misaki stands, by 
a pleasant walk of about 7 ri (17 
miles) along the coast to Dzushi or 
Eamakura. 

7. — The Caves op Totsuka. 

XTaya no Ana.) 

Though known to foreigners as 
the Caves of Totsuka, these caves 



Caves of TotsuJca. Oyama, 



61 



are really nearer to Ofuna, the 
next station beyond Totsuka on 
the Tokaido Railway, 40 min. run 
from Yokohama. They lie_at a 
distance of 12 or 15 cho from Ofuna 
station, but nearly 1^ ri from 
Totsuka station. Whichever sta- 
tion it be decided to alight at, the 
trip on to the caves can be done 
by jinrikisha, and lies through 
pretty scenery. The caves are well 
worth a visit; but as they are 
apt to be wet, it is advisable to 
wear old clothes for the occasion. 
The best time to choose is the 
spring, as the cherry-trees too will 
then be seen to advantage. Candles 
are provided at a house near the 
entrance, where also it would be 
possible to picnic. A local guide 
will point out the Buddhist carvings 
with which the walls and ceilings 
are adorned. 

These caves with their carvings 
are a monument of modern Bud- 
dhist piety. Existing in embryo 
since the Middle Ages (they are 
said by tradition to have served 
for the coneealment both of troops 
and of treasure in the 14th cen- 
tury), they have only been excavat- 
ed to their present extent by an 
old man still living — one Sato 
Shichizaemon, also known as 
Kinoue-no-Inkyo — whose family 
have for generations been rich 
peasants in this locality. In the 
year 1851, this man was urged in a 
dream to devote his life to making 
these caves into an imperishable 
shrine to various Buddhist divin- 
ities, and especially to the Goddess 
Benten. This he accordingly did 
and still continues to do, employing 
his own money for the enterprise 
and local talent for the carvings. 
Among the latter may be (Ss- 
tinguished angels, dragons, lions, 
birds both natural and mythical, 
the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac, the 
Eighteen Eakan, the Thirty-Three 
Kwannon of the district of Chichi- 
bu, and other Buddhas innumer- 
able. To explore the caves pro- 



perly takes about 1 hr. The 
rock being quite soft, it may be 
feared that this strange monument 
will not prove as lasting as old 
Mr. Sato piously anticipates. 

8. — Otama. 

This celebrated mountain, about 
4,000 ft. high, is most easily reached 
from Yokohama by alighting at 
Hiratsuka station on the Tokaido 
Eailway, a run of a little over 1 
hr.;_thence by jinrikisha to the vill. 
of Oyama on the lower slope, 3i 
ri (9i miles) distant. It is a 
favourite goal of pilgrims, who 
continue to be attracted to its 
shrine, although the old Buddhist 
objects of worship have here, as 
in so many other parts of the 
country, been replaced officially 
by comparatively obscure Shin- 
to deities. Indeed, according to 
Satow, it is uncertain who these 
gods are; but the best authority 
asserts that the chief deity is 
Iwanaga-hime, sister to the god- 
dess of Mount Fuji. The people 
of the neighbouring country-side 
often call the mountain by the 
name of Sekison-san. 

Jinrikishas are left at the vill. of 
Koyasii (Iriri,Koma-ya), along street 
of steps, which at its _ upper end 
changes its name to Oyauia (Inn, 
*Kame-ya, with curious garden). 
Such of the inhabitants as do 
not keep houses of entertainment 
for the pilgrims who flock here 
during the month of June, busy 
themselves with the manufacture 
of rosaries, toys, and domestic 
utensils. The traveller wiU notice 
that the posts of two shrines in 
the village are so much cut away 
in the centre as scarcely any 
longer to support the roof. This 
has been done by devotees who 
believe that the chips act as 
charms. 

The ascent and descent of the 
mountain take from 4 to 4^ hrs., 
but are far more fatiguing than 



62 



Eoute S, — Yokohama to Tokyo by RaiL 



most climbs of the same length 
owing to the multitude of steps. 
A little way beyond the inns, a 
stream rushes out of a hole in a 
rocky wall some 20 ft. high, and 
falls into a pool, in which it is con- 
sidered highly meritorious to bathe 
as long as the cold can be endured. 
Some way further up, the en- 
trance to the sacred domain is in- 
dicated by a torii perched on the 
top of a flight of steps. Here the 
traveller has to choose between the 
Otoho-zaka ('man's ascent'), and 
Onna-zaka (* woman's ascent '), the 
former a continuous series of steep 
flights of high steps, the latter 
longer but less fatiguing. Both 
paths unite higher up. The view 
from this point includes the plains 
of Sagami and Musashi, with the 
river Banyu, Capes Misaki and 
Sunosaki at the entrance of 
Tokyo Bay, the sea, and the moun- 
tains of Kazusa. Some flights 
of steps lead up to the main 
temple, whence it is a climb of 28 
cKq to the summit which commands 
a view of Fuji, the wooded top of 
Tanzawa, the mountains of Nikko, 
Enoshima, etc. 

9. — OlSO AND Kozu. 

Oiso is 1 ^ hr. from Yokohama by 
the Tokaido Railway. A pleasant 
day may here be spent loitering on 
the beautiful beach and bathing in 
the sea. There is a lovely view : — 
to the r., Fuji, the Hakone range, 
and the peninsula of Izu : ahead, 
Vries Island; to the 1., the pro- 
montory of Misaki with the islet 
of Enoshima. The Toryo-kwan at 
Oiso is an excellent inn in Japanese 
style, at which some simple Euro- 
pean dishes, such as fried fish, 
omelette, and chicken, may be 
obtained, and where there is a 
resident doctor. 

Oiso, though apparently so in- 
significant a place, is of consider- 
able antiquity. Mention of it 
occurs in the story of the Soga 



Brothers* Revenge in the 12th 
century (see Route 6). 

Kozu (inn, Hayano), the station 
beyond Oiso, is another pleasant 
sea-side village, having much the 
same view, and well-protected from 
cold winter winds — an advantage 
to which the groves of orange- 
trees covering all the surrounding 
slopes bear witness. 



ROUTE 8. 
Yokohama to ToktO bt Rail. 



Distance 

from 

Yokohama. 


Names 

of 
Stations. 


BemarkB. 


Um. 
6i 
7* 
12 

14f 

18 


YOKOHAMA. 

Kanagawa. 


Express mnn 
through. 

/Change carri- 
ages for Sub- 

• urban and 
Northern Kail- 

Vways. 

Shimbashi St. 


Kawasaki 

Omori 


Shinagawa 

TOKYO 



■ The railway journey from Yoko- 
hama to Tokyo occupies 60 min. 
The line skirts the shores of Tokyo 
Bay, with the old Tokaido high- 
way recognisable at intervals on 
the r. by its avenue of pines. This 
railway, built by English engineers 
and finished in the autumn of 1872, 
was the first line opened to traflBlc 
in Japan. 

Soon after leaving Yokohama, 
the Tokaido Railway branches off 1. 
Observe the fine view of Fuji near 
the first station, 

Eanagawa, once a noted post- 
town on the Tokaido, and intimately 
connected with the first settlement 
of foreigners in this part of Japan. 
(See p. 54.) 





II 
I 

h 

u 

I 
1 



Route 4, — Tokyo. 



68 



Kawasaki (Inn, Asada-ya) is 
noted for a temple situated If m. 
from the station, dedicated to 
Kobo Daishi and commonly known 
as Daishi 8ama. So great is its 
popularity tliat special trains are 
run on the 21st of each month to 
accommodate the crowds that visit 
it. The greatest festival is on the 
21st March, when the grounds are 
filled with cheap staUs and itin- 
erant shows. The temple possesses 
some excellent carvings. The river 
which is crossed just beyond Kawa> 
saki is the Tamagawa or Kokugo, 
the upper course of which is 
romantically beautiful and is de- 
scribed in !Boute 10. Between this 
Station and the next, the Nikko 
and Chichibu ranges come in view 
ahead to the 1. On approaching 

Omoii, the fine wooded blufi seen 
1. is the site of the noted monastery 
of Ikegami. Immediately above 
the station lie the grounds of a 
tea-house commanding a fine pro- 
spect, and the range of the Imperial 
Japanese_£ifle Club. The shell- 
heaps of Omori discovered by Prof. 
Morse have furnished interesting 
prehistoric remains, which have 
been the subject of vehement dis- 
cussion among the learned. At 

ShinagaTFa are seen the forts 
built in the bay during the latter 
days of the Shogunate, but now 
dismantled because useless in 
modern warfare. Just beyond the 
Cras. Works, the line skirts r. the 
prettily laid out garden of the Shiha 
RikyO, one of the minor Imperial 
palaces, and soon after, the train 
enters the Shimbashi Terminus, 
and the traveller is in Tokyo. 



BOUTE 4. 

Tokyo. 

Tokyo, also called Tokei, former- 
ly Yedo. 

Hotels. — Imperial Hotel and To- 
kyo Hotel, both centrally situated ; 
Club Hotel, *in Tsukiji; Seiy6ken, 
near the Shimbashi terminus, with 
branch in Ueno Park. • 

Japanese Inns. — Fushimi-ya, in 
Koku-cho; Higuchi-ya, in Shiro- 
kane-cho ; Karimame-ya, in Baku- 
ro-cho, — all in the Nihon-bashi 
district. 

Restaurants. — (Foreign food) Fu- 
getsu-do, near Shimbashi, with 
confectionery shop ; Sanyen-tei, 
in Shiba Park; Fujimi-ken, not 
far from the British Legation ; 
Mikawa-ya, in Kanda. — (Japanese 
food) Taozen, at San-ya, Asakusa ; 
Yaomatsu, at Mukojima; Hirasei, 
in Fukagawa; Tokiwa-ya, in Yagen- 
bori. 

Tea-houses ('for entertainments in 
Japanese style). — Nakamura-ro, at 
Ryogoku ; Ibumura-ro, at Asakusa ; 
0-un-tei, in Ueno Park. 

Club. — The Tokyo Club, occupy- 
ing a portion of the Hokumei-kwan, 
6 min. from Shimbashi terminus. 

Foreign Legations. — ^Austro Hun- 
gary, 15, Kami Nibanch5 ; France, 
1, lida-machi Itchome ; Germany, 
14, Nagata-cho ; Great Britain, 1, 
Kojimachi Gobancho ; Holland 
(Denmark and Norway), 3, Shiba 
Sakae-cho; Italy, 4, Sannen-cho; 
Bussia, - 1, Ura-Kasumi-ga-seki ; 
United States, 1, Akasaka Enoki- 
saka. 

General Post Office. — At Yedo- 
bashi. 

Central Telegraph Office. — In Ko- 
biki-cho, near the Shimbashi ter- 
minus. Sub-offices in various dis- 
tricts of the city. 

Telephone Exchange. — In No. 1 
Eirakucho Nichome, with fifteen 
Call Offices in the city. 

Parks. — Shiba, Ueno, and Asa- 
kusa. 



liottle 4. — Tukyo. 



[uteams. — Tto Hakubntm-kwaB, 

TTeno Park ; Educational Mu- 

am, in the Seido at Hougo ; 

.iiseum of Arms, in the grounds 

I the Shokouaba temple at Koji- 

Puilic lilirarv— TheTosho-kwan, 
n Ueno Park. 

Chvxches. — Church of England, in 
Shiba Sakae-choi AmerioBJi Epis- 
lopal. Union Church (Protestant), 
Soman Catholic, all in Taukiji; 
jentralTaber»ac*e,inHong6; Eus- 
lian Orthodox, at Suruga-dai. 

Theaires.— Kahuki-za, in Kobiki- 
•ho; Shintomi-za, inTsukiji; Na- 

Wrestling. — At Eko-in, in Honjo, 
^ce yearly for ten days in winter 
ind spring. Also at other times 
md places not fixed. 

Boeoars {Kwankiia). — In Shiba 
Park, and smaller ones in the 

A Sailvyay, officially styled the 
' TokjO and Akabane Juaction," 
tut generally known as the Sub- 
irban or Circular Railway, afiorda 
kn easy means of reai^hing certain 
Ktints on the outskirts of the city. 
I'he following is a schedule of the 
itations \-^ 



s -i 


Names 




s^^ 


at 




=i"° 


SUCione. 












SHIHBASHI. 












"iSO. 




n 


SUiDjikn JcC. 


iS^^cE' 


\l\ 


Uajlro. 
ItabflBbi. 




i«i 


AKABANE Jet. 





Conveyamcea. — Jinrikishas are in 
iniversal nae. Tramcara, not much 
latrunised by Europeans, run from 
he Shimbashi terminus along the 
irincipal thoroughfare to Ueno 
jld Asakusa, Omnibuses are be- 
Parties may 



Livery stahlet. — Eawanishi at 
Monzflla-mae in Taukiji ; Nishi- 
kaji at Nishiki-cho, Kanda, Itcho- 

Steom Comtnunicoiion, — The com- 
pany called the Tokyo Wan Kiaen- 
Gwaisha runs steamers to Uraga 
in tbe Misaki peninsula, and to 
Kanaya, Kachiyama, Hojo, Tate- 
jama, etc., on the other side of 
TpkyoBaj. Twicfldaily, viz., 7 a.h. 
and 8 A.u., taking 7 hrs. to reach 
Tateyama. 

2. The same company mns 
steamers to Yawata and other 
small ports at the head of the Bay 
and to Eisarazn. Daily at 8 a.m., 
taking 4 hrs. to reach Kiaarazu. 

3. Also to Ataani and Ajiro, 
sometimes continuing on to Shi- 
moda in the province of Izu. Sail- 
ings iiregnlar. Tiiue, 8 brB. to 

All the steamers of the above 
company start from &eigan-jima. 

TbeTsii-un Kwaisha runs steam- 
era on the Tonegawa, of which 

4. Those of the Shimo-Tone, or 
Lower Tonegawa line, run to Cho- 
shi, Ofonatau, and Uokoda, touch- 
ing at various minor places on the 
river. Daily at 7 p.k. 

6. Those of the Kami-Tone, or 
Upper Tonegawa line, run to Gyo- 
toku, Ichikawa, Matsndo, Shin- 
kawa, Sekiyado, Kurihashi, Eo^, 
and minor points higher up. Datlj 
at 8 p.B. Time, 14 hrs. to Koga. 

The steamers of the Tsn-un. 
Kwaisha start from Byo^oku-bashi. 

The local steamers are but little 






the 



better class of Japanese, as they ai 
small and make scant pretension 
to comfort. There is not even 
always a distinction of classes, 
though it is sometimes possible to 
secure a aeoarate room by paving 
the price of fite tickets. The fares 
are extremely low. 
The following are some of the 



Shops. Festicals, 



65 



cliief shops at which articles likely 
to interest the tourist are sold : — 

Porcelain. — Kawamoto, dealer in 
Owari ware, at No. 6, Ginza Nicho- 
me ; Imari, at Kanda Imagawa- 
bashi, and Takahashi, at Nihon- 
bashi Tomijima-cho, for various 
kinds of ware. 

Lacquer. — Saito Masakichi, at 
No. 12, Ginza Nichome ; Nakamura 
Kinosuke, at Kyobashi Owari-cho 
!N"ich6me., Both the above deal in 
gold lacquer, while the two follow- 
ing sell various other kinds, pro- 
vincial specialties, etc. : Kuroe-ya, 
at Tori Itchome; Suruga-ya, in 
Bakuro-cho. 

Bronze. — Miyao, at No. 1, Nihon- 
bashi Hon-Shirokane-cho (large 
things) ; Mikawa-ya,at Soto-Kanda 
Hatago-cho Itchome (chiefly small 
things). 

Cloisonne. — Namikawa, at No. 8, 
Nihon-bashi Shin-emon-cho. 

Swords. — Murata Kimbei, at 
Nihon-bashi Kawasekoku-cho (also 
sells other curios). 

Ivory. — Wakatake, at No. 6, Ni- 
hon-bashi Hisamatsu-ch5 ; Sawada- 
ya, at No. 8, Ryogoku Yonezawa- 
cho Nichome. 



Paper and Fans. — Haibara, at No. 
1, Nihon-bashi Tori Itchome. 

Old Silk and Damask. — Iwamoto 
Denshichi, at No. 16, Nihon-bashi 
Kawasekoku-cho ; Morita, at No. 8, 
Nihon-bashi Sanai-cho. 

Curios in General. — Daizen, in 
Naka-dori _(chiefly for expensive 
articles) ; Osaka-ya, at No. 20, Ni- 
hon-bashi Aomono-cho ; Ebi-ya, at 
No. 5, Nihon-bashi Jikken-dana 
(specialty, old lacquer) ; Handa-ya, 
at No. 5, Nihon-bashi Honkoku-cho 
Itchome. 

8ilk Mercers. — Daimaru, in Hata- 
go-cho ; Echigo-ya, in Muro-machi ; 
Shiroki, in Tori Itchome; Mizu- 
shima (also sells European articles 
for presents), in Honcho Itchome, 
— aU in the Nihon-bashi district. 

There is also a very interesting 
street called Naka-dori, running 
parallel to the main thoroughfare 
between Kyobashi and Nihon- 
bashi, full of shops where old 
curios and brocade are exposed for 
sale. The best Bazaars (Kwan- 
koha), where new articles of every- 
day use may be bought are those 
in Shiba Park, Ginza (Maruju no 
Kwankoha), at Kanda Ogawa-machi, 
and at Kudanzaka-shita. 



Chief Popular Festivals. 



DATE. 

Monthly, 5th 

Monthly, 10th 

Monthly, 17-18th... 

Monthly, 21st 

Monthly, 24th 

First Bay of the 
Hare (hatsu-^) ... 

April 17th 

April 18th 

May 6-8th 

June 3rd 

June3-14th 



NAME OP FESTIVAL. 

8uiten-gu 

Konvpira 

Kwannon 

Daishi 

Atago Jinja 



Myokendo 

Toshogu 

8anja Matsuri 

Shokonsha (races, etc.). 

Kumano Jinja 

Tenn^) Matsuri 



Mid- July Kawa-hiraki (Opening 

of the River) 

July 7- 14th Tenno Matsuri 

July 15th Sanno 



WHERE HELD. 

Kakigara-cho. 

Tora-no-mon. 

Asakusa. 

Kawasaki. 

Atagoshita. 

Yanagi-shima. 
Shiba and Ueno Parks. 
Asakusa. 
Kudan. 

ligura and Aoyama. 
Shinagawa, Yotsuya, Asa- 
kusa, Senji. 

Ryogoku. 

Nakabashi. 

Nagata-cho. 



66 



Route 4, — Tokyo. 



DATE. 



NAME OF FESTIVAL. 



WHEBE HELD. 



July loth Hikawa Jivja Akasaka. 

July 15th Hachiman Nagata-chd. 

September 1 l-20th.. Shimmei Matsuri Shiba. 

September 13th . . . Ushijima no Jinja Mukojima. 

September 14-1 6th.. Kanda Myojin Kanda. 

October 12-13th ... Eshihi (Anniversary 

of Nichiren's death)... Ikegami and Hori-no-uchi. 

October 15th Karvda Myojin Kanda. 

November 6-8th ... S?idfc<m8?ia, (races, etc.)... Kudan. 

November 22-28th. . Kd Mairi Monzeki temple at Asakusa. 

November (on Days 

of the Bird, tori 

n^ hi) Tori no machi Asakusa. 

Akin to the popular festivals (matsuri) are the following fairs (ichi), 
held at the close of the year for the citizens to make seasonable 
purchases : — 

December 13th Tenno Sama Shinagawa. 

December 15th Hachiman Fukagawa. 

December 17-I9th... Kwannon Asakusa. 

December 20-21st. . . Kanda Myojin Kanda. 

December 22-23rd.. . Shimmei Shiba. 

December 23-24th... Atago Atagoshita. 

December 25th Tenjin , Hirakawa. 

December 27-28th... Fvdo Yagen-bori. 



Flowers. 

Flum - blossoms. — The Kameido 
Ume-yashiki and the Kamata Ume- 
yashiki near Kawasaki, at end of 
January and beginning of Fe- 
bruary. 

Cherry-blossoms. — Ueno, Muko- 
jima, and Shiba, early in April j 
Koganei, middle of April. 

Peonies. — Florists* gardens at So- 
mei, end of April; Shokwa-en in 
Azabu, beginning of May. 

Wistarias, — Kameido, first week 
in May. 

_ Aealea^s. — Florists' gardens at 
Okubo-mura, early in May. 

Irises. — Horikiri beyond Muko- 
jima, early in June. 

Convohmli. — Florist's gardens at 
Iriya in Shitaya, end of July and 
beginning of August. 

LotiLs-fiowers. — Lake Shinobazu 
at Ueno and the Castle moats, be- 
ginning of August. 

Chrysanthemums. — Dango-zaka 
and Asakusa, beginning of Novem- 
ber. 



Maples. — Kaianji at Shinagawa, 
beginning of November; Oji, mid- 
dle of November. 

Principal Places Worth Visiting. — 
Shiba and Ueno Parks (Tombs of 
the Tokugawa Shoguns in both, 
the former most easily accessible). 
Temple of Kwannon at Asakusa, 
Hakubutsu-kwan Museum at Ueno, 
the Kwankoba Bazaar in Shiba, 
Atago Tower for view of the city. 
Drive along the main street {Chin- 
za) to Nihon-bashi and round the 
inner moat. 

Time to Chief Points by jinrikisha 
with two men. 

From Shimbashi terminus to : — 

Imperial Hotel 5 Min. 

Tokyo Hotel 7 

Club Hotel 12 

Rokumei-kwan 5 

British Legation 18 

American Legation 10 

Shiba Park 10 

Ueno Park 35 

Asakusa (Kwannon) 40 „ 



*» 



» 



>f 



» 



»> 



it 



y» 



History and Topography, 



67 



History awd TopoaiLLPHT. — Previous 
to its becoming the military capital of 
Japan in the year 1590, Yedo was little 
more than a rude fortress surrounded by 
a fe*^ scattered villages. This fortress 
was founded in 14&6 by a certain Ota 
Dokwan. From 1486 to 1624, it was held 
by vassals of the Uesugi family, but in 
the latter year was taken from them *by 
H9j5 Ujitsuna, who was then rising to be 
roler of the Eastern provinces, and had his 
capital at Odawara, close to the foot of 
the Hakone pass. In the 13th century, the 
the district now called Asakusa stood 
on tlie sea-shore, at the mouth of a con- 
siderable inlet. The name Yedo means 
* Estuary Grate.* At the time leyasu took 
possession in 1690, the coast on the E. side 
of the river had advanced greatly below 
Asakusa ; but large lagoons still occupied 
areas which have since been filled up and 
bnilt over. Ota D5kwan's fortress occupied 
a portion of the ground which was later 
included in the Palace of the Shoguns and 
now in that of His Majesty the Emperor. 
The Shdgnn's Palace, or Castle as it was 
often called, was several times burnt 
down and rebuilt, and was totally de- 
stroyed by a fire which took place on the 
17th July, 1863. A separate building in 
the enclosure which had been the resid- 
ence of the heir-apparent to the Shogun- 
ate, was appropriated for the Emperor's 
use after the removal of H. M. to Tokyd 
in 1868. But this too, was burnt down on 
the night of the 5th May, 1873. From that 
time forward the Emperor occupied the 
Palace at Aoyama, now inhabited by the 
Crown Prince, until the construction on 
the old site in 1889 of a new Palace, semi- 
Japanese and semi-foreign iu style. Yedo 
has been repeatedly visited by destructive 
fires. In 1601 the whole city was laid in 
ashes. At that time all the houses were 
thatched with grass, the use of tiles not 
having been allowed to the citizens titl 
the middle of the 17th century. Great 
fires occuired in 1657 and again in 
166B. The greatest conflagration in more 
modem times took place in 1845. In 
1603 a large part of the hill now called 
Buruga Dai was cut away, and the soil 
used to fill up four square miles of shallow 
inlets on the S. side of the town. The 
same year witnessed the contruction of 
the great bridge, Nihon-bashi, from which 
distances have since been measured along 
the chief roads of the Empire. In 1642, a 
regulation was made whereby the Daimy os 
were obliged to reside alternately in Yedo 
and on their domains for certain fixed 
periods. A map dated 1632 shows that^the 
greater part of what now forms the Kyoba- 
shi district, including Tsukiji, was re- 
claimed from the sea subsequent to that 
date. Up to about the year 1650, the towns- 
people depended for their water supply on 
the stream from Kanda-yama and the lake 
of Tame-ike ; but shortly afterwards an 
aqu^uct was constructed on the N. side to 
bring water from the I-no-kashira, Zem- 



pukuji, and MyoshO-ji lakes, as well as 
from the Tamagawa into the city. In 1653, 
the Tamagawa aqueduct, which enters the 
city by way of Yotsuya, was constructed, 
its length being about 27 miles. 

In 1660, the first theatre was built in 
Kobiki-cho by one Morita Kan-ya, whose 
name has been borne by successive gene- 
rations of impreKtri. The history of 
the city for the most part consists 
of a succession of earthquakes, fires, ty- 
phoons, epidemics, fioods, and droughts. 
The year 1703 was marked by a great 
earthquake; it is said that on this 
occasion the deaths in Yedo alone were 
37,000. An epidemic which raged in 1773 
is stated to have carried off 190,000 per- 
sons, chiefly of the lower classes. On the 
11th November, 1855, the last great earth- 
quake occurred, when the loss of life was 
computed at 100,000 persons. But recent 
investigations have shown that this was 
a gross exaggeration. 

On the 13th September, 1868, the desig- 
nation of the city was changed to Tokyd 
or Tokei, either being a correct way of 
pronouncing the two Chinese characters 

JSC^ which are used in writing the name, 
the signification of which is 'Eastern 
Capital,' given in contradistinction to 

SaikyS, Q^, or 'Western Capital,' ap- 

filied at the same time to Kydto. 
n November of the same year the 
Mikado visited Tokyo for the first time, 
and it became the recognised seat of 
Grovemment on the 26th March, 1869. A 
great change has since taken place in the 
outward appearance of the city. Most of 
the yathiki, or mansions of the territorial 
nobility, have been pulled down to make 
room for new buildings better adapted to 
modem needs. At the same time, the 
disappearance of the two-sworded men, the 
supersession of the palanquin (kaqo) by 
the jinrikisha, the very general adoption 
of foreign dress, and the European style 
of dressing the hair which is now almost 
universal among the men, have robbed 
the streets of the picturesqueness for- 
merly so attractive to the foreign visitor. 
The construction dl buildings in European 
style dates from about 1872. TSkyo was 
thrown open to foreign travel in 1869, 
but not to foreign residence. Tsukiji, the 
foreign concession (Kyoryii-chi)^ is still 
the only quarter in which foreigners can 
hold land. 

The city is divided for administrative 
purposes into fifteen districts (Ku)^ viz : — 

I, Koji-machi. 2, Kanda, 3, Nihon-bashi, 4, 
Kyo-bashi. 5, SMba. 6, Azabu. 7, Akasaka. 
8, Yotsuya. 9, Ushigome. 10, Koishikawa. 

II, Hongo, 12, Shitaya. 18, Asakusa. 14, 
Honjo. 15, Fukagawa. The principal 
suburbs are Shinagawa S., on the Tokai- 
d6 ; Naito Shinjiku W,, on the Chichibu 
road ; Itabashi N.W., on the Nakasendd ; 
and Senji N. E., on the Osha Kaid9. 
Toky5 is popularly estimated to cover 
an area or four ri in every direction, in 



63 



Route 4. — Tokyo. 



other worda, a hundred square miles. 
The population is officially stated to be, 
in round numbers, 1,889,000, but this 
includes the whole metropolitan district 
(lohyo FuJ. The city proper has only 
90(»,f>00. TokyS was connected by railway 
with Yokohama in the autumn of 1872 ; 
horse tramways were laid along the main 
thoroughfares in 1882; the first electric 
lighting company was farmed in 18S6, 
and a telephone exchange was opened in 
liiiiO. In the same year, a short electrical 
railway was laid within the grounds of 
the Ueno Park. Three great Industrial 
Exhibitions have been held in Tokyo, the 
first in 1877, and the last in 189«). The 
buildings of the Imperial Diet, inaugurated 
in November, 1890, were burnt down two 
months later. A plan of city improvement 
has recently been adopted,in consequence 
of which the narrower streets of any dis- 
trict burnt down are widened, and better 
sanitary arrangements introduced. 

Owing to the shape and the vast 
extent of the city, it is impossible 
to^combine all the chief sights in a 
single round. The best plan is to 
take them in groups, according to 
the direction in which they lie. 
The following description proceeds 
on this principle. 

1. — The Kwankoba. Shiba Park. 
Temples and Tombs op the Sho- 
GUNs. Zempukuji. The Fortt- 

8EVEN BONINS. NyORAIJI. AtA- 
GO-YAMA. 

From the Shimbashi Railway 
terminus, a long narrow street, 
called Hikage-cho at the beginning 
and 8himmei-mae at the end, leadS 
to Shiba Park, and is worth stroll- 
ing along for the sake of the shops. 

Passing through the Daimon or 
* Great Gate', we turn through the 
park r. to the Kwankoba, the best 
bazaar in Tokyo, where all prices 
are fixed, and every sort of article 
used in the daily life of the Japanese 
people may be obtained. 

Shiba Park {Shiba E:oenehi) formed, 
till 1877, the gfrounds of the great Bud- 
dhist temple of Zo/6ji, the head-quarters 
in this city of the Jodo sect. Here are still 
presei-ved the Mortuary Temples (Go Itei- 
va) of several of the Tokugawa Shoguns, 
leyasu, the founder of that dj'uasty and 
of Yedo, having taken ZojSji under his 
special protection, and chosen it as the 



temple where the funeral tablets {ihai) of 
himself and his descendants should be 
preserved. The monastery had been 
originally founded in 1398, but was re- 
moved in 1696 to the present site. The 
partial transfer of the temple to the Shin- 
tOists, in 1873, naturally led to friction 
between them and the Buddhists, the 
gravest consequence of which was the 
destruction by fire of the magnificent 
main buildingr on the 1st January, 1874. It 
has lately been replaced by a new build- 
ing, smaller and much less beautiful. 
Only the large gate (Mmmon) remains just 
as it was built in 1623. This temple, 
which is used for popular worship, must 
not be mistaken for one of the Mortuary 
Temples. 

The following is a list of the Tokugawa 
Shoguns. Those whose names are marked 
with an asterisk are buried at Ueno, at 
the opposite end of Tokyo ; those whose 
names have a dagger prefixed lie at 
NikkO, 100 miles to the N. of Tokyo, and 
the others at Shiba. 



PEBSOn-AL POSTHUMOUS DIED 

NAME. TITLE. A.O. 



1. 

2. 

8. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



tieyasu TOshogll 1616 

Hidetada Taitokuin 1682 

tiemitsu Taiyain 1661 

•letsuna (Jen-ynin 1680 

♦Tsunayoshi ...Joken-in 1709 

lenobu Bunshoin 1713 

letsugu Yashoin 1761 

•Yoshimune ...Yatokuin 1761 

leshige Junshin-in 1761 

♦leharu Shimmeiin 1786 

♦lenari Bunkyoin 1841 

leyoshi Sbintokuin 1853 

•lesada Onkyoin 1858 

lemochi Shotokuin 1866 

Yoshinobu (usually called Keiki), 
still living at Shizuoka in Suruga. 

. The Shiba Temples, which are 
among the chief marvels of Japa- 
nese art, should, if possible, be 
visited on the forenoon of a fine 
day. Otherwise their situation, and 
the black boarding which has been 
put up to ward off the attacks of 
the weather, will interfere with a 
proper enjoyment of their minutely 
elaborate decorations. They may 
best be taken in the following 
order. Persons pressed for time 
might limit themselves to an in- 
spection of the temple and tomb 
(Octagonal Shrine) of the 2nd 
Shogun only (See p. 72). 

The entrance to the Mortuary 
Chapels of letsugu and leshige, 
the 7th and 9th Shoguns, is 
immediately opposite the Kwan- 



Shibii Temples. 



69 



koba. A highly ornamented gate 
called the Ni-Ten Mon, or ' Gate 
of the Two Deva Kings/ leads 
into a court containing nume- 
rous stone lanterns offered by 
Daimyos as a mark of respect tc> 
the memory of their deceased lord 
and master, the Shogunf At the 
opposite end of the court is the 
ChoJcu-gahu Hon, or 'Gate of the 
Imperial Tablet/ so called from a 
tablet hung over the lintel, con- 
taining in gold letters the post- 
burnous name of the 7th Shogun 
in the fac-simile of the hand- 
writing of the Mikado known to 
history as Naka-no-Mikado-no-In 
(d. 1737). This gate is remarkable 
for its pillars with dragons twisted 
round them, originally gilt over a 
coating of red oxide of iron. Pass- 
ing through this gate, we enter an 
inner court lined with bronze 
lanterns, two hundred and twelve 
in all, dating some from A.B. 
1716, some from 1761, also the 
gift of Daimyos, and having r. a 
belfry and 1. a cistern for holy 
water. Hence through a third 
gate called the Kara Hon, on either 
side of which stretches a gallery 
with beautifully painted carvings 
of flowers and birds in the panels. 
Observe the angel on the ceiling, 
the work of Kano Bydsetsu. A 
short colonnade of black pUlars 
edged with gold leads to the por- 
tico of the temple, where, among 
other marvels of carving, are two 
dragons, called ' the ascending and 
descending dragons ' (Nohori-ryu 
and Kudari-ryu), serving as beams 
to connect the temple with two 
pillars outside. 

Up to this point the public has 
free admittance. Those desirous 
of seeing the interior of the temple, 
together with the tombs, must 
apply to the custodian, and pay 
Mm on departing a fee of 20 cents 
per head. Boote must of course 
be removed before entering. These 
observations hold good at all the 
other Mortuary Temples. The 



visitor is led directly into the 
sanctum containing the altar. And 
here be it observed that each 
of these Mortuary Temples con- 
sists of three parts, — an outer 
oratory (haiden), a connecting gal- 
lery ot corridor (ai-no-ma) , and an 
inner sanctum (honden). In each 
of these one finds oneself in a 
blaze of gold, colours, and elaborate 
arabesques, which, especially if the 
day be fine, quite dazzle the eye by 
their brilliancy. In feudal times, 
when the Shogun came to worship 
the spirits of his ancestors, he 
alone ascended to the sanctum, 
the greater Daimyos ranged them- 
selves next to him in the corridor 
below, whUe the lesser nobility 
occupied the oratory. 

The altar of this temple is separa- 
ted from the corridor by one of those 
bamboo blinds bound with sUk, 
which, together with a peculiar 
kind of banner, temper the bril- 
liancy of the other decorations. 
The sanctum contains three double- 
roofed shrines of the most gorgeous 
gold lacquer, picked out with body- 
colour below the eaves, and held 
together by costly and elaborate 
metal-work. That to the r. con- 
tains a wooden image of the father 
of the 6th Shogun, that in the 
middle an image of the 7th Sh5- 
gun, and that to the 1. one of the 
9th Shogun, together with the 
funeral tablets of each. The images, 
which are considered sacred be- 
cause presented by Mikados, are 
never shown. On either side of 
each shrine stand wooden statu- 
ettes of the 8M Tenno, who, accord- 
ing to the Buddhist mythology, 
guard the world against the at- 
tacks of demons. In front are 
Kwannon and Benten. The wall 
at the back is gilt, while the altar 
and two tables in front are of 
splendid red lacquer. In innu- 
merable places may be seen the 
three-leaved Asarum or Kamo-aoi, 
which is the crest of the Toku- 
gawa family, and the lotus, the 



70 



Route 4, — Tokyo. 



Buddhist emblem of purity. The 
altar is protected at night by 
massive gilt gates ornamented 
with the family crest and conven- 
tional flowers. Descending into 
the corridor, and noticing a« we 
pass the gorgeous panelling of the 
ceiling, we reach the oratory, 
where the decorations are on a 
similar scale of magnificence. Ob- 
serve the conventional paintings 
of lions on the wall. Under the 
baldachin sits on festival days 
(12th and 13th of each month, 
when visitors are not admitted) the 
abbot of Zojoji, while the priests 
are ranged around at small 
lacquer tables. The lacquer boxes 
on the latter contain scrolls of 
the Buddhist Scriptures. As the 
guide leads the way from the 
temple to the tombs, observe 
on the eaves the carvings of 
musical instruments, lions, dra- 
gons, etc. Observe, too, the car- 
vings of unicorns (kirin) on the 
Oshir-hwi Hon, or * Dividing Gate,' 
which is now passed through. 
Although the carving is open- 
work, the dragons appear quite 
different according to the side 
from which they are viewed. 
Thence through a noble court 
with more bronze lanterns, to a 
stone staircase which leads up 
to the site of the Tombs, — that 
of the 7th Shogun to the 1., that 
of the 9th Shogun to the r. Below 
each tomb is a highly decorated 
oratory. The tombs are of stone, 
in the shape called hdto (treasure 
shrine), which somewhat resembles 
a pagoda. They stand on an octa- 
gonal granite base, with a stone 
balustrade. Their simplicity con- 
trasts strongly with the lavish 
magnificence of all that goes be- 
fore. As Mitford says in his 
* Tales of Old Japan/ ' the sermon 
may have been preached by design, 
or it may have been by accident, 
but the lesson is there.' 

The pattern on the black copper 
facing round the wail enclosing 



the tomb, is intended to represent 
the waves of the sea. The body 
is said to be buried at a depth of 
20 ft., and to have been coated 
with vermilion and charcoal pow- 
der to prevent decay. The tomb 
of the 9th Shogun is a replica of 
that of the 7th. On leaving this 
place, we pass the oratory of the 
9th Shogun, and notice the exqui- 
site carvings in high relief of pea- 
cocks on the panels of the gate. 

Leaving this temple by the Cho' 
hi-gaku Jfon, and turning r. through 
rows of stone lanterns, we soon 
reach r. another splendidly carved 
gate, which gives access to the 
temple and tombs of the 6th, 12th, 
and 14th Shoguns. In arrange- 
ment, the temple closely resembles 
the one we have just left; but 
the gilt is fresher, the carvings 
truer to nature, and the general 
impression more magnificent, the 
result perhaps of the interest 
taken by the 6th Shogun in the 
preparation of his own last resting 
place. The flowers and birds in 
the spaces between the cornice and 
the Untel of the oratory are per- 
fect, both in chiselling and in de- 
licacy of colour. The coffered ceil- 
ing is a masterpiece ; and the 
vista of the altar, as one stands 
under the baldachin, reveals an in- 
describable glory of blended gold 
and colours. The order of the 
shrines on the altar is, from r. to 
]., that of the 12th, 6th, and 14th 
Shoguns, the shrine of the last 
containing also the funeral tablet 
of his consort. 

From the Mortuary Temple, a 
flight of steps at the back leads up 
to the tombs of these three Sho- 
guns and of the consort of the 
14th, who was aunt to the pre- 
sent Mikado, and after the death 
of her husband bore the title of 
Sei-kwan-In-no-Miya. Her funeral 
in 1877 was the last performed in 
these precincts. Each tomb has a 
small oratory attached. The fine 



Shiba Temples. 



71 



bronze gate of the enclosure of No. 
6, which is the first tomb reached, 
is- said to be the work of Korean 
artificers; bnt the design was 
probably furnished by a Japanese 
draughtsman. The dragons in low 
relief on the r. and 1., both inside 
and out, are especially worthy of 
attention. Next to it is the tomb 
of the 12th Shogun, and beyond it 
again those of the 14th and hip 
consort. The tomb of this princess 
is of bronze and marked by the 
Imperial crest, the sixteen-petalled 
chrysanthemum. 

Quitting the grounds of this 
Mortuary Temple by a small side 
door to the r., we turn down 1. to 
the main road, and enter the grounds 
of the Monastery of Zojoji by the 
big gate. To the r. is a small shrine 
d^Licated to the 'Five Hundred 
Bakan,' having in front of it a 
stone with the imprint of Buddha's 
feet, which are of phenomenal size. 
On the 1. are the temple offices 
(jimusho). In front is the main 
temple of Zojoji, restored outwardly 
in the plainest style, but spacious 
within. The large gilt image of 
Amida enthroned on the altar is 
from the chisel of the famous 
Buddhist abbot and artist Eshin. 
The temple possesses many objects 
of artistic and historical interest, 
but they are not generally shown. 

The little temple at the back of 
Zojoji, in the same brilliant style 
of decoration as the Mortuary 
Temples, is called Ookoku-den. It 
contains the Kuro-Honzon or ' Black 
Image', a statuette of Amida by 
Eshin, which is noteworthy on 
account of the veneration in which 
it was held by leyasu, who used to 
carry it about with him in his cam- 
paigns, and ascribe his victories to 
its influence. Admittance to the 
Ookohu-den is gained through the 
priests' house to the 1. The Black 
Image, which is not shown save on 
great occasions^ is enclosed in a 



handsome gold reliquary. Another 
reliquary contains smaU marble 
images of the Sixteen Eakan. 
Observe the curious plate-shaped 
ornaments above the pillars in front 
of the altar, with the Buddhist gods 
Shaka, Monju, and Fugen, and at- 
tendant animals in high relief. 
The bold paintings of hawks 
around the walls recall leyasu's 
fondness for hawking. The fine 
bronze image of Shaka outside 
dates from 1763. 

Such unprotected statues are called in 
Japanese by the rather irrevent name of 
* Wet Baints ' (nure-hotoke). The thin 
sticks inscribed with Sanskrit characters 
which stand behind it, are termed toha 
or^ totoba, a corruption of the Sanskrit 
stupa ('tope'), originally a monument 
erected over the remains of a saint. The 
notches in the wood represent the ball, 
crescent, pyramid, sphere, and cube of the 
complete xtujia, which are emblematic of 
Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. One 
glance at a $otoba is said to ensure the 
forgiveness of all sins. 

Coming down from Gokoku-den, 
and leaving the Zojoji enclosure 
by an opening to the r., we next 
reach the Mortuary Temple at- 
tached to the tombs of the consorts 
of the 2nd, 6th, 11th, and 12th 
Shoguns. Admittance is by the 
priests' house to the 1. Though 
the oratory is plainer than those 
already described, the altar is by 
no means less splendid. Gilded 
gates, gilded panelling, huge gilded 
pillars, — everything sparkles with 
gold, while the shrines on the altar 
are the most magnificent specimens 
extant of a peculiar kind of lacquer 
adorned with metal-work. Their 
order is, from r. to 1.* the consorts 
of the 12th, 6th. 2nd, and 11th 
Shoguns, while to the extreme 1. 
corner is that of the concubine of 
the 5th. The coffered ceiling, 
decorated with the phoenix in 
various colours, is specially fine. 

From this temple, we pass into 
the court of that attached to the 
tomb of the 2nd Shogun. Entrance 
through the priests' house to the 
right. The sanctum is a grand 



72 



Route 4. — Tokyo. 



example of Japanese religious ar- 
chitecture. Two huge gilded pillars 
called daijin-hashiraf r. and 1. of 
the altar, support the lofty vaulted 
roof, curiously constructed of a 
network of beams. The upper part 
of the walls is decorated with large 
carved medallions of birds in high 
relief, richly painted and gilt. The 
shrine is of fine gold lacquer, about 
250 years old, and the tables in 
front deserve inspection. The 
bronze incense-burner in the form 
of a lion dates from 1635. leyasu's 
war-drum rests in a large orna- 
mental stand. The coffers in the 
ceilings are filled with fret-work 
«over lacquer. 

A short and pretty walk through 
the wood at the back leads to the 
Hakkaku-dd, or Octagonal Hall, con- 
taining the tomb of the 2nd Sho- 
gun, which is the largest specimen 
of gold lacquer in the world and 
one of the most magnificent. Parts 
of it are inlaid with enamel and 
crystals. The scenes on the upper 
half represent the * Eight Views ' 
of Siao-Siang in China and of Lake 
Biwa in Japan, while the lower 
half is adorned with the lion and 
peony, the king of beasts and the 
king of flowers. The base is of stone 
shaped like a lotus-flower. The 
shrine contains only an effigy of 
the Shogun and his funeral tablet, 
the actual body being beneath the 
pavement. The interior walls of 
the hall are of lacquer gilded over. 
Eight pillars covered with gilt 
copper plates support the roof. 

Outside this building are two 
curiously carved stones djEbting from 
1644. The subject of one is Shaka's 
Entry into NirvAna, and of the 
other the Five-and-twenty Bosatsu 
coming with Amida to welcome 
the departed soul. The oratory in 
front of the 'Octagonal Shrine* 
contains nothing worthy of notice. 

DescendingagaintotheMortuary 
Temple, and passing through its 
two gates, the visitor turns sharp 



to the r. through a third gate, and 
follows a stone walk lined with 
cherry-trees to a torii, standing 
in front of the temple of AnkokU' 
den. Here, on the 17th of every 
month, a popular festival is held in 
honour of leyasu, who is worshipped 
as a Shinto deity under the name 
of Toshogu. Constructed when 
Buddhism was dominant, this tem- 
ple is architecturally as highly 
ornamented as the rest, the pre- 
sent influence of the Shinto cult 
being indicated only by the paper 
symbols (gohei) in the oratory, 
which also contains a large bronze 
mirror and two gilt amor-inu. The 
sanctum (admittance through the 
shamusho or temple office to the r.) 
stands behind, in a separate en- 
closure. The coffered ceiling is 
very good, as are the hawks and 
birds of paradise on a gold ground 
in the panels round the interior. 
Specially excellent is a painting 
by Kano Hogen at the back of the 
altar, representing Shaka attended 
by Monju and Fugen. The shrine 
is about 4 ft. high, with an 
elaborate cornice of three rows of 
brackets ; . and its walls are of 
splendid gold lacquer with raised 
designs. In front, on the door- 
panels, are eight small landscapes, 
in which a dragon is seen descend- 
ing through the clouds on either 
hand. At the sides are boldly 
designed groups of the pine and 
bamboo. Inside is a life-like 
wooden effigy of leyasu, which can 
be seen only on the 17th day of the 
month. 

The big wooden building in 
European style, nearly opposite the 
entrance to Ankoku-den, is called 
Tayoi-sha, and is used for holding 
meetings of various kinds. 

A visit to Shiba may be termi- 
nated by walking up Maruyama, 
the little hiU at the back, which 
commands a pretty view of the 
bay. Close to the pagoda, which is 
not open to the public, stands a 
monument erected in 1890 to the 



Forty-seven Ronins. Akasukci atid Azahu. 



78 



xnemory of Ino Chukei, the father 
of Japanese cartography, who flour- 
ished in the 18th century. Thence 
one descends to the little Tem'pU 
of Benten, picturesquely situated 
on an islet in a lake overgrown 
-with lotuses. Further back in the 
"wood stands the Koyo-kwan, or 

* Maple Club/ where fine entertain- 
ments in native style are given. 

Shiba is specially lovely in early 
April, when the cherry-trees are in 
flower. 

About 1 m. from the Shiba tem- 
ples in the direction of Shinagawa, 
stands the Buddhist temple of 
Sengakujiy where the Forty-seven 
^Ronins (Shi-ju-shichi Ki) lie buried. 
(For their dramatic story, see 

• Things Japanese,' p. 126. A more 
detailed account is given in Mit- 
ford's'Talesof OldJapan'). Thewell 
(Kvbi-arai ido), where the Eonins 
washed the head of the foe on whom 
they; had taken vengeance, still 
exists by the side of the path lead- 
ing to the tombs, which are ranged 
round the sides of a small squafre 
court. That in the further corner 
is the grave of Oishi Euranosuke, 
the leader of the faithful band; 
and the monument next to his, on 
the other side of the stone fence, 
marks the grave of the lord for 
whose sake he and his comrades 
sacrificed their lives. The popular 
reverence for these heroes is attest- 
ed by the incense_ perpetually kept 
burning before Oishi's grave, and 
by the visiting cards left there at 
New- Year time. Painted statuettes 
of the * Forty-seven ' are exhibited 
in a building below. 

A little nearer Shinagawa stands 
Nyoraiji, a Buddhist temple dedi- 
cated to the 'Five Buddhas of 
Wisdom,* whose gigantic images, 
carved in A.D. 1635, are here en- 
shrined. 

On the way back, one may obtain 
a good view by ascending Kiri- 
shvmor-yama, a wooden structure 100 
ft. high, close to the railway line, 



erected in ] 890 as a model of the 
celebrated mountain of the same 
name in Kyushu. Or else one may 
go up Atago-yama, a natural hill 
a little to the N. of Shiba Park, 
named after the higher Mount 
Atago at Kyoto. Atago-yama, 
like many other such places in 
Japan, has two flights of steps lead- 
ing up it, one of which, called * the 
men's staircase,' is straight and 
steep, while the other, or * women's 
staircase,' is circuitous but less 
fatiguing. A tower has recently 
been erected on Atago-yama, which 
visitors should pay a trifling fee to 
ascend. The view_includes Fuji, 
the Hakone range, Oyama, Mitake, 
Mount Tsukuba, the provinces 
beyond Tokyo Bay with Kano-zan 
and Nokogiri-yama, and of course 
Tokyo itself. 

2. — Akasasa and Azabu. 

AkaAaka and Azabu are the 

highest and healthiest parts of 
Tokyo, but contain little of interest 
to the tourist. In a part of Akasaka 
called Aoyama, is situated the 
palace occupied for many years by 
the Mikado while the present 
palace was building, and now 
by the Empress Dowager and 
the Crown Prince. It is not open 
to the public; but the 4Ute of 
Tokyo society is invited there once 
yearly in November, to witness 
what is perhaps the most wonderful 
show of chrysanthemums in the 
world. Closely adjoining it, is an 
immense parade ground, where the 
great annual review on the Mi- 
kado's birthday (3r4 November) is 
held. A little further to the S. is 
the Aoyama Cemetery, part of 
which has been set apart for the 
interment of foreigners. 

On the borders of Akasaka and 
Azabu stands the Shinto temple of 
Hikawa, now much neglected, but 
remarkable for the antiquity of its 
first foundation (7th century). 
Opposite the entrance is the house 



74 



Route 4, — Tokyo, 



inhabited by Sir Edwin Arnold 
in 1689-90, while composing his 
beautiful poem, *The Light of the 
World/ 

ZempuJcuji, a temple of the Monto 
sect, dates from A.D. 1232, and is 
somewhat striking. The main hall 
of the temple is ^ ft. square. The 
pillars supporting the roof are 
massive and unadorned, save by a 
few touches of white paint on the 
capitals, in accordance with the 
usual practice of the sect. The 
screen dividing the nave from the 
chancel, as also the altar itself, are 
good specimens of florid ornamen- 
tation in gold and colours. The 
temple re.ics are exhibited from 
the 1 st to 6th November. In the 
court yard stands an enormous Icho 
tree known as the * Staff Icho.' 

Local tradition says that when Shinran 
SliOfiin, the founder of the Monto sect, 
was about to depart for Kyoto and bade 
adieu to RyOkai, the apostle of the sect 
in Eastern Japan, he stuck his staff upside 
down into the ground, saying, ' Like this 
staff shall be the strenjc^h of the faith and 
the salvation of the people,' upon which 
the staff immediately began to take root 
and sprout upwards. 

3. — Chief Buildings in Koji- 
MACHi. The Diet. Sanno. 
Okubo's Monument. Shokon- 

SHA. 

Leaving Shimbashi station and 
turning 1. along the moat, the 
buildings of the Imperial Diet, if re- 
constructed as proposed on the site 
where the original edifice was burnt 
down in 1891, will be seen beyond 
the embankment on the other side. 
The fine brick buildings soon passed 
r. were completed in 1877 for the 
College of Engineering, the earliest 
scientific academy established in 
Japan, and presided over by British 
professors. Since the amalgama- 
tion of this College with the Im- 
perial University in 1886, the 
buildings have been used for 
various purposes, a portion of them 
being temporarily appropriated to 



the meetings of the Lower House 
of the Diet. 

Turning along the moat r., we 
come to a stretch of fiat ground, 
which was till recently a swamp 
called Tame-ike. On the hill to 
the r. is the mansion of Marquis 
Nabeshima, formerly Prince of 
Hizen and now Grand Master of 
Ceremonies at the Imperial Court. 
In front is the prettily wooded 
eminence on which stands the Shin- 
to Temple of Sanno, officially styled 
Hie no Jinja. Dating in its present 
form from 1654, it was adopted by 
the Shoguns of the Tokugawa 
dynasty as their tutelary shrine. 
The situation is pretty, and the 
place is seen to advantage in 
spring, when the cherry-trees are 
in flower; but all the buildings 
except the main temple are falling 
into decay. In each of the inner 
compartments of the large gate 
stands an image of a monkey orna- 
mented with a bib, that animal 
being regarded as the servant of 
the divinity of Hie, for which reason 
monkeys also figure on the altar. 

This neighbourhood, of which 
the chief part is called Na^ata-cho, 
is one of the most fashionable in 
Tokyo. Here stand the palaces of 
Princes Kita Shirakawa and Ari- 
sugawa, and the residences of 
many high officials and foreign 
diplomats. Hence in local par- 
lance, it is sometimes nicknamed 
Daimnfd Koji, or the * Daimyo 
Quarter.' Below Prince Kita Shi- 
rakawa's Palape is the Kioi-cho 
Eoenchi, a small public garden 
containing a huge monolith com- 
memorative of Okubo Toshimichi, 
one of the founders of the new 
order of things in Japan, who was 
assassinated near this spot on the 
14th May, 1878, as he was driving 
from his residence to the Imperial 
Palace. On the top of the hill of 
Eudan, a short way beyond the 
British Legation, stands the 
modern Shinto temple of Yasukuni, 
better known as the 



Shokonsha, Imperial PaUice. 



75 



Shokonsha^ or Spirit-Invoking 
Shrine. 

This temple was erected in 1869 for the 
worship of the spirits of those who had 
fallen fighting for the Mikado's cause in 
the revolutionary war of the previous 
year. Services are also held in honour of 
thoee who fell in the Saga troubles of 1873, 
and in the Satsuma rebellion of 1877. 

The Shokonsha is huilt in ac- 
cordance with the severest canons 
of pure Shinto architecture, and is 
completely empty except for a 
mirror, a European drugget, and 
a dozen cheap wooden chairs for 
the use of the officials who come to 
assist at the memorial services 
which are held from time to time, 
the principal ones being on the 
6th May and 6th November. These 
occasions are enlivened by horse- 
races, wrestling, and other amuse- 
ments which draw a large concourse 
of spectators. The enormous 
bronze torii was set up in-December, 
1887. 

The grounds behind the temple 
have been tastefully laid out, and 
look their best in early spring 
when the plum-trees are in blossom. 

The brick building to the r. of 
the temple is the Yushu-kwan, a 
Museum of Arms, which is open 
on Sundays, Wednesdays, and 
Saturdays, from 8 a.m. till 6 p.m. 
in summer, and from 9 to 3 in 
winter. It is well-worth a visit, for 
the sake of the magnificent speci- 
mens of old Japanese swords and 
scabbards which it contains, as well 
as armour, old Korean bronze can- 
non, etc. The granite lanterns 
lining the avenue which runs down 
the centre of the race-course, were 
presented by the nobility in 1878. 

Leaving the grounds of the Sho- 
konsha, we come to an ancient 
stone beacon, which formerly light- 
ed junks on their way up Tokyo Bay. 
Opposite to it, stands a monument 
in the shape of a bayonet, erected 
in 1880 by the soldiers of the Im- 
perial Guard, in memory of their 
comrades who has fallen fighting 
on the loyalist side in the Satsuma 



rebellion. From this point a fine 
view is obtained of the city in the 
direction of Ueno. The prominent 
edifice on the bluff opposite {8v/ru- 
ga-dai) is the Eussian Cathedral, 
opened in 1891. 

4. — EojiMACHi (Continttbd). In- 
ner Moat. The Imperial 
Palace. 

Another and more direct way 

from Shimbashi to the Shokonsha 

at Kudan, is by crossing the first 

bridge (Dobashi) over the moat, 

passing the Bokumei-kwan, a large 

edifice used for social purposes, on 

the r., and going straight on as fax 

as the site of the Houses of the 

Diet, at the further end of the 

Hibiya parade ground. Here the 

road turns r., with the Russian 

Legation, the Foreign Office (Gwair 

mus?id), and military barracks on 

the 1. Skirting the moat, the 

large building seen in front is the 

Head-Quarters of the General Staff 

Department. 

Near here, on the 14th March, 1861, li- 
Kamon-no Kami, Regent during the in- 
terval preceding the election of a new 
Shogun, and a man of rare sagacity and 
favourable to foreign intercourse, was 
asBassinated in broad daylight by emis- 
saries of the Prince of Mito, who wag 
desirous of seating his own son on the 
throne. To elucidate this incident, it 
should be mentioned that there were three 
branches of the Tokugawa family, viz. 
Kishfli, Mito, and Owari, from whom the 
Shoguns were elected by a family council, 
and that the election had fallen upon a 
young prince of Kisha, thus baulking 
Mito's plans. 

The moat here, with its green 
banks and spreading trees and the 
myriads of wild-fowl fluttering in 
the water, affords one of the pret- 
tiest sights in Tokyo. The vast 
enclosure of the Imperial Palace 
lies beyond the moat. 

The Impeinal Palace. Though 
the new palace inhabited by His Ma- 
jesty the Mikado since 1889 is not 
accessible to the public, the follow- 
ing description, abridged from the 
* Japan Mail,' may be of interest : — 



76 



Route 4, — Tokyo . 



Entering through long corridors 
isolated by massive iron doors^ we 
find ourselves in the smaller of 
two reception rooms, and at the 
commencement of what seems an 
endless vista of crystal chambers. 
This effect is due to the fact that 
the 8^1071, or sliding-doors, are 
of plate-glass. The workmanship 
and decoration of these chambers 
are truly exquisite. It need 
scarcely be said that the woods 
employed are of the choicest 
description, and that the carpen- 
ters and joiners have done their 
part with such skill as only Japa- 
nese artisans seem to possess. 
Every ceiling is a work of art, 
being divided by lacquer ribs of a 
deep brown colour into numerous 
panels, each of which contains a 
beautifully executed decorative de- 
sign, painted, embroidered, or em- 
bossed. The walls are covered in 
most cases with rich but chaste 
brocades, except in the corridors, 
where a thick, embossed paper of 
charming tint and pattern shows 
what skill has been developed in 
this class of manufacture at the 
Imperial Printing Bureau. Amid 
this luxury of well-assorted but 
warm tints remain the massive 
square posts — ^beautiful enough in 
themselves, but scarcely harmo- 
nising with their environment, 
and introducing an incongruous 
element into the buUding. The 
true type of what may be called 
Imperial esthetic decoration was 
essentially marked by refined sim- 
plicity — white wooden joinery, 
with pale neutral tints and mellow 
gilding. The splendour of richly 
painted ceilings, lacquered lattice- 
work, and brocaded walls was re- 
served for Buddhist temples and 
mausolea. Thus we have the 
Shinto, or true Imperial style, pre- 
senting itself in the severely colour- 
less piJIars, while the resources of 
religious architecture have been 
drawn upon for the rest of the 
decoration. In one part of the 



building the severest canons have 
been strictly, followed : the six 
Imperial Studios, three below stairs 
and three above, are precisely such 
chaste and pure apartments as a 
scholar would choose for the abode 
of learning. By way of an example 
in the other direction, we may t^e 
the Banqueting Hall, a room of 
magnificent size (540 sq. yds.) and 
noble proportions, its immense 
expanse of ceiling glowing with 
gold and colours, and its broad 
walls hung with the costliest silks. 
The Throne Chamber is scarcely 
less striking, though of smaller 
dimensions and more subdued de- 
coration. Every detail of the work 
shows infinite painstaking, and is 
redolent of artistic instinct. The 
furniture of the Palace was im- 
ported from Germany. Externally 
the principal buildings are all in 
pure Japanese style. The appro- 
priation for the Palace was 
$3,000,000; but to this amount 
must be added considerable sums 
voluntarily offered by wealthy 
Japanese, as well as valuable con- . 
tributions of materials. 

The unpretentious brick and 
plaster structure to be seen from 
the E. side, rising above the moat 
in the Palace enclosure, contains 
the offices of the Imperial House* 
hold Department (Kunaisho). 

Not far from the Palace, in an 
Easterly direction, is the Insatsu 
Kyoku or Government Printing 
Office, a vast and well-organised 
establishment, to the inspection of 
which a day may be profitably 
devoted, as its scope includes 
much besides mere printing. Here, 
among other things, is manufac- 
tured the paper currency of the 
country.' The Ministries of Fi- 
nance, of Education, and of the 
Interior, together with various 
other Government Offices, are in. 
the same neighbourhood. 



Seido, Kanda Myojvn. University. 



11 



6. GiNZA. NiHON-BASHI. CURIO 

Street. Sbido. Kanda Mtojin. 
Impebial Univebsitt. Dango 
zaila. 0-gwannon. botanical 
Garden. Muryo-in. Kirishitan- 
ZASA. Denzu-in. Koibhikawa. 
Arsenal a in) Garden. Gok:oku- 
Ji. Imperial Cemetery. 

The most important thorough- 
fare in Tokyo, which none should 
fail to see^ leads from the Shim- 
bashi terminus to Megane-bashi. 
The portion of it nearest to the 
station is called the CHnza, and 
has many shops in European style. 
Proceeding along it, the traveller 
crosses the Kyobashi and Nihon- 
bashi bridges, from the latter of 
which all distances in Eastern 
Japan are calculated. The new 
General Post-Office stands close 
by. Parallel to the portion of the 
main street between these bridges 
is Naka-^idri, a street highly attrac- 
tive on account of its second-hand 
curio shops. Nihon-hashi has also 
given its name to the surrounding 
large and busy district, which is 
filled with shops, market-places, 
and godowns. The great fish- 
market is a notable sight in the 
early hours of the morning. 

Megane-Bashi, or ' Spectacles 
Bridge,' is so called from its circu- 
lar arches. The portion of the 
canal to the 1. is popularly known 
as ' Sendai's "Weeping Excavation ' 
(NaJd-bori). 

Local history says that Tsunamune, 
DaimyO of Sendai, was in the habit of 
squandering large sums at the YoshL- 
wara, and that the 8hogun, in order to 
turn him from his rakish ways, and also 
to put snch extravagance oat of his 
power, imposed on him the task of deep- 
ening and widening this part of the moat 
— a work which he Ib said to have per- 
formed with much lamentation over the 
drain on his purse. 

A little way on is Seido> the 
gage's Hall or Temple of Con- 
facius, now used as an Education- 
al Museum. It is pleasantly 



situated on rising grourfd in the 
midst of a grove of trees, among 
which the fragrant mokusei is most 
conspicuous. The buildings, which 
date from 1691, are fine specimens 
of the Chinese style of architect- 
ure. The main hall facing the 
entrance is supported on black 
lacquered pillars, the ceiling is 
also of black lacquer, while the 
fioor is of ,finely chiselled square 
blocks of stone. Opposite the door 
is a wooden image of Confucius, 
possessing considerable merit as a 
work of art. The Museum, which 
contains specimens of school and 
kindergarten furniture, books, 
maps, etc., is open daily to visitors. 
Just above, in the same grounds, 
stand the two sections of the 
Normal School (8hihan-0akkd), that 
in brick being for men^ the other 
for women. 

Behind the Seido, is the Shinto 
temple of Kanda_ My oj in, dedica- 
ted to the god Onamuji and to 
Masakado, a celebrated rebel of 
the 10th century. 

After the final overthrow of Masakado, 
his ghost used to haunt the neighbour- 
hood. In order to lay this spectre, apo- 
theosis was resorted to in the 13th cen- 
tury. The temple, for which a hoary 
antiquity is claimed, but which was only 
established in its present site in 1616, has 
been frequently burnt down and rebuilt 
since that time. 

The temple, originally decorated 
with paintings by artists of the 
Kano school, has now grown some- 
what dingy, but is still popular 
with the multitude. The yearly 
festival, which is celebrated on 
the 15th September, is well-worth 
seeing. 

Entering the main street of the 
district of Kanda, one of the chief 
arteries of the Northern portion of 
the metropolis, we oome r. to the 
Imperial Uniyersity (TeikolM Dai- 
gam), a set of handsome brick 
buildings standing in the exten- 
sive grounds of the former Kaga 
Yashiki, or mansion of the g^eat 
Daimyo of £aga. 



78 



Route 4, — Tohjo, 



The germ of this institution was the 
Ban»ho Shirabe-Jo, or * Place for the Ex- 
amination of Barbarian Writings,* founded 
by the Tokugawa Government in 1856. 
Seven years later, this name was changed 
to that of Kaisei-fOf or * Place for Develop- 
ing and Completing/ which indicated a 
change for the better in the views held 
by the Japanese as to the value of Euro- 
pean learning. Numerous other changes 
nave taken place both in the name and 
scope of the institution, which since 1881 
has been placed on a thoroughly modem 
footing, and now includes CoUeges of 
Law, Medicine, Engineering, Literature, 
Science, and Agriculture, where lectures 
are delivered by a lar^ staff of professors 
of various nationalities and in various 
languages. The students number over 
1,900. The courses that attract most 
students are those of Law and Medicine. 
A large hospital connected with the Uni- 
versity stan^ in the same grounds. 
Other institutions under the authority of 
the President of the University are the 
Botanical Gkirdens in the district of Koi- 
shikawa, the TOkyo Observatory at ligura 
in Tokyo, and the Marine Biological 
Observatoiy at Misaki in the province of 
Sagami, 

_ Further on in the direction of 
Oji are the florists' gardens of 
Dango-zaka, whither the towns- 
folk flock in thousands to see the 
chrysanthemum shows in Novem- 
ber. The flowers are trained over 
trellis-work to represent historical 
and mythological scenes, ships, 
dragons, and other curious designs. 
In 1890, there were flowery repre- 
sentations of the chief members of 
the first Imperial Diet which had 
just been elected. 

The O'Qwannon, or * Great 
Kwannon,' may be worth a pass- 
ing visit. The gilt image, which is 
16 ft. high, was an offering made 
in the 17th century by a merchant 
of Yedo, and represents the goddess 
bending slightly forward, and 
holding in her hand the lotus, the 
emblem of purity. Round the walls 
of the shrine containing the image, 
are ranged in tiers the Sen-tax 
Kwannon, or images of the ' Thou- 
sand Incarnations of Ewannon.' 

The KaUhikawa, Botanical Garden 
{Shohw-hutsv^en) is open to the 
public. Duplicate specimens of 
the plants are for sale at the office. 

The small temple of Mui^o-in, in 



the same district, is connected with, 
the history of the early Catholic 
missionaries to Japan, some of 
whom lie buried in the cemetery. 
Hence the name of Kirishitan- 
zaka, or * Christian Hill,' by which 
the locality is popularly known. 
The grave of the earliest of these 
missionaries. Father Giuseppe 
Chiara, who died in 1685, may be 
distinguished by a priest's hat 
carved in stone. Readers desirous of 
further details are referred to the 
writings of Mr. Ernest Satow and 
Professor J. M. Dixon, in Vol. VI, 
Part I, and Vol. XVI, Part III, of 
the 'Transactions of the Asiatic 
Society of Japan.' 

The temple of Dcn»i*-'in, close by, 
has a certain historic in^rest as 
the resting-place of leyasu's 
mother. The main altar, sur- 
mounted by a large gilt image of 
Shaka, is handsomely ornamented. 

The Koishikawa Arsenal (Hohei 
Kosho) occupies the site of the 
former mansion of the Prince of 
Mito. Here are manufactured the 
celebrated Murata rifles. An order 
from the military authorities is 
necessary to gain admittance. An 
order is also necessary for the 
Garden (Korakuen), which stiU re- 
mains intact, and is the finest 
specimen of the Japanese land- 
scape gardener's art to be seen in 
the capital. Its design was to 
reproduce in miniature many of 
the scenes whose names are fami- 
liar to the literati of Japan. 
Prince Mitsukuni, generally known 
as Mito Komon, laid out the 
grounds as a place in which to 
enjoy a calm old age after a life of 
labour. If the visitor has first 
inspected the Arsenal, he wUl then 
be conducted to a summer-house 
in the Garden, with an extensive 
grass-plot attached, and overlook- 
ing a lake copied from a noted one 
in China called Sei-ko. A small 
wooded hill rises beyond, which we 
ascend, and on which stands a 
miniature replica of the famous 



Koishikawa, Umo, 



79 



temple of Kiyomizu at Kyoto, en- 
riched with carvings, but worn by 
time. Descending, we are . im- 
mersed for a minute in the depths 
of a wood before reaching an old 
bridge with a rivulet running far 
below. Crossing the bridge and 
following up a zigzag path, we 
come to the shrine of H^u-i and 
Shiku-sei, the loyal brothers of 
Chinese lore, who, after the over- 
throw of their lord and master, 
refused to eat the corn produced 
under the conqueror's sway, and, 
secluding themselves on Mount 
Shuyo, Uved on ferns till, being 
told that ferns grew also on their 
enemy's lands, they abstained even 
from that poor food, and so died of 
starvation. An arched stone 
bridge and another shrine, shaped 
octagonally in allusion to the 
Eight Diagrams of the Chinese 
system of divination, are next 
passed. From here, a tunnel-Hke 
opening leads through a thicket of 
creepers and other Ixees to a lake 
several acres in extent and full of 
lotus-floweis. The water, which 
comes from the Tamagawa aque- 
duct, is made to form a pretty cas- 
cade before falling into the lake. 
An island in the centre is con- 
nected with the mainland by a 
bridge. Everywhere there are 
magnificent trees — cherry-trees for 
tlie spring, maples for the autumn, 
plum-trees for the winter, making 
a change of scene at each season. 
Near the exit, is a hill with a 
path paved in such manner as to 
imitate the road over the Hakone 
Pass. 

On the extreme N. W. outskirt 
of the city stands the Buddhist 
temple of Ookohuji, now used as 
the head-quarters of the Shingon 
sect, who have a seminary there for 
young priests. With its extensive 
grounda, its silent belfry, and the 
perfect stillness of its surround- 
ings, it recalls the memory of days 
now irretrievably past, when Bud- 



dhism was a mighty power in the 
land. The azaleas here are noted 
for their beauty. The chief trea- 
sure of the temple is a gigantic 
kakemono of Buddha's Entry into 
Nirvana by Kano Yasunobu, which 
is shown only during the month of 
April. 

Adjoining Gokokuji is the new 
Cemetery of the Imperial family, 
selected since the removal of the 
Court to Tokyo. It is not open to 
the public. The interment here 
in 1891 of Prince Sanjo, one of the 
leaders of the Kestoration and 
long Prime Minister, was an im- 
posing pageant. 

6. — Ueno Park, Temples, and 
Museum. Asakusa. Higashi 
HoNGWANJi. Temple or Kwan- 
KON. Mukojima. Hobikibi. 

Ueno Park is the most popular 
resort in the metropolis, and has 
been the site of three National 
Industrial Exhibitions. Here, in 
April, all Tokyo assembles to ad- 
mire the wonderful mass of cherry- 
blossom for which it is famous. 
No traveller should miss this op- 
portunity of witnessing a scene 
charming alike for natiural beauty 
and picturesque Eastern life. 

Originally the Yedo residence of the 
Todo family, Ueno was taken over by 
the Shdgun lemitsu in the year 1625 
for the purpose of erecting here in 
the North-Eastem, and therefore accord- 
ing to a prevalent superstition the 
most imlucky, portion of the new capital, 
a series of Buddhist temples that should 
surpass all others in splendour. The 
original main temple then founded oc- 
cupied the site of the present MuBeum, 
and was burnt down in 1808 on the 
occasion of a bloody battle fought be- 
tween the partisans of the Mik£io and 
those of the Shogun. The outer gate still 
exists, showing the marks of bullets. This 
temple was counted among the triumphs 
of Japanese architecture. Here always 
resided as high-priest a son of the reign- 
ing Mikado, retained in gilded slavery 
for political reasons, as it was convenient 
for the Shdguns to have in their power a 
prince who could at once be decorated 
with the Imperial title, should the Court of 
Kydto at any time prove unfavourabl« 



80 



Route 4, — Tokyo. 



to their policy, "the last high-priest of 
Ueno was actually utilised in this man- 
ner by the Shogun's partisans, and car- 
ried off by them to Aizu when they raised 
the standjard of rebeUion. On their defeat, 
he was pardoned by the present legiti- 
mate sovereign, was sent to Germany to 
study, and is now known by the title of 
Prince Kita Shirakawa, 

Leaving Ms jinrikisha at tlie 
bottom of the hill, the traveller 
ascends r. a short flight of steps, 
leading to a plateau planted with 
cherry-trees and commanding a 
good view of the city, especially 
towards Asakusa, including the 
twelve-storied tower which is seen 
rising beyond the Ueno railway 
station, the. circular Panorama 
building, and the high roof of the 
great Hongwanji temple. The stone 
monument on this plateau is de- 
dicated to the soldiers who fell 
fighting for the Shogun's cause in 
the battle of Ueno. Close by to the 
1., is a dingy Buddhist temple dedi- 
cated to the Thousand-Handed 
Kwannon. 

Descending again to the main 
road, we reach the celebrated 
avenue of cherry-trees, a uniquely 
beautiful sight during the season 
of blossom. The air seems to be 
filled with pink clouds. To the 1., 
is a shallow piece of water called 
8hinohazyrno-ike, and celebrated for 
its lotus flowers in August. On a 
little peninsula jutting out into 
the lake, are a number of tea-houses 
and a shrine dedicated to the 
goddess Benten. This formerly 
romantic spot has of late years 
fallen a viction to vandalism, the 
shores of the lake having been 
turned into a race-course. A little 
further up, is a branch of the * Sei- 
yoken Hotel, which commands a 
good view of the lake. The eicten- 
sive buildings seen in the distance, 
on a height to the r., are some of 
the Colleges of the Imperial Uni- 
versity. Close to the hotel is a 
bronze image of Buddha, 21^ ft. 
high, known as the Daibutsu. This 
inferior specimen of the bronze 



sculptor's art dates from about the 
year 1660. Following along the 
main road for a few yards, we come 
1. to a bullet-riddled gate, pre- 
served as a relic of the battle of 
Ueno. An immense stone lantern 
just inside the gate is one of the 
three largest in Japan, the work 
of Sakuma Daizenosuke who flou- 
rished early in the I7th century. 
Beyond it again, has stood since 
1890 a switch-back railway, whose 
vulgar clatter strikes a strangely 
discordant note in the harmony 
produced by the stately crypto- 
merias, the ancienit pagoda, and 
the glorious gold gate at the 
end of the long avenue of stone 
lanterns, presented in 1651 by 
various Daimyos as a tribute to 
the memory of the Shogun leyasn. 
To this Shogun, under his posthu- 
mous name of Toshogu or Gongen 
Sama, the shrine within the gate 
is dedicated. Th^ gate itself, re- 
stored in 1890, is a dream of 
beauty. Carvings of dragons 
adorn it on either side. Above are 
geometrical figures, birds, foliage, 
and everywhere the Tokugawa 
crest of three Asarum leaves. It is 
intended to restore in the same 
style the temple whose gold has 
been worn away in many places. 
The details resemble those of the 
Mortuary Shrines at Shiba. The 
temple contains some fine speci- 
mens of lacquer. Bound the walls 
hang pictures of the San-jHrroJc-Jca^ 
sen, below which are screens with 
conventional lions. 

The 8an-jU-roh-ka-»en, or Thirty-six Po- 
etical Geniuses, flourished during the Sth, 
9th, and 10th centuries. The grouping 
of their names in a galaxy is attributed 
to a court noble of the 11th century named 
Kinto Dainagon. Their portraits were 
first painted by Fujiwara-no-Nobuzane 
about A.D 1200. A complete list of their 
names will be found m Dr. Wm. An- 
derson's interesting ' Catalogue of Japa- 
nese and Chinese Paintings. 

Returning to the main road 
the way we came, and passing 
through the now closed buildings 



Ueno Museum. 



81 



of the last National Industrial 
Szhibition, we reach the 

Ueno Miisenm (Hahibutsu-Jcvjan). 
This institution, which is open 
every day except Monday, from 8 
to 5 in summer, and from 9 to 4 in 
winter, is well-worth a visit. The 
contents are arranged as follows : — 

Ground Floor. L. of Entrance- 
Industrial Department : — Boom 1, 
porcelain; Boom 2, cloisonn6, 
bronze, lacquer, metal-work, pot- 
tery, wood-work ; Boom 3, carpets, 
lace, and woven stuffs j Boom 4, 
tools, instruments, and miscel- 
lajieous articles. 

Ground Floor. B. of Entrance. 
Natural History Department. The 
front rooms contain the Zoolo- 
gical Section ; the back rooms, the 
Botanical and Agricultural Sec- 
tions. 

An annexe at the back of the 
main building contains the Miner- 
alogical Section, immediately be- 
hind which a pretty garden has 
been laid out. 

Upper Floor. Landing; ancient 
Imperial State bullock cart and 
palanquins, model of the Tenchi 
Maru, or * Ship of Heaven and 
Earth,' which was the State barge 
used by the Shoguns. 

Upper Floor. Front rooms r. 
(above Industrial Department), 
Historical or Archaeological De- 
partment. The contents of this 
Department being of special in- 
terest, they are here indicated in 
greater detail, as follows : — 

Boom 1. 

First two ccues r. and 1. Stone 
arrow-heads, spear-heads, and pot- 
tery of the prehistoric period ; 
maga-tama and kudortama in jasper, 
agate, etc. 

The maga-tama, or 'curved jewels,' 
which somewhat resemble a tadpole in 
shape, were anciently strung together and 
used as necklaces and ornaments for the 
waist both by men and women, as were 
also the kudu'tama or ' tube - shaped 
jewels.* Their use survives in the Loo- 
cboo Islands. 



Second cases r. and 1. Prehisto- 
ric stone celts and other objects; 
proto-hietoric copper mirrorl and 
horse-trappings. 

Third cases. Proto-historic cop- 
per beUs, iron swords, armour, 
horse-trappings, shoes, and cooking 
utensils. 

Fourth cases. Iron swords, spear- 
heads, horse-trappings, pottery 
anciently used for the presentation 
of offerings to the Shinto gods. 
Some pieces from the provinces on 
the N.E. shore of the Inland Sea 
are remarkably ornamented with 
human figures in high relief. 

Fifth cases. Early pottery con- 
sisting of sacrificial cups, etc. 

Sixth coMs. Earthenware images 
of men and horses used in proto- 
historic times for interment in the 
graves of illustrious personages, 
after the custom of burying their 
chief retainers alive with them 
had been discontinued ; figures of 
birds — apparently geese — which 
were used as a fence round the 
tumulus of the Emperor Ojin in 
the province of Kawachi; frag- 
ments of earthenware posts used 
for a similar purpose. 

Boom 2. 

Firsi ca^s r. and 1. Antiquities 
from the Buddhist temple of Ho- 
ryuji in Yamato, including iron 
and wooden begging-bowls, nickel 
and bronze flower-vases and im- 
plements for food, golden tokko, and 
specimens of the miniature pago- 
das of which, in A.D. 764, the 
reigning Mikado caused a million 
to be made for distribution to all 
the Buddhist temples throughout 
the land. There are also manu- 
scripts, which are among the earli- 
est specimens of Japanese calli- 
graphy. They are aU in the 
Chinese language. 

Second cases. Antiquities from 
Horyuji, including incense-burners 
with long handles, boxes, shoes, 
and scarves, whose patterns show 
the stiff Chinese formality of the 



82 



Baute 4* — Tokyo, 



art-industry of early Japan, miisical 
instruments, ecclesiastical 'proper- 
ties/ such. 9^ exorcising-wands, 
temple seals^ etc., and miscella- 
neous articles of common use. 

Third cases. Antiquities from 
Todaiji at Nara, including miscel- 
laneous articles, Buddhist reliqua- 
ries — one of these holds specimens 
of the little bead-like relics of a 
Buddha which are known as shari 
— musical instruments, tuning- 
forks, and standard measures. 

Fourth cases. Christian relics : 

Many of these date from tlie embassy to 
Rome of Hashikura Rokuemon, who was 
sent thither by Date Masamune, Prince of 
Sendai, in 1614, with a train of followers, 
and returned to Japan in 1620, The oflft- 
cial Japanese account of this curious 
episode is that the embassy went at the 
ShO^n's desire, in order to investigate 
the political strength and resources of 
Europe, The version usually accepted by 
European writers is that the eicpedition 
really was what it avowed itself to be — 
an act of submission to the religious 
supremacy of the Pope, The envoy was 
vrell-received at the Roman Court, and 
was presented with the freedom of the 
city of Rome, besides being loaded with 
presents. The relics remained in the 
possession of the Date family at Sendai 
until a few years ago. 

Among the objects in these cases, 
are an oil-painting of Hashikura 
in prayer before a crucifix, an 
illuminated Latin document con- 
ferring on him the freedom of the 
city of Rome, holy pictures, rosaries, 
crucifixes, a small Japanese book 
of Catholic devotion in hiragana 
characters, photographs of Date 
Masamune's letters to the Pope in 
Japanese and Latin, a portrait of 
Hashikura in his Italian costume, 
etc. To a set of circumstances 
very different in their nature, 
though not far removed in time, 
belong the fumi-ita, or "trampling 
boards," — oblong blocks of metsS 
with figures in high relief of Christ 
before Pilate, the Descent from 
the Cross, the Madonna and Child, 
etc., on which persons suspected 
of the crime of Christianity were 
obliged to trample during times of 
persecution, in order to testify 



their abjuration of the * depraved 
sect,' as it was called. The Dutch 
traders at Nagasaki are suspected 
of having lent themselves to this 
infamous practice for the sake of 
monetary gain. 

Fifth cases. Implements used in 
the Shinto religious cult. 

Sixth ca^s. Coins illustrating 
the currency of Japan from A.D. 
708 onwards ; standard weights 
and measures. The very large 
oblong gold coins were called dhan, 
the smaller ones kohan. 

The last room of this suite con- 
tains a model of the Shinto shrines 
temporarily erected in the Fukiage 
Garden at Tokyo for the corona- 
tion of the present Emperor, and 
burnt down after the ceremony. 
A small room 1. contains Imperial 
robes and the ancient Imperial 
throne, with exquisitely delicate 
silk hangings, which served to 
shroud majesty from the gaze of 
ordinary mortals. 

The back rooms on this side con- 
tain : — Room 1, court robes and 
ancient textile fabrics ; Room 2, 
armour and weapons ; Room 3, 
musical instruments, tea utensils, 
masks, and theatrical costumes. 

Upper Floor, 1. (above Natural 
History Department). Front 
Rooms, Fine Art Department. 
Central Room and Room 1, Kake- 
monos and Mahimonos; Room 2, 
masks and images, chiefly bronze ; 
Room 8, manuscripts and illustrat- 
ed scrolls. The back rooms com- 
prise the Art Industry Depart- 
ment, — ^lacquer, porcelain, bronze, 
etc. 

There is a large wing to the r. 
of the entrance, but it is not now 
open to the public. 

On quitting the Museum, an 
avenue r. leads to the Art. School 
{Bijutsu Qukko), not accessible 
without a special introduction. In 
the same grounds, are a Public 
Library and Reading Room (Tosho' 
kwan)t and a learned Academy 



Tombs of the Shoguns. 



88 



called the Oahishi Kai-in. Behind 
these, are the Zoological Gardens 
{Dobutsu-en). 

Before reaching the Tosho-kwan, 
an avenue turns ofif r. to the 

Tombs of the Sh6^nns(OoBeiya), 
abutting on the second and finer 
of the two Mortuary Temples (^t 
no Oo Reiya). The main gate is 
always kept closed, but a side en- 
trance 1. leads to the priest* s house. 
The resident custodian will act as 
guide for a small fee. 

The six Shdgons buried at TJeno 
belonged to the Tokugawa family, being 
the 4th, 5th, 8th, 10th, 11th, and 18th 
of their line. It is still at the private 
expense of the family that these shrines 
are kept up. In general style, they 
closely resemble those at Shiba, described 
on p. 68, and are among the priceless 
legacies of the art of Old Japan. Like the 
Shiba shrines, too, they have suffered at 
the hands of thieves since the Revolution 
of 1868. 

This glorious building, a sym- 
phony in gold and blended colours, 
has a wooden colonnade in front, 
the red walls of which are divided 
into compartments, each contain- 
ing a medallion in the centre, filled 
with painted open-work carvings 
of birds and flowers, with ara- 
besques derived from the chrysan- 
themum above and a carved wave- 
design below. In the centre of 
this colonnade is a gate decorated 
with a painting of an angel. From 
here, an open colonnade leads up to 
the steps of the main building. 
The porch has brackets carved 
with conventional chrysanthe- 
mums. Its square columns are 
adorned with plum-blossoms in 
red and gold. Under the beams, 
are red and gold lions' heads as 
brackets. The doors of the oratory 
are carved in diapers, and gilded 
all over. Note the tastefuUy 
painted diapers on the architrave. 
The ceiling is massive and loaded 
with metal fastenings. In the 
coffers are dragons in gold on a 
blue ground. The interior walls 
are gilded, having in some places 
conventional paintings of lions, in 



others movable shutters. This 
apai-tment is 16 yds. wide by 7 
yds. in depth. The corridor which 
succeeds it is 4 yds. wide by 8 yds. 
in depth, and leads to the black 
lacquered steps of the inner 
sanctum. Its ceiling is decorated 
with the phoenix on a green and 
gold ground. Handsome gilt doors 
covered with carved arabesques 
close the entrance to the sanctum, 
which measures 7 yds. in depth by 
11 yds. in width. The ceiling is 
decorated with fine gilt lattice- 
work in the coffers. The small 
shrines, containing the memorial 
tablets of the illustrious dead, are 
gorgeous specimens of gold lacquer. 
Beginning at the r., these shrines 
are respectively those of the 5th, 
8th, and 13th Shoguns, and of Ko- 
kyo-In, son of the 10th Shogun. 
B. and 1. are two shrines contain- 
ing tablets of eight mothers of 
Shoguns. Curiously enough, all 
were concubines, not legitimate 
consorts. The actual graves are 
in the grounds behind. The finest, 
a bronze one, is that of the 5th 
Shogun. Its bronze gate has 
magnificent panels with the phoenix 
and unicorn in bas-relief, — Korean 
castings from Japanese designs 
about 140 years old. 

The First Mortuary Temple (Ichi 
no Go Reiya) is close to the Second. 
On leaving the Second, turn to thd 
1. to reach the priests' house, where 
application for admission must be 
made. Here are buried the 4th, 
10th, and 11th Shoguns, together 
with several princesses. The 
monument of the 4th is in bronze, 
the others in simple stone. Over 
the grave of the 11th Shogun 
hangs a weeping cherry-tree, placed 
there to commemorate the love of 
flowers which distinguished that 
amiable prince, whose reign (A.D. 
1787-1838) was the culminating 
point of the splendour of Old Japan. 

Returning towards the entrance 
of the park, we reach the Buddhist 
temple popularly known as RyQ 



84 



Baute 4. — Tokyo. 



Vaithif properly Jigen-Do, dedicated 
Vt the two great Abbots, Jie Dai- ! 
•hi and Jigen Daishi, the former 
of whom flotiriBhed in the 9th 
eentutj, the latter in the I6th 
and 17th, On this side of the 
park are some buildings often used 
of late years for art exhibitions of 
Tarious kinds. 

We now leave Ueno, and passing : 
along a busy thoroughfare, reach 
the district of Asakusa. The first ' 
object of interest here is the , 
spaeions temple of Higashi Hon- i 
inranji, popularly called Monzehi, \ 
tlie chief religious edifice in Tokyo | 
of the Monto sect of Buddhists. 
Though yery plain, as is usual 
with the buildings of this sect, the 
Monzeki is worth visiting on ac- 
count of its noble proportions. It 
was founded in 1657. The iron 
net-work thrown over the temple 
is intended to prevent sparks from 
falling on the wood-work, when 
there is a conflagration in the 
neighbourhood. Ilie huge porch 
is adorned with finely carved 
wooden brackets, the designs being 
chrysanthemum flowers and leaves, 
and peony flowers and leaves. On the 
transverse beams are some curiously 
involved dragons. These are the 
best specimens of this sort of work 
to be seen in Tokyo, and should 
■ not be passed over. Observe too 
the manner, peculiar to the build- 
ings of this sect, in which the 
beams are picked out with white. 
The area of the matted floor of the 
nave (g^m) is 140 mats, and round 
the front and sides runs a wooden 
aisle 12 ft. wide. Over the screen 
which separates the chancel and 
its side-chapels from the nave, are 
massive gilt open-work carvings 
representing angels and phoenixes ; 
the largest are 12 ft. in length by 
4 ft. in height. The rest of the 
building is unadorned. Hanging 
against the gilt background of the 
temple wall, on either side of the 
altar, are to be seen several kake- 



monos of Buddhist saints, indistin- 
guishable in the ' dim religious 
light;' also r. the poethumoiiB 
tablet of leyasn, which is exposed 
for veneration on the 17th of the 
month. ThehoHMon, Amida^isablack 
image, always exposed to Tiew, 
and standing in a very handsome 
shrine of black and gold lacquer. 
From the r. side of the main hall, & 
bridge leads down to the Jiki-do, 
or preaching halL At the main 
temple, sermons are only preached 
for one week in the year, viz. from 
the 21st to 28th November, when the 
gorgeous services {hd-cn-ko) held in 
honour of the founder of the sect 
are well-worth witnessing. On 
this occasion, the men all go to the 
temple in the style of dress known 
as kator^inu, and the women with 
a head-dress called tsuno-kakushi 
(Ut. *hom-hider') — both relics of 
the past. The 'hom-hider' would 
seem to have been so named in 
allusion to a Buddhist text which 
says : ' A*woman's exterior is thai 
of a saint, but her heart is that of i 
demon.'-^Lesser services are helc 
at the time of the vernal an< 
autumnal equinoxes. Quaint test! 
mony is borne to the popularity o 
this temple with the lower middl 
class by the ' notices posted up o: 
some of the great columns in th 
main hall. Not only is thei 
one to prohibit smoking, but or 
warning people not to come liei 
for their afternoon nap (Hiiru-i 
muyo)! On quitting the Monzel 
notice its nobly massive roof, w^i1 
lions rampant at the corners. 

About 7 cho from the Monzel 
stands the great Buddhist temp 
of Sensdji, popularly called Asakn 
Kwannon, because dedicated 
Kwannon, the goddess of Mercy. 

A fabulous antiquity is claizned for 1 
founding in this locality of a slir 
sacred to Kwannon, the tntdition be: 
that the image which is now -worsbip] 
there, was fished up on the neigliborLr 
strand during the reign of th.e Bmpx 
Suiko (A.D. 693—628) by a noble of 
name of Hashi-no-Nakatomo, who ] 



Asahisa Temple, 



86 



been exiled to this then desolate portion 
of tbe coast, and with two attendants 
gained his livelihood by casting his nets 
at the mouth of the Asaknsa river. In 
his fishing hut the first altar is said to 
have heen raised ; and the crest of three' 
nets, which is to be seen marking certain 
portions of the buildings, was devised in 
memory of the event. The miraculous 
image is never shown, but is commonly 
believed to be but 1| inch in height; 
and th.e disproportion between the small- 
ness of the image and the vastness of the 
temple has passed into a popular saying . 
Instead of the actual sacred image, there 
is exbibited on the 13th December of every 
year another laiger one which stands in 
front of the high "altar. In the year 1180, 
Yoritomo endowed the temple with ninety 
acres of arable land.^ But when leyasu 
made Tedo his capital, he found the 
temple gone to ruin, and the priests 
living in disorder and immorality. The 

firesent buildings date from the time of 
emitsu, after the destruction by fire of 
the former edifice. They are in the 
possession of the Tendaisect of Buddhists 

On no account should a visit to 
this popular temple and the 
grounds (Kdenchi) surrounding it 
be omitted ; for it is the great holi- 
day resort of the middle and lower 
classes, and nothing is more striking 
than the juxtaposition of piety and 
pleasure, of gorgeous altars and 
grotesque ex-votos, of pretty cos- 
tumes and dingy idols, the clatter 
of the clogs, cocks and hens and 
pis^eons strutting about among the 
worshippers, children playing, 
soldiers smoking, believers chaffer- 
ing with dealers of charms, ancient 
art, modern advertisements — in 
fine, a spectacle than which surely 
nothing more motley was ever 
witnessed within a religious edifice. 
The most crowded time is Sunday 
afternoon, and the 17th and 18th 
of each months days sacred to 
Kwannon. 

The mfdn gate of the temple no 
longer exists. One walks up 
through a lane of red brick shops, 
where toys, photographs, and gew- 
gaws of all kinds are spread out 
to tempt the multitude. The sam- 
mon, or two-storied gate in front of 
the temple, is a huge structure of 
red wood, with images of the Ni-o 
on either side. The immense 



sandals hung up in front of the 
cages containing these images, are 
placed there by persons desirous 
of becoming good walkers. To the 
1., immediately , before passing 
through the big gate, is a popular 
shrine of Fudo, just outside of 
which is a shrine of Jiz5, distin- 
guishable by a prayer-wheel (go- 
sho-guruma) roughly resembling a 
pillar post-box. 

The prayer-wheel is, in Japan, found 
only in connection with the mystic doc- 
trine of the Tendai and Shingon sects, 
and its use differs slightly from that to 
which it is put in Thibet. No prayers are 
written on it ; but the worshipper, attri- 
buting to ingwa (the Sanskrit Jcarma, 
that IS, * the effects in this life of the 
actions in a former state of existence') 
any sin of which he wishes to be rid, or 
any desire that occurs to him, turns the 
wheel with a simple request to Jizo to let 
this ingtoa duly run its course — the course 
of ingtoa resembling the perpetual revolu- 
tions of a wheel. 

On the opposite or r. side of the 
lane, on a mound, is the large Asa- 
kusa bell whose sonorous notes are 
heard all over the Northern part 
of the city. 

The great hall of the temple of 
Kwannon is 102 ft. square, and is en- 
tirely surrounded by a wide gallery. 
The large picture hanging above 
the entrance to the r. represents life 
(under the figure of two sleeping 
men and a sleepingtiger) as nothing 
more than a dream, the only living 
reality in which is the power of 
religion (typified by a Buddhist 
priest). The eye is struck, on enter- 
ing, by the immense number of 
lanterns and pictures which cover 
the ceiling and walls. These are 
all offerings presented by believers. 
Some of the pictures are by good 
modern artists. One over the 
shrine to the r. represents a perfor- 
mance of the "No, or mediseval lyric 
drama, in which the red-haired 
sea-demon called Shojo plays the 
chief part. Opposite is a curious 
painted carving in relief, represent- 
ing the ' Three Heroes of Shoku ' 
(a Chinese state established in 
the 2nd century chiefly by their 



S6 



RoiUe d. — Tokyo, 



efforts). The hero on the r., called 
Kwan-u, is now worshipped in 
China as the God of War. To the 
1. of this is one showing On-Umaya- 
no-Kisanda fixing his bow-string 
to shoot the foea of his master 
Yoshitsune, the latter (to the r.) 
being awakened by his mistress^ 
the renowned and lovely Shizuka 
Gozen. The ceiling is painted 
with representations of angels, the 
work of Kano Doshun. The seated 
image to the r., with a pink bib 
round its neck, and now almost 
rubbed away with age, was a cele- 
brated work of Jikaku Daishi, 
and represents Binzuru, the helper 
of the sick. At any time of the 
day believers may be observed rub- 
bing it (see p. 28). The stalls in 
front of the main shrine are for 
the sale of pictures of the goddess 
Kwannon, which are used as 
charms against sickness, to help 
women in child-birth, etc., of tickets 
to say whether a child about to be 
born will be a boy or a girl, and so 
forth. 

The chancel is, as usual, separated 
from the nave by a wire screen, 
and is not accessible to the public. 
An offering tendered to one of the 
priests in charge will, however, 
generally procure admission. On 
the high altar, gorgeous with 
lamps, flowers, gold, damask, and 
sacred vessels, and guarded by 
figures of the Shi Tenno, of Bonten, 
and of Taishaku, the latter said to 
be the work of Gyogi Bosatsu, 
stands the shrine which contains 
the sacred image of Kwannon. On 
either side are ranged images, some 
2 or 3 ft. high, of Kwannon in 
her ' Three-and-Thirty Terrestrial 
Embodiments,' each set in a hand- 
some shrine standing out against 
the gold ground of the wall. R. 
and 1. of the altar, hang a pair 
of votive offerings — golden horses 
in high relief on a lacquer ground 
— ^presented by the Shogun lemitsu. 
On the ceiling is a dragon, the 
work of Kano Eishin. The side 



altar to the r. is dedicated to Fudo. 
Observe the numerous vessels used 
in the ceremony of the goma 
.prayers, which are frequently of- 
fered up here for the recovery of 
the sick. The twelve small images 
are the Ju-ni Ddji, or attendants 
of Kwannon. The altar to the 
1. is dedicated to Aizen Myo-6, 
whose red image with three eyes 
and six arms is contained in a 
gaudy shrine. The two-storied 
miniature pagoda is simply an 
offering, as are also the thousand 
small images of Kwannon in a 
case to the 1.. and the large Euro- 
pean mirror, in front of which is 
a life-like image of the abbot Zen- 
nin Shonin. At the back of the 
main altar is another called * XJrE 
Kwan-non,* (ura meaning * back *) 
which should be visited for the 
sake of the modern wall-picture 
on lacquer with a background 
of gold leaf, by artists o 
the Kano school. Above are 
crowd of supernatural being) 
headed by a converted dragon i 
the form of a beautiful woma] 
who offers a large jewel to Sliak 
Two of the latter's dSsciples {Baka'i 
are at his r. foot, Monju at his 
foot, and Fugen below on the 
The figure of Fugen has been i 
stored within the last thirty yea 
Those on the r. and 1. walls are i 
tended for the Twenty-eight Ma: 
festations of Kwannon. 

In the grounds are several bui 
ings of interest, and a number 
ichd trees whose golden foliage 
autumn is a sight in itself. !Behi 
the great temple to the 1., is a snn 
shrine full of ex-votos inscril 
with the character ^, ' eye,* j. 
sented by persons afflicted viritli 
disease. Beside it is a large bro 
image of Buddha. The small 1: 
agonal building immediately beb 
the great temple, is the Daih6-cL 
Jizo-do, containing a crowd, of li 
stone images seated in tiers ro 
a large one of Jizo. This divii 
being the special protector of cl 



Asakusa. Mukojima, 



87 



ren, parents bring the images of 
tlieir dead little ones to his shrine. 
Seyond the Jiz6-d6, is the Nembwtsu- 
da with a pretty altar. Turning r., 
Tve come to the 8anja — a Shinto 
sHrine^ dedicated to the Three 
Fishermen of the local legend, and 
Having panels decorated with my- 
tliological monsters in gaudy 
colours. Note the bronze and stone 
lions in front. Passing the stage 
on which the Z^agrwra dances are per- 
formed, we reach the Rinzo, or * Re- 
volving Library,' in a square 
building with carved lioiis on the 
eaves. 

The Rinzo is a receptacle lai^ enough 
to contain a complete edition of the Bud- 
dhist Scriptures, but turning so easily on 
a pivot as to be readily made to revolve 
by one vigorous push. A ticket over the 
door explains the use of this peculiar book 
case : ' Owing to the voluminousness of 
tbe Buddhist Scriptures— 6,771 volumes 
— it is impossible for any single individual 
to read them through. But a degree of 
merit equal to that accruing to him who 
should have perused the entire canon, will 
be obtained by those who will cause this 
library to revolve three times on its axis ; 
and moreover long life, prosperity, and the 
avoidance of all misfortunes shall be their 
reward.' The invention of * Revolving 
Libraries' is attributed to a Chinese 
priest called Pu Daishi, who lived in the 
6th century. That at Asakusa is of red 
lacquer on a black lacquer base and stone 
lotus-shaped pedestal. 'I'he ceiling of the 
small building containing it has repre- 
sentations of clouds and angels. The 
images in front, on entering, represent Fu 
Daishi with his sons. Those trampling 
on demons are the Shi Tenno, and the 
life-size gilt figure is Shaka. The books, 
which were brought from China early in 
the 13th century, are aired every year at 
the autumn equinox, but are not shown 
at other times. The custodian, in return 
for a small gratuity, will allow visitors to 
make the library revolve. 

The Pagoda close by is no 
longer op^n to visitors. 

Adjacent to the temple enclosure 
we find the Asakusa Koenchi, or 
public grounds, where stands 
the lofty tower, properly called 
Rywin-kaka, and more popularly, 
Jur-ni-kai. This building, erected 
in 1890, has twelve storeys, as 
its popular name implies, is 820 
ft. in height, 50 ft. in internal dia- 



meter at the base, is ascended as 
far as the eighth story in an 
elevator worked by electricity, and 
commands a more extensive view 
than any other point in the city. 

The grounds of Asakusa are the 
quaintest and liveliest place in 
Tokyo. Here are raree-shows, 
penny gaffs, performing monkeys, 
cheap photographers, street artists, 
jugglers, wrestlers, life-sized figures 
in clay, vendors of toys and lolly- 
pops of every sort, and, circulating 
amidst all these cheap attractions, 
a seething crowd of busy holiday- 
makers. 

About 1 m. to the North of Asa- 
kusa is* the celebrated Yoshitoara, 
the abode of frail beauties. 

On the other side of Azuma-bashi, 
the finest bridge in Tokyo, is the 
garden of the former Satake Tashi- 
ki, one of the best specimens of the 
Japanese style of gardening. It 
contains an excellent tea-house. A 
little further on is 

Mukojima, celebrated for its 
avenue of cherry-trees, which 
stretches for more than a mile 
along the 1. bank of the Sumi- 
da-gawa. When the blossoms 
are out in April, Mukojima is 
densely crowded with holiday- 
makers from mom till dusk, and 
the tea-houses on the banks and 
the boats on the river re-echo with 
music and merriment. This sight, 
which lasts for about a week, should 
on no account be missed. The little 
temple at the end of the avenue 
was raised in remembrance of a 
touching story of the 10th century, 
which forms the subject of a 
famous lyric drama. 

Umewaka, the child of a noble family, 
was carried off from Kyoto by a slave- 
merchant, and perished in this distant 
spot, where his body was found by a 
good priest who gave it burial. The next 
year, his mother, who had roamed over the 
country in search of her boy, came to the 
place, where, under a willow-tree, the 
villagers were weeping over a lowly grave. 
On asking the name of the dead, she 
discovered that it was none other than 



88 



EoiUe 4, — Tokyo, 



her own son, who during^ the night ap> 
peared in ghostly form, and held converse 
with her ; but wnen day dawned, nothing 
remained bat the waving branches of the 
willow, and instead of nis voice only the 
sighing of the breeze. A commemorative 
service is still held on the 16th March ; and 
if it rains on that day, the people say the 
rain-drops are Umewaka's tears. 

Another favourite flower resort 
lying some little way beyond 
Makojima, is Horikiri, famed for its 
irises which bloom in June. The 
excursion is a pleasant one at that 
time of the year. 

7. — Eko-in. The Five Hundred 

Kakan. Eambido. Distbict of 

Ptjkaoawa. Susakt. , 

Crossing Bydgoku-bashi, one of 
the largest bridges in the metro- 
polis spanning the Sumida-gawa, 
we reach the noted Buddhist tem- 
ple of Eko-in. 

In the spring of 1857, on the occasion of 
a terrible conflagration which lasted for 
two detys and nights, 107,046 persons are 
said to have perished in the flames. The 
Government undertook the care of their 
interment, and orders were given to Dan- 
saemon, the chief of the pariahs,* to 
convey the bodies to Ushijima, as this 
part of Yedo was then called, and dig for 
them a common pit. Priests from all 
the different Buddhist sects came to- 

f ether to recite for the space of seven 
ays a thousand scrolls of the sacred books 
for the benefit of the souls of the departed. 
The grave was called Muenzuka, or ' the 
Mound of Destitution,' and the temple 
which was built near it is, therefore, also 
popularly entitled Muenji. Ek5-in being, 
on account of its peculiar origin, without 
the usual means of support derived from 
the gifts of the relatives of the dead, was 
formerly used as the pla^e whither SEbcred 
images were brought from other provinces 
to be worshipped for a time by the people 
of Yedo, and as a scene of public perfor- 
mances. The latter custom still survives 
in the wrestling-matches and other 
shows, which draw great crowds here 
every spring and winter. 

Eko-in might well be taken as a 

* In Japanese, Eta. Their occupations 
were to slaughter animals, tan leather, 
assist at executions, &o. The class as 
such is now abolished ; but remnants of 
its peculiar costume may still occasionaUy 
be seen in the persons of young girls with 
broad hats, who go about the streets play- 
ing and singing. 



text by those who denounce 
' heathen * temples. Dirty, gaudy, 
full of semi-defaced imaees, the 
walls plastered with advertise^ 
ments, the altar guarded by two- 
hideous red monsters, childrezi 
scampering in and out, wrestlers 
stamping, crowds shouting— the 
place lacks even the semblaiice of 
sanctity. In a small arched en« 
closure behind the temple, is the 
grave of the celebrated highway- 
man Nezumi Kozo, where incense 
is always kept burning. The oeme* 
tery at the back contains monu. 
ments to those who perished in 
the great fire of 1657, and in the 
great earthquake of 1855. 

In Honjo, Midori-cho, about X 
mile further on, is a temple con- 
taining painted images, almost life- 
size, of the Five Hundred Bakan, 
(Oo-hydku JSoJban), seated on shelves 
reaching from the bare earth of 
the floor to the rafters of the roof. 
They are from the chisel of Shoun, 
an artist of the 17th century. On 
some of them are pasted slips of 
paper with their names. The 
much larger image in the centre 
represents Shaka, with Anan on 
his r. hand and Kasho on his 1. 
The white image in front of Shaka 
is Kwannon. The temple also 
contains a hundred small images 
of Kwannon. The present edifice 
dates only from 1889, when the 
images were removed from an older 
building in the district of Fukagawa, 
which had fallen into decay. 

Not far off stands the Shinto 
Temple of Temmangu, commonly 
known as Kameido, from a stone 
tortoise seated on a well in the 
grounds. Sugawara no Miehizane 
is here worshipped under the title 
of Temman Baijizai, i.e., * the Per- 
fectly Free and Heaven-Pilling 
Heavenly Divinity.' The temple 
grounds have been laid out in 
imitation of those at Dazaifu, the 
place of his exile. Passing in 
through the outer gate, the eye is 



Kameido. Joshinji. Stisaki no Benten, 



89 



first attracted hj the wigtarias 
trained on trellis, whose blossoms 
during the last week of April make 
Kameido one of the chief show- 
places of Tokyo. They grow on the 
borders of a pond called 8hinji-no 
lie, or 'the Pond of the Word 
Heart,' on account of a supposed 
resemblance to i|>, the Chinese 
character for * heart ; ' and one of 
the amusements of the visitors is to 
feed the carp and tortoises which 
it contains. A semicircular bridge 
leads over the pond to a large gate 
in Fa^n^-tnune-sidburi (that is, eight- 
roofed style), standing in front of 
the temple. Glass cases inside the 
gate contain the usual large 
images of Zuijin. Round the walls 
of the temple, hang small pictures 
on a gold ground of the ancient 
religious dances called BiLgdku. 

Beyond a shed containing two 
life-size images of sacred ponies, is 
an exit by which the visitor can 
reach the Ume-ycLshiki, or Plum- 
Garden of Kameido, 4 cho distant. 
It is known as Ghvaryohai (lit. the 
Plum-trees of the Recumbent Dra- 
gon), and is a g^reat show-place 
early in March, when the blossoms 
are all out. There are over 500 
trees, all extremely old and partly 
creeping along the ground, whence 
the name. Most of the cut stones 
which stand about the grounds are 
inscribed with stanzas of poetry in 
praise of the flowers ; and during 
the season similar tributes, written 
on paper, will be seen hung up 
on the branches. A few eho 
from here liesMukojima (see p. 87). 

The S.E. part of Tokyo, con- 
sisting of the district of Fukagawa 
on the 1. bank of the Sumida-gawa, 
is a maze of narrow streets, chiefly 
inhabited by the lower trading and 
artisan classes, and contains little 
for the sightseer. 

Joshinji, though the chief temple 
of the Nichiren sect in Tokyo, is 
quite unpretentious, but there are 
some good carvings on the gates 



of the priests* dwellings which 
line the narrow street leading 
up to it. In the court-yard is a 
large bronze image of Shaka sup- 
ported on the shoulders of stone 
demons ; and to the back, beyond 
the cemetery, a curious supersti- 
tious practice may be witnessed 
at the shrine of Shogyo Bosatsu. 
The stone image of the saint stands 
in a little wooden shed hung round 
with small regularly cut bundles 
of straw. The faithful buy these 
at the gate, dip them in water,, 
brush the idol with them, and 
then ladle water over his head, 
believing that this ceremony will 
ensure a favourable reply to 
their petitions. The image is con- 
stantly wet, showing how firm the 
belief is. The priests of the sect 
are unable to account for the 
origin of the usage. 

The Shinto temple of Hctckiman, 
which dates from A.D. 1668, is 
handsome, owing to former Bud- 
dhist influence. The walls and ceil- 
ing are decorated with paintings 
of birds and flowers, and there are 
also some pretty wood carvings. 
The ornamentation of the chancel 
is extremely rich, the ceiling be- 
ing panelled, and .gold profusely 
scattered about. There are like- 
wise gold lions, and gold figures 
of the Sun-Goddess Amaterasu 
and of the Gods of JCasuga. Doves 
fiy about the grounds, as is 
usual in temples dedicated to 
Hachiman. They are supposed to 
act as the god's messengers, — 
strange messengers from the God 
ofWarl 

The district situated between the 
temple of Hachiman and that of • 
Susaki-no-Benten is noted for its 
trade in timber, the town being 
here intersected by numerous 
canals communicating with the 
Okawa, down which come the 
tiniber-laden rafts from the inland 
provinces. The temple of SusaH 
no Benien (Susaju being the 



90 



Route 4. — Tokyo. 



name of the projecting point 
of land on which it is situated) 
dates from the latter part of the 
17th century, at which time the 
ground on which it was erected had 
only recently been reclaimed. The 
temple itself is uninteresting ; but 
on a clear day the view from a little 
stage built up in the grounds will 
repa^V a slight detour if the traveller 
happens to be in the neighbour- 
hood. It is seen to still better 
advantage by walking along the 
embankment built after the ravages 
of the inundations and tidal wav*-8 
of the eighth decade of the last 
century. Beyond the wide sweep 
of sea in front, stretches 1. in the 
blue distance the coast line of 
Shimosa, while nearer to the spec- 
tator are the mountains of Kazusa 
and Boshu, Nokogiri-yama being 
most conspicuous both in height 
and outline. To the r. towers 
Mt. Fuji, Ranked on either side 
by the Oyama and Hakone 
ranges, while far away to the North 
rises double-peaked Mt. Tsukuba 
from the midst of the plain. At 
low tide, which the Japanese con- 
sider the prettiest time, and espe- 
cially if. the season be spring, 
numerous pleasure boats, with sing- 
ing-girls and other merry-makers, 
will be seen lazily floating about m 
the offing, watching the oyster- 
catchers ply their trade. 

8. — TsuKiji. 

On the way from the Shimbashi 
Terminus to the Foreign Conces- 
sion in Tsukiji, several important 
modern buildings are passed : — ^1. 
the Fifteenth National Bank, r. the 
Imperial Department of Communi- 
cations, and'further on r. the Cen- 
tral Telegraph Office and the huge 
Patent Office, opposite to which 
is the Seiyoken Hotel. Behind 
the latter stands the KcibuJci-zay 
one of the best theatres of the 
metropolis. The Naval Academy 
is seen to the r. beyond the canal. 



Still further to the r. is the 
Enryd-kwan, formerly the summer 
palace of the Shoguns, and used in 
more recent times as a place of 
entertainment for illustrious visi- 
tors. The Duke of Edinburgh, 
General Grant, and Princes Albert 
Victor and George of Wales are 
amongst the personages who have 
received hospitality within its 
walls. The Enryo-kwan is also 
used once a year for an Imperial 
Garden party, at the season when 
the masses of double cherry-flowers 
are in bloom. The place is unfor- 
tunately not open to the general 
public. 

The enormous tiled roof to the 
1. is that of the 

Nishi Hongwanji temple, popular- 
ly called the Tsukiji Monzeki. 
Originally founded in 1658, and 
destroyed by fire in 1872, this 
. temple was rebuilt in 1880. It 
was the first example of the 
partial adaptation of European 
architectural principles to a build- 
ing essentially Japanese. With 
the exception of the brick walls 
and the common glass windows, 
it is almost a replica of the 
Higashi Hongwanji at Asakusa. 
The smaller edifice to the 1. is a 
hall where sermons are preached. 

A large proportion of the 
buildings in the Foreign Conces- 
sion is devoted to rehgious and 
educational purposes, testifying 
to the zeal of the various mission- 
ary bodies, whose members form 
the bulk of the population. The 
most striking places of worship are 
the Cathedral of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of America and 
the Eoman Catholic Cathedral. 
Another conspicuous building is 
the Club Hotel, formerly the Ame- 
rican Legation, situated on the 
Bund facing the Sumida-gawa 
near its mouth. Beyond the river 
lies Ishikawa-jima, where stands 
the convict prison. The land 
is gaining rapidly on the water 
in this district, the whole spit op- 



Route 5, — Excursions from Toyko* 



91 



posite the Bund having been re- 
claimed within the last fifteen 
years. The view across the water 
on a fine day is very pretty. 



ROUTE 5. 

Excursions prom Tokyo. 

1. meguro and yijtenji. 2. ike- 
gami. 3. futago and mariko. 
4. cormorant-fishing on the 
tamagawa. 5. juniso, hori-no- 
uchi, and i-no-kashira. 6. ko- 

QANEI. 7. TAEAO-ZAN v'ld HACHI- 

oji. 8. oji. 9. the cave-dwbll- 
ings near konosu. 10. konodai. 

1. — Meguro, 

Me^nro {Tea-houses, * Uchida, 
Hashiwa-ya; there are several 
others, but they are apt to be 
noisy), is a favourite picnic resort, 
3 m. out of the city westwards by 
road or Suburban Railway; but the 
station is about a mile from the 
village. Shortly after leaving the 
station at the top of a descent 
called Gyonin-zaka, is 1. the small 
temple of Daienji, which deserves 
passing notice for the sake of the 
Go-hyaku Bakan, — ^tier upon tier 
of small seated images of Bud- 
dhas in various attitudes of lAedi- 
tation, quaint yet pathetic in their 
stony stillness. Meguro is seen to 
best advantage when either the 
peonies or the chrysanthemums 
are in blossom. There are two 
permanent sights — ^the temple of 
Fudo, and the graves of Gompachi 
and Komurasaki. The key to the 
latter is kept at the tea-house. 
The grave is called Hiyohirzuka, 
after the hiyoku a fabulous d|(>uble 
bird which is an emblem of con- 
stancy in love. It may be added 
that sentiment is the only motive 



for visiting the grave, as there is 
really nothing to see. 

About 260 years ago, there lived a young 
man called Shirai Gompachi, who at the 
age of sixteen had already won a name for 
his skill in the use of arms, but, having had 
the misfortune to kill a fellow-clansman 
in a quarrel over a dog, was compelled to 
fly from his native province. While rest- 
ing in an inn, on his way to Yedo, a beau- 
tiful girl came and awoke him at midnight, 
to tell him that a band of robbers, who 
had stolen her from her home, intended 
to kill him for the sake of the sword 
which every Samurai, at that time, carried. 
Being thus forewarned, Gompachi suc- 
ceeded in slaying all the thieves when the 
attack was made upon him. He also 
restored Komurasaki to her grateful 
father, a rich merchant, who would have 
been glad to make the young man his 
son-in-law; but being ambitious, Gom- 
pachi insisted on pursuing his way to 
Yedo. Meanwhile, unhappy Komurasaki 
was left to pine for the handsome youth 
with whom she had fallen deeply in love. 
After further adventures, Gompachi 
reached Yedo, only however to fall into 
dissolute habits. Hearing much praise of 
a lovely and accomplished girl who had 
lately become an inmate of the Yoshi- 
wara, Gompachi went to see her, and was 
astonished to find in the famous beauty 
no other than the maiden whom he had 
but a few months before rescued from the 
robbers* den. It was the usual pathetic 
story. Her parents having become 
poverty-stricken, she had sold herself in 
order to alleviate their distress. Frequent 
visits to his sweetheart soon exhausted 
G^mpachi's slender means, and having no 
fixed employment, he was driven in des- 
peration to murder a man to procure 
money to take him to the Yoshiwara. The 
crime was repeated, until he was caught 
red-handed, and ultimately beheaded as a 
common malefactor. A friend claimed 
his body and buried it at Meguro, 
whither poor Komuitisaki hastened on 
hearing the sad news of her lovers end, 
and, throwing herself on the newly-made 
grave, plunged a dagger into her breast 
and died. 

At the bottom of the steps lead- 
ing up to the temple of Fudo, is a 
pool fed by two tiny cascades. To 
stand naked under the stream of 
water for several hours in cold 
weather is considered a meritori- 
ous penance, the effect of which is 
to wash away all taint of sin. 
Tradition says that Jikaku Dai- 
shi, the founder of this temple, 
miraculously called the spring 
into existence by the aid of his 



92 



Boute 5. — Exciirsiom from Tokyo. 



mace {iolcko)^ whence the name of 
Tokko-no-takiy or 'mace cascade.' 
The most remarkable of the ex- 
Yotos is a huge sword, such as the 
god Fudo is often represented with. 

To avoid mistakes, it may here 
be noted that \ ri from Meguro 
proper, there is another village 
called Kami-Meguro, At the latter 
also there is a good spot for picnics, 
called SMftr-Fvioi, — a small artificial 
hiU from the top of which an 
extensive view is obtained. A 
third picnic resort in this neigh- 
bourhood is 8enxohi, which has a 
pretty piece of water. 

Ten cho W. of Meguro, stands 
in solemn solitude the handsome 
temple of Tutenji, founded in the 
early part of tne 18th century. 
The art-treasures of this temple, 
which are aired {ymLshi-hotiki) in the 
autumn of every other year, will 
weU repay a visit. Among the 
most interesting objects, are some 
fine specimens of old European 
tapestry, which were probably pre- 
sented to the Shogun by the head 
of the Dutch factory at Nagasaki. 
At other times it is impossible to 
see these objects, as they are care- 
fully stored away. 

2. — iKEaAUI. 

_ Ikegami is reached by train to 
Omori station on the Yokohama 
line ii^^ hr., whence it is about 1 m. 
by jinrikisha. The great temple of 
H(ymmonji is celebrated, as being 
the place where the Buddhist saint 
Nichiren died in A.D. 1282. Its 
situation and magnificent timber 
make it one of the most attractive 
points within easy reach of Tokyo. 
The best time to visit it is from 
the 11th to 13th October, when the 
annual festival in Nichiren's honour 
takes place. Another festival is held 
from the 22nd to 28th April. At 
the top of the temple steps is 1. the 
Daimoku-do, where some of the 
faithful are generally to be heard 



beating the drum and reciting the 
formulary of the sect — Nanrn nvyoho 
renge kyo. Next to this, is a 
temple dedicated to Kato Kiyo- 
masa. Then comes the Shaka-do, 
or hall dedicated to Shaka, where 
worshippers spend the night at 
the time of the annual festival, 
with, behind it, another building 
containing a complete set of the 
Buddhist scriptures which may be 
made to revolve on a huge hexa- 
gonal wheel. Fronting the gate is 
the main temple, recently restored 
in handsome style, an evidence of 
the popularity which this sect still 
enjdys. On the altar stands an 
exquisitely lacquered shrine, con- 
taining a life-size image of Nichi- 
ren in sitting posture, said to have 
been carved by Nichiro, one of his 
chief disciples. The upper part of 
the wall is painted with pictures of 
angels performing on musical in- 
struments. Behind the altar, out- 
side the temple, is a pictorial 
representation of the chief in- 
cidents in the saint's life. The 
extensive buildings at the rear 
are the residences of the abbot and 
monks. Although Nichiren died 
at Ikegami, his bones were con- 
veyed to Minobu ; all that remain 
here are one tooth and the ashes 
of his funeral pyre. The shrine 
(Kotavndd) contuning these relics 
is a short way down the hill to the 
1. This building, about 20 ft. in 
diameter, stands on a huge lotus- 
fiower of stone. (For plan of Ike- 
gami see p. 26). 

One may picnic either at the tea- 
house (*Tamba-ya) in the village, or 
(but in this case notice must be sent 
the day before, as the matter is more 
or less one of favour) at Eijuin, a 
temple in the wood behind the 
pagoda, having beautiful plum-tree a 
and peonies and a fine view. The 
imposing-looking tomb in the 
temp'.e garden is that of a Daimyo's 
wife. A third place, inunediately 
below the pagoda, is the immense 
tea-house of Akebono-ro, popularly 



Futago,' The Tamagawa. Hon-no-tichi, 



93 



tnow^n as Ikegami Onsen. It is 
<imte a curiosity, sprawling as it 
does, up and down two hills by 
means of galleries and bridges, 
which remind the beholder of 
scenes familiar in Chinese art. 
This tea-house is a favourite native 
holiday resort. 

3. FUTAGO AND MaBIKO. 

Fatag^O (Inn, Kame-ya), on the 
Tamagawa, is a picnic resort 2^ ri 
by jinrikisha from Tokyo. Just 
before reaching the river, there is 
a striking view of Fuji and a 
panorama of the surrounding 
country. During the simimer 
months, the Japanese visit Futago 
for the sake of the sport — if so it 
can be termed — of watching fisher- 
men net the ai, a kind of trout. 
One ri down the river is 

Mariko, a place of similar char- 
acter. A pleasant way of returning 
to Tokyo is to take boat down the 
river to Kawasaki station, which, is 
about 2 hrs. from Futago. The 
distance 'by the direct jinrikisha 
road from Mariko to Tokyo is 2 ri 

4. — coemobant-flshing on the 
Tamagawa. 

This curious method of catching 
fish may be seen at the ferry of 
Sekido on the Tamagawa. The 
best way of reaching Sekido is to 
take train from Shimbashi or Shin- 
jiku to Kokubunji (1^ hr.), a small 
village on the Hachioji Railway, 
whence jinrikishas may be obtain- 
ed to Sekido, li ri, passing through 
Fuchu, (Inn, Naka-ya), a thriving 
little town situated on what was 
the old highway before the in- 
troduction of railways. Two cor- 
morants are usually kept at the 
ferry-house at Sekido, and fisher- 
men with these birds may be enr 
gaged at a cost of $1.50 per diem. 
If more birds are wanted, notice 
ahould be given to the fishermen a 



day in advance. The cormorants 
are held by strings kept in the 
hands of the men, who wade about 
and relieve them of their prey. A 
fair quantity of small fish may 
generally be reckoned on. Instead 
of returning to Kokubunji, the 
excursion may be varied by diver- 
ging at Fuchu for Sakai station, 1 ri 
longer by road, but 3 m. nearer to 
Tokyo by raU. 

5. — JuNiso, HoRi-NO-ucHi, Omita 
Hachiman, and I-no-kashiba. 

Jniiiso. Train to Shinjiku sta- 
tion on the Suburban Line, or jin- 
rikisha all the way. Crossing the 
railway, and proceeding along the 
Ome Kaido for 10 min., the path 
to Juniso turns 1. through the 
fields, and in 10 min. more a short 
avenue of pines is reached, leading 
to the small and deserted temple 
of Juniso Gongen. Below the 
temple lies a small lake, plentifully 
supplied with a species of carp. 
Several tea-sheds stand at the 
upper end. Juniso is a favourite 
spot for picnics during the sum- 
mer months. 

Hori-no-iichi may be reached in 
f hr. from Juniso. A lane directly 
behind the tea-sheds soon rejoins 
the Ome Kaido, along which we 
proceed for i hr., to leave it again 
by a path 1., at the corner of which 
is a pretty plum orchard. A short 
distance beyond, the path turns 
sharp r., where a stone indicates the 
distance to Hori-no-uchi as 16 cho. 
The road is lined with shops for the 
sale of rosaries, salted plums, toys, 
etc. The temple of Myohdji at 
Hori-no-uchi, belonging to the 
Nichiren sect, merits a visit 
for the sake of the excellent car- 
vings which adorn the main build- 
ing, those of dragons in the porch, 
below the architrave, and in the 
eaves being especially spirited. 
The iron gates and railing to the 
r. of the main entrance are good 
specimens of modern workmanship. 



94 



Route 5, — Excursions from Tokyo. 



On the 1. of the court, is a long 
shed full of a curious collection 
of ez-Totos, such as the queues 
of men whose prayers have been 
granted by the interposition of 
Nichiren, oil-paintings, etc. In 
the main hall, a splendid shrine 5 
ft. square and 10 ft. long, covered 
with gilt carvings, occupies the 
centre of the further side of the 
chancel. It contains a seated 
image of Nichiren, said to be the 
earliest efSgy of the saint, and to 
have been carved in 1261. It can 
be seen on payment of a small fee. 
The principal festival is held on the 
13th October, the anniversary of 
Nichiren's death. 

Half a Ti further_on, is the once 
notable temple of Omiya Hachinum, 
founded in the 10th century, but 
now completely abandoned and 
. falling into decay. A broad and 
stately avenue of cryptomerias and 
maple-trees, and several torii, attest 
its former importance. 

Proceeding through the flat 
fields for 3i m. further, we reach 
the temple of Benten, picturesquely 
situated on the borders of the small 
lake of I-no-kashira, whose waters, 
derived trom seven small springs, 
supply the aqueduct leading to 
Kanda in Tokyo. 

History says that in 100B the lake was 
visited by leyaau, who found the water 
BO excellent that it was used ever after 
for making His Hi^hness's tea. In 
16.39, his grandson, the Bhognn lemitsu, 
gave orders for the water to be laid on to 
the Castle in Yedo. He also, on the occa- 
sion of a visit to the lake, carved with the 
small knife from his dirk the head of a 
wild boar {i-no-kaghira) on the trunk of a 
tree close by, whence the present name. 
It was not, however, till about 1653 that 
the aqueduct was constructed. 

I-no-kashira attracts visitors 
chiefly in May, when the azaleas 
are out. At other seasons, it is 
quite neglected. 

The best wa^to return to Tokyo 
is to join the 5me Kaido, 40 min., 
whence it is about 2 ri to Shinjiku 
station. After bad weather the 
roads are heavy throughout.. 



6. — KOOANEI. 

Koganei, with its fine avenue of 
cherry-trees 2^ m. in length along 
the banks of the small canal that 
conducts the waters of the Tama- 
gawa to T6ky6, is about 1^ ri beyond 
I-no-kcuhira, but should only be visit- 
ed when the trees are in blossom. 
It is most easily reached by train 
to Sakai on the Hachioji Hne, \ 
hr. from Shinjiku Junction, and 
some 15 min. distant from the 
avenue. Ten thousand young trees 
were brought from Yoshino in 
Yamato, and from the banks of the 
Sakura-gawa in Hitachi, and plant- 
ed here in 1735 by command of the 
Sh5gun Ybshimune. 

The crowds that assemble daily 
to picnic under the shade of the 
pink and white blossoms about the 
middle of April, present a spectacle 
that should not be missed by visi- 
tors to Tokyo at that time of year. 

Instead of returning to Sakai, it 
will be found shorter to walk on 
to Kokuhwnji station, which is only 
about 20 min. from the upper 
end of the avenue. 

7. — Bt the Shinjiku - Hachioji 
Railway to Takao^zan. 



§ 2 

Q OD 



3 m. 
10 
13 
IT 



19 
28 



Names 

of 
Stations. 



SHINJIKU Jet 
Nakano. 



Sakai 



Kokubunji. 
Tachikawa. 



Hino. 

hachi5ji. 



Remarks. 



Alight for cherry 
avenue of Ko- 
ganei. 

Alight for Tajna- 
gawa Valley, 
Route 10. 






This is a favourite excursion ii 
spring and autumn with holiday 
makers from Tokyo. The railway 
journey toHachidji occupies 1^ hr. 
whence it is 2 ri along the plain t< 



Takao'zan, OJL 



95 



the foot of Takao-zan. Jinrikishas 
and carriages traverse this distance 
in about 1 hr. The ascent of the 
mountain is an easy 40 min. walk. 

The railway track, after leaving 
Shinjiku, lies for a short distance 
close to the florists' gardens of 
Okubo, noted for their azaleas, the 
rest of the route passing mostly 
through a flat couhtry with a heavy, 
clayey soil. The Tamagawa and 
one of its affluents are crossed 
"before reaching 

Hachioji (Inn, Kado-ya), the 
centre of an important silk district, 
but otherwise uninteresting. One 
long and wide street forms the 
business part of the town. A few 
minutes may be spent in visiting 
the bazaar (Kioankdha), which has 
been opened near the station. 

A short distance beyond the 
village of Komagino, the path lead- 
ing up Takao-zan turns off r. from 
the main road, and crosses the 
stream. 

Takao-zan is a mountain rising 
about 1,600 ft. above the sea. On the 
summit stands a much frequented 
temple, surrounded by a splendid 
grove, chiefly of cryptomerias, 
which were planted in past times by 
devotees of the temple. The road 
is lined with posts on which are 
recorded the names of persons who 
have presented young trees, so many 
hundreds at a time, with the object 
of maintaining the grove undimi- 
nished. On the platform at the top 
of the ascent, stands a flne bronze 
pagoda, 12 ft. in height. Above 
this, on another terrace, are three 
shrines dedicated to Fudo, Yakushi, 
and Dainichi, and at the top of a 
long flight of steps is a gaudily 
decorated Shinto shrine with paint- 
ed carvings. The trees shut out 
the view from this point ; but lower 
down a space has been cleared, 
from which the eye ranges over 
the plain of Tokyo and the sea in 
the distance. A narrower and 
steeper path than that ascended, 
may be taken on the way down^ 



and affords pretty glimpses of the 
densely wooded vaUey. 

8.— Oji. 

_ Oji.— The pretty Httle village of 
Oji, formerly one of the most en- 
joyable retreats in the suburbs of 
Tokyo, now presents more the 
aspect of a manufacturing centre 
than of a holiday resort. Huge 
brick buildings, paper and cotton 
mills, the clash of machinery, and 
lofty chimneys from which columns 
of smoke sweep over the cherry- 
trees on Asuka-yama, deprive the 
place of much of its old tranquil- 
lity and beauty. Oji is, neverthe- 
less, still one of the attractions 
in the environs of the great city, 
and crowds flock there twice a 
year, — in spring when the cherry- 
trees are in blossom, and in 
autumn when the maples which 
line the banks of the Taki-no-gawa 
put on their crimson tints. 

The train from Ueno station 
lands one in a few minutes close to 
the excellent tea-houses, Ogi-ya 
and Ebi-ya, which stand together 
on the edge of the stream and look 
(Jut on a small but tastefully 
arranged garden. Half a mile be- 
yond the tea-houses, in a grove of 
evergreen oaks on the top of a 
slight eminence, stands the temple 
of Inari. The buildings consist of 
a rather dilapidated oratory and 
chapel. In the court-yard are 
some fine old cherry-trees. The 
temple and little waterfall dedi- 
cated to Fud6, also in the vicinity 
of the tea-houses, attract many 
visitors. As the trains are gene- 
rally full to overflowing during 
the cherry and maple seasons, some 
visitors may prefer to go out by 
road. The prettiest way, 5 m., 
leaves the little lake at Ueno, 
and passing through the suburb 
of Shimo Komagome, turns to the 
r. on reaching the tomb of the 
Daimyo of Kaga, descends the hill, 
and follows up the valley to the 1. 



96 



Route 6. — Excursions from Tokyo, 



9. — The Cave-dwellings (Hyahur 
Ana) NEAB KoNOSU. 

These caves, amongst the most 
perfect specimens of troglodytic 
dwellings in Japan, are situated in 
Kita Toshimi-mura in the prefec- 
ture of Saitama, and are within 
the limits of a day's excursion from 
Tokyo. Konosu is reached in 1^ hr. 
by train from TJeno station. The 
road to Kita Yoshimi-mura, 2^ 
ri distant, crosses the railway 
line not far from the station, 
and runs over the plain straight 
towards the Chichibu mountains. 
It is a level jinrikisha road, but apt, 
in parts, to be heavy after rain. 
Kita Yoshimi-mura nestles under 
the first hilly ground met with on 
the road. At the further end of 
the village, and before coining to a 
suspension bridge over a small 
stream, the path to the caves turns 
r., and the cave-dwellings, present- 
ing the appearance of a gigantic 
beehive, are seen in front. On the 
way, a quaint old temple of Kwan- 
non, worthy of a few minutes* 
attention, is passed. It is wedged 
in between rocks, from the inner 
side of which an entrance leads to 
a chamber containing a number of 
stone images of Kwannon. The 
mouth of the chamber, with the 
images within, is seen from the 
road. A few yards beyond lie 
the caves, where the local au- 
thorities, by whom the place is 
now maintained, have established 
an office, whose occupants act as 
guides and point out the parts best 
worth inspection. The whole hill- 
side is honeycombed with these 
strange relics of a remote antiquity, 
which are believed to have been 
once inhabited by the beings whom 
the Japanese term ' earth-spiders.' 

The original Japanese word is tsuchi- 
gumo. There is considerable doubt as to 
its etymology, though every one agrees in 
interpreting it to mean a race of cave- 
dwelling savages, Motoori, the greatest of 
all Japanese literati, explains the name 
by a comparison of the habits of the race 
in question to those of the spider. But it 



is surely more rational to regard the "wch^ 
if »McAt-^« wo as a ci »rruption of f »«cAt-^o»«ori, 
' earth- Ai<i«r»,' than which no name could, 
be more appropriate to troglodytes. 
These people, who were widely spread over 
Japan in prehistoric times, were probably 
the ancestors of the modem Ainos. One 
of the earliest Japanese histories describes 
them as ' short in stature, and having- 
long arms and legs like pigmies.' Jimmu. 
Tenno is said to have massacred a number 
of them in one of their caves. 

The caves are said to number 
two hundred and thirty- seven 
iii all ; but the majority of them, 
were only discovered some three 
years ago by the researches of Mr. 
Tsuboi, of the Imperial University 
of Japan, an energetic archseologist. 
Most of the caves face due S. The 
entrance to each is about 3 ft. 
square ; then comes a passage of 6 
ft. and upwards in length, leading 
to a second doorway within which 
are the chambers. These are of 
various sizes, many being about 6 
ft. square, and from 5 to 6 ft. high. 
The ceilings are dome-shaped. 
Each chamber contains one or two 
ledges, probably for sleeping pur- 
poses, and with slightly raised 
edges to prevent the occupant from 
rolling out. Some are quite small, as 
if meant for children. Traces of the 
use of tools are visible on the walls. 
Iron rings, arrow-heads, etc., have 
been found in some of the caves ; 
but the presence of these is doubt- 
less due to the fact, as local tradi- 
tion asserts, that parties of fight- 
ing men took refuge there in more 
modern times. The hill affords an 
extensive view of the adjacent 
mountains, including Buko-zan in 
the Chichibu range, Fuji, and 
Asama yama. The town of Matsu,- 
yama (Inn, Koji-ya) is only 13 cho 
distant. It contains a large Shinto 
temple to the gods of Inari, called 
the Yakyu Inari. 

KONODAI. 

Omnibuses ply daily between 
Eyogoku-bashi and the Ichikawa 
ferry, Sri 26 cho (9 m.), a 'Treaty 
Limit' boundary where passports 



Route 6, — Hakone and Miyanoshita, 



97 



have to be shown. Konodai pro- 
perly Mama Korwdai (Inn, Musashi- 
ya, close to the ferry), is the bluff 
on the opposite side of the river, 
i m. above the ferry, and 
is a favourite resort of holiday- 
makers from Tokyo. It was the 
site of a strong fortress held by 
Satomi Awa-no-Kami, from whom 
it was captured and razed to the 
ground by the powerfid H5jo 
family of Odawara, in 1564. The 
situation affords a pleasing view 
of the plain, with Fuji and the 
Oyama range in the background. 
Pretty, also, is the view of the fleet 
of boats sailiiQg up the Yedo-gawa 
before a brisk breeze. The whole 
site is thickly overgrown with trees 
and rank vegetation ; but a priest 
from the dilapidated monastery of 
Soneiji, which stands within the 
same enclosure, will act as guide, 
and point out various objects of 
interest, including the tomb of 
Ogasawara Sadayori, the discoverer 
of the Bonin Islands. Afterwards, a 
visit should be made to the temple 
of Kbhoji in the near vicinity, 
specially noted for the richness of 
the maple tints in autumn. Down 
the steps on the hill-side, stands a 
shrine dedicated to a beautiful 
girl called Mama-no-Tekona, who, 
for reasons which tradition does 
not assign, drowned herself in the 
swamp close by. 

The story of Mama-no-Tekona was al- 
ready an ancient one in the 8tli century. 
The unfortunate maiden is much prayed 
to i)y women for safe delivery and for the 
protection of their children from small- 
pox. Several poems have been preserved 
m an ancient anthology called the Man- 
9dfhi which refer to her, but these say 
nothing of the motives which drove her 
to commit suicide. 



ROUTE 6. 

The Hakone District; Miyano- 
shita, Hakone. 

1. general inrobmation. 2. miya- 
noshita and neighboubhood. 
3. hakone and neighbourhood. 

1. — General Information. 

This route is specially recom- 
mended, as uniting charm of 
scenery, accessibility, and an un- 
usual degree of comfort. All 
tourists arriving at Yokohama are 
advised to devote a week to it, and 
if they have not so much time at 
their disposal, then to devote two 
or three days to a portion of it. 
Even should they be disinclined 
for walking and sightseeing, they 
will find no place more pleasant for 
idling in at aU seasons than Miya- 
noshita. 

The word Hakone, it should be observed, 
though employed by us, as by all Euro- 
peans, to denote the village called by the 
Japanese Hakone-no-Shuku, Hakone-no-Ekif 
or Makone-Mura, is properly the general 
name of the entire mountainous district 
lying at the neck of the peninsula of Izu, 
between the Bays of Odawara and Suruga. 
For this reason the Japanese talk of 
Miyanoshita, Kiga, etc., as being * in 
Hakone.' The original name of Hakone 
Lake (now, however, used only in poetry) 
is Ashi-no-Umi, that is, * the Sea of Reeds.' 
Hence the name of the hot springs of 
A$hinoyu. The lake is, in round num- 
bers, \\ ri long, 4^ H round, and has a 
depth of 37 fathoms in its deepest part. 

The following are the heights of 
the chief villages and mountains 
mentioned in this route : — 

Ashinoyu 2,870 feet. 

Dai-ga-take 3,500 „ 

Dogashima 1,080 „ 

Futago-yama 3,620 „ 

Hakone 2,400 „ 

Higane (temple near 

Atami) 2,400 „ 

Kamiyama 4,770 „ 

Kiga 1,400 „ 

Kintoki-zan 4,060 „ 

Kojigoku 2,100 „ 

Koma-ga-take 4,600 „ 

Miyagino 1,500 „ 



98 



Route 6, — Hakone and Miyanoahita, 



Miyanoshita 1,400 

Myojin-ga-take 3,880 

My6j6-ga-take 3,080 

Ojigoku 3,466 

Otome-toge 3,333 

Saijoji (temple) 1,240 

Sengoku-hara 2,170 

Ten Province Pass 3,216 

Ubago 2,940 

Yumoto 400 



feet. 



2. — Miyanoshita and Nbiohboub- 

HOOD. 

Miyanoshita (Hotels, **Fuji-ya, 
*Nara-ya, both large establishments 
in foreign style) is easily reached 
from Yokohama by the Tokaido 
Railway to Kozu station, li hr. ; 
thence by tram, jinrikisha, or car- 
riage to Yumoto, 1 hr. ; thence by 
jinrikisha (at least two men neces- 
sary) or on foot for 1^ ri up the 
valley of the Hayakawa to Miya- 
noshita, nearly 1 hr. by jinrikisha, 
li hr. on foot— say 4i hrs. for the 
whole journey, including stoppages. 
From Tokyo it is 1 hr. more, or 
5^ hrs. in all. 

Tbam Itinebabt along Plain. 

Edzu to : — Ri. Cho. M. 

Odawara 1 28 4,^ 

Yumoto 2 10 5i 

Total 4 2 10 



Walking ob Jtnbikisha Itineb- 
abt UP New Eoad. 

Yiunoto to : — Ri. Cho. M. 

Tonosawa 6^ i 

Miyanoshita 1 16i 3^ 

(Kiga. 9 i 

Miyagino 5 ^) 

Total 2 15 



At Kozn (Jrm, Hayano), it is 
worth devoting a few minutes to 
walking out on the beach to look 
at the beautiful view of Odawara 
Bay, with, to the r., the peninsula of 



Izu on whose coast Atami is situa- 
ted, the volcano of Oshima (Vries 
Island), and the islet of Enoshima. 
to the 1. Turning round, one has 
a magnificent view of Fuji. The 
road from Kozu to Yumoto (the 
old Tokaido) leads for the first part 
of the way through the town of 
Odawara (Inn, Koise-ya), cele- 
brated in Japanese history as the 
scene of many bloody conflicts in 
feudal times. 

Odawara belonged successively to 
various families of Daimyos, who dwelt in. 
the castle which was not finaUy destroyed, 
till the time of the late revolution. The 
most celebrated of these families were the 
Hoj5, a younger branch of the family of 
' Regents ' who ruled over Japan daring 
the 13th century and the first three 
decades of the 14th. This younger branch, 
choosing Odawara as their capital in A.D. 
1495, continued to reside there for five 
generations, namely, tiU 1590, when they 
were defeated and the power 'of their 
house broken for ever by the Taiko Hide- " 
yoshi in the battle of Ishikake-yama. 
Retiring to their castle, the various com- 
manding officers on the HojS side could 
come to no agreement, as time wore on, as 
to whether it were better to await the 
onslaught of the enemy, or to sally forth 
themselves and offer battle. While they 
were still discussing this question in all 
its bearings, Hideyoshi made a sudden 
attack and captured the castle by a coup 
de main. Hence the proverbial saying, 
Odawara hyOgi, that is, the Odawara con- 
ference,' which means endless talk re- 
sulting in nothing. Among the common 
people, who care not for the deeds of 
days gone by, Odawara is chiefly noted 
for the manufacture of a quack medicine 
called uirO, which is looked on as a 
panacea for all the ills to which flesh is heir. 

The tram-car changes horses op- 
posite the ruined walls of the 
castle. On leaving Odawara, the 
road enters the valley of the Haya- 
kawa near the mouth of that 
stream, which takes its origin in 
Lake Hakone. The two round 
summits seen almost constantly 
ahead are Futago-yama, * the 
Twin Mountains.' The avenue to 
the r. of the tram road marks the 
old Tokaido, which carriages and 
jinrikishas still follow. At 

Tiimoto, 10 min. out of the 
vill., there is a cascade known as 
Tamadare no taki. A small fee is 



Walks near Miyanoshita, 



99 



ehwrged for admittance. Tumoto 
boasts a large inn, called Fuku- 
ziupi ; but it would seem to be 
conducted with a view to the 
almost exclusive reception of Japa- 
nese guests. Foreigners obliged to 
break the journey are therefore 
advised to push on 6^ chd further 
to the village of 

Tonosawa, where the Tamano- 
yu Hotel will be found a pieasanter 
abode, owing to the fact that Euro- 
pean food and beds are provided. 
There are also good hot springs. 
The white building, which strikes 
the eye on the hill opposite, is a 
Russian chapel. The mosaic wood- 
work (hiji-mono), which from 
Yumoto onwards fills such a pro- 
minent place in every shop-window, 
is the specialty for which the whole 
Miyanoshita^Hakone district is 
noted. The hamlet more than half 
way up from Yumoto to Miyano- 
ahita is 

Ohiradai. On the r. side there 
is a good wood-work shop, Wata- 
nabe, whose specialty, is the fine 
bamboo basket-work of Shizuoka. 

Miyanoshita is a pleasant resort 
for many reasons — the purity of 
the air, the excellence of the 
hotels, the numerous pretty walks 
both short and long, the plentiful 
supply of ' chairs * and of specially 
large and comfortable kagos for 
those who prefer being carried, 
and the delicious hot baths, which, 
containing but faint traces of salt 
and soda, may be used without 
medical advice. . The principal 
short walks are : — 

1. To Kiga by the new road 
(distance, 9 chd, say ^ hr.): — no 
climbing, good waterfalls on the 
way, beautiful gold-fish to feed with 
cakes at the Sengoku-ya tea-house. 
Equally flat and pleasant road 5 
ehd further up the valley of the 
Hayakawa to Miyagino. The Eiga 
waUc may be varied by taking the 
still more picturesque but less 
easy old road, turning sharp up to 



the 1. on leaving the Fuji-ya Hotel, 
passing through the village -of 
Sokokura, where most Japanese 
visitors to the springs stop in pre- 
ference to Miyanoshita, then down 
to the r., and over an old rustic 
bridge, where cascades of cold 
water and pipes leading hot water 
to the hotels may be seen in strange 
juxtaposition; thence to the charm- 
ing little tea-house of Mi-harashi, 
with extensive view of the valley 
and uplands and Eiga below, and 
so on down to Eiga itself (11 chd 
altogether). Eiga, though little 
patronised by foreigners on ac- 
count of its want of airiness, is a 
favourite resort of the Japanese, 
and boasts several excellent inns 
in native style, also a new one in 
foreign style called Ise-ya. 

2. To Dogashima, a village 
som'e few hundred yards below Mi- 
yanoshita, down a steep ravine. 
There are a pretty cascade and a 
charming villa, permission to visit 
which may sometimes be obtained 
through the proprietors of the Mi- 
yanoshita hotels. 

3. Walk down the new road in 
the direction of Tonosawa _to the 
toll-houses, (8i chd), or on to Ohira- 
dai (17 chd), 

4. Climb half-way up Sengen- 
yaiiia, the wooded hill immediately 
at the back of the bachelors' 
quarters of the Fuji-ya HoteL 
It is a steep pull of from 20 min. 
to i hr. The height has been 
roughly estimated at 1,000 ft. 
above the village. Te£b-shed on the 
top. Beautiful view of upper half 
of Fuji, the tooth-shaped mountain 
Eintoki-zan, and on the other side, 
the sea with Enoshima and Cape 
Misaki. 

Somewhat longer (1 to 2 hrs.), 
less good walking, but very pic- 
turesque are : — 

5. To Kiga and Miyagrino, as in 

No. 1 ; then cross the river and 
turn sharp to the r., walking home 



100 



Eoute 6. — Hakone and Miyaiwshita, 



on the other side, and re-crossing to 
the Miyanoshita side at Dogashima. 
Guide indispensab'e. This is the 
most beautiful of all the walks near 
Miyanoshita. It takes a good 
walker a little over 1 hr. 

6. Up to Kojigokn ; then down 
past the hamlet of Ninotaira to 
Miyagino and Kiga, whence home 
either by the new or the old road. 
This walk may be abridged by 
turning to the r. before reaching 
Kojigoku, almost all the paths r. 
leading down ultimately to the 
Kiga road. Some i)ersons may feel 
tempted to stay at Kojigoku rather 
than at Miyanoshita, as the former 
place is some 700 ft. higher, and 
consequently has fresher air. The 
only disadvantage is the loneliness 
of the spot. The Kaikwatei Hotel 
is under foreign management, and 
the Mikawa-ya is a good Japanese 
inn. 

The meaning of the name Kojiaohtc is 
* small hell.' It was given to the place in 
allusion to some small sulphur springs, 
which supply the hotel baths. In 1877, on 
the occasion of the visit of H. M. the 
Mikado, the name of Kojigoku was 
officially altered to Kowaki-daniy which 
means ' the valley of the lesser boiling.' 
But the older name appears to be still the 
more popular of the two. 

A good half-day's excursion is 
to: — 

7. Ojigrokn« or ^big hell,' alter- 
natively named Owaki-dani, 'the 
valley of the greater boiling/ dis- 
tant a little under 2 n to the 
top of the gorge. Neither name is 
a misnomer. The whole gorge 
reeks with sulphureous fumes, 
vegetation decreases as one ascends 
higher, and the aspect of the scene 
becomes weird and desolate. It is 
advisable to tread carefuUy after 
the guide, as more lives than one 
have been sacrificed by a false step 
on the treacherous crust. The 
view from the top of the gorge 
differs as widely in its charms from 
the scene of desolation just tra- 
versed as can well be imagined. 
In the centre, Fuji towers up in 



perfect beauty. To the extreme r. 
is Kintoki-zan, then the Otome- 
toge, the Nagao-toge, and to the L 
the more imposing slopes of Ashi- 
taka. The summit of Kammuri- 
ga-take, which rises up immediately 
behind the sulphur springs^ dis- 
tinguishes itseft by its graceful 
outline and by the dense forest 
covering its sides. The vegetation 
of this neighbourhood, moreover, 
is remarkable, consisting as it does 
chiefly of the small box and asemi 
(And/romeda japonica). 

8. Up Myoj6-ga4ake, the big 
grassy hill immediately opposite 
Miyanoshita, on the other side of 
the stream. It is a walk of 1^ hr. 
to the top, the path at first leading 
down through the vill. of Doga- 
shima, there crossing the stream, 
and then turning considerably to 
the r., before turning 1. again along 
the crest of the hill. The view 
from the summit is magnificent. In 
the centre is Fuji, the depression 
immediately in front of which is 
the Otome-toge ; then to the r. 
KintokiandMyojin-ga-take, behind 
which rise Oyama, and Tanzawa ; 
in the plain the Sakawa-gawa, and 
behind it the low range of Soga- 
yama, in which a red treeless patch 
marks the Kozu railway station. 
The town of Odawara can be seen 
by walking back a few yards j then 
the sea with Oshima, and to the r. 
the low slope of Ishikake-yama ; 
then Futago-yama, Koma-ga-take, 
Kami-yama, and Dai-ga-take. The 
blear spot on Kami-yama is the 
solfatara of So-on-jigoku. Still 
further to the r., in the blue 
distance, is Ashitaka-yama. The 
best time to see this view is at 
sunrise or at sunset. The coolie 
should therefore carry a lantern, 
either for the first or for the last 
portion of the walk. Those who are 
willing to face a very stony path 
for the sake of continued beautiful 
views, are advised to return vii 
Miyagino and Kiga. The whole 



Ashinoyu, Futago-yama» 



101 



e3q)edition will then take from 3 
to 3i hrs., including stoppages. 

9. To Ashinoyu and Hnkone (1 

ri 4 cho to Ashinoyu, thence 1 ri on 
to Hakone). Ashinoyu (Inns, 
*Mat8uzaka-ya, foreign food and 
beds ; Kinokuni-ya) is famous for 
its sulphur springs, whose efficacy 
in the .treatment of skin diseases 
and rheumatism attracts crowds 
of Japanese patients and not a 
few foreigners, despite the bleak 
uninviting appearance of the locali- 
ty. Ashinoyu is very cool in sum- 
mer, owing to its height, but pays 
for this advantage by being fre- 
quently enveloped in mist. The 
road thither, about half of which is 
a stiff puU, leads close by Kojigoku. 
Just before reaching Ashinoyu, 
towards the end of a steep climb 
called the Nana-mawari, or * seven 
turnings,' the guide should be told 
to lead over a small eminence 
known as Benten-yama. It is not 
at all out of the way, and offers a 
splendid view — Odawara Bay, the 
peninsula of Miura with Enoshima 
like a little knob on the coast ; and 
beyond that, Tokyo Bay and the 
blue outline of the provinces of 
S^azusa and Boshu, which divide 
Tokyo Bay from the Pacifla The 
chief mountain to the 1. is Oyama, 
bluntly triangular in shape. Ashi- 
noyu itself has no view, as it lies in 
a marshy depression, though on 
the top of a hill. 

[On a hill 8 cho beyond Ashinoyu, 
at a place called Tu-wi-hana- 
zawa, a bathing establishment 
with very strong sulphur baths 
has recently been opened. 
There is a splendid view, simi- 
lar to that from Benten-yama. 
This walk, and that along the 
flat in the direction^of Hakone, 
are the two best for invalids 
staying at Ashinoyu.] 

After leaving Ashinoyu, the path 
is at first level, and then descends 
most of the way to Hakone. The 
first object of interest passed is. 



1., a set of three small stone monu- 
ments, two of which are dedicated 
to the Soga Brothers {8oga Kyodai), 
famous for the vendetta which they 
executed in the hunting-camp of 
the Shogun Yoritomo, at the base 
of Fuji, in the year 1193, on Kudo 
Suketsune, the murderer of their 
father. The third and smallest of the 
monuments preserves the memory 
of Tora Gk)zen, a_beautiful courtesan 
of the town of Oiso, who was the 
mistress of the elder of the two 
brothers, and became a nun on 
his decease. A few yards further 
on, to the 1. and half -hidden among 
the grass and bushes, is a block of 
andesite rock well- worth pausing a 
moment to inspect, as it is covered 
with Buddhist images carved in 
relief. These images are known as 
the Ni-jvrgO'Bosatsu, that is, * the 25 
Bosatsu ; ' but which of the many 
thousands of these divine beings 
they are intended to represent, is 
uncertain. The carving apparent- 
ly dates from A.D. 1293. But the 
chief curiosity on the road is the 
large Image of Jiao, carved in relief 
on a block of andesite, and worthy 
to be counted among the triumphs 
of the * Japanese chisel. Tradition 
has it that the great Buddhist 
saint, Kobo DaisM, carved this 
image in a single night. A festival 
in its honour is celebrated yearly 
on the 23rd August. 

[A short way past this large 
image, the way up the nearer 
of Fntago-yama's two chief 
summits turns off to the 1. 
The ascent, which will take a 
good walker 20 min. or i 
hr. from this spot, is worth 
making — ^perhaps most con- 
veniently as a separate walk 
from Miyanoshita or from Ha- 
kone, — ^the ancient crater, now 
thickly carpeted with moss 
and overgrown with bushes 
and trees, being remarkably 
extensive, and the view from 
its upper rim, which is clear 
of wood, being magnificent. 



102 



Route 6. — Hakone and Miyanos/iita, 



The chief points to be noticed 
are : to the N.E., the Oyama 
and Tanzawa ranges, with the 
plain of Sagami» and in the 
distance Tokyo Bay ; to the E., 
Sagami Bay and the promon- 
tories of Misaki and Sonosaki, 
with the islet of Enoshima ; to 
the S.E., Vries Island with its 
ceaseless column of smoke, 
and the smaller islands of To- 
shima, Niijima, etc., forming 
with it and with more distant 
Hachijo the 'Seven Isles of 
Izu ; ' to the S., Amagi-san in 
1 3^11, and to the r. of it the blue 
Grulf of Suruga with its line of 
white surf, and the narrow 
pine-clad promontory of Mio- 
no-Matsubara shutting in Shi- 
mizu Bay ; to the W.N.W., and 
seemingly within a few yards 
of the spectator, Kammuri- 
ga-take, which unfortunately 
hides the whole of Fuji except 
a small portion of one slope ; to 
the N. W. and N., the moun- 
tains of Koshiu and Chichibu. 
At the spectator's feet sparkle 
the waters of Lake Hakone. 
The long mountain-ridge be- 
yond the lake and a little to 
the 1., is called Taiko yama or 
Taiko-michi, from a tradition 
to the effect that the Taiko 
Hideyoshi led his troops along 
it when going to fight the 
battle of Ishikake-yama. The 
way was shown him — so it is 
alleged — by a hunier, whom 
he thereupon killed, in order 
to make sure that the enemy 
should not profit by the poor 
fellow's local knowledge. It is 
possible to ascend the further 
summit of Putago-yama {8hi~ 
ta-Futago) ; but the labour of 
forcing one's way through the 
thick undergrowth is not re- 
paid, as the summit itself is 
covered with trees and bushes 
that shut out all view. Koiiia- 
^n-tiike, also, may be as- 
cended r. from near the large 



image of Jizo. But though, 
the loftiest mountain in the 
Hakone range excepting Kami- 
yama, it is less worth climb- 
ing than Futago-yama, as the 
plateau-like nature of the top 
makes it impossible to take in 
the whole of the view from 
any single spot. It has, how- 
ever, the advantage of showing 
Fuji from peak to base. A 
boulder at the top of Komar-ga- 
take is the subject of a curious 
superstition. ■ It is believed 
that the water contained in the 
hollows of this boulder never 
runs dry ; and the peasants of 
the surrounding country make 
pilgrimages to it in seasons 
of drought, in order to obtain 
rain by scattering the drops 
about to the four winds. But 
if any of the water be taken 
down the mountain, the result 
is a typhoon. — Koma-ga-take 
may also be ascended from a 
point nearer the vill. of Ashi- 
noyu; but the climb is then 
considerably steeper.] 
The two meres, r. and 1., on the 
way between Ashinoyu and Hakone, 
are the remains of ancient craters. 
The first hamlet reached on getting 
to the lake is Moto-Hakone, 12 cho 
this side of Hakone itself. There 
is an inn called the Tsuta-ya, 
pleasantly situated on the border 
of the lake, and commanding the 
best view of Fuji to be had in this 
neighbourhood. 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita by the way one has come, it 
will be found pleasant in warm 
weather to take a boat from Hakone 
(or from Moto-Hakone, which 
shortens the expedition by one mile) 
to a spot called Shin-yu at the 
far end of the lake (the Japanese 
designation for the far-end of the 
lake is Umi-jiri). Alighting there, 
we go past the pleasant little bath- 
ing village of XJhdgOy up the spur 
separating the lake from Ojigoku, 
and return home to Miyanoshita • 



Hata, Otome-toge, 



108 



by the Ojigokn, way, as in walk No. 
7. Those who have done the ex- 
pedition, not on foot, but in chairs 
or kagoSf can take these convey- 
ances with them in the boat,, and 
can be carried most of the way 
home from Shin-yu. It is only 
necessary to walk ov^r the dan- 
gerous portion of the Ojigoku 
gorge. Instead of taking a boat, 
some may prefer to follow the 
path along the edge of the lake. 
The distances, if this extension be 
adopted, are stated to be : 

Miyanoshita to : — Ri. Cho. M. 

Ashinoyu 1 4 2f 

Moto-Hakone 23 li 

Hakone 12 | 

Umijiri 1 18 3f 

Ubago 12 I 

Ojigoku 8 i 

Miyanoshita 1 34 4f 

Total 6 3 14f 



The above distances are perhaps 
under-estimated. 

10. Up nearly as far as Ashino- 
yu, thence sharp 1. for 30 cho down 
a steep and stony, but picturesque 
path, which passes through the vill. 
of Hata on the old Tokaido. The 
return to Miyanoshita is made vi& 
Yumoto, Tonosawa, and Ohiradai, 
up the old road — total distance, 
about 5i ri. The 30 cho descent 
from near Ashinoyu is called the 
Taki-zaka, that is, ' cascade hill/ on 
account of a pretty cascade seen to 
the r. about two-thirds of the way 
down. 

11. To the top of the Otoine- 
toge, or ' Maiden's Pass,' distant 
2^ ri (6 m.), whence can be gained 
the nearest and most complete 
view of Fuji and of the plain at 
its base. The path is not steep, 
excepting some 8 cho in the middle 
up a hill called the Usui-toge, 
and 11 cho at the end, which are 
almost like scaling a wall. It is 
possible, however, except for un- 



usually heavy persons, to be carried 
the whole way in a chair. The 
path leads through Riga and Miya- 
gino, crosses the Hayakawa, and 
continues up the r. side of the 
valley to the vill. of 

Sengoku^hara, noted for the cattle- 
farm, extensive for Japan, whence 
the Miyanoshita hotels are supplied 
with milk and butter. 

[From Sengoku-hara, it is possible 
to ascend Kintoki-zan. The 
distance to the summit is 
estimated at 25 cho, and the 
climb is steep in some places. 
The people of the surrounding 
country-side ascend Kintoki- 
zan annually on the 17th day 
of the 3rd moon (old calendar), 
on which day the festival of 
I-no-hana (* the boar's nose ') is 
held on the summit. The 
name of the mountain is de- 
rived from that of Kintoki, a 
mighty hunter of legendary 
fame.] 

The climb up the Otome-toge com- 
mences shortly after leaving Sen- 
goku-hara. The labour it entails is 
amply repaid by the glorious view 
from tbe summit. Persons with 
sufficient time and energy will do 
well to climb up the hill to the 
r., — we should rather say, up the 
hills, for three or four rise behind 
each other, and what looks like the 
affair of a few moments really takes 
the best part of half-an-hour to 
accomplish. From the top, straight 
ahead, are visible the snow-clad 
peaks of the granite mountains of 
Hida and Etchii. — ^To travel out to 
Miyanoshita via the Otome-toge is a 
pleasant alternative route for those 
who intend visiting this district a 
second time. Instead of alighting 
at Eozu, one continues in the train 
as far as the station of Gk>tem- 
ba, situated in the plain at Fuji's 
base. From Gotemba it is 2 rt to 
the top of the pass. The first por- 
tion of the way may be done by 
jinrikisha. Gotemba is also the 



104 



Route 6, — Miyanoshita and Hakone. 



nearest station for travellers 
coming up the Tokaido fiailway 
from Kobe, bound for Miyanoshita. 
But if they have much luggage or 
object to walking, they should go 
on to Eozu, whence the facilities 
for proceeding to Miyanoshita are 
greater. 

^ 12. To the Buddhist temple of 
8ai]dji, sometimes called Doryo-san, 
distant 3 ri. Though placed last, 
this expedition is perhaps the most 
delightful of all ; for it alone in- 
cludes architectural beauties as 
well as beauties of nature. The 
path, after passing through Kiga 
and Miyagino and crossing the 
Hayakawa, leads up to a grassy 
plateau near the summit of Myo- 
jin-jja-take (not fco be confounded 
with the Myojo-ga-take of Walk 
No. 8). Tell the guide to lead to 
the spot, not far out of the way, 
whence may best be seen the 
superb view : — on the one hand, 
the sea with the plain of Sagami 
watered by the rivers Banyu and 
Sakawa, the mountain ranges of 
Oyama, Eurakake, Tanzawa, Sobu- 
tsu, Tagura-ga-take, and many of 
the mountains of Koshu; on the 
other, the wooded heights beyond 
the Hakone pass which dwarf the 
nearer ridge of Takanosu; then 
turning towards the r., double- 
' crested Futago-yama, Koma-ga- 
take, Eammuri-ga-take, and the 
long ridge to the W. of Hakone 
which terminates in Eintoki-zan ; 
and above and beyond all, the 
gigantic cone of Fuji. From this 
point it is a descent, Saijoji being 
even lower down on the far side of 
the mountain than Miyanoshita is 
on the near. Before reaching it, 
the open moorland of the hillside is 
exchanged for a magnificent forest 
of pines and cryptomerias, with an 
undergrowth of beautiful flowering 
shrubs — deutzia, azalea, pyrus ja- 
ponica, aucuba, etc., according to 
the season. 

The monastery of Saij5ji, which be- 
longs to the S5td sect of Buddhists, was 



founded by a hermit named Ryoan, who 
died A.D. 1401 ; but it owee its special 
reputation for sanctity to his successor 
Dory6, who was supposed to be one of 
the numerous incarnations' of Kwannon, 
the Goddess of Mercy. 

To Doryo's memory is dedicated 
the finest of all the shrines which 
collectively constitute Saijoji. It 
is called Myokwaku-do, and stands 
at the top of a flight of steps to 
the 1. The links of the chain 
which divides the staircase into 
two parts are often bound with 
scraps of paper, on which pilgrims 
have written their prayers. The 
fan of feathers, which forms so 
striking a feature of the ornamenta- 
tion, was Doryo's crest. The winged 
flgures with large noses represent 
goblins (tengu), who dwell in the 
mountains. Most of the large up- 
right stones of irregular shape in- 
scribed with characters in red or 
gold, which are scattered about the 
grounds, are memorials of persons 
who have at various times contri- 
buted towards the repairs of the 
temple. So is the hideous blue rail- 
ing, by which more modern piety 
has endeavoured to mar the perfect 
taste and beauty of the scene. It 
is generally most convenient to 
lunch at Saijoji alfresco in one of 
the more retired portions of the 
temple grounds. 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita the way one came, it is far 
better to arrange at the hotel, 
before starting, to have jinrikishas 
in waiting at the end of the stately 
avenue of cryptomerias leading 
from the temple down for 28 cho to 
the vill. of Sekimoto. After the 
fatigues of the walk, one can then 
bowl along pleasantly through the 
picturesque valley of the Sakawa- 
gawa, skirting Odawara, and thence 
proceeding up the new road to 
Tonosawa and Miyanoshita, either 
in the same jinrikisha or on foot. 
The total distance of the trip, as 
thus modified, is 10 n 25 cho (26 
miles) ; but the 8 ri in jinrikisha 
from Sekimoto to Odawara, and 



Hako7ie, Temple of Oongen. 



105 



the possibility of doing all the 
remainder of the way up to Miya- 
noshita by jinrikisha, prevent it 
from being too fatiguing. — It is 
also possible to take Saijoji on 
the way back from Miyanoshita 
to Yokohama, by joining the To- 
kaido Bailway at Maimda, the 
nearest station to the temple. The 
distance is estimated at between 2 
and 3 ri. The way is passable for 
jinrikishas. 

3. — Hakone and Neighbourhood. 

Hakone is most quickly reached 
from Yokohama and Tokyo by the 
Tokaido Bailway as far as Kozu, 
thence by carriage or jinrikisha to 
Sammai-bashi, a hamlet close to 
Yumoto (the tram to Yumoto may 
therefore be taken, instead of a 
carriage or jinrikisha, if preferred), 
and from Sammai-bashi on foot or 
in hago along the old Tokaido up 
the Hakone pass vid Hata, the 
whole journey taking about 6 hrs. 
from Yokohama, or 7 hrs. from 
Tkoyo. But many residents pre- 
fer to travel vi& Miyanoshita where 
they spend the night, and then 
push on next morning by Walk 
No. 9 (see p. 101). 

The respective merits of Hako- 
ne and Miyanoshita as summer 
resorts form a constant subject 
of debate between the partisans 
of the two places. Miyanoshita 
has the advantage of hot springs, 
a drier air, easier access, and 
hotels in European style. Hakone 
is cooler, being 1,000 ft. higher, 
it affords more privacy, and has 
a charming lake where one may 
bathe and boat and go on water 
picnics. In winter the advantage 
is altogether on Miyanoshita's side. 
No one thinks of staying at Hakone 
daring that season, whereas Miya- 
noshita is equally pleasant all the 
year round. Indeed, many prefer 
the winter there to the summer, 
as the air is almost always clear in 
winter, and walking consequently 



more enjoyable. The chief inns at 
Hakone are the Haf u-ya, Yamaki-y a, 
and Ishi-uchi, all on the lake. But 
as nearly every house in the village 
is to let during the summer season, 
the plan usuaUy followed by fami- 
lies from Yokohama is to hire a 
separate residence by the month, 
bring their own servants with 
them, and set up housekeeping. 
Foreign furniture of a rough kind 
is generally obtainable, as also are 
fowls, vegetables, bread, and even 
milk and butcher's meat during 
the sununer season. 

Some of the most enjoyable ex- 
peditions from Hakone are the 
same as those already described 
from Miyanoshita, — for instance, 
those to Ojigoku, to Ashinoyu and 
up Futago-yama, etc. The follow- 
ing may also be recommended : — 

1. The Temple of Gongen. The 
way leads out of the N. end of the 
village, under an avenue of fine 
cryptomerias which here lines the 
Tokaido. A flight of steps will be 
seen r., leading to a small shed 
whence there is a charming view. 
The village formerly extended to 
this place. Here also stood the 
old barrier {Hdkone no seki) and 
guard-house, where all travellers 
were challenged and required to 
show their passports. The barrier 
was removed in 1871, but part of 
the stone-work stiU remains. Fol- 
lowing along the avenue, we soon 
come L to the Emperor's summer 
palace {Rikyu), not accessible to the 
public. The next point in the 
road is the Tsuji-ya inn, from 
which the best view of Fuji to be 
had anywhere on the shores of the 
lake is obtained. A little further 
on, we pass under a stone torii and 
enter Moto Hakone, a pleasant- 
looking little place, much fre- 
quented by students from Tokyo, 
but indifferent to foreign patroh- 
age. We then turn slightly to 
the 1., passing under a red torii, by 
the side of which stands a wooden 



106 



Route 6, — MiyanoshUa and Hakone. 



ehed containing two iron rice- 
boilers said to have been used by 
Yoritomo on his huntinf^ expedi- 
tions. The road here skirts the 
lake, soon bringing ns to a charm- 
ing vista as we ascend to the foot 
of the steps leading to the temple. 
On the 1., half-way up the steps, is 
a small shrine dedicated to the 
Soga Brothers. The main temple, 
which also is small, contains 
votive pictures representing these 
Brothers, the Gods of Luck, 
Yoritomo's horse, etc. The walk 
back may be varied by taking 
a wide turning to the 1. about 
the middle of Moto Hakone, going 
up the stone steps nearly as far 
as the toWt, and then taking a 
turn to the 1. which is the Shindo, 
or New Boad, to Ashinoyu. . After 
following this for about | m., we 
strike a path to the r., which is the 
old road and leads to the Tokaido ; 
and so back to Hakone. The pass 
above the torii commands the view 
so often seen in photographs. 

2. Walk to the End of the Lake. 

— At the entrance to the avenue 
leading to the temple of Qongen, 
a path will be seen 1. lower down, 
by following which a walk of 5 
m. can be taken to the baths of 
Shin-yu at Umijiri, the N. shore 
of the lake. The return may be 
agreeably varied by taking a boat 
the whole way back to Hakone, 
1 hr. If this trip be reversed, 
the shadow of the large trees over- 
hanging the lake r., shortly before 
reaching Umijiri, affords a nice spot 
for a water picnic. 

3. Along the Siiknmo-gawa. — 
This is a somewhat rough but pleas- 
ant walk, difficult to find without 
a guide. The stream is perpetually 
crossed and re-crossed, and some- 
times wading is unavoidable. The 
path finally leads out at the vill. of 
Hata, where kagos can be obtained 
for the return journey vid the 
Hakone Pass. At the beginning 
of the valley, a path to the r. leads 



to Toshihama on the coast. It 
affords pretty peeps of Fuji and 
the lake ; but the high grass 
intercepts the view from the top. 

4. Walks in the direction of 
A tain i. — Several pleasant walks 
can be taken in the direction of the 
Ten Province Pass and Atami, 
notably one up the slope of Okoma- 
yama and over Kazakoshi-yama, 
follo"\ving the boundary line of the 
provinces of Sagami and Izu to 
the highest point of the Tokaido, 
where, on a little plateau, the 
boundary post between these two 
provinces is placed; and back to 
Hakone by the Tokaido. While 
crossing the plateau, there is a fine 
view of the lake, the mountains 
surrounding it, and Fuji beyond, 
with to the S. the Bay of Suruga, 
the promontory of Izu, the towns 
dotting the Tokaido, Ashitaka- 
yama, and far away in the distance 
the Fujikawa like a silver streak, 
and still farther the long point of 
Omae-zaki stretching out into the 
ocean. Distance about 3^ m. 

Another walk in the same gene- 
ral direction is past the pond called 
Numa-ga-ike, then over a little 
ridge separating it from another 
pond or swamp on the Suruga side, 
called Otama-ga-ike, and on up 
the mountain slope to a gap, where 
a turn to the 1. should be taken up 
through the grass to the survey 
post. The summit affords an ex- 
tensive view. 

But of all walks in this direction, 
the most delightful is that to the 
Ten Province Pass (Jikkoku-toge 
or Higane-tdge). Those intending 
to picnic there should, however, 
remember to take water with them,' 
as none is to be obtained on the 
way. The climb is for the most 
part not steep, and the panorama 
from the summit, especially on a 
fine day in early winter, is some- 
thing never to be forgotten. The 
top of the ridge, which is marked 
by a stone known as the Ten Pro- 



The Fukara and Nagao Passes, 



107 



vince Stone, looks down on the 
provinces of Izu, Suruga, Tot5mi, 
Koshu, Kotsuke, Musashi, Shimosa, 
Kazasa, Boshu, and Sagami. Bays, 
peninsulas, islands, mountain- 
ranges, lie spread out in entrancing 
variety of form and colour, Fuji 
towering up magnificently above 
all the rest. The distance from 
Hakone is locally estimated at 5 riy 
but mui^ be less, as it can easily 
be done in 2^ hrs. 

[A steep descent of a little over 
3 m. leads from the top down 
to Atami. There is also a path 
from the top to the hamlet of 
Izu-san^ distant 1 ri.'] 

6. Hiraliama on the lake. — A 
short walk may be taken from the 
Mishima end of the village to the 
foot of the Hakone Pass, where 
there is a path leading to the 
shore of the lake. After skirting 
the latter, it leads over a small 
hill to the next bay called Hira- 
hama. Should the water be too 
high, Hirahama may be reached 
by the track over Hatahiki-yama. 

6. Umidaira. — This is the pla- 
teau rising above the S.W. shore 
of the lake, from which an exten- 
sive and beautiful view, embracing 
many of the points seen from the 
Ten Province Pass, is obtained. 
Time about 2 hrs. A track leads 
down through the grass to a little 
bay on the lake near the Hiraishi, 
or Flat Stone, whence Hakone can 
be easily reached by boat which 
should be ordered in advance. 

7. The Subterranean Water- 
Course and the Fukara Pasfl. — The 
Fukara Pass is the most westerly 
of three that lead from the end of 
Lake Hakone to Fuji, the other 
two being the Nagao Pass and the 
Otome Pass, the latter already des- 
cribed on p. 103. The first stage on 
the way to all three from Hakone 
is by boat nearly to the end of the 
lake. Close to the spot on the 
shore where the ascent of the 



Fukara Pass begins, is a tunnel 
(suirmm), through which a portion 
of the waters of the lake is carried 
to several villages on the other 
side of the mountain, serving to 
irrigate their rice-fields, and then 
flowing on to form the waterfalls 
of Sano. This subterranean chan- 
nel is said to be entirely artificial, 
the local account being that it was 
pierced by two brothers, who bored 
through the mountain from op- 
posite sides until they met in the 
middle. The walk up the pass 
takes .20 min. The exit of the 
tunnel (umi no ana) may be easily 
reached from the top of the pass, 
the whole expedition from the boat 
and back again taking about 2 hrs. 
There is some climbing and scram- 
bling to be done, but the paths are 
fairly good on the whole. 

8. The Nagao Pass.— This lies 
1 ri 7 cho from Umijiri. The 
way leads first across the Haya- 
kawa, the natural outlet of the 
lake, which later on flows past 
Miyanoshita; then along a broad 
level cinder path to the foot of 
the pass, and finally by an easy 
climb of 12i ^o to the top. The 
gap at the summit of the pass com- 
mands a complete view of Fuji from 
base to peak. On looking back, 
the eye sweeps across the plain of 
Sengoku-hara and over the waters 
of Hakone Lake. Kammuri-ga-take 
is also seen to advantage, and on its 
slope can be distinctly traced the sol- 
fataras of Ojigoku. A more exten- 
sive and beautiful view is had, how- 
ever, by ascending the hill to the 
1. of the pass. From this summit, 
not only Fuji, but the promontory 
of Izu, with Amagi-san, the whole 
of the fertile plain stretching away 
to the r. of the town of Mishima, 
the rugged peaks of Ashitaka, the 
course of the Fujikawa, the pro- 
montory of Mio-no-Matsubara, Ku- 
no-zan, and the full sweep of Suruga 
Bay lie at the spectator's feet. 



108 



RoiUe 7. — The Peninsula of Izu, 



BOUTE 7. 

The Peninsula op Izu. 

1. atami and neighbourhood. 

2. hakonb to 8huzenji and 

8himoda. 3. shimoda to atami 

by the coast. 4. tu-ga-shima 

TO ATAMI. 

1. — At AMI AND Nbighboubhood. 

Atami (Higuchi Hotel, foreign 
style) is a favourite winter resort 
of the Japanese nobility and higher 
official class, as it is protected by 
high hills from the northerly and 
westerly winds which prevail at 
that season over Japan. The whole 
stretch of coast from Kdzu on the 
Tokaido Railway to Atami partakes 
more or less of the same advantage ; 
and the soft air, the orange-groves, 
and the deep blue sea of Odawara 
Bay, combine to make of this dis- 
trict the Eiviera of Japan. 

Atami is most easily reached 
from Yokohama by the Tokaido 
Railway as far as Kozu, 1^ hr., 
and then by jinrikisha for the rest 
of the way, nearly 5 hrs. along the 
coast. 

_ Itinerary. 

KOZU to :— Ri. Cho. M. 

Odawara 1 28 4^ 

Hayakawa 10 f 

Nebukawa 1 20 3f 

Enoura 1 12 3| 

Yoshihama 1 32 4i 

Izu-san 2 12 5| 

ATAMI 18 U 

Total 9 24 23i 



The road is delightfully pictur- 
esque and representatively Japa- 
nese, leading first under an ancient 
avenue most of the way to Oda- 
wara, and thence up and down 
along the coast, with ever-changing 
views of sea and land and of Yries 
Island smoking in the distance. 
The little peninsula whose neck is 
crossed about half-way is called 
Cape Manazuru. 



Travellers approaching Atami 
from the Kyoto side may find it a 
convenient saving of time to aUght 
at Numazu station, and thence to 
proceed to Atami over the hills, — a 
pretty walk of about 5 hrs. ; road 
practicable also, except after heavy 
rain, for jinrikishas with two men. 
The distance is estimated at 7 ri. 
From the town of Mishima to 
Atami is about the same.^ During 
most of the ascent, a fine near 
view is obtained of Fuji, with 
to the 1. Amagi-san and the lower 
ranges of the peninsula of Izu, 
and in front the Bay of Numazu at 
Fuji's base. The view from the 
top of the ridge is some^^hat dis- 
appointing. 

A third way, much to be recom- 
mended to good walkers, is that 
from Miyanoshita via Ashinoyu to 
Hakone (see p. 101), and thence 
over the hiUs by the Ten Province 
Pass (see p. 106) with its incom- 
parable view. The ascent is not 
very steep, but the descent on the 
Atami side is short and abrupt. 
The total distance from Miyano- 
shita to Atami by this way is be- 
tween 6 And 7 ri. 

Fourthly and lastly, Atami may 
be reached by small steamer from 
Kozu, touching at Odawara an<l 
Manazuru. It is possible that some 
eccentric persons may prefer this 
means of approaching it. 

The curiosity for which Atami 
is noted is its geyser (O-yw), which 
breaks out once in every four hours 
in the middle of the town. It ori- 
ginally shot straight up into the 
air, but is now partially enclosed, 
and an inhalation house {Kyuki- 
kwan) has been erected by the au- 
thorities for patients suffering 
from affections of the throat and 
lungs, the salt in which the steam 
of the geyser is rich being benefi- 
cial in such cases. The elegant 
house close behind the Kyuki- 
kwan, on the other side of the 
small creek which flows through the 
town, is a villa formerly belonging 



Atami and Neighbourhood. 



109 



to the millionaire, Mr. Iwaeaki, and 
now the property of His Imperial 
Highness, the Crown Prince. The 
cHief productions of Atami are a 
beautifully delicate kind of paper, 
called gampishi, literally 'wild- 
goose skin paper/ and a delicious 
and wholesome sweatmeat called 
ame, which is made of rice or 
millet. 

The best walks near Atami are : — 

1. To the grove of Kinomiya, a 
few minutes' distance from the 
hotel. At the far-end of this grove, 
are some of the finest camphor- 
trees (kusunoki) in Japan. 

2. To Uomi, the hut visible high 
up on the cliff which shuts in 
Atami Bay to the S. It is a steep 
walk of some 20 min., but the 
lovely view from the top amply 
repays all trouble. The name Uo- 
mi, lit. 'fish-outlook,' refers to 
the use to which this post of ob^ 
eervation is put. When a school 
of bonitoe is expected — and they 
frequently visit the bay in enor- 
mous numbers — a man stands on 
this eminence, whence he can 
clearly see down to a great depth 
in the water, and make signs to 
the fishermen below, indicafing to 
them the direction in which it will 
behest to turn. 

3. To the hot springs of Izn-san, 
\ ri. They are situated on the 
rock below the highway, in a man- 
ner resembling swallows' nests. 

4. To Baienji, a pretty park. 
This is a pleasant level walk of 
less than 1 ri, 

6. To Tosawa, i hr. climb half- 
way up Higane-san to a beautiful 
grove of t^ees. There one may 
torn to the r., and return by way 
of the vill. of Izu-san. (This is 
not below the highway, as are the 
hot springs of Izu-san, mentioned 
in No. 3.) 

6. To the little port of AJiro 
{Inn, Tabako-ya), a steep but very 
pretty walk over the hills, return- 
ing, if preferred, by boat. The 
walk takes about 2i hrs., the return 



by sea less. Ajiro, which lies at 
the S. end of a beautiful bay, can 
also be reached from Atami by 
small coasting steamer. 

The following all day expeditions 
may be recommended : — 

7. The climb up Higane-san, and 
the return down a steep narrow 
gorge r. from the temple there to 
the hot springs of Tugawarai 
thence back (by jinrikisha, if pre- 
ferred) vi& Yoshihama on the 
Atami main road. 

8. By boat to Ito (Wada), 6 ri 
down the coast, and thence viA the 
baths of Shishido (Matsubara), 
where a guide should be procured, 
to Omuro-»an, an extinct volcano 
much resembling Fuji in shape, 
and therefore often called by the 
country folk Fuji no Imoto, * Fuji's 
Younger Sister,' or Sengen-yama 
(Sengen is an alternative name of 
the Goddess of Fuji). About 1^ hr. 
is required to wa]k from Shishido 
to the base, which is half-way be- 
tween the hamlets of Ikemura and 
Totari ; thfence it is 20 min. more 
to the summit, from which there 
is a fine panorama. The crater is 
about 250 yds. in diameter, and 
some 80 ft. deep. The bottom is 
covered with scattered blocks of 
lava. To the E. of this volcano 
stands another smaller one called 
Komwro-zan, 

2. — From Hakonb to the Hot 
Springs of Shuzenji and over 
Amaqi-san to the Port op 
Shimoda in Izit. 

Itinerary, 

HAKONEto:— Bi. Cho. M. 

Mishima 8 21 8f 

Ohito 3 32 9i 

Uryuno 6 i 

SHUZENJI 26 If 

Yu-ga-shima ... 3 18 8^ 

Nashimoto 4 32 12 

SHIMODA 4 34 12 

Total 21 24 52f 



110 



Route 7. — The Penmsula of Izu. 



This is a two or three days' trip, 
which should be arranged in such 
fashion as to sleep the first night 
at Shuzenji, the second at Shi- 
moda ; or else the second set Yu-ga- 
shima, and the third at Shimoda. 
It is possible to go in jinrikishas 
from Mishima to Shuzenji, and 
again a short way out of Shimoda. 
But take it altogether, the road 
is very hilly, and scarcely to be re- 
commended except to pedestrians, 
who will find it replete with natural 
beauty. 

The first stage, as far as Mishi- 
ma, takes the traveller along the 
old roughly paved Tokaido, which, 
soon af^r leaving Hakone, rises to 
a height of 2,970 ft. above the sea, 
and then again descends. About 
half-way down is a vantage-point 
1., commanding a fine view of the 
country E. of Numazu. The river 
Kanogawa is here seen wiuding 
between groups of hills, beyond 
which rises the bolder mass of 
Amagi-san. From 

Mishima (Inns, Sekoroku, Saga- 
mi-ya) to a vill. called Daiba, the 
road crosses a plain near the head 
of the Gulf of Suruga. . At Daiba it 
turns up the valley of the Kano- 
gawa, passing through the hamlet 
of Ho jo, noted in history as the 
birthplace of the founder of the 
great Hojo family, who, during the 
13th century and a portion of the 
14th, ruled Japan as 'Eegents' 
(Shikken) in the name of the 
* Puppet Shoguns ' of Kamakura. 
The scenery the whole way up the 
valley is extremely pretty, includ- 
ing, on turning back, most charm- 
ing views of Fuji. A striking 
object on the road is the overhang- 
ing rock called Jbyama, which is 
seen to the r. beyond Hojo. The 
pref ectural road, which has hitherto 
been followed, is abandoned a short 
way out of Oliito for the path up 
the 1. bank of the Katsura-gawa 
leading to 

Shuzenji (Inn, *Arai-ya). De- 
lightfully situated in a secluded 



valley, this place is resorted to 
on account of the mineral spring 
which spurts up in the middle 
of the streajn forming, if one 
may so say, the village high 
street, and which thus allows the 
bathers to enjoy a hot and a cold 
bath at the same time, according 
as they incline their bodies a 
little more to one side or to the 
other. The water is also led into 
the inns by means of pipes. A 
little more than i ri after leaving 
Shuzenji, the traveller should tell 
the guide to lead him a couple 
of chd off the main road to visit 
the Aaahi-no-taki, a cascade of about 
100 ft. in height, which tumbles 
down over the rocks, forming a 
series of four or ^ve falls. All 
this neighbourhood is full of hot 
springs, those of 8eko^no-taki being 
the most notable off the main road 
(8 chO from Yu-ga-shima, and very 
picturesquely situated). On the 
main roskd are those of 

Tu-ga-stlimii (Inn, Yumoto-ya, 
poor), in whose vicinity — the dis- 
tance is some 30 chd — is the pretty 
cascade of Joren-taki, formed by 
the waters of the Kanogawa fall- 
ing over a precipice 60 ft. high. 
The • 3i ri separating Yu-ga-shima 
from Nashiinoto are occupied by 
the ascent and descent of the 
Amagi-toge, which is not steep for 
most of the way, as the path does 
not lead over the highest part of 
Amagi-San. Amagi-San, it should 
be mentioned, is the general name 
given to the whole mountain mass 
stretching across the promon- 
tory of Izu from E. to W., the 
loftiest summit of which is called 
Banjiro. Beyond Nashimoto the 
road crosses the Konabe-toge, a 
climb of 18 chd, and after passing 
Mitsukuri, descends a pictui'esque 
valley, well-cultivated and irrigated 
by the waters of the Nozugawa, a 
stream which flows into the har- 
bour of Shimoda, and which from 
the hamlet of Hongo is navigable for 
fiat-bottomed boats. The country 



Route 8. — Viies Island, 



111 



all around is beautifully diversified, 
and the soil carefully cultivated, 
every hill being laid out in a series 
of terraces planted with rice and 
barley. Near Hongo stands the 
small hamlet of Bendaiji, noted for 
its hot mineral springs. The accom- 
modation, however, is poor. Fur- 
ther on, the valley widens till it 
forms an open extensive plain 
before reaching 

Shimoda (Intis, Awaman^^ro, Ma- 
tsumoto-ya), a compactly built and 
regularly laid-out town, situated 
on the banks of the Nozugawa. 
The situation of Shimoda is such 
as to command a healthy climate, 
owing to the dryness of the soil 
and the fresh sea-breezes. The 
harbour, though small, is safe and 
convenient. There is also an inner 
anchorage for small junks and 
boats, which is connected with the 
Nozugawa. It is artificially con- 
structed by means of dykes and 
a breakwater. Shimoda exports 
most of the stone used for the new 
buildings in Tokyo. The stone 
comes from extensive quarries, or 
rather mines, near the vill. of 
Kisami, which will repay a visit. 

Shimoda was'flrst visited in 1864 by Com- 
modore Perry and the ships of the United 
States sqaadron. By the treaty which he 
concluded, it was constituted an Open Port 
for American shipping; and here Mr. 
HarriB, the American Minister, resided 
until the substitution of Kaaagawa as a 
trading port in 1859. 

The easiest way te quit Shimoda 
is by small steamer te Atami. 

3. — Shimoda to Atami by the 
Coast. 

It is also possible to complete the 
round of the peninsula of Izu by 
following the path which skirts 
the coast. This journey, though 
fatiguing, is extremely pretty, and 
is quite off the beaten track. The 
path continually winds up and 
down the cliffs along the sea-shore, 
passing a succession of picturesque 
nooks and bays. The itinerary is 
as foUoivs: 



SHIMODA te :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Hama (hot spring)... 1 28 4^ 

Inatori 4 10 loj 

Yawatano 8 29 9i 

Ite (Wada) 3 10 8 

Usami 1 10 3 

Ajiro 2 — 5 

ATAMI 2 18 6 

Total 18 33 46 



From Atami te Kozu on the To- 
kaido Railway by the itinerary 
(reversed) given at the beginning 
of this route. 

4.— From Yu-ga-shima to Atami. 

This walk from the centre of the 
peninsula te the coast offers superb 
views. The itinerary is as follows : 

YTJ-OA-SHIMAte:— J2i. Chd. M, 

Nagano — 20 1^ 

Harab5 2 — 5 

Hiekawa 1 19 3f 

Ito (Wada) 2—5 

ATAMI 5 28 14 

Total 11 31 29 



ROUTE 8. 

Vkies Island. 

Tries Island, called Izu no Oshima 

by the Japanese, is the largest and 

most accessible of the Igu no Shichi- 

to, or 'Seven Isles of Izu,' which 

streteh away for over 100 miles in 

a southerly direction from near 

the entrance of Tokyo Bay te 33° 

lat. N. The ever-smoking volcano 

on Yries Island is sighted by all 

ships bound for Yokohama. 

In ancient days Eastern Japan, then 
semi-barbarous, was used as a place of 
banishment for criminals expelled from 
the Central part of the Empire,— Nara, 
Kyoto, and their environs, where the 
Mikado held his Court. When the main- 
land of E. Japan became settled, the 



112 



Boute 8, — Tries Island, 



islands alone continued to be used as con- 
vict settlements, and they retained this 
character till quite recent times. There 
were exiles living on Yries as late as the 
end of the 18th centuiy. On English 
charts, Hachijo (misspelt Fatsisio), the 
southernmost of the group, is sometimes 
stated to be 'a place of exile for the 
grandees of Japan.' But it is a mistake 
to suppose that Hachijo was peculiar in 
this respect, or that ' grandees ' were 
the only class of persons transported 
thither. The most noted of the many 
exiles to Yries was the famous archer 
Tametomo, who was banished there in 
1166, and whose prowess forms a favourite 
subject with Japanese romance writers 
and artists. His picture may be seen on the 
bock of some of the Japanese bank-notes. 
The current English name of Yries Island 
is derived from that of Captain Martin 
Grerritsz Yries, a Dutch navigator who 
discovered it in 1648. Yries Island was 
noted until recent years for its peculiar 
dialect and for the retention of curious 
old customs. But few remnants of these 
now survive, excepting the coiffure of the 
women and their habit of carrying loads 
on the head. 

Vries Island has no regnlar and 
but little irregular steam commu- 
nication with the outer world. The 
best way to reach it is by fishing- 
boat from Misaki (see p. 60), 
whence the fare with 5 sailors 
should be about 10 yen. The wea- 
ther being favourable, any point 
on the coast of the island may 
be reached in from 6 to 8 hrs. The 
island may also be reached from 
Shimoda or Ajiro in Izu, or by junk 
from Reigan-jima, Tokyo. The 
native craft cannot, however, be 
recommended to any persons un- 
acquainted with the language or 
unaccustomed to Japanese ways ; 
and the many delays and dis- 
appointments caused by the un- 
certainty of the communication 
with the mainland are hardly 
counterbalanced, except to the 
investigator of volcanic phenomena, 
by such interest as the island 
possesses. The best season for the 
trip is the early spring, the next 
being the winter. 

There are six villages on the 
island, all situated on the coast, 
and named respectively Motomura 
(more correctly Niijima), Nomashi^ 



Sashikiji, Habu, Senzu, and Okada. 
Of these Motomura is the best to 
stop at, whilst Habu has the ad- 
vantage of possessing a small har- 
bour — the crater of an ancient 
submerged volcano — ^and is there- 
fore the easiest to take ship from 
when departing. There are no inns 
on Yries Island, excepting a poor one 
at Motomura ; but accommodation 
can be obtained at the house of the 
Narnuhi (Headman) of each village. 
The distances along the road or 
path connecting the villages are 
approximately as follows (the es- 
timate is that g^ven by the local 
officials, and seems to be a rather 
liberal one) : — 

Ri. Cho, M. 

SenzutoOkada 1 — 2^ 

Okada to Motomura ... 2 — 5 

Motomura to Nomashi... 1 — 2^ 

Nomashi to Sashikiji ... 3 — 7^ 

Sashikiji to Habu — 19 U 

For the most part the road runs 
at some distance from the coast, 
which it only rejoins on nearing 
the villages ; and there are also a 
number of paths in all directions 
used by the inhabitants for bring- 
ing down fire-wood from the hill- 
sides. Usually the way Hes 
through a low wood of camellia, 
skimmia, and other evergreens, 
and sometimes, as for instance 
between Motomura and Nomashi, 
along a charming fern-clad dell. 
Pheasants are abundant. 

There is no road round the E. 
coast from Habu to Senzu, but the 
distance is approximately 6 ri, and 
the way leads over the desolate 
slope of the volcano by which the 
whole centre of the island is occu- 
pied. The name of the volcano is 
Mihara, 2,500 ft. high. From its 
summit smoke perpetually issues, 
and it is subject to frequent erup- 
tions. The nearest point on the 
coast to the summit of the mountain 
is Nomashi, but the ascent may be 
made equally well from Motomura. 

The climb requires only 2 hrs.. 



Volcano of Mihara, 



118 



and the whole expedition, includ- 
in^ stoppages, can easily be made 
during a forenoon. Passing through 
the village, the ascent, as made 
from Motomura, leads for the 
first hour through the wood, and 
then emerges on to volcanic 
scorise, where nothing grows but 
small tufts of grass and dwarf 
alder. The eminence seen ahead 
to tlie 1. and called Kagan^-bata 
is not the summit of the mountain, 
but only a portion of the waU of an 
immense ancient crater, in the 
midst of which stands the present 
cone^ with its much smaller though 
still considerable dimensions. From 
this point it is a five minutes' 
walk to the lip of the ancient 
crater, which here forms a flat oval 
waste of minute scorisB, with stones 
scattered here and there. Its 
greatest length on this side is esti- 
mated at nearly a mile, and it is 
surrounded by low broken hillocks 
of lava^ against whose sides the 
sand is pHed up. Half an hour's 
walk across this desolate waste, 
where not even a blade of grass is 
to be seen, brings us to the little 
torii marking the Nomashi approach 
to the mountain, and forming the 
limit beyond which women are not 
allowed to proceed. From this 
point there is a fine view. In 
front, and most conspicuous of all, 
are the other islands and islets of 
the group, the curious pyramidal 
TosMma, with Shikine and K5zu 
behind; to the 1. of Toshima the 
longer and lower outline of Niijima, 
with little Udoma in front. To the 1. 
again, but considerably more dis- 
tajit, are the larger islands of 
Miyake and Mikura, while on 
exceptionally clear days the outline 
of Hachijo — so at least it is asserted 
— can be descried. To the W. 
are seen Amagi-san and other 
portions of the peninsula of Izu, 
the towering cone of_Fuji, with the 
lesser Hakone and Oyama ranges ; 
to the N. Misaki in Sagami, and to 
the N.E. the outline of the peninsula 



of Boshu, which shuts in Tokyo 
Bay from the open Pacific. The 
cHmb hence up to the top of the 
mountain takes ^ hr. 

Mihara may also be ascended 
from Habu or from Senzu, the 
climb on that side of the island 
being, however, much longer and 
more difficult. 

Excepting the ascent of the 
volcano, there are few walks in the 
island deserving of mention. The 
collector of ferns will, however, 
find numerous and beautiful species, 
not only between Motomura and 
Nomashi, but also at a place called 
Bdzvrga-Hora, i.e., the Priest's Dell, 
about 1 m. out of Habu in the 
direction of Senzu. A spare day at 
Habu may also be devoted to walk- 
ing along the coast towards Senzu ; 
but the vapoinr spring situated on 
the mountain-side between the two 
places, of which the visitor will be 
told by the natives, is at a distance 
— 5 ri — which makes it difficult of 
access in one day, on account of the 
arduous nature of the ground ; and 
there is not even a shed in which to 
take shelter from the weather. It 
is resorted to in cases of wounds 
and bruises, the friends of the sick 
person erecting some temporary 
cover. Futago-yama, the double* 
crested mountain, whose red hue, 
caused by the presence of brittle 
lava of that colour, is so conspicuous 
from Habu, is a mere spur of the 
volcano, and has no special in- 
terest. 



114 



Eoute 9, — Fnji and yeighhourliood. 



ROUTE 9. 
Ftjji and Neighboubhood. 

\, genebal in70buation. 2. as- 
cent fbom gotekba station. 
3. ascent fbom htjbayama. 4. 
ascent fbom st7ba8hibi. 6. as- 
cent fbom toshiba. 6. ascent 
fbom hito-ana. 7. ascent fbom 
sttyama. 8. summit of fuji. 9. 
cibcuit of fuji half-wat up. 
10. cibcuit of the base, cave of 
hito-ana, kami-ide watebfall8. 

1. — Gbnebal Infobmation. 

Time. Mere hurried ascent of 
Fuji and back to Yokohama, 1 day 
and 1 night ; including circuit of 
base, 3 to 4 days. 

The pleasantest plan is to com- 
bine the ascent of Fuji with a visit 
to the Miyanoshita-Hakone dis- 
trict, giving at least a week to the 
entire trip, and climbing the 
mountain during whichever por- 
tion of that time seems to promise 
the most settled weather. The 
ascent can only be made between 
(approximately) the 15th July and 
10th September, the huts to ac- 
commodate pilgrims being closed 
during the rest of the year. The 
best time is from the 25th July to 
the 10th August. 

The best way to reach Fuji from 
Yokohama is to take the Tokaido 
Railway as far as Gotemba Sta- 
tion, 3 hrs., where guides and 
horses can be engaged, and rough 
quilts and charcoal to ward off the 
cold air at night in the huts on 
the mountain top can be procured. 
The traveller should bring his own 
food. Persons coming up the To- 
kaid5 from the direction of Kobe 
and Kyoto should alight either at 
Iwabuchi or at Suzukawa (see 
Route 38), and ascend from Mura- 
yama. Those coming from Kofu 
will ascend from Yoshida. It is 
also possible to ascend Fuji from 



Subashiri on the E. side, which 
indeed was the favourite route be- 
fore the opening of the railway, 
and is still adopted by many ; also 
from Suyanuk, S. £., and Hito-ana, 
S. W. ; but these last two have 
nothing special to recommend them. 
Details of the ascent from Gotem- 
ba Station, etc., are given below. 
Numbers of travellers prefer to 
reach. Fuji from Miyanoshita or 
Hakone, by walking to Gotemba 
Station over the Otome-toge (see p, 
103). In this case they can provide 
themselves with all necessaries at 
one of the Miyanoshita hotels. It 
is always advisable to take plenty 
of warm clothing, as the tempera- 
ture falls below freezing point at 
night on the summit of the moun- 
tain even during the hottest period 
of summer. It is also advisable to 
take an extra supply of food, as 
pai'ties have occasionally been 
detained on the mountain side by 
stress of weather, unable either to 
reach the summit or to descend to 
the base. It is possible, by sleeping 
at Gotemba Station or at Mura- 
yama, and starting at dawn, to 
ascend to the summit and descend 
again in a single day (in local Japa- 
nese parlance hi-yamay that' is 
* day-mountain*). Counting the 
working day as having 15 hrs. (4 
A.M. to 7 P.M.), this would allow 11 
hrs. for the ascent, including short 
stoppages, 1 hr. at the top, alid 3 
hrs. for the descent. The shortest 
time in which the ascent and des- 
cent have been known to be made, 
is 11 hrs. 37 min., including all 
stoppages ; 6 hrs. 27 min. was the 
actual time of ascent, and 2 hrs. 2 
min. that of descent. But persons 
less desirous of * breaking the re- 
cord' than of really seeing what 
they have come so far to see, are 
strongly urged to pursue the follow- 
ing course: — Cleave Gotemba Sta- 
tion or Murayama before daylight 
— say at 2 a.m. — ^thus providing 
the chance of a good sunrise on 
the way up. After sunrise, do the 



General Information, 



115 



rest of the ascent slowly, reaching 
the summit about midday. Having 
establishing himself in one of the 
huts on the summit, the traveller 
should go down into the crater, make 
the round of the crater, and spend 
the night at the top. This will 
afford the chance of a sunset and 
of a second sunrise, after which the 
descent can be at once begun. The 
descent will take most people from 
4^ to 5 hrs. The great advantage 
of this plan is that it multiplies 
the chances of a good view from 
the summit, — such views being 
much more often obtained at sun- 
rise and sunset than in the middle 
of the day/ and being by no means 
certain at any time. 

Ajyropoa of views, may be men- 
tioned the Japanese term Fvji-mi 
ju-san-shii, that is, the Thirteen 
Provinces from which Fuji is 
visible. These are Musashi, Bd- 
shu, Kazusa, Shimosa, Hitachi, 
Shimotsuke, Eotsuke, Shinshu, 
Koshu, Totomi, Suruga, Izu, and 
Sagami. The map of these pro- 
vinces is an excellent specimen 
of old-fashioned Japanese carto- 
graphy. A very slight acquaintance 
with the written characters will 
make it one of the most useful 
maps to travel with. 

Fuji is much more easily ascend- 
ed than many mountains far in- 
ferior in height, as it presents no 
obstacles in the shape of rocks or 
undergrowth. The first 6,000 ft. 
of the ascent can moreover be 
performed on horseback, after 
which the accomplishment of the 
remainder is merely a question of 
steady perseverance. The distance 
to the summit from the point 
called Uma-gaeshi, is unequally 
divided into ten parts called go 
(the unit being oddly enough a shd, 
which is a measure of capacity 
containing about 1^ quarts), which 
are subdivided in some cases into 
halves called go-shaku. The first 
station is thus ichi-gd-me, the second 
ni-go-me, and so on, the last before 



the summit is reached being ku-go- 
me, or No. 9. One explanation 
given by the Japanese of this pecu- 
liar method of calculation is that 
the mountain resembles in shape 
a heap of dry rice poured out of a 
measure, and that consequently its 
subdivisions must correspond to 
the fractions of the latter. How- 
ever this may be, the go is used as 
a division of distance in other 
parts of Japan, especially in Satsu- 
ma. At most of these stations, as 
as also at the top, are huts where 
accommodation for the night, boiled 
rice, and water can be obtained. 

The number of coolies required 
wiU of course depend on the amount 
of baggage to be carried. When 
ladies are making the ascent, it is 
advisable to have a spare man or 
two or help them when tired. 
Stout gaiters are recommended to 
be worn during the descent, to 
prevent sand and ashes from get- 
ting inside the boots. 

Fuji, often called Fuji-tan^ that is 
* Mount Fuji,' and by the poets Fuji-no- 
yama, that is ' the Mountain of Fuji,' 
whence the form Fusiyama often used by 
Europeans, stands between the provinces 
of Suruga and Koshtl, and is the highest, 
the most beautiful, and the most famous 
mountain in Japan. The. height of Ken- 
ga-mine, its loftiest peak, has been vari- 
ously estimated at 12,234 ft. (£[nipping) ; 
12,341 ft. (Chaplin) J 12,360 ft. (Favre- 
Brandt) ; 12,366 ft. (Stewart) ; 12,400— 
12,460 (Milne) ; 12,4.S7 ft, (Rein). 

Though now quiescent, Fuji must still 
be accounted a volcano. Frequent men- 
tion is made in Japanese literature of the 
smoke of Fuji, which, if the expressions 
used by poets may be taken as indicating 
facts, must have formed a constant feature 
in the landscape at least as late as the 
14th century. A hundred years earlier it 
seems, however, to have been already less 
violent than the discharge from Asama- 
yama in Shinshtl. An author who flou- 
rished about the end of the 9th century 
saj7S : * There is a level space at the sum- 
mit, about one ri square, having a depres- 
sion in the centre shaped like a cauldron, 
at the bottom of which is a pond. This 
cauldron is usually filled with vapour of a 
pure green (or blue) colour, and the bot- 
tom appears like boiling water. The 
steam is visible at a great distance from 
the mountain. In 967 a small mountain 
was formed at the eastern base of Fuji.' 
This was probably the small hump called 



116 



Route P. — Fuji and Neighbourhood, 



Ko-Fuji, on the r. of the second station on 
the Suyama ascent. A traveller's journal 
of the year 1021 speaks of smoke rising 
from the slightly flattened summit, while 
at night fire was seen to issue from the 
crater. Even at the present day, small 
quantities of steam continue to issue 
through the ashes on the E. or Subashiri 
Bide ot the mountain, just outside the lip 
of the crater. 

Fuji stands by itself, rising with 
one majestic sweep from a plain 
almost surrounded by mountains. 
The S. side slopes right down to 
the sea, its outline being broken 
only on the S.E. by the rugged 
peaks of Ashitaka-yama. On the 
N. and W. rise steep granite 
Ganges, stretching away from the 
Misaka-toge nearly to the junction 
of the Shiba-kawa with the Fuji- 
kawa. Against these mountains 
the showers of ashes which were 
ejected from the crater have piled 
themselves up, and confined in 
their separate basins the waters of 
the Motosu, Shoji, and other lakes. 
The E. side is shut in by volcanic 
mountains of undetermined origin, 
beginning near Subashiri, and ex- 
tending southwards into the penin- 
sula of Izu. Among them lie Lake 
Hakone, with the numerous hot 
springs of Miyanoshita, Ashino- 
yu, Atami, and their neighbour- 
hood. The base of the mountain 
is cultivated up to a height of 
about 1,500 ft., above which spreads 
a wide grassy moorland to 4,000 ft., 
where the forest commences. The 
upper limit of this varies consider- 
ably, being lowest on the E. side, 
namely, about 5,500 ft. on the 
ascent from Suyama, and 7,900 on 
the Murayama side. But on the 
W. face, between the Yoshida and 
Murayama ascents, and looking 
down over the plain round Hito- 
ana, it must erfcend as high as 
9,000 ft. or more. This difference 
is no doubt due in a great measure 
to the comparatively recent dis- 
turbance on the S.E. side, which 
caused the present conformation of 
Hoei-zan, when the greater part 
of the ashes thrown out fell in the 



direction of Suyama, destroying 
the forest, and leaving a desert waste 
which only a long lapse of years 
can again cover with vegetation. 
To the same cause, namely, com- 
paratively recent volcanic action, 
must be ascribed the almost entire 
absence of those Alpine plants 
which abound on the summits of 
other high mountains in the neigh- 
bourhood, such as Ontake, Shirane 
in Koshii, and Yatsu-ga-take. 
Above the forest lies a narrow zone 
of bushes, chiefly dwarfed larch. 
A few species of hardy plants are 
found up to a height of 10,000 ft. 
on some parts of the cone. 

2. — Ascent fbom Gotemba 
Station. 
Gotemba Station (Inn, Yoshiji- 

ma-ya) is 12 cho from the vill. of 
Gotemba; and there is no longer 
any necessity for going to the 
latter and thence on to Subashiri, 
as was the general practice in pre- 
railway times, there being now a 
direct and shorter way up the 
mountain from the Station by what 
is called the Nakabata route, 
avoiding both those villages. If 
the traveller intends to spend the 
night at Gotemba Station, he 
should try to arrive early, so as to 
avoid difficulty in obtaining accom- 
modation at the inn. In order to 
economise one's strength, it is 
advisable to take horses for the first 
2i hrs. of the ascent across an 
open and gently rising country. 
This takes one beyond Uma-gae- 
shi, where horses are supposed to be 
left, to Tarobo (also called Ko- 
mitake), where they mibst be left.* 

At Tarobo (so-called from a 
goblin who is there worshipped), 
staves are sold to help climbers on 
their way up. These staves are 
eng^raved with the name of the 



* Uma-ffoeshi, lit. * horse send back,* ia 
the general name for that point on a 
mountain beyond which it is impossible 
to ride. 



Ascent from Viwiotis Sides'. 



117 



mountain, and can have a further 
inscription added by the priests 
who dwell inside the crater. 

Though Fuji, as already stated, 
is theoretically divided on all its 
sides into ten parts, some of 
the stations no longer exist in 
practice — that is, have no rest- 
huts — while others are subdivided. 
On the Gotemba ascent, only sta- 
tions 2i, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10 (the 
top) exist. Nos. 3 and 4 (san-go 
and shi-go) are the best, and No. 6 
(roku-go) is fair. This should be 
borne in mind, in case of its being 
necessary to call a halt for the 
night midway. 

From No. 2^ to 3 the path skirts 
Hoei-zan, where that from Suyama 
joins in 1., and the steep portion of 
the ascent begins. Above No. 7 
the climb becomes more fatiguing 
still, being now over loose cinders. 
. Above No. 8, patches of snow will 
probably be found in rifts in the 
lava rock ; but there are nowhere 
any actual snow-fields to be tra- 
versed. At No. 10 — ^the tcfp — there 
are three stone huts, fairly roomy 
and comfortable. Should they all 
be occupied by pilgrims, the travel- 
ler must walk round to the huts on 
the Subashiri side of the lip of the 
crater, only a couple of hundred 
yards distant. 

The descent as far as No. 7 is 
the same as the ascent. At No. 7, 
it diverges to the r. down a glissade 
(Jap. hashiri) of loose sand, over 
which one may skim at such a rate 
as to reach No. 2^ in less than 1 
hr. From Tarobo onwards, the 
descent will occupy nearly as much 
time as was required for the as- 
cent. The entire journey down 
from the summit to Gotemba 
Station can be accompHshed in 4 
hrs. 

3. — Ascent, from Mubayaha. 

From Marayama (Inn, by Fuji 
Soshiro) to the Uma-gaeshi, or 
riding limit on this side of the 
mountain, is a distance of 3 ri 8 chd. 



Thence onward it is necessary to 
walk. Of the various stations. No. 
5 is the most to be recommended, 
though all are fair, the ascent from 
Murayama having long been that 
most patronised by the native 
pilgrims, and therefore styled the 
Omote-guclii, or ' Front Entrance,' 
to the mountain. 

4.— ASGENT FROM SUBASHIRI. 

At Subashiri, the inn generally 
patronised by foreigners is Yone- 
yama. Yamada-ya also is fair. 
The road to the Uma-gcbeshi on 
this side leads for 2 ri up a broad 
avenue through the forest, whence 
it is another 2 ri to a place called 
Chujiki-ba, where a halt for re- 
freshments is generally made. This 
is 8 chd below station No. 1. The 
best stations are 49, 6, and especi- 
ally No. 8. At No. 9 is a small 
shrine known as Mukai Sengen, that 
is ' the Goddess of Fuji's Welcome,' 
intimating to the weary wayfarer 
that he is nearly approaching the 
goddess's sanctum. 

5. — Ascent from Yoshida. 

Tosh id a is an unusually long 
village, divided into an upper por- 
tion (Kami Yoshida) and a lower 
portion (Shimo Yoshida). From 
Kami Yoshida (Inn, Kogiku) the 
way" to Uma-gcieshi, the 2nd sta- 
tion, as far as which it is possible 
to ride, lies up an avenue. The 
upper edge of the forest is not 
quitted till No. 5 is reached. Thus 
the view on the way up is less 
good by this route than on the 
Gotemba and Murayama sides. 

6. — Ascent from Hito-ana. 

The ascent from Hito-ana (Inn, 
Akaike Keikichi) is laborious, and 
the view much spoilt by the 
dense forest through which the 
track lies. It is therefore not 
recommended. Travellers wishing 
to visit the beautiful waterfalls of 
Kami-ide (see p. 121) might, how- 



118 



Route 9. — Fwji mid Neighbourhood. 



ever, find it worth their while to 
descend on this side. If their lug- 
gage is light, they can take it with 
them over the mountain. If not, 
they must allow plenty of time for 
sending it round the base. 

7. — Ascent prom Sutama. 

This is an alternative way for 
persons staying at Hakone, who can 
reach Suyama vik the Lake and 
the Fukara Pass in 6 to 8 hrs. 
Coolies for the whole trip, includ- 
ing the ascent of Fuji, should be 
engaged at Hakone, as the re- 
sources of Suyama are limited, 
though there is a tea-house (Wa- 
tanabe Hideo). But the ascent 
from Gotemba Station is to be 
preferred. The path up Fuji from 
Suyama joins the path up from 
Gotemba at station No. 3. 

8. — Summit op Fuji. 

The summit of the mountain 
consists of a series of peaks sur- 
rounding the crater, the diameter 
of which is not far short of 2,000 
ft. The descent into it, down the 
loose talus of rock and cinders 
close to the huts at the top of the 
Murayama ascent, is quite easy; 
still it is advisable to take a guide. 
The bottom is reached in 20 min. 
The floor, which is formed of 
cinders, inclines slightly from W. 
to E., and is intersected by small 
stream-beds, which at the E. end 
terminate among the loosely piled 
lava masses forming the core of the 
mountain. All round, except where 
the descent is made, rise precipi- 
tous rocky walls, from which large 
pieces detach themselves from time 
to time with a loudxjrackling sound 
like musketry. On the W. side, 
immediately under Ken-ga-mine, 
there is usually a large snow-slope. 
The depth has been variously cal- 
culatedat 416 ft., 548 ft., and 584 ft. 
The return to the edge will take 
about 25 min. 

Before dawn the pilgrims betake 



themselves to Ken-ga-mine, the 
peak on the W. of the crater, 
and the true summit of the moun- 
tain, to await the sun's rising. As 
the luminary approaches the hori- 
zon and all the clouds about it 
glow with the most brilliant hues 
of red flame, the feeling of longing 
expectation seems almost to over- 
come them; but as soon as the 
burniner disc appears, they greet it 
devoutly, rubbing their chapleta 
between their hands and muttering 
prayers to the great deity. 

Ken-ga-mine commands a mar- 
vellously extensive view. To the 
S. stretches the Gulf of Suruga, 
shut in on the E. by the lofty 
promontory of Izu, and confined on 
the W. by Miozaki at the termi- 
nation of the long range divid- 
ing the valley of the Abekawa from 
that of the Fujikawa. S.W. is the 
broad pebbly bed of the Fujikawa, 
its course above the point where it 
crosses the Tokaido being hidden 
by the lower hills. Westwards are 
seen all the lofty peaks of the 
border range of Koshii and Shin- 
shii, beginning with the angular 
granite obelisk of Koma-ga-take 
and its lesser neighbours Jizo and 
Ho-o-zan, then the three summits 
of Shirane, known as Kaigane, Ai- 
no-take, and Nodori, the Koma-ga- 
take of Shinshii rising between the 
Tenryu-gawa and Kisogawa, and 
so on to Ena-san in Mino and 
the top of Shichimen-zan near 
Minobu. Further to the r., ex- 
tending northwards, comes the 
great range dividing far-off Hida 
from Shinshu, amongst whose 
peaks may be distinguished Nori- 
kura, Yari-ga-take, and, further 
remote iv Etchu, the volcanic 
summits of Tateyama. Gradually 
moving E. again, along the north- 
ern horizon, we distinguish the 
mountains near Nagano, — Ken-no- 
mine and the extinct volcano of 
My5ko-zan. Nearer in the fore- 
ground rise the numerous sum- 
mits of Yatsu-ga-take; and then 



Stmnnit of Fuji, 



119 



glancing further N., we perceive 
Asama-yama's smoking crater, the 
mountains about the Mikuni Pass, 
and next all the Nikko mountains, 
Shirane, Nantai-zan, and lesser 
peaks. E. of Yatsu-ga-take is seen 
Kimpu-zan, easily known by its 
rounded shoulder and the pUlar of 
rocks at the summit ; then Yakushi 
and Mitsiunine in Chichibu, till 
the eye loses itself in a confusion 
of lower ridges. On the E. side 
of the crater, from almost any 
point that may be chosen, the eye 
rests on a prospect less extensive 
indeed, but surpassing this in 
beauty. Far away across the plain, 
is distinctly visible the double 
top of Tsukuba in Hitachi, while 
further S. we see the outer 
edge of the Tokyo plain, with 
Tokyo lying far up the bay ; then 
in succession Capes Sagami and 
Sunosaki, Vries Island, the Gulf 
of Sagami, and nearer in the fore- 
ground, beautiful Lake Hakone 
peacefully embosomed in green 
hills. 

Few travellers will be fortunate 
enough to obtain a perfectly clear 
view from the summit of Fuji, 
but the best chances are just 
before and at sunrise. *Nor,' 
says an authority quoted by 
Satow and Hawes, * will the pilgrim 
be wholly fortunate unless he 
sees the superb cloud effects which 
the mountain affords. These 
are most likely to be enjoyed, in 
ordinary summer weather, between 
noon and 6 o'clock in the evening, 
and they are truly magnificent. 
The summit of the mountain re- 
mains clear, but its shoulders and 
waist are surrounded by billowy 
masses of dense white vapour of 
indescribable splendour. Here and 
there a momentary break may 
permit a glimpse of the earth 
beneath, but usually nothing can be 
seen landward but this vast ocean 
of cloud, amid which the peak 
stands as the only island in the 
world. Turning seaifrard, the ocean 



itself can be seen over the circum- 
ambient vapour, and affords a 
striking contrast to the turmoil 
and restless change of form of the 
clouds themselves.' 

A curious phenomenon may also 
sometimes be witnessed at sunrise 
from the W. * side of the sum- 
mit. As the sun*s rays appear 
above the horizon, the shadow of 
Fuji (in Japanese, hage-Fvoi) is 
thrown in deep outline on the 
clouds and mist, which at that 
hour clothe the range of mountains 
to the west. 

Descending again from Ken-ga- 
mine, the path passes under it, and 
just above the steep talus called 
Oya shirazu Ko shirazu (* Heedless of 
Parent or Child '), from the notion 
that people in danger of falling 
over the edge of the crater would 
not heed even their nearest 
relatives if sharers of. the peril. 
The name occurs in similarly 
perilous places in many parts of 
Japan. Continuing N., the path 
skirts the edge of the cone, passing 
a huge and precipitous gorge which 
appears to extend downwards to the 
very base of ■ the mountain. _ This 
gorge is what is called the Osawa, 
the lower limit of which may be 
some 6,000 ft. above the sea, or 
only half way from the summit. 
Passing across the flank of the Bai- 
iwa, or * Thunder Uock,' it goes 
outside the crater wall, ascends the 
Shaka no wari-ishi (* Shaka's Cleft 
Eock '), and leaving Shaka-ga-take 
— ^the second loftiest peak — behind, 
descends to the Kim-mei-sui 
(• Famous Golden Water '), a spring 
of ice-cold water situated on the 
flat shelf between the N. edge 
of the crater and the outer 
wall. Ascending again, the path 
passes the row of huts at the top 
of the ascent from Yoshida 
and Subashiri, and reaches a torii 
commanding the best view of the 
crater. Here it turns again to the 
1., and goes outside the wall of 
the crater, underneath Kwannon- 



120 



Route 9. — Fvji and NeiyhhourJtood, 



ga-take. Here the interesting 
phenomenon may be observed of 
steam still issuing from the soil 
in several places, one of which 
is close to the path, while an- 
other lies near at hand on the 
1., about 50 ft. down the exterior 
of the cone, and a third is seen 
immediately underneath a wall 
of rock 50 yds. ahead. A few 
inches below the surface, the heat 
is great enough to boil an egg. 
Beyond this point, the path crosses 
a depression known as 8eishi-ga- 
kuho, ascends E. the 8ai-no-kawara, 
dotted with stone cairns raised in 
honour of Jizo, descends to the 
Gim-mei-sui ( * Famous Silver 
Water *) at the top of the Suyama 
ascent, and passing under the low 
peak named Koma-ga-take, reaches 
the huts at the top of the path 
from Murayama. Between this 
last point and Ken-ga-mine, is a 
small crater named Konoshiro-ga- 
ike, accessible from the N. The 
total distance round the large 
crater is said by the Japanese to 
be 1 ri, or 2^ miles; but this is 
doubtless an exaggeration. An 
interesting hour may be devoted to 
making the circuit. This will aUow 
for pauses at all the best points 
of view. 

9. — The Chudo-Megubi, or Cir- 
cuit OF Fuji Half- Way up. 

This walk, though few foreigners 
are likely to find leisure for it, is 
a favourite with native lovers of 
the picturesque, on account of 
the panorama which it succes- 
sively unfolds. The path encircles 
Fuji at heights varying from 9,490 
ft. on the Gotemba side (which it 
intersects at station No. 6) to 7,450 
ft. on the Yoshida side. It is best 
to turn to the 1. on starting from 
the above-mentioned No. 6 station, 
because the path descends a rapid 
slope of loose sand from the ridge 
of Hoei-zan towards the W., which 
would be very fatiguing if taken 



in the opposite direction. The 
time required for the entire circuit 
is from 7 to 8 hrs., the walk offering 
no difficulties. At a spot caUed 
Komitake, on the N. side of the 
cone, there is a hut where accom- 
modation can, if necessary, be 
obtained for the night. 

10. — Circuit op the Base of Fuji. 

(Time, 2^—3 days.) 

Itinerary. 

GOTEMBA Station to :— 

Ri. Cho. M. 

Gotemba Village.... 12 f 

Subashiri 2 18 6 

Yamanaka 2 — 5 

Yoshida... 2 8 5^ 

Funatsu 1 — 2i 

Kodachi 12 f 

Nagahama 1 — 2^ 

Nishi-no-umi 12 f 

Nemba 1 12 3^ 

Shoji 1 24 4 

Motosu 2 — 5 

Nebara 18 3 

Hito-ana 2 28 6f 

Kami-ide 18 3 

Qmiya 3 8 7f 

SUZUKAWA 3 — 7i 

Total 26 6 63f 

(From Suzukawa by rail to 
Gotemba in 1^ hr.) 

As far as Kodachi the way is 
practicable for jinrikishas, the 
Kago-zaka being the only part 
where it is necessary to get out 
and walk. Boats can be taken from 
Kodachi to Nagahama, from Nishi- 
no-umi to Nemba, and from Shoji 
across the lake. Pack-horses can 
be got at most of the stages, gene- 
rally at pretty high prices, and 
can be taken the whole round. 
A tramway runs from Omiya to 
Suzukawa. Travellers are recom- 
mended to engage horses for the 
whole trip, and thus render them- 
selves independent of their luggage, 
should they 9.vail themselves of 



Bouie 10. — Ways to and from Kofu, 



121 



the opportunity of doing portions 
of the journey by boat. 

Excepting the first 5 or 6 n, 
the whole of this trip is highly 
picturesque, leading, as it does, 
along the chain of lak^s — Kawagu- 
chi, Nishi-no-Umi, Shoji, and 
Motosu— that belt the base of Fuji. 
"Were there only good hotels or 
g^d private houses to hire, the 
shores of all these lakes would 
form delightful summer retreats. 
Scenery, fishing of sorts (carp, 
eels, dkorliara, etc.), short walks for 
the delicate, climbing for the 
strong and active, bathing, near- 
ness to such celebrated excursions 
as Fuji, the Misaka-toge, Minobu, 
etc., — all the elements of ^ pleasant 
holiday are there. Accommoda- 
tion can be had at 

Gotemba Station, Inn Yoshijima-ya. 

,t Village, „ Kawachi-ya. 
Subashiri, „ *Yoneyama. 

Yamanaka, „ ♦Nammi-ya. 

YoBhida, „ ♦Kogiku. 

KodacM, „ •Temple of My ohoji. 

Nebara, „ Yoshikawa . 

Hampei. ( 

Hito-ana, „ Akaike Kei- 1 P™^' 

kichi. J 
Kami-ide, „ Fuji-ya. 

Also at Kawaguchi {Inn, Umeya), a 
little off the way, on the N. side of the 
lake of the same name. 

The stars in this list indicate only a 
relative and very modest excellence. 

At Hito-ana is a cave 260 yds. 
long, visited by pilgrims anxious 
to worship the little image of 
Kwannon which sits perched on a 
projecting rock at its further end. 
But the chief sight on the road is 
afforded by the beautiful waterfalls 
of Kaiiii-ide, known as Shira-ito no 
iaki, or *the White Thread Cas- 
cades.' The two largest, some 85 
ft. in height, are called respectively 
0-dafci and Me-daki, or 'the Male 
and Female Cascades,' and there 
are more than forty smaller falls, 
their children. In the neighbour- 
hood is another fine cascade, about 
100 ft. high and 30 ft. wide, called 
Nen-nen-fuchi. 

Persons not caring to make the 
entire round of Fuji may visit the 



Kami-ide waterfalls by alighting 
at Suzukawa station on the Tokai- 
do Eailway, whence it is a distance 
of 6 ri 8 cho^ the first 3 W of which, 
as far as Omiya, by tram. The 
way there and back can be done in 
a day, under favourable circum- 
stances. One may also alight at 
Iwabuchi (good inn at station), 
whence it is only 5^ ri ; but there 
is no tram. 



EOUTE 10. 
Wats to and from Koru. 

1. KOPU AND NEIGHBOUKHOOD, MI- 
TAKE, KIMPTJ-ZAN. 2. TOKT5 TO 
KOFU BY THE k5sHU KAIDO [sARU- 
HASHI TO FUJI]. 3. VALLET OP 
THE TAMAGAWA. 4. FROM THE 
TOKAIDO TO KOPU vid THE TEMPLES 
OP MINOBU. 5. VALLET OF THE 
HATAKAWA, ASCENT OF 8HIRANE 
SAN. 6. RAPIDS OP THE FUJIKAWA. 
7. KOPU TO SHIMO-NO-SUWA ON 

, THE NAKASENDO, ASCENT OP KOMA- 
GA-TAKE IN KOSHU. 8. KOPU TO 
FUJI OVER THE MISAKA-TOGE. 9. 
KARUIZAWA TO KOPU OVER THE 
TSUYUTARE PASS, ASCENT OF AKA- 
DAKE. 

Kofii is a pleasant resting-place 
after arduous travel, its central 
situation in the beautiful province 
of Koshu and its proximity to 
places of such peculiar interest as 
Mitake, Fuji, Minobu, the Eapids 
of the Fujikawa, etc., causing it 
to be included in so many differ- 
ent tours as to render a descrip- 
tion of the several ways to and from 
it advisable. 



122 



Eoute 10. — IVnt/H to and from Kd/u, 



1. — KoFu AND Neighbourhood. 

Kof II {Inns, * Yonekura in Yana- 
gi-machi ; Sado-ya j European food 
can be obtained in the Choyo-tei 
restt. in the public garden, where 
also foreign guests are accommo- 
dated for the night), the capital of 
the prefecture of Yamanashi, is 
noted for the progressive spirit of 
its people. For its size, it has more 
buildings in European style than 
any other provincial town in Japan. 
Conspicuous amongst these are the 
Prefecture, the Normal School, the 
Banks, the Court-houses, the Town 
Hall, the Industrial School, the 
silk-filatures, and the bookselling 
and printing establishment of Mr. 
Naitb Den-emon, who is also the pro- 
prietor of the Kdfu Daily News. The 
castle grounds were many years ago 
turned into an experimental garden, 
where excellent fruit and vege- 
tables are grown. From the plat- 
form where the keep formerly 
stood, there is a fine view of the 
town and surrounding country. A 
great festival, called Mi-yuki no Ma- 
tsuri, is held in Kof u on the 1st April. 
The town is noted for kaiki, a thin 
silken fabric used for the linings 
of dresses and for bed-quilts ; also 
for a sweetmeat called tsuki-no~ 
shizuku, that is * moon -drops,* con- 
sisting of grapes coated with sugar. 
The province of Koshii produces 
the best grapes in Japan, and at- 
tempts have been made, of late 
years, to produce wine and brandy 
from them. The grapes are in 
their prime about the end of 
September or beginning of October. 
Crystals are found in the neigh- 
bourhood. A cei-tain inconvenience 
is felt in the vicinity of Kdfu by 
the difficulty of procuring jinriki- 
shas, the native carriage (hasha) 
having almost driven them from 
the plain. 

The chief historical interest of K5fu 
centres in its mediaeval hero, .Takeda Shin- 
gen, who was one of the fiercest feudal 
chieftains of the lawless times that pre- 
ceded the establishment of the Tokugawa 
dynasty of Shoguns, Born in 1521 as the 



eldest son of his father, lord of Koshti, 
it was his fate to be unjustly pa«sed over 
by that father in favour of his second 
brother ; and he was obliged to feign 
stupidity as a boy, in order to preserve 
his life in safety. When, however, both 
youths reached man's estate, Takeda 
Shingen's superiority in skill and courage 
gained all the warriors of the clan over to 
his side, and he succeeded his father with< 
out demur. His whole time was spent 
in waging war against the barons of the 
neighbouring provinces of central and 
eastern Japan, especially against Uesugi 
Kenshin, lord of Shinshfl. In middle 
life he l)ecame converted to the doctrines 
of the Tendai sect of Buddhists, built a 
temple to the god Bishamon, did public 
X)enance, abj^ed the eating of fish and 
all intercourse with women, and went so 
far as to have himself decorated with the 
title of archbishop,— for what ecclesiaa- 
tical authorities were going to refuse any- 
thing to a zealot who disposed of so many 
soldiers ? He did not, however, renounce 
his grand passion, war, but kept on 
fighting till the end, his latter years 
being much disturbed by the conscious- 
ness of the growing power of leyasu, 
and being divided between quarrels and 
reconciliations with that great captain. 
When mortally wounded in 1573, he left 
orders with his successor to hold no 
funeral service in his honour, but to 
keep his death a profound secret for three 
years, and then to sink his body privately 
in Lake Suwa, enclosed in a stone coffin. 
This was in order to prevent his nume- 
rous foes from taking heail) at the news 
of his decease. His last will and testa- 
ment was only partially obeyed; for 
though his death was kept secret as 
long as possible, the body was not sunk 
in the lake, but buried at the temple of 
Eirinji at Matsuzato, a few miles from 
Kofu. The place still exists, the temple 
garden being a tasteful specimen of rock- 
work on a large scale. Brave but 
superstitious, Takeda Shingen was also 
an adept at governing men. His people 
liked and respected him, as was shown 
by the fact that none ever rebelled against 
him, evon in that turbulent age when 
every man's hand was against every 
man. 

From Kofu a very pretty excur- 
sion may be made to the temples 
of JNitiikc, distant about 5 ri. 
Jinrikishas can be taken as far as 
a place called Kizawa, some 2 ri 
from Kofu, whence onwards it is 
necessary to walk. The whole 
distance can be accomplished in 
3 J hrs. The road winds up a fine 
rocky valley, crossing and recross- 
ing the Kamezawa gawa several 
times. Beyond the hamlet of 



Mittihe, The Koshu Kaido. 



123 



Kiyokawa, the river cuts its way 
through the rocks so as form a 
clianning double cascade called 
86-gawar}uchi. A short way op, the 
traveller leaves this, the prettiest 
part of the road, and ascending to 
the r., comes in sight of the rocky 
valley in which lie the temples 
and village of Mitake. Excepting 
the beautiful site, a grove of 
magnificent trees, and the fine 
stone-work facing the slopes of 
the terraces, but little remains of 
th« former grandeur of the place, 
Tvhich has fallen into the de- 
structive hands of modern Shinto 
reformers. 

The village of Mitnke (Inn, 
Tama-ya), 2,800 ft. above the sea, 
lies just below the temple grounds, 
on the banks of a stream in the 
midst of extremely picturesque 
scenery, the most conspicuous 
rocky peaks being Gah^san — ^the 
peculiar sugar-loaf cone — and Ten- 
gu-iwa on the opposite side of the 
valley. Specimens of rock-crystal 
are sold ija. the village. They are 
procured chiefly from mines in the 
neighbourhood of Kurobera on the 
way to Kimpu-zan. 

Kimpn-zan, a granite mountain 
8,300 ft. high, can be easily ascended 
in 1 day from Mitake by making 
an early start. The way lies 
through the vill. of Kurobera. At 
a Shinto shrine, 2\ hrs. beyond 
Kurobera, there is a good sized 
hut for the accommodation of 
piVims ; and here the real ascent 
begins, the distance hence to the 
summit being about 2,000 ft. The 
way lies over a heap of large 
granite boulders. At two places, 
ladders are fixed to assist the climb- 
er over difficult gaps, and at two 
others chains g^ve additional secu- 
rity ; but even without the help of 
these, there would be no danger. 
The top is crowned by a huge 
inaccessible mass of granite, rising 
to a height of some 50 ft., and 
forming a landmark by which the 
mountain can be recognised at a 



great distance. The view includes 
Asama-yama on theN., Yatsu-ga- 
take almost due W., Fuji to the 
S., and the lofty mountain range 
on the Western boundary of the 
province of Kdshu. 



2. — From Tokyo to Kopu by the 
KosHu Kaido. 

The first stage of this journey is 
by train from either Shimbashi or 
Shinjiku station, 1^ hr. from the 
latter. (See p. 94.) The itine- 
rary of the rest of the route is as 
follows : — 

HACHIOJIto:— Ri. Cho.M. 

Komagino 1 27 4^ 

Yoshino 3 27 H 

Uenohara 1 27 4^ 

Notajiri 1 19 3f 

Saruhashi 3 6 7f 

Ozuki 1 2 2i 

Kuronota 2 29 6f 

Katsunuma 3 15 8^ 

KOFU 4 2 10 

Total 23 10 56| 



The whole ground may be covered 
in 2 days, by taking jinrikishas from 
Hachioji to Kofu, and sleeping the 
first night at Saruhashi. Carriages 
of the usual springless kind run the 
whole way. The scenery is pretty all 
along the route after passing Ko- 
magino, but the road is often heavy 
away from the vicinity of the 
larger villages. Those wishing to 
break the journey before reaching 
Saruhashi, will find good accom- 
modation at Yoshino. From 

Hachioji (Inn, Kado-ya),the road 
lies along the flat to Komagino, after 
passing which vill. a gradual rise 
leads up the Kobotoke-toge. The 
new Jiighway, avoiding as it does 
the summit of the pass (1,850 ft.), 
misses the extensive view over the 
plain of Tokyo and the sea, for 
which this portion of the journey 
was formerly noted; but on the 
way down on the other side, there 



124 



Route 10, — Ways to ami from Kd/u, 



is a fine prospect of the Koshu 
mountains. Soon the traveller 
comes in sight of the fertile valley 
of the Banyugawa, also called Ka- 
tsura-gawa, which flows at the bot- 
tom of a deep ravine and becomes 
the constant companion of the 
journey as far as Ozuki. Some poor 
hamlets are passed before reaching 

Yoshino (Inn by Ofusa Seijuro). 
In the neighbourhood of 

Ueiiohiira [Inn, Uehara), a great 
deal of refuse silk is spun and 
woven into the fabric called tsumugi, 
to be taken to market at Hachi- 
dji. The town, lying on a plateau, 
has no wells. AH the water has 
to be brought from a distance in 
wooden pipes, and is consequently 
foul. From XJenohara, the road 
plunges down to the bed of the 
Tsurukawa, a tributary of the 
Banyii, and then again ascends 
and descends before arriving at 
Notajiri. Delightful glimpses of 
Fuji are obtained on the way. The 
scenery becomes strikingly pretty 
before reaching. 

Sarnhashi {Inns, Daikoku-ya, 
Kubota), that is, the 'Monkey's 
Bridge/ also called Enkyo, the 
latter name being indeed but 
the Chinese, pronunciation of the 
same ideographs which in pure 
Japanese read Saruhashi. Perpen- 
dicular cliffs frown down upon the 
dark emerald stream, which is 
narrow and deep at this point. 
The place derives its name from 
the bridge having formerly been a 
mere cranky plank, such as monkeys 
alone might be supposed able to 
venture across. The present bridge 
is more or less of the cantilever sort, 
having the ends of the horizontal 
beams planted deep in the soil 
that covers the rock. Saruhashi, 
though but an unpretending place, 
has a certain importance as a 
market-town for the surrounding 
villages, and possesses a telegraph 
station. Specimens of the tsmn/iigi 
above-mentioned may be purchased 
here at cheap rates. 



The scenery continues to be 
lovely aft«r passing SaruhashL 
There is a celebrated view at a 
point. where the Katsura-gawa is 
joined by its affluent the Wata- 
gawa between Saruhashi and 
Komahashi. 

Ozuki is badly situated, as a 
hill rising behind it shuts out the 
sunlight and the view of Fuji; 
moreover the accommodation is 
wretched. 

[A road to Toshida, from whvDh. 
place Fuji may be ascended, 
branches off here to the 1., 
following up the valley of the 
Katsura-gawa, and passing 
through the cleanly and thri- 
ving town of Tain lira (Inn, 
Susuki-tei). At Toka-ichiba 
there is a fine cascade, which 
is seen to best advantage from 
the verandah of the little tea- 
house ^lose by. The distance 
from Ozuki to Kanii-Yoahida 
(Inn, Kogiku), is just under 6 
ri. The whole road is, in a 
manner, dominated by Fuji, 
beginning near Ozuki where 
the great volcano appears en 
vignette, and then grows and 
grows till it fills up the entire 
foreground. It is also curious 
to observe the gradual conver- 
sion of the lava into arable 
soil, partly by weathering, and 
partly by the labour of the 
peasantry]. 

At Ozuki the road abandons the 
Katsura-gawa, and proceeds up 
the valley of the Hanasaki-gawa 
through villages devoted to the 
breeding of si&worms. The diver- 
sified forms of the mountains lend 
a strange charm to the scene. 
After passing 

Kuronota (Inn, Miyoshi-ya), one 
ascends the Sasago-toge, 3,500 ft. 
above the sea, or 1,300 ft. above 
Kuronota. 

Katsunama is one of the cen- 
tres of the grape-growing industry. 
The plain of Koshu now lies 



Valley of the Tamagaim, 



125 



before the traveller, surrounded 
on every side by a wall of high 
mountains. The chief summits to 
the W. are Koma-ga-take, Ho-o-zan, 
Jizo-dake, Kwannon, and Yakushi, 
backed by the long chain collec- 
tively known under the name of 
Shirane-san. Fuji also is visible 
noTv and then over the tops of the 
range bounding the plain on the 
S. From the vill. of Todoroki to 
Sbimo Kuribara, the road is lined 
witb peach-trees, double cherry 
trees and Kaido (Pyrus spectdbilis), 
which are in full blossom about the 
middle of April. The road runs 
along a fertile plain from this 
point to Kofu. 

3. — Tokyo TO Koftj by the Valley 

OF THE TaMAQAWA (OmE KaIDO). 

Itinerary. 

TOKYO (Shinjiku Station) to :— 

Tachikawa by train 1 hr., thence 
by road to : 

Ri. CJio. M. 

Hamura 3 18 8i 

OME f 1 18 3f 

Sawai 2 18 6i 

Kotaba 1 18 3f 

Hikawa 2 — 5 

Kochi-no-yu (Yuba).... 3 — 7i 

Kamozawa 2 — 5 

Tabayama 2 18 6f 

Ochiai ". 3 18 8i 

Yanagizawa-toge (top) 1 — 2i 

Kamikane 1 18 3| 

Ofuji — 18 U 

Kusakabe 1 18 3f 

Hirashina 1 — 2^ 

Satogaki 2-^6 

KOFU 1 — 2i 

Total 30 18 76i 



This extremely pretty route, 
passing through some of the finest 
scenery within easy reach of the 
capital, is much to be recommended 
at all seasons, and particularly in 
spring when the trees are in flower. 
Kofu can be easily reached in 3i 



days. Jinrikishas are practicable 
from Tachikawa to Ome j but the 
road across the plain is always 
rough, and it is better to walk. 
Jinrikishas can, indeed, be taken 
on to Sawai, where the first night 
should be spent; the rest of the 
journey till within 3 ri of Kofu 
must be performed on foot. Fair 
accommodation is also to be had 
at Kochi-no-yu, Tabayama, and 
Ofuji, but the food is everywhere 
very poor. 

Leaving Tachikawa and passing 
through several hamlets we reach 
in 1 hr. the squalid-looking town 
of Haijima, a short distance beyond 
the Treaty Limit boundary. From 
the point where the road joins the 
Tamagawa aqueduct to the vill. 
of Hamura, the surface is harder 
and travelling somewhat easier. At 

Ham lira (Inn, Tamaru-ya) we 
enjoy a charming glimpse of the 
Tamagawa, and can inspect the 
massive stone-work of the dam 
which is formed here to carry off 
the water to supply Tokyo. The 
road hence to Ome follows the 1. 
bank of the river, a heavy portion 
of the route in bad weather. At 
Ome, the Ome Kaido, or main road 
to Tokyo is first reached. It is 
now little used for through traffic. 

Ome (Inn by Sakanoe Rinzo) con- 
sists of a single long street, lined 
with old gnarled fruit-trees, maples, 
crape myrtle, and pine, which give 
it a picturesque and pleasant ap- 
pearance. On the r., soon after en- 
tering the town, at the top of a 
flight of steps, stands a Shinto tem- 
ple decorated with good carvings, 
chiefly of birds and fabulous ani- 
mals. On leaving Ome the road at 
once enters the valley of the Tama- 
gawa, ascending along its 1. bank. 
The valley is rather wide here and 
well-cultivated. Shortly after pass- 
ing 1. the path which leads over the 
mannen-bashi to the sacred moun- 
tain of Mitake, the traveller may 
spend a few moments in watching 
the rafts shoot past the rocks in 



126 



Eoiite 10. — Ways to and from Kofu. 



the river. Passing through the 
l>each orchards of Mitamiira, the 
bridge at the entrance of Sawai is 
crossed, and here a path branches 
off r., leading by way of Hanno to 
Chichibu and the province of Shin- 
bhu. At 

Sii^'aii {Inn, Yamaguchi-ya), the 
beautiful part of the route com- 
mences. Just before reaching Ko- 
taba, the valley begins to contract 
and wind, while the hills on either 
side increase in height, and in 
front is seen the triple summit of 
Mitake. 

[Mitake, 2,900 ft. above the sea, 
is an agreeable resort during 
the summer months, on ac- 
count of its cool temperature. 
It may be reached from Ome 
either, 1st, by crossing the 
river at that place and so at 
once gaining the road (practi- 
cable for jinrikishas to Hossawa 
near the foot oi the mountain) 
along the r. bank of the river, 
known as the Onie Hika^e 
K'lido, or Shady Road from 
Ome, owing to its lying on 
the shadier side of the valley ; 
2nd, by crossing to the r. bank 
by the mannen-hashi bridge 
close to the tea-house at 
Hinata Wada. about 1 H 
from Ome by the usual road, 
which brings the traveller 
into the 'Shady Road* at 
Shimomura ; or, 3rdly, by 
crossing the Takahashi bridge, 
some way above the Yamagu- 
chi-ya inn at Sawai, direct to 
Hossawa. The distance from 
Ome to Hossawa may be calcu- 
lated at 2 hrs. on foot, and the 
ascent of the mountain at H 
hr. more. There are no inns 
at the summit, but rooms can 
bo hired at some of the houses 
inhabited by the priests. The 
temple stands at the very 
summit. On a hill further 
to the N., but easily reached 
from Mitake, and known as 



the Oku-no-In, *is a chapel 
dedicated to Yamato-take. 
The population of the upper 
and lower villages on this 
mountain consists of families 
of hereditary Shinto priests, 
who intermarry almost exclu- 
sively among each other. 

Mitake may also be ascended 
from Itaukaichi on the Aki- 
gawa, Sri SO cho from Hachioji, 
and 2 ri 21 cho from Ome. 
Instead of descending again 
to Hossawa, and crossing the 
river to Sawai, the pedestrian 
may save a couple of hours by 
descending to Unasawa, near 
the r. bank, about 1 m. below 
Hikawa.] 

Kotaba (Inn, Naga-ya, poor) is 
the highest point from which rafts 
descend the river. Further up, 
single logs are thrown into the 
water and left to float down with 
the current. Tlie scenery con- 
tinues to be charming; the path 
constantly ascends and descends, 
sometimes rising to a great eleva- 
tion above the stream. Corn, 
miUet, and potatoes constitute the 
chief crops grown in the valley. 
Indigo and tobacco are also raised 
in small quantities. Descending 
through the remains of a cryp- 
tomeria grove, we cross the 
Nippara-gawa, an affluent of the 
Tamagawa, and after a short climb 
reach the village of 

Hikawa {Inn, Miyamoto-ya). At 
this place, and elsewhere in the 
valley, may be observed bevelled 
waterwheels, used where the bank 
is too high for the ordinary under- 
shot wheel. The floats are small 
and placed wide apart, and the 
axle is inclined at an angle in 
order to admit of the wheel 
dipping into the stream. The 
next stage beyond Hikawa is 
extremely picturesque and but 
sparsely populated. Below the 
path, which winds up and down 
the flank of the mountain, the 



Valley of the Tamagawa. 



127 



stream dashes along a rocky chan- 
nel, sometimes forming deep, clean 
pools ; while above, on either hand, 
rise steep lofty hills, mostly 
covered with timber, but wherever 
tlie exposure is favourable, culti- 
vated up to the highest possible 
point. Especially noticeable is the 
part where the road makes a deep 
bend to the r. just before coming 
to the baths of 

Koebi-no-ju {Inn, * Tsuru-ya 
Tvliich has pleasant rooms over- 
hanging the river; the inn by Hara- 
sliima Koichiro has a private bath, 
and the upstairs rooms fronting 
W. are comfortable). This place, 
1,350 ft. above the sea, is noted 
for its tepid sulphur springs, and 
is much resorted to by the people 
of the neighbouring villages. Half 
a mile further we cross a tribu- 
tary stream called the Ogawa, to 
the village of Kochi, and winding 
round to the r., pass in succession 
through Mugiyama and Kawano 
to the hamlet of Kamozawa at the 
boundary between the provinces of 
Musashi and Koshu. 

Kiimozawa (no inns) is strikingly 
situated on the hill-side just above 
the road. From a point a short 
distance beyond, the scenery is very 
fine, and the road, considering the 
difficulties that had to be overcome, 
and the impossibility of preventing 
the effects of weathering on the 
easily disintegrated rocks over 
which it passes in many places, is a 
very creditable piece of engineering. 
It winds up the side of a magnificent 
wooded gorge for 4 or 5 m., while 
the river fiows away down at the 
bottom under the shade of de- 
ciduous trees. Half-way, perched 
on the r. bank of the stream far 
beneath the road, lies the quaint- 
looking hamlet of Honose. At 
last, turning a corner, we come in 
view of the spacious upland valley 
in which, surrounded by corn- 
fields, lie 

Tabayama (Inn, Mori-ya-; height 
2,000 ft. above the sea) and one or 



two other hamlets. Beyond this 
the scenery becomes even more 
remarkable, and the views of deep 
ravines and rocky wooded preci- 
pices are amongst the finest to be 
seen in Japan. The bridges are 
broad and were solidly constructed, 
but have not been well maintained, 
and unfortunately the amount of 
traffic that takes place is not 
sufficient to justify any outlay on 
their improvement. The most 
striking bits are a short way above 
Tabayama, where grey fir-clad cliffs 
tower up to a height of over 2,000 
ft. from the water's edge ; but the 
grandest prospect of all is about 
1^ m. below Ochiai, where the road 
winds round the face of a lofty 
precipice which commands a view 
up a densely- wooded gorge almost 
to its very source. From this 
point to 

Ochiai, which is a mere cluster 
of huts without inns, and for 1 ri 
further to the top of the Yanagi- 
zawd-toge (4,600 ft.), is a walk of 
about 2 hrs. over the only bad 
portion of the mountain route, the 
soft mud being thick and heavy 
even in the finest weather. The 
top of the pass affords a fine view 
of Fuji, seen over the intervening 
range of mountains. Descending 
on the Kofu side, the road follows 
the bank of the Omogawa, which it 
crosses and recrosses, to the vill. of 

Kaniikane (poor accommoda- 
tion), when for the first time opens 
out in fuU view the great range 
dividing the provinces of Koshu 
and Shinshu. The chief peaks from 
r. to 1. are Koma-ga-take, Ho-o-zan, 
and Jizo-dake, with the triple peaks 
of Shirane-san behind, all rising 
beyond a nearer and lesser chain. 
The small wooded hill in front is 
Enzan, noted for a cold sulphur 
spring. From 

Ofuji (Inn, Fuji-ya) the main 
road descends straight into the 
plain of Kofu, crossing the 
Omogawa and passing through 
Knsakabe with its avenue of pines 



128 



Route 10, — Ways to and from Kofu, 



and flowering trees. It crosses the 
Fuefuki-gawa a short distance 
further on at Sashide, where 
coaches may be engaged to Kofu. 



4. — SUZUKAWA ON THE TOKAIDO 

Railway to Kofu vid the 
Temples op Minobu. 

Umerary. 

SUZUKAWA to :— Ri. Cho. M, 

Omiya (tram) 3 — 7i 

Utsubusa 2 — 5 

Manzawa 1 26 4^ 

Nambu 3 — 7i 

MINOBU 3 8 7f 

Hakii 30 2 

Yoka-ichiba 1 33 4f 

Kiri-ishi 20 U 

Kajikazawa 1 29 4^ 

K5FU 4 18 11 

Total 22 20 55 



Time, 2^ to 3 days. 

It is possible to take jinrikishas 
the whole way ; but at least two men 
are needed, and there are numerous 
hills to walk up. Very poor accom- 
modation except at Omiya, Minobu, 
and Kajikazawa. 

Between Oniiya (Inn, Wata-ya) 
and UtsnbiiRa, we reach the cele- 
brated Tsuri-hashi, or 'Hanging 
Bridge ' over the Fujikawa, at a 
picturesque spot where the river 
divides into two branches. This 
bridge, which is suspended to pre- 
cipitous rocks on either side by 
stout ropes of bamboos split and 
twisted together, consists of small 
bundles of split bamboos some 6 
or 7 ft. long, lashed close to- 
gether and supporting a single 
row of planks laid along the 
middle as a pathway. The bridge, 
which is divided into two un- 
equal spans by timber supports 
resting on a lower rock close 
to the right bank, is altogether 
about 100 ft. long ; its height in the 
centre is al>out 26 ft., and at the 



bank 35 ft., and the whole struc- 
ture shakes and sways considerably, 
though there is no real danger. 
Attempts are now (1891) being 
made to block up the left channel 
which flows under the bridge, and 
to keep the river altogether on the 
r. side of the island. Even if these 
efforts are successful and the bridge 
falls into disuse, similar structures 
may still be seen in the valley of the 
Hayakawa and elsewhere. From 
Utsubusa onwards, the road leads 
up the pleasant valley of the Fuji- 
kawa with occasional views of 
Fuji, Yatsu-ga-take, and other high 
mountains. 

Minobn (Inns, Tanaka-ya, Masn- 
ya) consists of a single hilly 
street lined with shops for the sale 
of rosaries. It was also at one 
time noted for the manufacture of 
hempen rain-coats (mino), a fact 
to which the origin of the name 
has been ascribed. The village is 
charmingly situated in a valley 
surrounded by well-wooded moun- 
tains, among the most prominent 
being Oku-no-In which rises im- 
mediately behind the temples, and 
Shichimen-zan at the head of the 
valley. The vill. owes its ex- 
istence to the great Monastery 
of Kuenji, founded in the 13th 
century by the celebrated Bud- 
dhist saint Nichiren, a portion of 
whose body is here preserved. 
This monastery is the head-quar- 
ters of the Nichiren sect, and the 
new temples now in process of erec- 
tion to replace the former buiMings 
destroyed by fire in 1875 are fine 
specimens of Buddhistic architec* 
ture. 

On entering the grounds of the 
Monastery, the traveller crosses a 
courtyard, whence either of two 
fiights of steps — the OtoTco-zaka and 
the Onna-zaka — may be ascended to 
the actual temples. On reaching the 
top of the steps, and passing r. the 
• belfry, the traveller will find him- 
self in front of the Founder's Tem- 
ple (Kaisan-do), from which galle- 



Minobu, 



129 



ries lead to the Temple of the True 
Bones (Go 8hinkotsu-dd)y to the 
Temple of the Posthumous Tablet 
(Ihai-do), to the Pilgrims' Dormi- 
tory (Kyahi-den), to the Eecep- 
tions Booms {Taimen-zaahiki), and 
finally to the residence of the 
archbishop and the business offices 
of the sect (Jimusho). The interior 
dimensions of the main hall of 
the Founder's Temple are : length 
76 ft., depth 120 ft., height 26 ft. 
from floor to ceiling, while the 
altar is 24 ft. long by 15 ft. in 
depth. The porch has carvings of 
dragons, storks, birds playing over 
the waves of the sea, and tortoises 
swimming through it. The ven- 
tilating panels over the grated 
doors contain angels and phoenixes 
brightly painted. The framework 
of the building and the pillars which 
support the ceiling are lacquered 
red and black, producing a noble 
effect. In the centre of the 
nave (gejin) hangs a . magnifi- 
cent gUt baldachin,_ presented by 
the merchants of Osaka. Gilded 
pillars mark off the space in front 
of the main altar, which is lac- 
quered red and decorated with gilt 
carvings of lions and peonies. The 
two porcelain lanterns about 8 ft. 
high, in front of the altar, are from 
the famous potteries of Hizen. 
The handsomely carved and gilded 
shrine contains a good life-size 
ef^gj of Nichiren, presented by 
the inhabitants of Tokyo. The cof- 
fered ceiling of the chancel (nai- 
jin) is plainly gilt, while the part 
of it immediately over the altar 
has gilt dragons, touched up with 
red, on a gilt ground. To the 
wall behind the altar are affixed 
modern 'paintingB of Kakan. The 
colours of the square brackets in the 
cornices are green, blue, red, and 
chocolate, often with an outline in 
white or a lighter shade of the 
prhicipal colour, and gold arabes- 
ques on the flat surfaces. The gem 
of lp!inobu, however, is the Temple 
of jthe True Bones, where the lover 



of Oriental decorative art will find 
in contemporary freshness all those 
beauties which, in most of the 
religious edifices of Japan, have 
already been too much tarnished by 
the hand of time. A small fee is 
charged for admission. The exterior 
is unpretentious; but on entering the 
oratory, the visitor should observe 
the lifelike paintings of cranes on 
the ceiling. A plain gallery leads 
hence to the sanctum sanctorum, 
where Mchiren's remains are en- 
shrined. It is a small octagonal 
building, elaborately decorated 
and all ablaze with colours and 
gold. Bound the walls, on a gold 
ground, are full-sized representa- 
tions of the white lotus-flower, the 
emblem of purity and of the Bud- 
dhist faith. The horizontal beams 
above have coloured diapers and 
geometrical patterns, the brilliant 
effect of which is toned down by 
the black, mixed with gold, of the 
rafters. ' Black and gold are like- 
wise the colours used in the ceiling, 
which is secured by beautifully 
worked metal fastenings. In the 
ramma are carvings of the Sixteen 
Disciples (Ju-roku Bakan), and on 
the doors are paintings of musical 
instruments. The shrine (koto), 
which was presented by the faith- 
ful of the province of Owari , is of 
gold lacquer and shaped like a two- 
storied pagoda. In it rests the 
reliquary or casket of gold and 
precious stones containing the 
bones of Nichiren, which is in the 
form of a tiny octagonal pagoda, 
standing on a base of jade carved in 
the conventional lotus-flower form. 
Its framework is of the alloy called 
shakvdo, and one of the pillars 
bears an inscription in silver dama- 
scening, which, among other pdlr- 
ticulars, gives a date correspond- 
ing to A.D. 1580. The other pillars 
are decorated with silver tracery 
attached to the surface of the 
shakudo. The top is hung with 
strings of coral, pearls, and glass 
beads. The height of the whole is a 



180 



Route 10, — Ways to and from Kofu, 



little over 2 ft. Above hangs a bal- 
dachin presented by the inhabitants 
of Nagasaki. The only European 
innovation in the place is the intro- 
duction of two glass windows, which 
permit of a much better examina- 
tion of the building than is gene- 
rally obtainable in the 'dim re- 
ligious light' of Japanese sacred 
edifices. The Temple of the Posthu- 
mous Tablet is a plain, uninterest- 
ing building. Pending the erec- 
tion of the new buildings, it has 
been temporarily used to hold the 
remains of the saint and an image 
of him carved by his disciple Nichi- 
ro. The archbishop's residence is 
a beautiful specimen of Japanese 
house-decoration in the old style. 
Note the exquisite modem open- 
work carvings of cranes and geese, 
and the fine paintings in the 
alcove (tokonoma) of the Becep- 
tion Booms. For a fee of 25 sen, the 
priests officiating at the ]^aisan-do 
will display the image on the altar 
and perform a short service in its 
honour. The chief yearly festival 
takes place on the 12th and 13th 
October, old calendar (some time 
in November). 

The ascent to Oku-no-In winds 
up Ueno-no-yama, the hill imme- 
diately behind the Founder's 
Temple, and is an easy climb of 
50 cho. After passing the small 
temple of Sanko-do, the road 
ascends through a forest of crypto- 
merias, and near the summit com- 
mands an extensive view, including 
Fuji, part of the Gulf of Suruga, 
and the promontory of Izu. On 
the top stends a plain little temple 
dedicated to Nichiren, whose crest of 
the orange-blossom is prominently 
marked on various objects within 
the enclosure. 

A spare day at Minobu may be 
devoted to the ascent of Shichi- 
men-zan whose summit is not quite 
5 ri distant. The best place to 
halt on the way is Akasawa, 3 ri 
2 cho from Minobu ; but the 
traveller must take his own food. 



There is a good road all the way 
up. The last 50 cho are marked 
by stone lanterns numbered from 
1 to 50. No. 36 affords the best 
view, which includes the full sweep 
of Suruga Bay, with the promon- 
tory of Izu stretching far out to 
sea, a magnificent prospect of 
Fuji, the fertile plain of Kofu 
intersected by the various streams 
uniting to form the Fujikawa, the 
valley of the Hayakawa below to 
the 1., beyond which are seen 
Shirane-san and the Koma-ga-take 
of Koshu, while Yatsu-ga-take, 
Kimpu-zan, and other distant 
ranges bound the prospect on the 
N. On the top, which the forest 
deprives of all view, stands a plain 
building dedicated to the goddess 
of the mountain. 

According to the legend, as Nichiren 
was one day preaching in the open air at 
Minobu, a oeautiful woman suddenly 
made her appearance, and greatly excited 
the curiosity of his auditors. Ou 
Nichiren ordering her to assume her 
true form, she explained that she dwelt 
among the mountains to the west, and 
that seated on one of the eight points 
of the compass, she dispensed blessing 
to the other seven. She then beggred 
for water, which was given to ter 
in a vase, and at once the beautiful wo- 
man was transformed into a snake twenty 
feet long, covered with golden scales, and 
armed with iron teeth. A terrible blast 
swept down from the mountains, and she 
disappeared in a whirlwind towards the 
point of the compass indicated. The 
words * seven points - of - the - compass ' 
(gkichi-men) also mean ' seven faces ;' and 
by an equivoque the popular belief has 
arisen that a serpent with seven heads 
had appeared to the saint, whom he 
deified under the name of Shichiwen 
DaimyOjin. Buddhist writers identify 
her with Srimahaddva, the ddva of lucky 
omen, another name for the Hindoo god 
Siva. 

Game is plentiful on the 
hills surrounding Minobu. Deer 
and bears are frequently seen, and 
pheasants are abundant. Shoot- 
ing, however, is strictly prohibited, 
as contrary to the tenets of the 
Buddhist faith. Departing from 
Minobu and passing through 

Hakii, the place where travellers 
coming down the Fujikawa en ra/vM 



Valley of the Hayakawa, 



181 



to Minobu leave the boat, we reach 
Futui, between which vill. and 
Itomi the Hayakawa is crossed. 

[For a description of the extreme- 
ly picturesque valley of this 
river, see No. 5 of this route.] 

The current is so swift at the 
ferry that the boat has to be 
fastened to either bank by a rope. 
The crossing is effected by the help 
of a pole, and by quickly hauling 
on one end of the rope as the other 
is slackened. The scenery at this 
point is remarkably fine. A mass 
of rock, inclined at an acute angle 
on the 1. bank of the Fujikawa, 
just opposite the confluence of the 
Hayakawa, is worth noticing. 
From Itomi onwards, the road 
generally follows the bank of the 
river to Yoka-ichiba {Inn, Wakao- 
ya) and Kiri-ishi (Inn, Matsuzaka- 
ya), then descending to the vill. of 
Nishijima, where the river makes a 
wide bend to the r. Beyond 

Kajikii-zawa (Inn Ueda-ya), the 
road enters the plain of Kofu, with 
its amphitheatre of mountains, 
whose various summits are seen 
from numerous other points; but 
the best general view of them is 
enjoyed while crossing the bed of 
the Fujikawa, here called the Kama- 
nashi-gawa, beyond Anabara. The 
imposing mass to the 1. is Yatsu- 
ga-take, rising between Kane-ga- 
take to the r. and Koma-ga-take 
' to its 1. The high mountain to the 
1. of the latter, distinguished by a 
pile of rocks on its summit, is Ho- 
d-zan, to whose 1. is seen in succes- 
sion the great range of Shirane. 
The high mountain to the r. of 
Kane-ga-take is Kimpu-zan. Fuji's 
cone alone is visible above the 
intervening range. Shichimen-zan 
is seen on looking back down the 
valley. The 44 ri separating Kaji- 
ka-zawa from Kofu can be done by 
carriage in about 3 hrs. 



6. — From Itomi to Kofu by the 
Valley of the Hayakawa. 
Ascent of Shibane-san, Ho-6- 

ZAN, AND KaIQANE-SAN. 

Itinerary, 

ITOMI to :— Bi. Cho. M. 

Koretsubo 3 — 7i 

Kyo-ga-shima 2 16 5 

Hayakawa - 34 2^ 

ShimoYujima ... 3 18 Sh 

Narada 2 — 5 

Ashikura 5 — 12|^ 

Arino 2 — 5 

Dodo 15 1 

Midai 10 f 

KOFU 2—5 



Total... 



> • • ^^ • • • • 



21 21 



52-» 



It 



This trip is a very rough one ; 
for though so close to civilisation, 
the country through which it leads 
the traveller lies in the heart of 
the great mountain mass dividing 
Koshii from Shinshu and Suruga, 
and both the people and the roads 
are in much the same state as they 
were in earlier centuries before 
railways were known or foreigners 
heard of. The journey can only 
be accomplished on foot, and one 
should travel as lightly as possible, 
for all baggage has to be carried 
by coolies, who are often difficult 
to obtain. The traveller will meet 
with no regular inns ; but the of- 
ficials and headmen of the various 
hamlets are very civil, and ready 
to provide the best accommodation 
their places afford. It is possible 
to combine with this trip the as- 
cent of the Koshu Shirane-san and 
other lofty peaks. From Itomi the 
road ascends the bank of the Haya- 
kawa through wild and picturesque 
scenery to the hamlet of 

Koretsubo, beyond which a steep 
climb of 18 cho leads to Gokamura. 
A short way beyond this the path 
descends to a pretty valley near the 
hamlet of Shio-no-ue, where the 
scenery is particularly striking. To 



182 



Route 10, — Ways to and from Ko/u, 



the 1. rises Shichimen-zan, thickly 
wooded and seen to much better ad- 
vantage here than from Minobu. 
Eight opposite is the bold round 
summit of Amebata-yama^ also 
called Zaru-ga-dake, through the 
deep ravine to the 1. of which flows 
the Amebata-gawa. Below is seen 
the Hayakawa windinor down the 
valley on the r., and forming ahnost 
a complete circle as" it bends round 
a low wooded promontory, which 
from this point has the appearance 
of an island. The path now des- 
cends over a rough watercourse to 
the bed of the river, and ascends 
its 1. bank to 

Kyo-ga-shima. Eight cJio further 
on it crosses the stream on a tsuri- 
hashi, or 'hanging bridge,' to the 
hamlet of Ho, in the neighbour- 
hood of which a gold mine is 
worked. 

For a description of the tniri-ba$hi, or 
* hanging brioge,' of the mountain dis- 
tricts of Eastern and Central Japan, see 
p. 128. Another primitive kind or bridge, 
called mannen-baski, has sometimes to be 
crossed on this route It consists of a 
long piece of timber, which is simply tied 
at the end to projecting supports, such as 
ure used in the hanging bridge. The 
span is not so great as that of the tmri- 
ba$hi; but the narrowness of the roadway, 
and the imperfect manner in which the 
projecting beams are supported, give the 
traveller a most uncomfortable feeling of 
insecurity. The Japanese name is a 
hyperbole signifying * Bridge of a Myriad 
Years.* 

Beyond Ho, the path leads over 
one of the lower spurs of Daikoku- 
yama, and follows the steep side of 
the vaUey high above the stream. 
After passing the hamlet of Nishi- 
no-miya, the traveller recrosses the 
river to 

Hayakawa, where he will find 
comfortable quarters at the house 
of the Boncho (Mayor) of Misato, the 
' three villages ' of which this place 
is one. Gold is said to be found in the 
neighbourhood, while plantations of 
the paper-tree (Edgeworthia) and of 
tobacco line this part of the valley. 
Higher up, beyond the hamlet of 
Arakawa, the scenery is charming. 



The river dashes along through a 
fine rocky glen, and is spanned by 
one of the mannen-hashi at a 
highly picturesque spot. After 
crossing the bridge, the road 
divides. The route to Narada 
turns to the r., and ascends a very 
steep hill for about 1 ri, winds 
round its upper slope, and descends 
again to the river through wild 
and rugged scenery before reaching 
the hamlet of 

Shimo Tnjima. Beyond this 
place, the path crosses and recrosses 
the river on mannen-hashi. About 
40 cho on, and a little way up the 
ravine to the r., is the hot spring 
of Kami Tnjima (poor accommo- 
dation). 

Nariida (accommodation at a 
Buddhist temple), the last in- 
habited place in the valley, consists 
of but a few households. All 
the inhabitants bear the same sur- 
name, and seldom intermarry with 
the people of other villages. They 
are a primitive folk of a peculiar 
type of countenance, who wear in 
summer a loose hempen dress, and 
deer and bear-skins in the winter. 
Their dialect is peculiar, and 
abounds in archaic words and ob- 
solete grammatical forms. Owing 
to their practical isolation from 
the outer world, their ignorance 
and want of education are extreme, 
and they are content to live in dirt 
and squalor. Bice, sake, and soy 
are with them luxuries to be in- 
dulged in on rare occasions, their 
ordinary food consisting only of 
millet and potatoes. Narada boasts 
of 'Seven Wonders' (Nana JV 
shigi), amongst which are en- 
umerated a brackish pool, the 
waters of which are said to have 
the property of dyeing black any 
article of clothing left to steep in 
them for forty-eight hours, and a 
reed whose leaves grow only on one 
side of the stem. 

[More interesting to the deter- 
mined pedestrian than these 



Ascent of Shimne-mn, 



133 



village wonders will be the 
ascent of Shirane-!4an, which 
may be taken on the way to 
Ashikura, instead of proceeding 
to the latter place by the usual 
path according to the itinerary. 

The name Shirane-san is often used 
to denote tlie whole mighty range 
dividing the province of Kpsha from 
the head-waters of* the Oigawa, a 
range second only in orographical 
importanee to that of Etcha and 
Hida, which forms the subject of 
Route 34. The name is, however, 
more properly confined to the 
northern and most elevated portion, 
consisting of three peaks, viz. NOdori 
on the S., Ai-no-take in the centre, 
and Kaigane on the N. There exists 
a somewhat amusing rivalry be- 
tween the inhabitants of Narada 
from which the first two peaks are 
ascended, and those of Ashikura,. 
the nearest point to the third, the 
one vill. maintaining that Ai-no-take 
is the highest of the three and the 
true Shirane, while the other claims 
the same honours for Kaigane. The 
traveller looking at the range from 
the summit of HO-O-zan, or from any 
other mountain top commanding a 
view of the two peaks, will adjudge 
the Ashikura people to be in the 
right about the question of altitude. 

There is no regularly marked 
path from Narada to the top 
of the range; but guides 
can there be procured who 
know the way up, and will 
carry whatever is necessary 
in the way of provisions and 
bedding. The traveller who 
proposes to ascend all three 
peaks must be prepared to 
sleep out three nights, and, 
taking Nodori-san first, to cross 
on the fourth day from the 
base of Kaigane to Ashikura. 
Nodori-san and Ai-no-take 
involve sleeping out two 
nights and descending on the 
third day — likewise to Ashi- 
kura. There is a hut at the 
E. base of Kaigane^ but none 
on the top of the range. Ai- 
no-take cannot be ascended 
direct from Narada; Nodori 
must first be climbed, and 
the track then followed along 
the ridge to the former peak. 



From Narada there is a 
choice of ways up Shirane, one 
leading along a ravine above 
the viU. called Hiro-Kochi, the 
other up the Shira-Kochi a 
short way below it. To the top 
of the ridge is a stiff climb of 
9 hrs., frequent rests being 
needed by the guides who 
carry the burdens. The height 
is 8,400 ft. above the sea, or 
5,900 above Narada, and snow 
often lies there as late as July. 
Once on the ridge, the rest of 
the ascent is easy. In 2 hrs. 
the first peak is reached, height 
8,830 ft. The view includes 
W.S.W., the round top of Ena- 
san in Mino; N.W. by W., 
Ontake ; and in front of the 
highest peak of a long ridge, 
the Koma-ga-take of Shinshu. 
Norikura bears N.W., and 
Yari-ga-take N.W. by N. In 
the far distance N.E. the top 
of the Nikko Shirane can just 
be descried, and the Chichibu 
mountains are well seen, in 
the same direction. Ho-6-zan 
is nearly N.N.E.; then come 
Jizo-ga-take, and Kwannon 
and Yakushi close together. 
Fuji, the basin of the Fuji- 
kawa, and the Kofu plain are 
distinctly seen. 

Half an hour more brings us 
to the top of N6d<»ri, 9,300 ft., 
which commands much the 
same view as the previous 
summit, with the addition of 
Ai-no-take and Kaigane, the 
latter of which now comes in 
sight for the first time. 

I)rom the summit of Nodori- 
san to that of Ai-no-take (9,850 
ft.), takes 2 hrs. The top is bare 
rock ; but at a short distance 
below, every sheltered nook 
contains a patch of grass, gay 
with the flowers that inhabit 
the higher altitudes. Ten 
min. below the summit on the 
E. side is a capital camping- 
place. ' The view from the high- 



134 



Boute 10, — Ways to and from Kd/u. 



est point includes, besides the 
mountains already seen from 
Nodori-san, the following : — 
Koma-ga-take a little to the 
E. of N., Kaigane N. N.E., 
Yatsu-ga-take just on the E. 
of Kai-gane ; Kimpu-zan N.E. 
by E., and Senjo-ga-take, a 
much lower mountain on the 
1. of the Norokawa, N.W. 
The source of this stream is 
perceived far down on the 
N.W. flank of Ai-no-take. To- 
wards the S., and beyond 
Nodori-san, a long range of 
mountains is seen stretching 
down the frontier of Koshu, 
and getting gradually lower 
as it approaches Minobu. Fuji 
rises between S.E. and E.S.E., 
while Ho-6-zan and Jiz6-ga- 
take on the one side, and 
Ontake, Norikura, and Yari- 
ga-take stand up perfectly 
clear on the other. The de- 
scent from Ai-no-take to Ashi- 
kura is fatiguing as far as a 
stream some 4,200 ft. above 
the sea level.- This stream is 
the Arakawa, one of the 
sources of the Hayakawa. If 
the day is too far spent to 
allow of Ashikura being 
reached before nightfall, one 
may sleep at some wood- 
cutters' huts 1^ hr. before 
getting to that village.] 

The ordinary path from Narada 
to Ashikura winds up and down a 
succession of forest-slopes, whose 
thick foliage almost entirely shuts 
out all view. Now and then, how- 
ever, glimpses are caught, of Shi- 
rane-san and of the valleys of the 
Arakawa andNorokawa. Further 
on the path divides, — ^r. to Kof u vi& 
Hirabayashi, 1. to Kofu vi4 Ashi- 
kura. The latter is not practicable 
during heavy rains; but the travel- 
ler is recommended to take it when 
it can be traversed, on account 
of its wild and beautiful scenery. 
A portion of the way lies down a 



precipitous rocky ravine known as 
the Ide-zawa, where the gorge in 
many places is so narrow that its 
perpendicular sides seem almost to 
meet overhead. The path descends 
by the side of a torrent, crossing 
and recrossing the stream on 
trunks of trees, and being occa- 
sionally carried over clefts and 
landslips on bridges of very primi- 
tive structure. 

Ashikura, which stands on the L 
bank of the Midai-gawa, consists 
of four hamlets named Katsuzawa 
(the highest up the valley), Ozori, 
Kozori, and Furu-yashiki lower 
down. Travellers who intend to 
make the ascent of Ho-o-zan should 
stay at Kozori. There is also fair 
accommodation at Puru-yashiki. 

From Ashikura into Kofu is a 
walk of 6 ri. 

[The ascent of H5-o-zan and that 
of Kaigane are best made from 
Ashikura. The walk up Ho-o- 
zaii, though under 6 ri, will 
occupy a good pedestrian about 
9 hrs., and the descent 5 hrs., 
including stoppages. Though 
it is possible, by making an 
early start, to complete the 
ascent and descent in one day, 
it is not usual for pilgrims to 
do so, and they generally, on 
the downward journey, halt 
for the night at the wood- 
cutters' sheds at Omuro, li ri 
below the summit. The ac- 
commodation being rough, 
provisions and bedding should 
be taken. Those who wish to 
enjoy the morning view from 
the summit should either make 
a late start from Kozori and 
spend the night at Omuro, 
ascending next morning at 
daybreak, or start early and 
bivouac at the hollow between 
the summits of Jizo and Ho- 
o-zan. In the latter case it 
will be necessary to take uten- 
sils for carrying up water, as 
none can be got beyond Omuro. 



Shirane-san, Rapids of the Fujikawa, 



185 



The ascent commences beyond 
the hamlet of Kutsuzawa, 12 
cho from Kozori. The view 
from Suna-harai, a rocky peak 
over which the path leads, 
includes in front Senjo-ga- 
take, over whose r. flank is 
seen the outline of Koma-ga- 
take in Shinshu; on the 1., 
the ridge slopes down to the 
valley of the Norokawa, on 
the opposite side of which 
rises the sharp summit of 
Kaigane-san; lower down the 
valley is the bold massy form 
of .Ai-no-take, while in the 
further distance are seen the 
high mountains on the nor- 
thern boundary of Suruga. To 
the r. the summits of Yakushi- 
dake and Kwannon-dake shut 
out the more distant prospect. 
The view on looking back in - 
eludes Fuji, the Kofu plain, 
and surrounding mountains. 
Beyond this point are two 
other peaks — Yakushi-dake not 
usually ascended by pilgrims, 
and Kwannon-dake which they 
do generally visit, and whence 
there is a fine view of the 
ravine through which the 
Norokawa flows. The highest 
point — Ho-o-zan properly so- 
called — is still further on, and 
may be scaled as far as the 
ledge which supports the two 
enormous blocks or pillars of 
granite that form the actual 
summit. The view closely re- 
sembles that from Koma-ga- 
take described on p. 186. 

The way up Kaigane-san 
diverges 1. from that up Ho-o- 
zan. From Kozori to a small 
temple where one may halt for 
the night will occupy one day's 
climbing, whilst the remainder 
of the ascent is said to take 6 
hrs. If it be not intended to 
visit the other summits of the 
range after ascending Kaigane- 
san, the usual plan is to 
descend to the temple and 



spend the second night there, 
returning to Ashikura on the 
following day. But should 
the traveller wish to complete 
the round by ascending Ai-no- 
take and N5dori-san, it will be 
necessary to sleep out one 
night before descending either 
to Narada or to this temple. 

We trust that the rough 
nature of the entire trip has 
been made sufficiently mani- 
fest, and that none but sturdy 
climbers will embark on it.] 

6. — Fbom Kofu to Iwabtjchi on 

THE TOKAIDO BY THE BaPIDS OF 

THE Fujikawa. 

• 

Eoughly speaking, this is No. 4 
reversed, but done partly by boat 
instead of wholly by road. Time 
1 day ; 2 days, if the journey be 
broken at Minobu, for which alight 
at Hakii. The waJk from the river 
to the vill. of Minobu occupies 40 
min. A carriage must be taken for 
the first stage (4^ ri) from Kofu to 
Kajikazawa, where a boat can be 
engaged to Iwabuchi (in 1891, 
the price was ^i for boat with 4 
men, weather being favourable). 

There is considerable traffic on 
the Fujikawa, no less than 600 
boats being engaged in it. When 
the river is in its ordinary state, 
the times taken are as follows : 

Kajikazawa to: — hbs, 

Hakii ; 2i 

Nambu 1 

Iwabuchi 3 

Total [ 6i 

As far as the confluence of the 
Hayakawa the river flows placidly 
along, now at the base of bare 
rocky hills, now past villages and 
rice-fields. Below this point begins 
a series of races and small rapids, 
the most remarkable of which is 
just above the Hanging Bridge 
where the current whirls along 
at a dizzy pace. On nearing 



186 



TiOvt£ 10, — W(fys to and from Kofu, 



Matsuno, some fine g^roups of hexa- 
ofonal andesite columns will be 
noticed on the r. bank. At 
Iwabiiclii {Inn, Tani-ya), the boats 
are taken along the canal to the 
landing-place close by the railway 
station. 

7. — From Kofu to Shimo-no-Suwa 

ON THE NaKASENDO. 

_ Itinerary. 

KOFU to :— Ri. Chv. M. 

Nirasaki 3 5 7f 

Enno 2 — 5 

DAI-GA-HARA ..-2 9 5^ 

Kyoraishi ;. 1 16 3^ 

Tsutaki ,. 1 6 2f 

Kanazawa 3 8 7f 

Kami-no-suwa ... 3 19 8^ 

SHIMO-NO-SUWA 1 4 2f 

Total 17 31 43i 



This road is a continuation of 
the Koshii Kaido, the first section 
of which, from Tokyo to Kofu, has 
been described on p. 123. It is prac- 
ticable for carriages and jinrikishas 
the whole way. 

Leaving Kotu and crossing the 
Shiogawa, an affluent of the Fuji- 
kawa, we reach 

Nirasaki {Inn, Yashima-ya) and 
Eniio, also called TsvJbarai or 
Marwno. 

[From Enno the ascent of H6-o 
zan can be made. The dis- 
tance to the top of the gap be- 
tween Jizo-dake and H6-o-zan 
is called 5 ri. The path crosses 
the spur to the 1. of the vilL, 
and descends to the bed of the 
Komukawa, which is followed 
up until the actual ascent of 
2\ri commences.] 

From a grove of trees just be- 
yond Tsubarai, there is a magni- 
ficent view of Koma-ga-take, the 
whole sweep to the sharp summit 
of the precipitous rocky mass being 
seen to perfect advantage. The 
road now ascends the valley 



of the Kamanashi-gawa. The 
greater part of it as far as Dai- 
ga-hara is built up on the stony 
beds of various streams. The 
scenery of the valley is very pretty, 
and in many places quite striking. 
The r. side is lined with peculiar 
castellated cliffs of brown con- 
glomerate, while to the 1. rises the 
high range of which Koma-ga-taJfe 
is the principal feature. Further 
on, Yatsu-ga-take appears to the r., 
and on looking back beautiful and 
varied views of Fuji are to be seen. 

[One ri before reaching Dai-ga- 
hara, a path 1. leads to the 
base of Jizo-dake (5 ri 28 cho), 
whence the mountain can be 
ascended.] 

We next reach Dai-ga-hara (Inn, 
Maru-ya), whence the ascent of the 
Koshii Koma-ga-take can best be 
made. 
[The ascent is so precipitous and 
difficult in parts, and so long — 
nominally 7 n to the summit — 
as to necessitate sleeping one 
night at the Omuro or Uma- 
dome huts on the mountain 
side. Water should be taken 
up, 'as none can be procured 
except at these huts. The 
summit consists of two peaks, 
on one of which stands a 
, bronze figure of the Shinto 
god Onamuji. On the second 
and higher peak, called Oku- 
no-in, is a small image of 
the Buddhist god Marishiten. 
The summit commands a mag- 
nificent view on every side. 
Looking S. the eye sweeps 
over the valleys of the Noro- 
kawa and Tashiro-gawa, to the 
1. of which rises the long range 
of Shirane, the most con- 
spicuous summits being the 
snow-streaked peak of Kaigane- 
san which stands in close 
proximity, and beyond, the 
bold mass of Ai-no-take, the 
central portion of the range. 
Beneath is the ravine through 



Kofu to Shimo-no-Suiva and to Yoshida. 



137 



which the Norokawa flows as 
it winds round the base of 
Kaigane-san ; the mountain to 
the r. is Senj6-ga-take. Be- 
yond Shirane several high 
mountains are visible, and are 
probably those which stand on 
the N. boundary of Suruga. 
Towards the E. the valley of 
the Fujikawa is seen between 
the near summit of Ho-o-zan 
and the E. slope of Kaigane, 
and in the far distance can be 
distinguished the promontory 
of Izu and the sea. The most 
striking feature of the view is 
Fuji, to whose 1. a wide plain 
stretches far away to the E. 
Towards the N. and W. the 
following mountains are seen in 
succession : — a portion of the 
Chichibu range, Kimpu-zan, 
Yatsu-ga-take, Asama-yama, 
the lofty mountains on the 
borders of Etchii and Hida, 
Ontake, the Koma-ga-take of 
Shinshu, and Ena-San in Mino, 
while the nearer view includes 
the plain of Kofu, the valley of 
the Kamanashi-gawa, Tate- 
shina-yama, the mountains 
about the Wada pass. Lake 
Suwa, and the valley of the 
Tenryu-gawa]. 
Beyond Dai-ga-hara the road is 
lined on one side with fine red 
pine-trees, which shut out the 
view of the river as far as 

Kyoraishi {Inn, Izumi-ya). At 
the boundary of the provinces of 
Koshu and Shinshu, the road cross- 
es to the 1. bank of the Kamana- 
shi-gawa, and passing through the 
insignificant vUl. of Shimo Tsutaki, 
reaches _ 

Kami Tsutaki (Inn, Osaka-ya), 
after which the road becomes hilly. 
The highest point is reached at 
3,070 ft. above the sea, being 
1,050 ft. above Dai-ga-hara. Thence 
it descends to 

Kftnazawa (Inn, Matsuzaka-ya), 
and down the valley of the Miya- 
gawa, where the waters of Lake 



Suwa soon come in view. At 
Chugo, where the road crosses a 
stream, and from several points 
further on, there is a fine view of 
the mountains on the borders of 
Hida, the most conspicuous sum- 
mits being Iwasu-ga-take and Yari- 
ga-take. The lofiff mountain in 
the distance to the 1. of the lake i& 
Nishi Koma-ga-take. 

Kami-no-8iiwa (Inn, Botan-ya) 
is a busy town on the borders of 
the lake. About 2 ri distant is 
the Ichi no Miya, or chief Shinto 
temple of the province of Shinshu, 
which contains some excellent 
wood carvings. The annual fes- 
tival is held on the 1st August. The 
road now skirts the slopes on 
the N. shore of the lake, and 
passing through the hamlets of 
Cwa and Takaki, reaches Shimo-no- 
Suwa (see Route 39). 

8. — From Kofu oveb the Mi- 
saka-toge to yoshida at the 
BASE OF Fuji, and 70 Gotemba 

ON THE TOKAIDO EaILWAY. 

Itinerary. 

KOFU to :— Bi. Cho. M, 

Izawa 1 23 4 

Kami Kurogoma. 1 31 4^ 

Tonoki 1 18 3| 

Kawaguchi 2 30 6f 

YOSHIDA 2 3 5i 

Yamanaka 4 8 10^ 

Subashiri 2 — 5 

GOTEMBA 2 30 7 

Total 18 35 464r 



Time required, 2 days, stopping 
at Yoshida the first night. Yoko.- 
hama may easily be reached on the 
evening of the second day by train 
from Gotemba. Jinrikishas with 
two men are practicable the whole 
way, when the roads are in a good 
state. 

The road follows the Koshii Kai- 
do as far as Iznwa (Inn, Shishi- 
moto), where it turns off to the r.. 



138 



RoiUe 10. — Ways to and from Kofu, 



and soon enters a narrow valley. 
From Kami Knrogroma, it rises 
rapidly to 

Tonoki {Inn, 6akai-ya), 3,200 ft. 
above the sea. It then ascends for 
about 1 hr. through a forest to the 
hut on the summit of the Misaka- 
toge, which is .5^20 ft. above the 
sea. The view of Fuji from this 
point, as it rises from Lake Kawa- 
guchij is justly celebrated. Below 
is the vill. of Kawaguchi ; on the 
opposite side of the lake are Fu- 
natsu and Kodachi. Further S. is 
Lake Yamanaka. The view look- 
ing back towards the N. and W. 
includes Kimpu-zan, Tatsu-ga-take, 
Koma-ga-take, Jizo-dake, and in 
the plain below, the vill. of Izawa. 
It is an hour's descent to 

Kawagiichj {Inn, Nakamura), a 
poor vill. lying a couple of hundred 
yards from the lake. Boats can be 
procured from here to Funatsu, 
making an agreeable change in the 
day's work ; or else one may follow 
the road skirting the lake through 
the hamlet of Akasawa for about 
f hr., with steep mountains on every 
side. Funatsu produces white and 
coloured tswmugi, a coarse fabric 
woven from spun floss silk. From 
Funatsu to Yoshida, and indeed 
all the way on to Subashiri and 
Gotemba, the road traverses the 
moor that forms the base of Fuji. 

9. — Feom Kabuizawa on the Na- 
kasendo to kofu by the tsutu- 
TABE Pass. 

Itinerary, 

KARUIZ AWA to :— Et. Chd. M. 

Iwamurata 4 33 12 

Usuda 2 6 5i 

. Takano-machi ... 1 7 3 

Hata 1 20 3f 

Umijiri 3 10 8 

Itabashi 2 10 6i 

Nagasawa 4 4 10 

Nirasaki 4 32 12 

KOFU 3 18 8i 

Total 27 31 68 



This route is recommended to 
those whose chief object is moun- 
tain climbing. Exclusive of such. 
climbing, the journey takes 2 days, 
jinrikishas being available for tlie 
first part between Iwamurata and. 
UsudJEk, and carriages from l^irasalad 
to Kofu. The rest must be done 
on foot. There is accommodation 
of the usual country sort at th.e 
places mentioned in the itinerary. 

Hata is the best place from 
which to ascend Tateshina-yama. 
This expedition requires the whole 
of a long day, but is worth the 
trouble, on account of the extensive 
view which the peak commands. 

^rom Umijiri, at the end of the 
Iwasake gorge, one may visit the 
sulphur springs of Inaga (21 chd), 
and thence go up to the Honzawa 
baths (3 ri), situated at a height of 
3,200 ft. above Umijiri. The sum- 
mit of the Honzawa pass, some 
40 min. walk beyond the Honzawa 
baths, is 7,400 ft. above the sea. 
From this point a path leads to the 
summit of Mikahwi-yama, 8,450 ft. 
above the sea. The whole expedition 
will occupy a day. 

Itabashi is the best starting- 
point for the ascent of Akaddke, 
but there is no path. Two ri 
from Itabashi across the moor is 
a wood-cutter's hut at the base of 
the spur where the ascent begins, 
and it is advisable to sleep here in 
order to make an early stiurt in the 
morning. The hut is about 5,300 ft. 
above the sea, which leaves 3,600 
ft. to be still ascended, the summit 
having an altitude of 8,990 ft., and 
the climb up it being very steep in 
parts. The. view includes Asama- 
yama, Kimpu-zan, Fuji, and all the 
mountains on the W. boundary of 
Koshu. Guides cannot always be 
procured at Itabashi. In this case it 
will be necessary to proceed to 
Hirasawa, half-way between Ita- 
bashi and Nagasawa, where they 
can always be had. 

From Nagasawa it is an easy 
climb up Qongen-dakQ, the most 



Route 11, — Kumagai to Omiya* 



189 



sontherly of the nmnerons peaJis 
known under the collective name 
of ITatsu-ga-take. It is not 
usual, however, with the Japanese 
to make the ascent until after 
the autumn equinox, and the 
traveller may, therefore, experience 
a little difficulty in obtaining 
guides. In this, as in the previous 
case, he will do best to make Hira- 
sawa his starting-point. The ascent 
takes about 5 hrs., the descent to 
Nag^asawa 3 hrs., that to Hirasawa 
4 h.rs. The view includes the whole 
of the Hida-Shinshu range, amongst 
wb.ich Yari-ga-take is conspicuous 
to the N.W., Fuji is seen towering 
aloft S. by E., the Koshu Koma-ga- 
take S.W. by S., Shirane a little to 
its S., Ho-o-zan S.S.W., distin- 
guished by the monumental pile of 
rocks at its summit, and KLmpu- 
zan S.E. by E. 



EOUTE 11. 

EUMAGAI TO OmIYA IN ChICHIBU^ 

Cave-Templb of Kwannon nbab 
Kaoemobi. 

For those desirous of cross-country 
walks, a suitable opportunity is 
afforded at Kumagai of striking off 
to Omiya, the chief town in the 
district of Chiohibu, which will be 
found a convenient centre for sut^h 
excursions. Near it is also a cave- 
temple of Kwannon, possessing some 
celebrity and well-worth a visit. The 
road is practicable for jinrikishas. 

KUMAGAI to:— Ri.Cho. M. 

Tanaka 8 18 8^ 

Yorii 1 18 3| 

Nogami 8 14 8| 

Onobara 8 — • 7? 

Omiya i __ aj 

Total 12 U 30^ 

The road branches off to the 1. 
just beyond Kumagai, and traverses 



a rich rice-plain until more elevated 
ground with mulberry plantations 
is reached. Good views of the Chi- 
chibu mountains are obtained on 
the way. The Arakawa, flowing 
down a wild and stony bed, is joined 
10 cho before coming to 

Yoril, a busy vill. carrying on 
a large trade in silk, the chief in- 
dustry of the people all along this 
route. The road now ascends the 
valley of the Arakawa through 
very pretty scenery. 

Nogami lies a little way from the 
river, which is left behind at the 
hamlet of Kanasaki, whence the way 
lies again across a richly cultivated 
tract of country. 

Omiya {Inrit Kado-ya) is noted 
for its silk fabric called futako- 
ori. Fairs are frequently held 
here, which are largely attended 
during the season by dealers in raw 
silk and cocoons. At Kagemori, 20 
cho from Omiya, a path turns off 1. 
to a temple of Kwannon, built in a 
cave, which is considered the chief 
wonder of the country-side. At the 
temple, the name of which is 
KyorjKiji, a guide is provided. 
The CavCt which is close by, con- 
sists of two chief ramifications 
in the limestone rock, and is ren- 
dered fairly easy walking, or rather 
creeping, by means of ladders and 
planks. The stalactites in it take 
a variety of fantastic shapes to 
which realistic names are given, 
such as the five viscera, the 
breasts, the dragon's tail and 
head, the lotus-flower, etc. As 
usual, Kobo Daishi gets the credit 
of having discovered this wonderful 
place. The inspection of the cave 
occupies about J hr. The exit is 
within a few min. walk of Hashitate, 
on the way to Umi-no-kuohi in 
Shinshu by the Jiimon-toge, 
whence it is a distance of 18^ 
ri to Kofu over the Tsuyu- 
tare pass (see p. 138), with the 
option of ascending Akadake and 
Gongen-dake^ — the latter, the most 
southerly of the numerous peaks 
collectively known as Yatsu-ga-take. 



1.40 



Route 12, — Tfie Talmsakl-Yolcokawa Fuiilway, 



Buko-zan may be ascended from 
Omiya ; but there is no special at- 
traction in the ascent, and no view 
obtainable from its forest-covered 
summit. Hikawa, situated in the 
valley of the Tamagawa (see p. 126), 
about 11 ri from Omiya, may be 
reached by a path over the Sen- 
gen-t5ge. But the most interesting 
route for mountain enthusiasts is 
that to Koshu by the Karizaka-toge. 
The distance is variously estimated 
at from 23 ri to 28 ri. At Kama- 
gaway 11 ri from Omiya, good ac- 
commodation can be obtained, and 
at Sashide carriages may be en- 
gaged to Kofu, a distance of 3^ ri. 



ROUTE 12. 

The Tokyo -Takasaki-Yokokawa 
Railway. [Maebashi.] Isobe. 
Myogi-san. 



Distance 

from 
Tokyo. 


Names 

of 
Stations. 


# 

Remarks. 


4 m. 

6 

13 

17 

22 
24 

29 
34 
38 
46 
51 
56 

63 

64} 
69 

7H 

771 
80^ 


TOKV:o(Ueno). 
Oji. 

Akabane Jet 

Urawa. 

Omiya Jot 


CUp trains 

< change for 
L Yokohama. 

C Change for 
■5 Nikko and 
C the North. 

See p. 96. 

rOhange for 

< Karuizawa 
(. & Maebanhi. 

|Alight for 
i Myogi-san. 


Ageo. 
Okegawa. 
Kdnosu 


Pukiage. 

Kumagai. 

Fnkaya. 

Honj6. 

Shimmachi. 

TAKASAKI 
Jet 


lizuka. 
Annaka. 

Isobe 


Matsuida. 
YOKOKAWA. 



The construction of this line of 
railway, intended to lead over the 
Usui-toge to Karuizawa and connect 
with the Karuizawa-Naoetsu line, 
has been temporarily suspended at 
Yokokawa, near the foot of the pass, 
owing to engineering difficulties. 
The line closely follows the first 
stages of the old Nakasendo (see 
Route 39), and is flat and uninter- 
esting till TakasaJd Junction is 
passed. 

Urawa (InUy Yamaguchi-ya) is 
the seat of government of the prefec- 
ture of Saitama, which includes the 
greater part of the province of 
Musashi except Tokyo. 

Omiya (Inn, Takashima-ya in the 
Public Garden supplies foreign food). 
An avenue of 1 m. in lenglh leads 
to the Hikawa no Jinja, the chief 
Shinto temple of the province of 
Musashi, situated in grounds which 
have been turned into a public 
garden. The temple is said to have 
been founded in honour of Susano-o 
by Yamato-take, on his return from 
subduing the barbarous tribes of the 
East. Leaving Omiya, the first 
place of importance reached is 

Kumagai (Inn, Shimizu - ya), 
which carries on a large trade in silk 
and cotton. This town possesses 
historical interest in connection 
with the warrior Kumagai Naozane 
(see p. 42). At 

Honjo (Inn, Moroi) there are 
some important cross - country 
roads, one of which joins the Rei- 
heishi Kaidb, the route formerly 
followed by the Mikado's annual 
envoy to the shrine of leyasu at 
Nikko, but no^ for the most part 
deserted by travellers. 

Shimmachi (Inn, Mitsumata) 
is a large silk producing place. 

Takasaki (Inn, Sakai-ya ; Restt., 
Sumiyoshi, at station) was formerly 
the castle- town of a Daimyo, and is 
still an important industrial centre. 

[The railway branches off here to 
Maebashi, 6 m., where it meets 
the Byomo line from Oyama 
(see Boute 15). Maebashi 



Isohe, Myogi'San, 



141 



{IiinSj Akagi-tei, foreign food ; 
Abura-ya), formerly the seat of 
a great Daimyo named Matsu- 
daira Yamato-no-Kami, is now 
the capital of the prefecture of 
Gumma, and an important 
centre of the silk trade, one of 
the best qualities of raw silk 
being named after the town. 
To the N. rises the extinct vol- 
cano of Akagi-san, and W. is the 
curious group of mountains col- 
lectively called Haruna, on the 
N. Hank of which are situated 
the fashionable baths of Ikao, 
described in Koute 14.] 

liziika is a station at the W. end 
of Takasaki, some distance from 
the business part of the town. It 
is on one of the roads to Ikao. 

Isobe (InnSy *Ky6ju-kwan, Haya- 
shi-ya, and others). This is the 
best station to alight at for a visit to 
the Remarkable conglomeration of 
rocks crowning Myogi-san. The inns 
are in all respects pleasanter than 
those at the vill. of Myogi at the 
foot of the mountain. But travel- 
lers coming eastwards from Karui- 
zawa may alight at Matsuida, 
tbe station beyond, the distance 
from each of these two places to 
Myogi being about the same. Isobe 
is reached in 4 hrs. by rail, and 
My5gi by toad in 1 hr. more ; and 
as less than a day is required for 
seeing the marvels of the moun- 
tain, the journey from the capital 
and back may thus be accomplished 
in a day and a half. 

Isobe is a watering-place of recent 
growth, lying in a wide valley less 
than 1,000 ft. above the level of 
the sea. Exposed as it is on all 
sides, it is neither mild in winter 
nor cool in summer. The mineral 
waters of Isobe contain a large 
quantity of carbonic acid gas, and, 
nnlike most other Japanese springs, 
ace beneficial to persons suJSering 
from catarrh of the stomach and 
other internal complaints. On the 
road to Myogi, a good view is 
obtained of Akagi-san and Haruna- 
san to the N., and Asama-yama to 



the W. If the visit be made in 
autumn, the precipitous sides of 
the MyOgi range will be found 
in a glow of rich colour arising from 
the crimson tints of the maples th^t 
mingle with the variegated leaves of 
other trees, and render the scene one 
of beauty as well as weirdness. 

Mydgi (InnSf Shishiya, Kambe- 
ya) is an insignificant village. 

The shrine at MyOgi is dedicated to the 
memory of the 18th abbot of Enryaknji, 
a temple on Hiei-zan near Kydto, who, ia 
the reign of the Emperor Daigo ( A.D. 808- 
930), retired here to mourn over the 
sudden downfall and banishment of his 
pupil, the famous Sugawara-no-Michisane. 
After his death, he was deified under 
the title of Myogi Dai Gongen. Over two 
centuries ago, a fresh fit of zeal on the 
part of his devotees was the cause of the 
shrine being rebuilt in the grand style of 
which the traces still remain. It is now 
in charge of Shinto priests. 

The temple stand a shorts distance 
above the village, in the midst of 
a grove of magnificent crypto- 
merias. The Oku-no-in is 25 nM 
further up the mountain, and above 
this the clifis are nearly per- 
pendicgalar. A rocky cave, formed 
by a huge block resting in a fissure^ 
contains an image of the god. On 
the summit of one of the j uttiri^ peaks 
near the Oku-no-in, is the enormous 
Chinese character ^ (dai)^ * great.* 
Its dimensions are stated at 80 ft. hf 
20 ft., and it is constructed of thin 
bamboos tied together. It is covered 
with strips of paper, the votive 
ofierings of pilgrims, which give it 
the appearance from below of being 
painted white. The surrounding 
scenery is most romantic. From 
the bosom of a gloomy grove rise 
innumerable rocky pinnacles, grad- 
ually increasing in height round 
a lofty central peak, the whole 
vaguely recalling the front of some 
colossal Gothic cathedral. 

Dr. Naumann describes Myogi- 
san as a system ol grand acute- 
edged, deeply serrated dykes, ap- 
parently radiating from a oommcm 
centre, whose highest smnmit is 
about 3,650 ft. in height. Pro- 
bably it is the skeleton of a ^veaj 



W 



142 



Route 13, — Karidzuiva and Asamayama, 



old volcano. The ascent of the 
highest peak visible from the vill. of 
My5gi can be accomplished in less 
than half a day. To scale this peak 
is a rather dangerous undertaking. 
Those, however, who can appreciate 
the delights of rough and difficult 
climbing, ought not to miss the 
opportunity of mounting Hakun- 
zan, the jagged ridge rising directly 
above the village. The S. wing is 
called Kinkei-san ; Kinto-san is be- 
tween the two. The highest point 
of Myogi-san is behind Hakun-zan. 
Bdsokit-ishij * the Candle-Stone,' is a 
conspicuous projection belonging 
to Kinkei-san and forming the 
N.W. termination of this dyke. 
It takes about 1^ hr. to get from 
the vill. to Daikoku-san, where is a 
small shrine at the foot of the Hige- 
suri-iwa, or * Beard- Scraping Rock,' 
a slender column of volcanic breccia. 
The last 10 ft. of the climb up 
the Hige-suri-iwa is achieved with 
the assistance of an iron chain 
and ladder fixed in the rock. 
From this coign of vantage, the lofty 
peak of Naka-no-take and many 
other curious rocks are visible. 
The way to Daikoku-san leads over 
the pass between Kinkei-sao and 
Kinto-san. A gigantic natural arch, 
called Ichi no Sekhnon^ is passed 
on this way. Kurakake-san is 
of smaller size and higher up. 
Ni no Sekimon and San no Seki- 
mon are clefts in the mountain, 
further on, reached after a break- 
neck climb. The perforation in 
Ni-no-Sekimon is invisible from this 
side of the mountain, but is to be 
seen from Yokokawa and the Usui- 
toge. According to local tradition, 
the hole was made by an arrow 
shot from the bow of a certain Yuri- 
waka Daijin while standing at the 
vill. of Yokokawa. The modern- 
looking edifice below the Hige-Suri- 
iwa was built for the priests, after 
the burning of the two temples 
there in 1872. 

Leaving ^lyogi, the railway may 
be rejoined at Matsaida; or else 



one may walk on for 2 ri to a, 
point a little further along the 
Nakasendo near 

Yok<»kiiwa {Inns, *Ogino-ya, Ko- 
dake-ya, both at the station). 



ROUTE 13. 
Karuizawa and Asama-yama. 

1. — Kabuizawa and Neighbour- 
hood. 

Karuizawa is reached from Tokyo 
by the Tokyo Takasaki-Yokokawa 
Railway, 4^ hrs. to the present ter- 
minus, Yokokawa. A new section, 
carrying the line over the Usui Pass, 
is now in course of construction. 
From Yokokawa onwards there is a 
choice of roads, namely : — 

I. The carriage road, also used 
for jinrikishas and for the horse 
tramway. This road does not pass 
the old vill. of Karuizawa, but 
crosses further south to Shin-Ka- 
ruizawa (New Karuizawa). The 
cars, small and uncomfortable, but 
nevertheless the best means of 
conveyance, take 2^ hrs. to make 
the journey, which, owing to the 
narrowness of the gauge, the ser- 
pentine windings of the road, the 
precipitous slopes skirted on one 
side and the jagged rocks on the 
other, is of a somewhat exciting 
character. The distance traversed by 
car is 11^ miles. Shin- Karuizawa 
{Inn, Abura-ya) is J hr. by jinrikisha 
from the old vill. (Kyu-Karuizawa). 

II. The pedestrian road, leading 
over the summit of the pass, and 
only just practicable for jinrikishas. 
It is, however, excellent for walking, 
the soil being a combination of vol- 
canic matter, clay, and sand,.which 
is very porous and binds well. This 
road is a favourite one with the 
summer visitors to Karuizawa. The 
pass is thickly wooded ; but views 
of the extensive plain below, with 



Kaniizaira. 



148 



the rocky peaks of Myogi-san on 
the r. and the bolder mountains of 
Kotsuke on the 1. (looking back), 
are obtained at several points during 
the ascent. From the half-way 
tea-houses, the road winds gradually 
up to the summit, 6 m. from 
Yokokawa, and commands a fine 
prospect of the extinct volcanoes 
of Haruna and Akagi, Tsukuba-san, 
and the precipitous rocks on the 
S. of the pass which form the 
boundary between Kotsuke and Shin- 
shu. On the summit of the pass 
(4,050 ft.), there are a few houses 
and a small temple. The view from 
the steps of the shrine, although 
extensive, is so often obscured by 
clouds of mist sweeping over the 
summit, that the traveller has but a 
rare chance of enjoying a clear 
prospect. 

In this spot is localised the following 
le^nd, which is preserved in the Kqjiki .— 

When Yamato-take was crossing from 
Sagami to Kazusa in the course of his 
expedition against the barbarous tribes 
who then inhabited that region, (he ridi- 
culed) the name of Ua»hiri-mizu (Running 
water) given to the strait, and exclaimed 
that it was no more than an easy jump 
across. The Sea-Gorl, offended at this 
insult, so disturbed the waters that Ya- 
mato-take's ship was unable to advance. 
Upon this, his consort Oto-Tachibana- 
Hime said to him, ' I will drown myself 
in your stead '—and as she plunged into 
the sea, the waves became still. Seven 
days afterwards her comb floated ashore. 
ITie prince built a tomb, and deposited 
the comb therein. In returning to the 
capital after subduing the triljes, he 
stopped to rest at the top of the Usui 
Pass, and gazing over the plain, said 
thrice in a melancholy voice : 'Azvma «Yr. 
ya'CAlas! my wife'), whence the name 
of Aznma by which Eastern Japan is still 
known. 

Kjrfi-Knrnizawa (Imiy Bansho- 
kwan) lies in the upper corner of a 
grassy moor, 780 ft. below the 
summit of the pass. During the 
descent, Asama-yama, the Koslm 
Shirane-san and Koma-ga-take, Ya- 
tsu-ga-take, and Tateshina-yama 
come into view. The vill. was in 
former times principally dependent 
upon travellers over the ancient 
highway, and appears to have just 
escaped ruin, after the construction 



of the railway, by a number of the 
foreign residents of Tokyo making it 
a retreat from the imhealthy heat of 
the city during the summer months. 
The old inns have been hired, and 
a few new villas built on the moun- 
tain slopes. Its lofty situation 
(3,270 ft.) gives it a temperature 
seldom excessive during the day, 
and invariably cool at night. The 
rainfall, although heavy, bears 
favourable comparison with Nikko 
and other mountain resorts, and 
owing to the porous nature of the 
soil in the vicinity, leaves fewer 
traces behind. The place is never- 
theless not free from mosquitoes, 
and the small sand-fly called buyu 
abounds, — an insect which inflicts a 
bite, painless at flrst, but afterwards 
extremely irritable and liable to 
swell during several succeeding days. 
Bread, milk, and occasionally beef 
and flsh are obtainable. An un- 
cultivated moor, covered with wild- 
flowers in July and August, extends 
for miles in a southerly direction, 
while on theE.it terminates in a 
range of grassy hills. 

The chief excursion from Karui- 
zawa is the ascent of Asama-yama 
(seep. 144). There is also a variety 
of shorter walks, viz. 

1. Ata^o-yama. This isolated 
hill, 20 min. walk from the vill., 
is ascended by two flights of stone 
steps, and has some curious perpen- 
dicular rocks half-way up. 

2. Ilaniire-yania, about 1 m. off. 
On its E. side, near the summit, is 
a large cave inhabited by bats. 
It may be reached in about an 
hour by a very rough climb up a 
precipitous landslip. The view 
from the narrow ledge at the mouth 
of the cave is extensive. 

3. Iriyaiiia-toge, 1 hr. by the 
base of the hills skirting the moor, 
and past the curious rock called 
Kamado-iwa by the Japanese, and 
' Pulpit Rock ' by foreigners. The 
summit commands probably the 
finest view obtainable of the valley 
leading to the base of Myogi-san, 
and, looking backwards, of the wide 



144 



Route 13, — Karuizawa and Asama-yama^ 



stretch of moorland and Asama- 
yama. 

4. Wami-togr^. From the foot 
of the Iriyama-t5ge, the path keeps 
to the r., and in 40 min. more the 
road from Oiwake over the Wami- 
toge is reached. The ascent is easy. 
After a short hut steep descent on 
the opposite side, a path 1. leads to 
the hamlet of Ongawa situated at 
the base of the Rdsoku-iway aptly 
re -named by foreigners the * Cathe- 
dral Bocks,' and remarkable for the 
petrified wood found in the neigh- 
bourhood. It is possible to return 
direct over the mountains to the 
Karuizawa plain, but the path is 
difficult to find. This excursion 
occupies the greater part of a day. 

5. Yiinosawa^ ^ hr., by a path 
leading from the centre of the vill. 
towards Asama-yama. In the small 
house here a bath may be had, 
tepid mineral water being brought 
from the hill beyond. Continuing 
along the same path, which soon 
leads over more elevated ground and 
passes through beautiful stretches 
of forest, the baths of 

6. Kose are reached in about an 
hour. Kose is a tiny hamlet in 
a hollow of the hills, but possess- 
es a commodious inn and good 
baths. A very fair road has 
been built from Kose to Kutsukake 
on the Nakasend5, a walk of 45 
min. Kutsukake is 3f m. from 
Karuizawa. 

7. Kiiit.su mi ( Inn^ * Chosai- 
kwan). The thermal springs of this 
place are reached after a 3 hrs. 
walk over the Usui Pass. Not far 
from the summit a narrow path 
turns 1., leading up and down a suc- 
cession of wooded mountain gorges, 
till the final descent is made into the 
vale in which Kiritsumi nestles at 
a height of 2,700 ft. The baths may 
be more conveniently reached by 
a jinrikisha road from Yokokawa, 
2^ ri. The way is pretty, but the 
view is shut out on all sides. The 
water of Kiritsumi is slightly saline, 
with a temperature of 104 F. 
Higher up, in a neighbouring 



valley, is the old-fashioned water- 
ing-place of Irinoyu with accom- 
modation only for peasant guests. 
The baths are sulphureous and have 
a high temperature. 

2. — ASAMA-TAMA. 

Asama-ynifia (8,280 ft.) is not 
only the largest active volcano in 
Japan, but also the most accessible. 
The excursion to the top and back 
may be made from Karuizawa in 
one day. 

The last great eruption occurred in the 
summer of 1783, when a vast stream of 
lava destroyed a primeval forest of con- 
siderable extent, together with several 
villages on the N. ^ide. Subsequent 
eruptions have produced mere showers 
of ashes. At the foot of the steep cone 
the subterranean disturbances can be 
distinctly heard, and the sulphureous 
exhalations near the summit often make 
this part of the ascent very oppressive. 

The ascent from the Wdkasare- 
no-Chayay a hut on the road to 
Kusatsu, is the one now usually 
made, and is certainly the least 
fatiguing. The best plan is to hire a 
horse at Karuizawa, where foreign 
saddles may be procured, ride via 
Kutsukake (Inrij Tsuchi-ya) to Ko- 
Asama (2^ hrs.), the small excres- 
cence on the mountain side, and 
walk up by the Wakasare-no-chaya 
path. The climb is steep, but the 
path a good solid one of cinders, 
marked at intervals by small cairns. 
The time taken to the edge of the 
crater is about 2 hrs. 

The crater is circular, about | 
m. in circumference, with per- 
pendicular honeycombed and burnt 
red sides, generally full of sul- 
phureous steam welling up from the 
bottom and from the crevices in its 
sides. On the S. side of the moun- 
tain rise two precipitous rocky 
walls, separated by 9. considerable 
interval, the outer one being lower 
and nearly covered with vegetation. 
They seem to be the remains of two 
successive concentric craters, the 
existing cone being the third and 
most recent. The nearer is quite 
bare, and columnar in structure at 
the centre. The side of the cone is 



•r 




Boiite 14, — Ikao, Kitsatsu, and NeiyhhourhooiL 



145 



Btrewn with large rough fragments 
of loose lava, and unfathomable 
rifts extend for the greater part of 
the way down to its base. The 
view from the summit is very ex- 
tensive: — to the N., the whole of 
the Kotsuke mountains with the 
Haruna group and Akagi-san ; the 
Nikk6 range and the E. range 
dividing Shinshu from Kotsuke ; the 
sea far away in the distance ; next 
the Koshu mountains on the S., 
with Fuji peering over them ; the 
conical Yatsu-ga- take and adjacent 
summits of Koshu ; and then on the 
W., the huge range that forms the 
boundary between Shinshu and 
Hida. The descent to the Waka- 
sare-no-chaya takes about 1} hr. 

Another way up, occupying about 
5^ hrs., is from Oiwake {Inn, Naka- 
mura-ya), a vill. on the Nakasendo, 
2 rt 14 cho from Karuizawa, and 
formerly a place of some note, but 
much deteriorated since railway 
enterprise diverted the traffic from 
the highway. On leaving Oiwake, 
the path ascends gently through 
sloping meadows covered with wild- 
flowers ; then the acclivity becomes 
greater, and gritty ash is reached. 
At an elevation of 1,145 ft. above 
Oiwake, is a cascade hidden among 
the trees that skirt a deep gorge. 
The height of the fall is about 18 ft.; 
the red colour of the water and 
of the underlying rock — volcanic" 
breccia covered with a red crust — 
give it a strange appearance. At a 
height of 8,225 ft. above Oiwake, all 
vegetation ceases. For 1,600 ft. 
more, the path proceeds up a steep 
ascent of loose ash to the edge of 
the outer ridge, which from the vill. 
below appears to be the summit, 
though in reality below it. The 
path then descends, and crosses over 
to the base of the present cone, 
which is more easily climbed. 

Dr. Rein recommends ascending 
from KomorOf a station on the 
Kaniizawa-Naoetsu line, 13^ m. 
from Karuizawa. This ascent joins 
the path from Oiwake at the little 
cascade mentioned above. 



ROUTE 14. 

Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neighbour- 
hood. 

1. ikao. 2. walks and excursions 
from ikao: haruna, the hot 
springs of shima, ikao to asama- 
yama. 8. kusatsu. 4. walks 
in the neighbourhood of kusa- 
tsu. 5. from kusatsu to nagano 
over the shibu-tooe, ascent 
of shirane-san, the torii-toge. 

1. — Ikao. 

Ikao is a short day's journey 
from Tokyo (Ueno station) to Maie- 
bashi by the Takasaki-Maebashi 
Railway in 3^ hrs. (see p. 140) ; 
thence 6 ri 8 cJio (15 m.) partly by 
tram, partly by carriage or jinriki- 
sha, but jinrikisha the whole way to 
be preferred at present. The latter 
part of the ride is uphill, so that 
two men are indispensable. 

Hotels. — *Muramatsu, • KindayB, 
European style. There are also the 
Budaiyu, Chigura, Shimada Hachi- 
ro, and other good inns in Japanese 
style. 

Ikao, one of the best summer 
resorts in Japan, is built on ter- 
races along the N. E. slope of 
Mount Haruna, at an elevation 
varying from 2,500 to 2,700 ft. The 
picturesque main street, which di- 
vides the vill. into an eastern and 
a western part, consists of. one near- 
ly continuous steep flight of steps. 
The houses W. of the steps border 
on a deep ravine called the Yusawa, 
through which rushes a foaming tor- 
rent. Ikao has the advantage of cool 
nights, absence of mosquitoes, and 
an unusually beautiful situation, 
offering from nearly every house a 
grand view of the valleys of the 
Agatsuma-gawa and Tonegawa, 
and of the high mountain-ranges 
on the border of the great plain 
in which Tokyo is situated. From 
no other place can the Nikko 
mountains be seen to such ad- 



146 



Boiite 14, — Ikao and KnHatm, 



vantage. It is famous for its 
mineral springs, which have a 
temperature of 45° C. (115° F.), and 
which contain a small amount of 
iron and sulphate of soda. The 
springs have been known since 
prehistoric times. According to the 
Japanese style of bathing, the hot 
baths are made use of several times 
a day, and indiscriminately by 
patients of every description. Late- 
ly the water has been used for 
drinking purposes, but it has little 
more efiect than pure hot water. 

2. — Walks and Excursions from 
Ikao. 

1. Along the Yusawa ravine to 
Yiiinoto, about ^ m., nearly level. 
Yu-moto means lit., * the source of 
the hot water.' Seats are erected 
for the accommodation of visitors, 
who resort there lo drink of the 
mineral spring. The water, which 
at its source is quite clear, has a 
slightly inky taste. On being ex- 
posed to the air the carbonic acid 
evaporates, and part of the iron 
which the water contains is preci- 
pitated as a yellowish mass. This 
covers the bed of the river and the 
bottom of the aqueduct, and gives 
the water in the baths a thick, 
discoloured appearance. The people, 
who have great faith in the strength- 
ening effects of this precipitated 
iron salt, place large strips of cotton 
cloth in the stream. When the 
cloth has assumed a deep yellow 
'colour, it is taken out, dried, and 
used as a belt round the body. The 
mineral water is led down to Ikao 
from Yusawa in bamboo pipes. 

2. Up Konipira-snii, ihr. climb. 
Though of no great height, the 
top commands an extensive view, 
stretching from Shirane-san near 
Kusatsu to Tsukuba-san in Hitachi, 
and including the Mikuni and Nikko 
ranges, Akagi-san, and the valley 
of the Tonegawa. Just below the 
summit, a narrow path leads over 
the ridge to Futatsu-dake. 

3. To Miishi*yii (lit., 'the steam 



bath '), so called from the sulphur- 
eous gases which here emanate 
from holes in the ground, over 
which huts have been erected for the 
treatment of rheumatic patients. 
The number of naked people gene- 
rally standing about at Mushi-yu 
makes this place unsightly. The 
time taken to reach the baths 
is about f hr. Sengen-yama, Fu- 
tatsu-dake, and Soma may all be 
ascended from Mushi-yu. The 
view from the top of Soma (4,500 
ft. above the sea level, 1,800 ft. 
above Ikao) is magnificent. The 
summit of Fuji appears over the 
Chichibu mountains nearly due 
S. To the W. of it are seen the 
Koshu Shirane, the Koma-ga-take's 
of Koshii and Shinshii seemingly 
in close proximity, then Yatsu-ga- 
take, Ontake about W. S. W., Asa- 
ma-yama a little to the S. of W., 
Yahazu-yama W. N. W., then the 
Shirane of Kusatsu, and a part of 
the Hida-Shinshii range. Eastwards 
rise Tsukuba-san and the Shirane 
of Nikko, with one of the peaks of 
Akagi-san half-way between them. 
The town of Maebashi is visible to 
to the E. S. E., with the Tonegawa 
half encircling it, before pursuing 
its course down the plain. Soma 
may also be ascended from the path 
to Haruna. 

4. To the pretty little waterfall 
of Renteri-daki, on the stream 
which issues from Lake Haruna ; 
1 hr. easy walking. 

5. To Hnriina, about 4 m. to the 
lake, and 1^ m. more on to the 
temple. This is by far the prettiest 
expedition from Ikao. Most people 
will prefer to walk, but it is possible 
for a jinrikisha to get there : better 
take 8 coolies. 

[On the way to Haruna, a con- 
spicuous conical hill called 
the Haruna Fuji is passed, 
the ascent of which occupies 
about I hr. from the place 
where the path diverges. The 
near view from the summit is 
very beautiful, showing the 



Ilaruna. Shiiiia. Kuxatsu. 



147 



lake and surroundiDg moun- 
tains to great advantage. The 
distant prospect includes most 
of the view already described 
as seen from Soma. — The best 
plan is to make of this a 
separate expedition. There is 
grazing-ground for cattle on 
this little Fuji. It is there 
that the milch -cows that supply 
Ikao are kept.] 

Lake Harnna, which apparently 
occupies the site of an extinct 
crater, contains salmon and other 
fish. On its border is a tea-house 
where one may lunch. From the 
lake it is a short and easy ascent 
to the top of a pass called the 
Tefijin-toge, some 800 ft. above 
Ikao, commanding an extensive 
view. From the Tenjin-tdge the 
path descends a wooded glen to 
the ancient Shinto temple of 
Haruna, situated amongst precipi- 
tous and overhanging volcanic rocks, 
in a grove of lofty cryptomerias. 
It is dedicated to Ho-musubi, the 
God of Fire, and Haniyasu-hime, the 
Goddess of Earth. Over the princi- 
pal building, which is decoratjed 
with excellent wood-carvings (espe- 
cially two dragons twined round 
the side-beams of the porch), hangs 
a huge rock supported on a slender 
base, which seems every moment to 
threaten the temple with destruc- 
tion. The whole site is one of the 
most weird and fantastic that 
can be imagined, nature appearing 
to have lain a wager here to per- 
form quaint feats in stone, the least 
malleable of all materials. 

6. The hot springs of Sliima lie 
nearly 8 ri from Ikao, so that an 
expedition there involves staying 
the night. Shima may most con- 
veniently be taken en route to Kusa- 
tsu, the way being the same as far 
as 20 cho past Nakanojo, on the 
road to Sawatari. Jinrikishas can 
be taken, but must occasionally be 
alighted from. Shima includes two 
hamlets, called respectively Yama- 
guchi Onsen and Arai-yu, 8 cho 



distant from each other. Travel- 
lers are recommended not to stay 
at the former, but to go on to Arai- 
yu and put up at the inn kept by 
Tamura MosaburO. The hamlet is 
picturesquely situated close to the 
river, on whose bank the springs 
which supply the baths gush forth. 
Travellers not returning to Ikao, but 
going on to Sawatari, need not pass 
again through Nakanojo, as there 
is a shorter cut from a place called 
Kimino. It is, however, scarcely 
passable for jinrikishas. 

7. To Asama-yama. It is a 2 
days' trip from Ikao to the 
volcano. The first day takes one 
by jinrikisha to lizuka (the station 
at the W. end of Takasaki), 7 ri 
8 choy whence train to Yokokawa 
and tram to Karuizawa, where sleep. 
For the ascent on the second day 
see p. 144. 

An alternative way for the pedes- 
trian on the first day, is to go over 
the mountains from Ikao vi& Haru- 
na-san to Kami Moroda, Sangen- 
jaya, and Matsuida statioui, — a 
splendid day's walk. From Matsu- 
ida to Karuizawa, train and tram, 
as above. Matsuida is also the sta- 
tion for MyOgi-san (see p. 141). 

3. KUSATSU. 

The stalwart pedestrian can walk 
over from Ikao to Kusatsu in one 
long day w'lk Gochoda, Nakanojd, 
Sawatari, and Namazu,-^a delight- 
fully picturesque expedition of 11^ 
ri (28 m.), or else one may take a 
pack-horse. There is no good ac- 
commodation to be had on the way ; 
but should a break in the journey 
become indispensable, Sawatari 
(Inn^ Shin Kanoya), a small bathing 
vill. 6 ri 9 cho from Ikao, will pro- 
bably be found the least uncom- 
fortable place at which to spend the 
night. 

An alternative way from Ikao to 
Kusatsu is vi& the hamlets of Go- 
choda, Haramachi, Yokoya, and Na- 
ganohara, a distance of nearly 14 rL 
This way is much recommended 



us 



Route 14. — Ikiio and Kasatsu, 



on account of thfe beautiful scenery 
of portions of the valley of the 
Agatsuma-gawa. It is practicable 
for jinrikishas from Gochoda to 
Yokoya, and for pack-horses the 
remainder of the way. There is no 
accommodation on the way until 
reaching Naganohara. 

Kusatsu can also easily be reached 
from Tokyo by taking the railway 
to Karuizawa (see p. 140), whence it 
is an 11 ri journey across the open, 
park-like country lying at the base 
of Asama-yama. Another way from 
Tokyo — both convenient and pretty 
— is by rail to Toyono near Nagano 
on the Karuizawa-Naoetsu Railway, 
and thence vi& Shibu, as explained 
on p. 149. Both these latter ways 
take 2 days from Tokyo. 

Kusatsu, (3,800 ft. above sea- 
level), whose trim, cleanly ap- 
pearance strongly recalls that of a 
village in the Tyrol, is the coolest of 
Japan's summer resorts, and mos- 
quitoes are altogether unknown. 
Visitors who, attracted by these con- 
siderations, may think of spending 
any time there, must however re- 
member that the mineral waters are 
specially efficacious — not only in 
rheumatism, and, as recently dis- 
covered by Dr. Baelz, in gout — but in 
syphilis, leprosy, and other loath- 
some diseases. Indeed, the effect of 
the waters at first is to bring out new 
sores more plentiful than the old, 
and the horrors that walk the 
streets must be seen to be believed. 
The chief constituents of the Kusa- 
tsu springs are mineral acids, 
sulphur, and arsenic. Some of the 
springs are cold; the temperature 
of others is extremely high, ranging 
from 113° to 130° Fahrenheit, ac- 
cording to the spring. Even the 
Japanese, inured as they are to 
hot baths, find their courage fail 
them ; and the native invalids are 
therefore taken to bathe in squads 
under a semi-military discipline to 
which they voluntarily submit. 
Most curious is the sort of ohorio 
chant which takes place between 
the bathers and their leader on 



entering and while sitting in the 
bath, a trial which, though lasting 
only from 3^ to 4 minutes, seems au 
eternity to their festering, agonised 
bodies. First of all, the bathers are 
made to pour hot water over their 
heads many times, to avoid the 
risk of congestion. After the lapse 
of about one minute, the leader 
cries out, and the others all res- 
pond in unison. After a little he 
cries out, * Three minutes have 
passed.' — * Three minutes ! ' re- 
echoes the chorus. After another 
half-minute or so, *Two minutes 
more I ' then * One minute more ! * 
the chorus answering each time 
with an inarticulate murmur. At 
last the leader cries * Finished ! ' 
whereupon the whole mass of 
naked bodies leap out of the 
water with an alacrity which he 
who has witnessed their slow, pain- 
ful entry into the place of torture 
would scarcely have credited. The 
usual plan, after a course of the 
Kusatsu baths, is to go for the 
* after-cure * to Sawatari, 6 ri 9 
cho distant, where the waters have 
a softening effect on the skin, and 
quickly alleviate the terrible irrita- 
tion which the acids contained in 
the Kusatsu waters produce. Of 
late years, foreigners have shown a 
tendency to desert Sawatari in 
favour of Shibu (see p. 149), which is 
one of the cleanest watering-places 
in Japan, indeed a little paradise. 

Accommodation. — The character 
of the patients who resort to Kusa- 
tsu makes it incumbent on the 
traveller to exercise great care in 
the selection of his hostelry; and 
if he intends to make a lengthened 
stay, he is advised to take every- 
thing with him, even bedding. The 
best house to stay at is Ichii^ at the 
far-end of the village, — rooms nice, 
baths separate and not too hot ; 
charge (in 1890), 91.50 per diem for 
the room alone, $40 by the month. 
Yamamoto Yuhikoro, and Kuroiwa 
may also be recommended. Ichii 
and Yamamoto have each a de- 
tached cottage to let, and any of the 



Neighbourhood of Kusatsu. 



149 



inns will assist the traveller to ob- 
tain rooms at the temple, which 
stands close to the school and is 
quite out of reach of objectionable 
patients. The daily bath-tax, which 
allows one to bathe in any or all 
the springs any number of times 
a day, " was, in the summer of 
1890, 1 sen 8 ri», or less than a 
penny. 

4. — Walks in the Neighbourhood , 
OF Kusatsu. 

1. To the solfatara of Sessho- 
gawnra^ on the ^ slope of Moto- 
Shirane, about 1 ri. 

2. To Sai-no-Kawara and Kori- 

daui^ 20 cho. The meaning of the 
name Sai-no-Kawara is * the river- 
bed of souls.' On its numerous 
rocks and boulders, small stones 
have been piled up by visitors as 
oflEerings to dead children. Among 
these rocks is one called Yiirugi- 
Ishij which, notwithstanding its- 
being a huge boulder, is so nicely 
balanced that it can be moved by 
the hand. Kori-dani is so-called from 
the frozen snow which is to be found 
there even during the dog-days. 

3. To the small Shinto-shrine of 
Snira (Suwa-no-jinja), 25 cho. 

4. Via Suwa-no-jinja, Higane, 
Eiyozuka, and Hikinuma, to Han a- 
shiki near Iriyama, where the hot 
springs spurting up in the middle 
of the cold stream afford the means 
for a bath of an unwontedly two- 
fold character. About 2^ ri, 

5. Part of the way to Otokii, up a 
pathless hill to a place which, just 
above thirty-three stone images of 
Kwannon, offers a magnificent pano- 
rama of the whole neighbouring 
country. Distance, about 1 ri; on 
to Otoku, about 20 cho more. 

6. To Xaniao, 1 ri. 

7. To Kosame^ IJ ri on the way 
to Sawatari. 

8. To Uikage. 2 ri, 

9- To San-no-sawa> 25 cho on 
the way to Elaruizawa, and through 



a splendid forest to Haneo or to 
Maeguchi, 20 cho more. Or else 
to San-no-sawa by the new road, 
which skirts Moto-Shirane and is 
therefore somewhat longer. A path 
leads hence, 10 cho, up one of the 
spurs of Moto-Shirane to a small 
stone shrine with a fine view of 
Asama-yama and other mountains, 

5. — KUSATSU TO NAGANO OVER THE 
SHIBU-TOGE, INCLUDING ASCENT 
OP SHIRANE-SAN. THE TORII-TOGE. 

Itinerary. 

KUSATSU to :— Bi\ Cho. M. 
Top of the Shibu- 

toge 2 32 7 

SHIBU 3 22 8J 

Toy ono (Station).... 3 — 7| 
NAGANO 2 29 6J 

Total 12 11 30 



On foot or on pack-horse as far as 
Shibu (2,250 ft. above the sea) ; 
thence carriage to Toyono ; thence 
train to Nagano. 

This route affords very pretty 
scenery. Including the ascent of 
Shirane-san, which is a noteworthy 
volcano, the whole journey takes a 
little more than 1 day. The best 
plan is to leave Kusatsu early, and 
sleep at Sllibli (Inny *Tsubata-ya), 
catching the train at Toyono in 
the forenoon of the next day. Those 
who do not care to visit the temple 
of Zenkoji at Nagano, can either 
continue on by rail to Karuizawa 
and Tokyo, or'toNaoetsu on the Sea 
of Japan. The route is one special- 
ly recommended to those who have 
been taking the sulphur baths at 
Kusatsu. Instead of going for the 
* after - cure ' to Sawatari — the 
usual Japanese routine — they can 
stay en route at Shibu, where there 
are thermal springs suitable to their 
needs, and be far more comfortable. 

The picturesqueness of the road 
from Kusatsu to Shibu is purchased 
at the expense of many steep hills. 
On the other hand, those who go on 



150 



Route 15. — The Ryonw Hailway, 



horseback will find that they can 
ride right into the crater of Shirane- 
san without needing to dismount. 
It is 3 hrs. from Kusatsu to the 
summit of the cone, which is 6,600 
ft. above the level of the sea, and 
3,000 ft. above Kusatsu. The crater 
is oval in shape, its longer diameter 
being about 600 yds., its breadth 
150 yds. to 200 yds. The walls are 
very steep ; but on the E. side is 
a depression, — that through which, 
as already noticed, travellers can 
enter. The sight of the large sul- 
phureous lake, bubbling and seeth- 
ing, is most remarkable. The 
descent from the top of the pass to 
the vill. of Shibu is long and steep, 
with picturesque views of the river 
gorges. On the way down, the 
following mountains come in sight : 
MyOko-zan in Echigo, Kurohime, 
Togakushi-san, and Izuna. 

An alternative way to Nagano 
from Kusatsu is over the Yamada- 
to^e, which is comparatively short, 
and where the baths of Yamada 
may be visited. Another is over 
the Torli-togfi. Both of these 
descend to the vill. of Suzaka, where 
jinrikishas can be obtained. The 
itinerary of the Torii-toge route, 
part of which is picturesque, is as 
follows : 

KUSATSU to;— BL Cho, M. 

Mihara 2 6 5i 

Ozasa 2 30 7 

Tashiro 1 18 3J 

Torii-toge 30 2 

Nire 4 24 11^ 

Suzaka 1 29 4| 

NAGANO 3 11 8 

Total 17 4 41| 



KOUTE 15. 
The Ry5m6 Railway. 

TEMPLE-CA"S^S OP IZURU. ASCEin? 
OF AKAGI-SAN. 



Distance 

from 
Tokyo. 


Names 

of 
Stations. 


Remarks. 


48 m. 

54J 
60 

64^ 

71} 

77 
81 

83 

87 
91 
9ii 
994 


TOKYO (Ueno). 
Oyama 


( See Northern 
] Railway, 
( Route 24. 

(•Alight for 
-< c a ve s of 
C Izuru. 

(Road to Nik- 
< kobyWata- 
rase-gawa. 


Tochigi. 
Iwafune. 

SANO 


Ashikaga. 

Omata, 

Kirya. 

OMAMA 


Kunisada. 
Isesaki. 
Komakata. 
MAEBASHI. 



This line of railway, branching 
oS. from the Northern line at 
Oyama, which is reached in 2^ hrs. 
from Tokyo, traverses the provinces 
of Kotsuke and Shimotsuke. It af- 
fords an alternative, though longer, 
railway route from Tokyo to Mae- 
bashi, and is the easiest way of 
reaching the hot springs of Ikao in 
one day from Nikko. The scenery 
is pretty all along the route. 

Tochig'i (InnSj Kanahan, Yoshi- 
kawa-ya) is one of the most im- 
portant towns in Shimotsuke. Its 
chief product is hempen thread. 

Sano or TemmyO {IniiSt Saito, 
Kiku-ya) is a pretty and prosperous 
place. Its Public Park lies close to 
the station. There also exist the 
ruins of a castle built by Hidesato 
about 900 years ago. 

[From Sano an excursion may 
be made to the very curious 
limestone caverns of Izuru, 
where a temple dedicated to 
Kwannon was founded by Sho- 
d5 Shoniu in the 8th centuiy. 



Caves of Izuru, Aka<ji-san, 



151 



In these caves the saint is 
fabled to have taken up his 
^bode, and passed three years 
in prayer and meditation. They 
Are about 6 ri distant from 
Sano on a mountain route to 
Nikko. Jinrikishas are prac- 
ticable most of the way to the 
caves. From the vill. of IzurUj 
it is a walk of 2 did up a ravine 
to the cave called Daishi no 
Twayat the mouth of which 
is high up amongst the precipi- 
tous rocks, and is only to be 
reached by ladders. Further on 
is the cave sacred to Kwannon, 
reached by climbing over steep 
rocks with the assistance of 
chains, and then by ladders up 
to a platform on which stand 
£ome images of Daikoku and 
Shodo Shonin. The guide 
lights candles and shows the 
way into the cave, which con- 
tains a large stalactite, sup- 
posed to resemble a back view 
of the body of Kwannon. The 
cave is evidently much deeper, 
but pilgrims do not usually go 
further in. Close by is a 
hollow in the rock, with two 
issues. The guide climbs up 
a ladder to the upper hole, gets 
inside, and after a minute or 
two appears, head first, out of 
the lower. Half a chd further 
i^ another cave, named after 
the god Dainichi Nyorai, and 
having two branches, — one 
about 50 yds. deep, the other 
penetrating an unknown dis- 
tance into the mountain. 

The silk goods produced at Sano, 
although similar in kind to those of 
Ashikaga, are much finer in quality. 

Ash&agst (Innsy Hatsugai, Saga- 
mi-ro) is a great centre of the trade 
in native cotton goods, mostly woven 
however from foreign yarns. 

Afihikaga is celebrated for its Academy 
•*)£ Chinese learning {Athikaga GakkO), the 
foundation, of which institution is tradi- 
tionally ascribed to the eminent scholar 
Ono-no-Takamora (A.D. 801— a52). It 
reached the zenith of its prosperity in the 
time of the ShOgons of the Ashikaga 



dynasty, its last great benefactor being' 
Uesngi Norizane wno died in 1573. Thi» 
Academy possessed a magnificent library 
of Chinese works, and was the chief centre 
of Chinese erudition and of the worship of 
Confucius, until the establishment of the 
Seido at Yedo. Most of the 1x)oks are 
now dispersed, but the image of Confucius 
still attracts visitors. 

Kiryu (InnSj Yamane, Hayashi- 
ya) also is a large town, about 2 ri 
from its railway station. The chief 
products are crape, gauze, and a 
white silk called kabiUai which re- 
sembles tafEety. 

Ouiaina (Iww, Tsuru-ya) is situat- 
ed near the foot of Akagi-san. Tho 
picturesque road from here to the 
copper mines of Ashio by tho 
valley of the Watarase-gawa is 
described in Route 17. Omama 
itself is a long straggling town, and, 
like the other places on this railway 
route, of little general interest, being 
entirely devoted to sericulture. 

[The extinct volcano of Akagi- 
Siin may be ascended from the 
vill. of Ogo, 3 ri 9 did from 
Omama, whence the climb will 
take from 3^ to 4 hrs. About 
3 hrs. from Ogo we reach a 
grassy knoll where the path 
divides, the 1. branch going to 
one of the peaks of Akagi known 
as Nabewari, the other leading 
to a lake. The peak rising 
just above this grassy knoll is 
Arayama, 4,830 ft. in height, 
which can be ascended in about 
f hr. The summit commands a 
grand panorama of mountains : 
—Fuji S. S. W., Kaigane-san 
(part of the Koshu Shirane-san) 
S. W., the numerous peaks of 
Yatsu-ga-take with Tateshina 
nearly W. S. W., Asama-yama 
due W., and the Kusatsu Shi- 
rane about W. N. W. Nearly 
due N. rises Hodaka-san, one of 
the loftiest peaks in Kotsuke, 
easily recognised by its double 
top. The descent from Ara- 
yama on the N. side is very 
steep, but not dangerous, and 
the path is well-marked. From 
the knoll above referred to» 



152 



Eoiite 16. — XiJcko and Neifjhhourhood, 



the main path skirts the E. 
base of Arayama, and, travers- 
ing a grassy moorland basin, 
crosses a col to the temple 
(Daido) on the margin of the 
lake. About 2,000 yds. to the 
r. of the path is a tarn, called 
Koiinma, the level of which 
must be from 250 to 300 ft. 
higher than that of the larger 
lake.] 
Maeba^lii, see p. 140. 



EOUTE 16. 

' l^iKKo AND Neighbourhood. 

1. GENERAL INFORMATION. 2. CHIEF 
OBJECTS OF INTEREST. MAUSOLEA 
OP lEYASU AND lEMITSU. 3. OB- 
JECTS OF MINOR INTEREST. 4. 
"WALKS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 
6. KEGON-NO-TAKI, CHUZENJI,.NAN- 
TAI-ZAN, ^UMOTO. 6. ASCENT OF 
O-MANAGO AND NANTAI-ZAN FROM 
YUMOTO. 

1. — General Information. 

Properly speaking, Nikko is the 
name, not of any single place, but of 
a whole mountainous district lying 
about 100 miles to the N. of Tokyo. 
Nevertheless, when people speak of 
going to Nikko, they generally mean 
going to the village of Hachi-ishif 
close to which are the celebrated 
Mausolea of loyasu and lemitsu, 
the 1st and 3rd Shoguns of the 
Tokugawa dynasty. Lying 2,000 ft. 
above the sea, Nikko is a delightful 
summer resort, for which reason 
many foreign residents of Tokyo 
have villas there, or else at Chuzenji 
(4,375 fb.) 7^ m. further on. The 
only drawback to the climate is 
the frequent rain. There is probably 
no other place in Japan which 
combines in so eminent a degree 
the beauties of art and the beauties 



of nature. Within a radius of 15- 
m. there are no less than twenty -five 
or thirty pretty cascades. Nikko 
is noted, among other things, for 
the glorious tints of its autximn 
foliage. 

Nikko is reached in 5 hrs. from 
Tokyo by the Northern Railway,. 
changing carriages at Utsunonaiya^ 
where the Nikko branch diverges. 

Nikko Branch Line. 



o 



o 



Eh. 



65im. 

79J 
86f 

90f 



Names 

.of 
Stations. 



TOKYO (Ueno). 

UTSUNOMIYA. 

Top^mi. 
Kanuma. 
Fub»<8a.mi, 
Imnichi. 

NIKKO (Hachi. 
ishi). 



Remarks. 



See Nortli- 
ern Bail- 
way, Route 
.24. 






For a considerable distance, the 
railway runs close to the grand 
avenue of cryptomerias lining the 
ancient highway. As the traveller 
approaches Imaichi, he will notice 
on the 1. a second avenue of cryp- 
tomerias converging towards the rail- 
way line. Thisistho BeilieishiKaidd, 
so called because in old days the 
Reiheishij or Envoy of the Mikado,, 
used to travel along it, bearing gifts 
from his Imperial master to be 
offered at the Mausoleum of leyasu. 

The village oUNikko being a very 
long one, and the railway only 
touching its lower end, there re- 
mains a stretch of about 2 m. to 
be done by jini^ikisha from the 
station to the hotel. 

Hotels. — Nikko Hotel (foreign), in 
Irimachi beyond the village ; Koni- 
shi-ya, Aizu-ya, in the vill. A second 
large hotel in foreign style is being 
built near the upper end of the 
village. 

Guides are in attendance at the 
Hotels, and will arrange for the pur- 
chase of tickets of admittance to 
the Mausolea. Additional small 



History. 



nz 



charges are made at various points 
"Within the buildings. 
Means of conveyance. — Chairs, 
' liagoSy or pack-horses can be taken 

i' to such places as are not accessible 
by jinrikisha. There is a fixed 
, scale of charges. 

Nikko produces skins, and various 
pretty articles made of a black 
'iossil wood brought from Sendai in 
fethe north. 

: History, — The range of mountains 
Known as Nikko-zan lies on the N.W. 
■Ijoundary of the province of Shimotsuke. 
JThe orijfinal name was Fiita-am-i/ama, 
firhich, when written with Cliinese ideo- 

fraphs, may also be pronounced Ni-k/j-zan. 
_ ccording to the popular account, the 
ime was derived from periodical hurri- 
ines in spring and autumn, which issued 
)m a great cavern on Nantai-zan, the 
mntain to the N. B. of ChUzenji. In 
LD. 820 Kobo Daishi visited the spot, 
ide a road to the neighbourhood of 
cavern, and changed the name of 
range to Nikko-zan, or 'Mountains 
it the Sun's Brightness,* from which 
noment the storms ceased to devastate 
tie country. Up to the end of the 17th 
fcntury, a family of Shinto priests named 
fno used to visit the cavern twice 

EiTly to perform certain exorcisms, the 
ret of which hadbeen imparted to 
ir ancestor by Kobo Daishi. A cavern 
Ituated high up on the face of an in- 
issible cliff, just beyond the hamlet of 
a-gaeshi on the way to Chtlzenji, is 
ited out as the cave in question, 
sther explanation of the name Futa* 
yama, is that it means * The Two 
"ing Mountains,' in allusion to the 
volcanoes which form part of it, 
., Nantai-zan and Shirane-san he- 
ld Yumoto. But though the latter 
iks out at frequent intervals, no erup- 
ts nave taken place from Nantai-zan 
khin memory of man. 
Vtom the earliest ages of which any 

Etworthy record remains, a Shinto 
pie existed at Nikko, ^vhich was af ter- 
ia removed to Utsunomiya. In the 
•it 767, the first Buddhist temple was 
•cted by the saint Shodo Shonin. Later 
^ in the beginning of the 9th century, Ko- 
iDaishi, and in the middle of the same 
ptary the abbot Jigaku Daishi, added 
rjkhe holy places. The following account 
■8bed5 Shonin is summarised from a 

eoir written by his disciples the year 
his death. He was born at Takaoka 
Wt the K. boundary of Shiraoi.sUke, 
the year 735. His parents had long 
Ited to have a son, and at l'«st their 
^ was granted by the Thousand- 
pded Kwannon of the Izuru caves, to 
lOm they had prayed for offspring. 
tioaa portents accompanied his birth : 




loud thunder was heard, a miraculous 
cloud hung over the cottage, flowers fell 
from heaven into the courtyard, and a 
strange perfume filled the air. From hia 
earliest years the saint was devoted to 
the worship of the gods, and amused him- 
self by raising toy pagodas and shrines of 
earth and stones, which gained for him 
the nickname of * temple builder ' among- 
his companions. In his twentieth year ho 
secretly quitted his father's house, and. 
took up his abode in the cave of the 
Thousand-Handed Kwannon at Izuru. 
After passing three years in prayer and 
meditation, he dreamt in mid-winter of a, 
great mountain N. of Iziiru, on the top of 
which lay a sword more than 3 ft. in. 
length. On awaking, he left the cave, 
and endeavoured to make his way in the 
direction indicated ; but the deep snow^ 
opposed difficulties almost insurmount- 
able. Vowing to sacrifice his life rather 
than abandon the enterprise, he per- 
severed, and at last reached a point fromt 
which he beheld the object of his search. 
Ascending to the top of the mountain, he 
gave himself up to austere discipline, 
living on fruits which were brought to 
him by a supernatural being. After thus 
passing three more years, he returned ta 
Izuru, and in 763 visited the temple of 
Yakushiji, not far from Ishibashi on the 
Osha Kaido, where meeting some Chinese 
priests, he was admitted by them as fv 
novice. He remained in the monastery 
for five years, and then returned to 
the mountain now called Kobu-ga- 
hara. From its summit he beheld, on. 
the range to the N., four miraculous 
clouds of different colours rising straight 
up into the sky, and he at once set off 
to reach them, carrying his holy books 
and images in a bundle on his back. 
On reaching the spot whence the clouds 
had seemed to ascend, he found his ad- 
vance barred by a broad river, which 
poured its torrent over huge rocks and 
looked utterly impassable. The saint fell 
upon his. knees and prayed, whereupon 
there appeared on the (^posite bank dr 
divine Ijeing of colossal size, dressed in 
blue and black robes, and having a string 
of skulls hung round his neck. This lieing- 
cried out that he would help him to pass 
the stream, as he had once helped the 
Chinese pilgrim Hsiian Chuans? across the 
River of Flowing Sand. With this pro- 
mise, he flung across the river two gi-een 
and blue snakes which he held in his 
right hand, and in an instant a long bridge 
was seen to span the waters, like a rain- 
bow floating among the hills; but when the 
saint crossed it and reached the northern 
bank, both the god and the snake-bridge 
suddenly vanished. Having thus attained 
the object of his desires, Sho.lo Sho- 
nin built himself a hut wherein to prac- 
tise his religious exercises. One night a. 
man appeared to him in a vision, and told 
him that the hill rising to the north was 
called ' the Mount of the Four Gods,' and 



■ 



154 



Boute 16. — NiJcJcd and XeighbonrJiood, 



was inhabited by the Azure Dragon, the 
"Vermilion Bird, the WTaite Tigrer, and the 
Sombre Warrior, who respectively occupied 
its K., S., W. and N. peaks. He climbed 
the hill, and found that he had anived at 
the goal of his journey; for there were 
the four clouds which he had originally 
set out to seek, rising up- around him. 
He proceeded accordingly to build a 
fihriue, which he named the Monastery of 
the Four Dragons [Shi-hon-ryU-ji). In 
the year 767 he resolved to ascend the 
highest peak of the group, and after duly 

Kreparing himself by religious exercises, 
e set out upon this new enteqirise. After 
ascending for a distance of over 40 ri 
(probably the ancient ri, of which 4=1 
mile), he came to a great lake {Chuzenji) 
on the flank of the mountain (Nanfai- 
xan); but in spite of his prayers found it 
impossible to proceed any further, on 
account of the deep snow and the ter- 
rific peals of thunder which roared 
about the mountain top. He therefore 
retraced his steps to Nikko, where 
l*e spent fourteen years in fitting him- 
self, by the repetition of countless 
prayers and the performance of penances, 
for the task which he was unwilling to 
abandon. In 781 he renewed the attempt 
■unauccessfully, but in the following year 
lie finally reached the summit, accom- 
panied by some of his disciples. It 
seemed to him a region such as gods and 
other supernatural beings would naturally 
choose for their residence, and he there- 
fore erected a Buddhist temple called 
Chtlzenji, in which he placed a life-size 
image of the Thousand-Handed Kwan- 
non, and close by it a Shinto temple in 
honour of the Gongen of Nikko. He also 
built a shrine to the * Great King of the 
Deep Sand" {Jinja Bai-o) at the point 
-where he had crossed the stream. Shodo 
Shonin died in 817 in the odour of 
sanctity. Mangicanji is the modem name 
of the monastery founded by him at 
IJikko. 

In A.D. 161R, w^hen Jigea Daishi 
"was abbot, the second Shogun of the 
Tokugawa dynasty, acting on the dying 
injunctions of his father leyasu, sent two 
liigh officials to Nikko to choose a resting- 
place for his father's body, which had 
been temporarily interred at Kuno-zan, a 
Tjeautiful spot near Shizuoka on the T6- 
]{aido. They selected a site on a hill 
called Hotoke-iwa, and the mausoleum 
was commenced in December of the same 
year. The mortuary chapel and some of 
the surrounding edifices were completed 
in the spring of the succeeding year, and 
on the 20th April the procession bearing 
the corpse started from Kuno-zan, reach- 
ing Nikko on the 8th May. The coffin 
w^as deposited in the tomb, with im- 
pressive Buddhist services in which 
tx>th the living Shogun and an envoy 
from the Mikado took part. In the year 
1614 Jig^en Daishi died. The next abbot 
was a court noble, the next to him was 



a son of the Emperor Go-Mizuno-o, since" 
whifeh time down to the revolution of 1 868 
the abbot of Nikko was always a prince 
of the Imperial blood. Heiisually resided 
in Yedo, and visited Nikko three times 
annually. In 1808 the prince-abbot was- 
carried off to the north, and proclaimed 
Mikado by the remnants of the Tokugawa 
party. After the capture of the castle of 
Wakamatsti in Aizu in November of the 
same year, he surrendered to the Imperial 
forces, and, having been subseqently re- 
admitted to Imperial favour, was sent to 
Germany to study. His present title is 
Prince Kita Shirakawa.— The great annual 
festival is held on the 1st and 2nd June. 

2. — Chief Objects op Interest. 

On issuing from the upper end of 
the village, one of the firsb objects 
that attract attention is the Mi 
Hashiy a Ked Bridge spanning the 
Daiyagawa, about 40 ft. wide between 
the stone walls which here confine its. 
course. The bridge is supported on 
stone piers of great solidity, fixed into- 
the rocks between which the stream 
flows, and its colour forms a striking 
contrast to the deep green of the 
cryptomerias on the opposite bank. 
It was formerly closed to all per- 
sons except the Shoguns, save twice 
a year when it was opened to pil- 
grims. It stands on the spot where,, 
according to the legend above related,. 
Shodo Shonin crossed the river. 
The present structure, which is 84 ft. 
long and 18 ft. wide, was built in 
1638, and is said not to have re- 
quired any repairs of importance 
since that time. At each end there 
are gates which are kept constantly 
closed. Forty yards or so lower 
down the stream, is the so-called 
* temporary bridge,' which is open 
to ordinary mortals. Crossing this 
and turning to the 1., the visitor 
ascends the Nagasaka through a 
grove of cryptomerias, and reaches 

Mangivanji, a monastery occupy- 
ing the site of the former Hmnhdy or 
Abbot's residence, a magnificent 
building destroyed by fire in 1871. 
On the r. is a monastery called Jodo- 
in. The road to be followed passes 
along the S. wall of the Mangwan- 
ji enclosure, and up its W. side. 
In the N. part of this enclosure 



Mansolewn of ley am* 



155 



stands the Sambutsu-dd, or Hall 
of the Three Buddhas, viz., the 
Thousand-Handed Kwannon, the 
Horse-Headed Kwannon, and Amida 
Nyorai ; with them is a wooden 
statue of Shodo Shonin. Close by 
is a pillar called the Sdrintdt 
erected in 1643, and consisting of a 
cylindrical copper column 42 ft. 
high, of a black colour, supported 
by horizontal bars crossing through 
its centre, which rest on shorter 
columns of the same material. The 
top is adorned with a series of six 
cups shaped like lotus-flowers, from 
the petals of which depend small 
bells. Just beneath the lowest of 
these cups are four small medal- 
lions, with the Tokugawa crest of 
three Asarum leaves. 

Mansolenm of leyasii. As- 
cending some brpad steps be- 
tween two rows of cryptomerias, we 
come to the granite torii presented 
by the prince of Chikuzen from his 
own quarries in the year 1618. Its 
total height is 27 ft. 6 in., and the 
diameter of the columns is 3 ft. 6 
in. The inscription on the columns 
merely records the fact of their 
presentation and the name of the 
donor. On the 1. is a five-storied 
pagoda of graceful form, painted in 
harmonious colours. It rises to a 
height of 104 ft., and the roofs 
measure 18 ft. on each side. This 
monument was the offering in 1650 
of Sakai Wakasa-no-Kami, one of 
the chief supporters of the Toku- 
gawa family. Bound the lower 
storey are life-like painted carvings 
of the twelve signs of the zodiac. 
From the toriif a pavement leads to 
the bottom of the steps crowned by 
the Ni-o-maii, or Gate of the Two 
Kings. The two gigantic figures of 
these gods, which formerly occupied 
the niches on the outside of this 
gate, have been removed, and their 
places taken by gilt Ama-imi and 
Koma-inu. The carvings adorning 
this gateway are extremely varied. 
On the tops of the pillars at the four 
external angles are tapirs,representa- 
tions of which are in China supposed 1 



to act as charms against pestilence. 
The heads on the central pillars of 
the two outer ends of the structure 
are lions ; in the niches r. and 1. of 
the lion at one end are unicorns, 
and in the corresponding niches at 
the other end are fabulous beasts 
called takicju, which are supposed 
to be endowed with the power of 
speech, and only to appear in the 
world when a virtuous sovereign oc- 
cupies the throne. The doorways 
are ornamented with elephants* 
heads, the first portico has lions 
and peonies, and the second tigers. 
The interiors of the niches on the 
outside of the gateway are de- 
corated with tapirs and peonies, 
those on the inside niches with 
bamboos. The carvings of tigers 
under the eaves on the interior side 
of the gateway are excellent. 

Passing through the gateway, the 
visitor finds himself in a courtyard 
raised high above the approach, and 
enclosed by a timber walLpainted 
bright red. The three handsome 
buildings arranged in a zigzag are 
storehouses, in which various uten- 
sils employed in the religious ceremo- 
nies performed in honour of leyasu, 
pictures, furniture, and other articles 
used by him during his life-time, 
and many other treasures belonging 
to the temple, are deposited. The 
third is remarkable for two curious 
painted carvings of elephants in 
relief in the gable of the nearest 
end, which are ascribed to Hidari 
Jingoro, the drawings having been 
made by the celebrated artist Tan- 
yii. It will be noticed that the 
joints of the hind-legs are repre- 
sented bent in the wrong direction. 
On the 1. of the gate stands a 
conifer of the species called kdya- 
maki, surrounded by a stone railing. 
Some say that this is the iden- 
tical tree which leyasu was in 
the habit of carrying about with 
him in his palanquin, when it was 
still small enough to be contained in 
a flower-pot. Close to this tree is a 
stable for the sacred white pony 
kept for the use of the god. 



156 



Route 16, — NikJco and Xelghbourliood, 



Over the doors are some cleverly 
executed groups of monkeys, seve- 
rally represented as closing their 
ears and mouth and shading their 
eyes with their hands. They are 
called san-goku no sarUj * the mon- 
keys of the three countries,' viz. 
India, China, and Japan. 

A very interesting object is the 
On Choztiya^ containg a holy- 
water cistern made of a solid piece 
of granite, and protected by a roof 
supported on twelve square pillars 
of the same stone. It was erected 
in 1618. The pediment of the roof 
contains a pair of winged dra- 
gons, carved in wood and painted. 
The beautifully decorated build- 
ing beyond the holy-water basin is 
called the Kyozoj and is the depo- 
sitory of a complete collection of 
the Buddhist scriptures, contained 
in a fine revolving octagonal book- 
case with red lacquer panels 
and gilt pillars. In front stand 
figures of Fu Daishi and his 
sons. Paintings of angels on a 
gilt ground occupy the clerestory of 
the interior. In the ^centre of the 
court stands a fine bronze torii, with 
the Tokugawa crest in gold on the 
tops of the pillars and on the tie- 
beam. 

A flight of steps gives access to 
another court, along the front of 
which runs a stone balustrade. 
Just inside are two stone lions in 
the act of leaping down, presented 
by lemitsu. On the r. stand a bell- 
tower, a bronze candelabrum pre- 
sented by the King of Loochoo, 
and a bell given by the King of 
Korea, called the ' Moth-eaten Bell,' 
because of there being a hole in the 
top just under the ring by which it 
is suspended. On the 1. stand a 
bronze lantern from Korea, a can- 
delabrum from Holland, a drum- 
tower, no unworthy companion to 
the bell-tower opposite, and behind 
these again a temple originally 
dedicated to the Buddhist god Yaku- 
shi Nyorai. (Be it remarked that 
Holland, Korea, and Loochoo were 
considered to be Japan's three 



vassal States.) The groups of 
carved birds adorning the temple 
of Yakushi are excellently done. 
The lantern is a fine and solid 
piece of workmanship; but its 
style and construction indicate 
that it does not owe its origin 
to Korea. The two candelabra 
and the lantern, as well as the 
bronze candle-brackets fixed upon 
the interior wall of the court, r. and 
1. of the steps, probably came from 
Europe through Dutch or Portu- 
guese traders. Two iron standard 
lanterns on the r. of the steps, pre- 
sented by Date Masamune, Prince 
of Sendai, and the same number ou 
the 1. given by the prince of Satsu- 
ma, merit attention. They are 
dated 1641. The total number of 
lanterns contributed by various Dai- 
myos is one hundred and eighteen. 

We next ascend a flight of steps 
to the platform on which stands the 
exquisitel}'^ beautiful gate called Fo- 
inei-mcni. The columns supporting it 
are carved with a minute geometri- 
cal pattern, and painted white. The 
pillar next beyond has the pattern 
carved upside down, which was 
done purposely, lest the flawless 
perfection of the whole structure 
should bring misfortune on the 
House of Tokugawa by exciting the 
jealousy of Heaven. It is called the 
Ma-yoke no Hashira, or Evil- A vert- 
ing Pillar. The side niches are lined 
with a pattern of graceful arabesques 
founded upon the peony; those on 
the outside contain the images called 
Sadaijin and Udaijin, armed with 
bows and carrying quivers full of 
arrows at their backs ; the inner 
niches have Ama-inu and Koma- 
inu. The capitals of the columns 
are formed of unicorns' heads. 
The architrave of the second storey 
is adorned with white dragons* 
heads where the cross-beams inter- 
sect, and in the centre of each side 
and end is a magnificently involved 
dragon with golden claws. Above 
the architrave of the lower storey, 
projects a balcony which runs all 
round the building. The railing is 



Mausoleum of leyatu. 



157 



formed of children at play and 
other subjects. Below again are 
groups of Chinese sages and im- 
mortals. The roof is supported 
by gilt dragons' heads with gaping 
crimson throats, and from the top 
a demon looks down. The Indian- 
ink drawings of dragons on the 
ceilings of the two porticos are by 
Kano Motonobu. R. and 1. extends 
a long cloister, the outer walls of 
which are decorated with carvings 
of trees, birds, and flowers, coloured 
&fter nature, fifteen compartments 
on the r. and eight on the 1. 

Passing through the gate, we 
«nter a second court, enclosed on 
three sides by the above-mentioned 
cloister. In this the Buddhist 
priests used to repeat 'their prayers 
«,t the two great annual festivals. 
On the fourth side, is a high stone 
wall built against the face of the 
hill. Of the two buildings on the 
T., one contains a stage for the per- 
formance of the sacred kagura 
•dances, and in the other, called 
Gotna-ddy was an altar for burning 
the fragrant cedar while prayers 
were recited. On the 1. is a build- 
ing containing the cars carried in 
procession on the 1st June, when 
the deified spirits of leyasu, Hide- 
yoshi, and Yoritomo are supposed 
to occupy them. In the midst 
stands the enclosure surrounded by 
the tamagaJcij or fence, containing 
the haidefif or oratory and the hon- 
den, or chapel. The tainagaki forms 
a quadrangle each side of which is 
50 yds. long, and is constructed 
of gilt trellis with borders of 
coloured geometrical decorations. 
Above and beneath these again are 
carvings of birds in groups, about 8 
in. high and 6 ft. long, with back- 
grounds of grass, carved in relief 
and gilt. The gate, called kara- 
ntOTij through which this enclosure 
is entered, is composed of Chinese 
woods inlaid with great skill. The 
folding-doors of the oratory are 
lavishly decorated with arabesques 
•of peonies in gilt relief. Over the 
4oor and windows of the front. 



are nine compartments filled with, 
birds carved in relief, four on each 
side of the building ; and there are 
four more at the back on each side 
of the corridor leading to the chapel. 
The interior is a large matted room, 
42 ft. long by 27 ft. deep, with an ante- 
chamber at each end. That on the 
r., which w^as intended for the Sho- 
gun, contains pictures of unicorns 
on a gold ground, and four carved 
oak panels of phoenixes which at 
first sight seem to be in low relief ; 
but closer examination shows that 
the figures are formed of various 
woods glued on to the surface of the 
panel. The rear compartment of 
the ceiling is of carved wood, with 
the Tokugawa crest in the centre sur- 
rounded by phoenixes and crysan- 
themums. The opposite ante-cham- 
ber has the same number of panels, 
the subjects of which are eagles very 
spiritedly executed, and a carved 
and painted ceiling with an angel 
surrounded by chrysanthemums. 
The gold paper gohei at the back 
of the oratory, and a circular 
mirror are the only ornaments 
left, the Buddhist paraphernalia of 
bells, gongs, prayer-books, and so 
forth, having been removed when. 
the Shinto form of worship was 
introduced. Two wide steps at 
the back lead down into the Stone 
Chamber, so called because paved 
with stone under the matted wooden 
floor. The ceiling consists of 
square panels, with gold dragons on. 
a blue ground. Beyond are the gilt 
doors of the chapel, which is divided 
into four apartments not accessible 
to visitors. The first, called the 
HeideUy where the offerings are pre- 
sented, is a beautifully decorated 
chamber having a coffered ceiling 
with phoenixes diversely designed, 
and carved beams and pillars of 
plain wood. In it stand gilt and 
silken gohei presented by H.I.M. 
the Emperor. 

To reach the Tortiby we issue 
again from the Kara-mon, and 
pass between the Gcnna-db and 
Kagura-do to a door in the E» 



158 



Boute 16, — Nikko and NeighbourJiood. 



side of the gallery. Over this door 
is a carving called the nemuri no 
nekoy or * sleeping cat,' one of Hidari 
Jingoro's most famous works. From 
this a moss-grown stone gallery and 
several steep flights, of about two 
hundred steps altogether, lead to 
the tomb on the hill behind. After 
passing through the torii at the top 
of the last flight, we reach another 
oratory used only when that below 
is undergoing repairs. The tomb, 
shaped like a small pagoda, is a 
single bronze casting of a light 
colour, produced, it is said, by the 
admixture of gold. In front stands 
a low stone table, bearing an im- 
mense bronze stork with a brass 
candle in its mouth, an incense- 
l)urner of bronze, and a vase with 
artificial lotus-flowers and leaves in 
brass. The whole is surrounded by 
a stone Wall surmounted by a balus- 
trade, the entrance being through a 
bronze gate not open to the public, 
the roof of which, as well as the gate 
itself, is a solid casting. Before it 
sit bronze Koma-inu and Ama-inu. 

On leaving the Mausoleum of 
leyasu, the guide will turn to the r. 
at the bottom of the steps, and pass 
along the avenue under the wall to 
the open space through the toriiy 
Tvhere stands r. the Shinto temple 
of FtUa-ara no Jinja, dedicated to 
the god Onamuji. 

When Shodo Shoninin A.D. 782 reached 
the top of Nantai-zan, the tutelary- 
deities of the region appeared to him, and. 
promised to watch over the welfare of 
human beings and the progress of 
Buddhism, These were the god Onamuji, 
the goddess Tagori-hime his wife, and 
their son Ajisuki-taka-hikone. Japan is 
believed to have been saved on many- 
occasions from the perils of civil war and 
invasion by the intervention of these 
divine beings, who are styled the Three 
Original Gongen of Nikko; and local tradi- 
tion says that it was owing to the efficacy 
of the prayers here offered, that the 
Mongol invaders in the second half of the 
13th century were repulsed with such 
terrible loss. 

In one comer of the chapel en- 
closure stands a bronze lantern 
called the Bakemono Tdrd, presented 
in 1292, which is said to have for- 



merly had the power of taking the> 
form of a demon, and annoying tha 
inhabitants of the locality on dark 
nights, until a courageous man 
attacked it, and with his sword gav^ 
it a wound which is still visible oa 
the cap. 

Turning to the 1. and descending, 
we perceive two red lacquered 
buildings, standing, together and 
connected by a covered gallery. 
The former is dedicated to Kishl 
Bojin and Fugen Bosatsu, the 
latter to Amida. Here are pre- 
served the bones of Yoritomo, which 
were discovered near the site of the 
Ni-o-mon gate of leyasu's mauso- 
leum about the year 1617. Bound 
the sides of the interior are ranged 
a number of Buddhist images. 

Mansolenm of leiiiitsn. Turp^ 
ing to the r. before reaching the 
red-lacquered buildings just men- 
tioned, we approach the gate of the 
mausoleum of lemitsu. This is a 
Ni-o-mon, the side niches of which 
are occupied by a gigantic pair of 
wooden figures. In the niches 
on the inner side of the gateway, 
stand the Ni-6 which once adorned 
the gate of leyasu' s mausoleum. 
Under a beautiful shed r. on enter- 
ing the court, stands a massive 
stone water-basin. A flight of steps 
leads to the gate called Niten-mo7i, 
The niches on the side contain , a 
red statue of Bishamon on the 1., 
and on the r. a green one of Ida-Ten 
(Sanskrit, VSda Baja)^ a mytholo- 
gical protector of Buddhism. The 
niches on the inside are occupied 
by the Gods of Wind and Thunder. 
Three more flights conduct us to the 
YasJia-mmif or Demon Gate, whose , 
niches contain the Shi Tennd. ' 
Turning round just inside the gate, 
we have before us an exquisite view 
of foliage. Directly opposite is the 
Hotoke-iwaj completely clad up to 
the summit with trees of various 
tints. Of the mausoleum which 
stands on it, only a narrow piece can 
be seen between the avenue of 
cryptomerias lining the last flight 
of steps ascended. This vignette is 



Mausoleum of lemitsii. 



15^ 



the gem of Nikko. The oratory and 
chapel are less magnificent than 
those of leyasu. The former is 
crowded with the insignia of Bud- 
dhism. Two largo horn lanterns 
pointed out as Korean are evidently 
Dutch. The tomb is reached by 
flights of steps up the side bf the 
hill on the r. of the chapel. It is 
of bronze, and in the same style as 
that of leyasu, but of a darker hue. 
The gates in front are of bronze, 
and are covered with large Sanskrit 
characters in shining brass. 

After descending a flight of steps, 
and passing under the gallery con- 
necting the the temples of Kishi Bo- 
jin and Amida, we come to the 
resting-place of Jigen Daishi, other- 
wise called Tenkai Daisojo, arch- 
bishop of Isikko at the time of le- 
yasu's interment. The chapel con- 
tains some interesting paintings, 
and is finely decorated on the 
outside. Two white phoenixes 
above the entrance are particularly 
worthy of notice. The tomb 
behind is constructed of stone, 
and consists of a cube on which 
rests a globe surmounted by a 
pyramidal top, with the comers 
turned up, standing altogether 
about 12 ft. high. Six stone effigies 
of Buddhist gods life-size stai\d in 
rows, three on either side. Before 
quitting this spot, it is worth while 
ascending a fews steps on the 1., 
which lead to the tombs of the 
prince-abbots. They are thirteen 
in number, arranged round three 
sides of a square, and their 
mean appearance contrasts curiously 
with the splendour of the tombs of 
leyasu and lemitsu. In no gor- 
geous chapel are litanies chanted 
to their memory; all we see is a 
rough shed supported on four wooden 
posts. 

" No visitor should fail to see a cer- 
tain chamber at Nikko if he desires 
to carry away a clear idea of the 
magnificent care lavished by the 
men of old on the mausolea of their 
ancestors. It is a chamber in the 
iron store-room attached to the 



Tama-ya of the third Shogun, le- 
mitsu, and on its walls are hung 
about twenty of the finest examj)les 
of decorative painting that could be 
achieved by the Japanese artists of 
the seventeenth century, working 
without the smallest concern for 
time and expense. The subjects 
depicted are all Buddhistic. Gold 
is profusely used, and used with a 
firmness, directness and fineness of 
stroke that are absolutely mar- 
vellous. The colours are wonder- 
fully rich and mellow ; indeed, the 
best of the pictures seem to radiate 
a perfect glow of brilliancy, without,^ 
however, the slightest approach to* 
garishness or obtrusiveness. The 
original silk on which the picture is 
painted is not suffered to appear at 
all, being completely covered with 
microscopic illumination, or beauti- 
fully designed brocades in glorious 
colours. The borders, which in or- 
dinary pictures cofisist of rich fabrics, 
are here replaced by hand-painting 
inconceivably accurate and minute. 
The artist, in fact, took a single piece 
of seamless silk, specially - woven 
for the purpose, perhaps 8 feet long 
and 4 wide, and covered the entire 
surface with illuminated painting,, 
fi'om the elaborate border of scrolls 
and diapers to the central deity 
clothed in raiment of gold cloth,, 
every line and mesh of which is 
faithfully reproduced. To attempt 
to describe such works verbally is 
entirely futile. In the same store- 
room are many other objects of 
beauty and interest ; for example, a 
number of illuminated scrolls en- 
closed in a lacquer case that is 
itself a marvel ; some boxes of the 
most exquisite filigree metal-work ; 
the norimono in which the mortuary 
tablet of lemitsu was carried to- 
the shrine; and so forth. The 
conclusion at which every one 
visiting this store-room must inevi- 
tably arrive is that few of the much- 
vaunted illuminated missals of 
mediaeval Europe will endure com- 
parison for a moment with the 
similar work of contemporaneous 



160 



Route 16. — Xikho and Neighbourhood, 



Japanese artists. Special steps 
must be taken to gain access to the 
store-room where these» treasures 

Are preserved The best 

way to procure admission to all the 
•objects of interest is to become a 
member of the Hoko-kwai, or Nikko 
Preservation Society, by payment 
•of a subscription of $5." — Japan 
Mail. 

-3. — Objects op Minor Interest. 

Besides the mausolea of the 
Sh5guns, there are various objects 
At Nikko having a lesser degree 
of interest. All are within a 
short distance of the great temples. 
One of these is the Hmigu, a tem- 
ple dedicated to the Shinto god Aji- 
suki-taka-hikone,. whose name im- 
plies that he was mighty with the 
spade. This temple was built by Sho- 
do Shonin in A.D. 808, close to the 
Buddhist monastery which he had 
founded. It is reached by ascending 
the stone steps that face the end 
•of the bridge, and then turning to 
the right. Near the Hongu stands 
the San^io-iniya, a small red chapel 
«urrounded by a stone balustrade. 
It is believed that women may 
obtain safe delivery by here offering 
up pieces of wood, such as are used 
in the Japanese game of chess, and 
correspond to our rook. Close 
hj is the Kaisan-ddy a red lac- 
quered building 36 ft. square, dedi- 
cated to Shodo Shonin, the 'pioneer 
of the mountain,* as the name 
implies. Peeping through the grat- 
ing which forms the window on the 
E. side, we see an image of Jizo 
occupying a lofty position, with 
the eflSgy of the saint below, and 
those of ton disciples ranged r. and 
1. Behind are the tombs of the saint 
4ind three of his disciples. At the 
base of the rugged and precipitous 
rock at the back of the Kaisan-dO are 
some rough Buddhist images, from 
which the hill takes its name of Hoto- 
ke-iwa. Further on we pass a small 
shrine dedicated to Tenjin. A large 
stone close to the path on the r., 
just beyond this, is called the Te- 



kakc-ishiy or Hand-touched Stone, 
said to have been sanctified by 
the imposition of Kobo Daishi's 
hands. Fragments of it are valued 
as a protection against noxious in- 
fluences. Opposite stand a row of 
stone images of Emma-0, the Begent 
of Hell. Further on is a stone 
bearing a half-effaced inscription, 
erected over the spot where lies the 
horse which carried leyasu at the 
decisive battle of Seki-ga-hara, in 
the year IGOO. After the death of 
the master whom he had borne to 
victory, the horse was set free in 
the mountains of Nikko, and died 
in 1630. The next object to bo 
noticed is an immense cryptomeria, 
7 ft. in diameter a little above the 
base, called the li-viori no sngi, from 
the supposed resemblance to a heap 
of boiled rice which its pendent 
branches present. The tree is said 
to have been planted by a deputa- 
tion representing 800 Buddhist nuns 
of the province of Wakasa. Close 
to the path on the 1., as we turn a 
corner, is the Somen tw takiy or 
Vermicelli Cascade, so called from 
a fancied likeness to a bowl of 
that food. Another and prettier 
name given to it is Shira-ito, * White 
Thread.* 

4. — Walks in the Neighboubhood. 

1. Kwannon-yniim is the name 
of the bluff behind the upper end 
of the village. A fine view of the 
river and surrounding country ia 
obtained from the tea-sheds over- 
looking the street. 

2. Kainnian-ga-fnc1ii. About 20 
min. walk from the bridge, along 
the course of the Daiyagawa, is a 
deep pool called Kamman-ga-fuchi. 
A liut has been erected here close 
to the boiling eddies, opposite to a 
precipitous rock on which is en- 
graved the Sanskrit word Hdnwmm, 
It seems impossible that any one 
should have been able to get across 
to perform the work, and so it ig 
ascribed to Kobo Daishi, who ac- 
complished the feat by • throwing 



Kamnian-ga-fucJii, * Waterfalls, 



161 



his pen at the rock. But there is 
authority for attributiug it to a 
disciple of Jigen Daishi, only two 
centuries ago. On the bank of the 
river stand a large number of images 
of Amida ranged in a long row. It 
is believed that they always count 
up differently however often the 
attempt be made, — a belief bearing 
a curious resemblance to the super- 
stition which prevailed regarding 
the Druidical stones in various 
parts of England. It was supposed 
that no two persons could number 
the stones alike, and that nobody 
could ever find a second counting 
confirm the first. The largest of 
these images was some years ago 
washed down the river by a flood 
as far as Imaichi, arriving there in 
perfect safety. It now stands at the 
E. end of that town, wit<h its face 
towards Nikko. 

3. Hontd Somen-ga-taki, or the 
Real Vermicelli Cascade, so called 
to distinguish it from the one men- 
tioned on p. 160, is about ^ hr. walk 
up the vaUey nearest to Kamman- 
ga-fuchi. It consists of a" series of 
three cascades, not large, but very 
pretty after rain. As we approach 
the first fall on going up the valley, 
a small trickle of water coming over 
the face of the hill is perceived on 
the 1. This streamlet often becomes 
a clear fall of about 40 ft. 

4. Dainichi-do, just beyond Kam- 
man-ga-fuchi .on the opposite side 
of the river, merits a visit for the 
sake of its prettily arranged garden. 
The water rising from a spring 
in one of the artificial ponds is 
deliciously cool, and is considered 
the purest in the neighbourhood of 
Kikko. 

6. Toyania. The nearest emi- 
nence from which an extensive 
view of the plain can be obtained is 
Toyama, a hill rising up somewhat 
in the form of a huge animal cou- 
chant on the 1. bank of the Inari- 
kawa, which flows down by the 
nde of the temples. From the 
bridge to the top isf hr. climb. The 



last bit of the ascent is steep, but- 
the view is a sufficient reward. 
The large mountain on the extreme^ 
1. is Keicho-zan, also called Taka- 
hara-yama. Right opposite is the 
long ridge of Haguro-yama. Tsuku- 
ba's double peak is unmistakable^ 
Turning round we see the whole of 
the magnificent range formed by 
Nantai-zan, 0-Manago, Ko-Manago^ 
Nyoho-zan, and Akanagi. 

6. Kirifuri-iio-taki or the Mist- 
Falling Cascade. By taking a wide- 
sweep round the base of Toyama and 
over undulating country to the S., 
this cascade may be reached in 1 J 
hr. A tea-house on the hill above 
commands a picturesque view of 
the fall, and from the top of a knoll 
just beyond the tea-house, a grand 
view is obtained of the country 
towards the E., S., and W. A 
steep and very rough path leads - 
down to the foot, where the fall is 
seen to better advantage. The rare 
fern Aspidium triptcron grows by 
the way-side; it is also found at 
the foot of the E. side of the 
Hotoke-iwa. 

7. Makiira-no-taI:i, or the Pillow 
Cascade. On leaving Kirifuri we- 
re trace the path for a few steps, andi 
then follow another to the r. for- 
about 2 in. This path crosses the 
stream above Kirifuri three times, 
and then crossing two hills, leads to- 
another stream. Here we leave- 
the path and plunge into a thicket, 
keeping the stream on the r., a 
rough climb of 3 or 4 did bringing 
us to the ^lakura-no-taki, a fall of 
about 60 ft. in height. The best 
view is obtained from a point a few 
yards up the hill to the 1. The fall 
shows very prettily through the trees 
as it is approached, and altogether 
well repays the toil of reaching 
it. As the path is easily mistaken, 
it is advisable to procure a guide, 
who will also be able to lead one a 
different way back to Nikko, instead 
of returning via Kirifuri. 

8. Jakko. To the site of the- 
temple of Jakko and to Nana-taki» 



162 



Boute 16, — XikJco and Neighhourhood. 



(cascade), 'which lies in a recess 
bahiad lemitsu's mausoleum at the 
base of Nyoho-zan, is a pleasant 
walk of 1 lir. from Nikko. The way 
lies through the village of Iri- 
machi beyond the temples, and 
turns o3 at right angles just 
before descending the hill. The 
temple that stood here was burnt 
in 1876, and the splendid avenue of 
pines and cryptomerias which 
formed the approach has been 
ruthlessly cut down. Behind the 
site of the temples is a cascade, a 
series of falls of about 100 ft. in 
height. It goes by various names, 
«one being Nana-taki, and must not 
be confounded with the other falls of 
the same name in the chasm over- 
looked by the summit of Nyoho-zan. 

9. Jakko Icki-no-toki. Shortly 
before reaching the base of the hill 
-on which the temple of Jakko stands, 
we cross a bridge over a small 
stream, where a path leads off r. 
■around the base of the hill. Less 
than i m. up a beautiful ravine, 
lies the waterfall of Ichi-no-taki. 
About half way up, the stream is 
again crossed, and a few yards fur- 
ther we gain the first view of 
the fall. The path thence to the 
bottom is steep. As the way is very 
muddy after rain, and only a log 
bridge spans the stream, this ex- 
<cursion may sometimes be found 
awkward for ladies. 

10. The Deer Park (GoRydcht). 
About half-way to Jakko from Iri- 
machi, a narrow path turns of! r., 
leading up a small valley in which 
the Deer Park is situated. Five 
min. walk takes one to the keeper's 
house, where a permit to enter the 
park, obtainable from the local au- 
thorities, must be presented. With- 
in the precincts of the park are two 
pretty cascades. 

11. Uraiiii-gra-taki, or the Back 
View Cascade, derives its name 
from the possibility of passing 
behind and under the fall. It lies 
on the r., some distance from the 
•old Chuzenji road, and beyond the 



path to Jq,kk6. Turning to the r. 
by a fairly broad path shortly after 
crossing an affluent of the Daiya- 
gawa, the path rises on to a moor, 
and after 1^ hr. walk reaches 
several tea-houses by the side of & 
stream, whence the remainder of 
the way is an easy climb of 6 chd. 
The view of the cascade, which is 
about 50 ft. high, is at first rather 
disappointing, as the spectator 
sees it from a level not far below 
the point where it shoots out from 
the rocks ; but those venturesome 
enough to pass behind the fall 
and up the ravine on the other 
side, will be well repaid for their 
trouble and the slight inconvenience 
of a wetting from the spray. On 
reaching the other side of the fall, 
there is a picturesque view of the 
rocky basin overhung with trees, of 
the cascade, and of the deep pool into 
which it tumbles. On the r. and 1. 
of the principal fall are two smaller 
ones, while above is a shrine 
dedicated to Fudo. A walk of 5 or 
10 min. beyond Fudo leads to 
another basin with a small cascade 
falling into it. — Urami may also 
be conveniently visited on the way 
back from Chiizenji, by taking the 
road which branches ofi 1. a little 
below Uma-gaeshi, and by turning 
to the 1. again at Kiyotaka, where a 
very muddy path leads through the 
woods for a distance of about 1 ri 
to the tea-houses above-mentioned. 

12. Jikan-no-taki (cascade). 
Crossing the stream by tne side of 
the tea-houses below Urami, a 
path will be found r. a few steps 
beyond. It leads up the hill, mostly 
through a wood for a little over 1 ri, 
the first part of which is rather 
steep. At Jikan there is a pretty 
effect of water falling in a dozen 
streams over a ledge of rock. The 
view from the top of the fall down the 
valley is very fine, and the place a 
charming one for picnics. About 1 
m. below Jikan, and visible from a 
small clearing at the edge of the 
hill on the way up, is another fall 
called Jikan Ni, 



Ascent of Nyoho-zan and Nantai-zan, 



163 



13. Ascent of Nyoho-zan via 
Nana-taki, or the Seven Cascades. 

This is a whole day's excursion, 
and an early start should conse- 
quently be made. The ascent of 
Nyoh6-zan is the best of all the 
mountain climbs near Nikko. With 
a good guide, 4^ hrs. will sufl&ce for 
the actual ascent, and 2^ for the 
descent. Nyoho-zan can be ascended 
as late as the middle of November. 
The way for pedestrians lies past 
the temple of Futa-ara-no-jinja 
and a minor shrine called the 
Gyoja-do. Here take a narrow 
track to the 1. through the wood, 
and after f hr. easy walking 
with a short climb at the end, 
a large stone known as the Sesshd- 
seki is reached, which bears an 
inscription to notify that killing 
game is prohibited on these hills. 
(The best way for horses and kagos 
leads a short distance over the 
Jakko road to a zigzag path clearly 
visible on the hill to the r., and 
joins the path already mentioned 
at the Sesshd-seki.) Right ahead 
rises a peak called Akapporiy con- 
spicuous by its precipitous face 
of red volcanic, strata. The path 
continues up the grassy spur in 
front. In 1 hr. from the Sesshd- 
seki we arrive at a hut called 
HappUy and 5 min. later we come to 
the edge of a precipice overlooking 
a gigantic chasm, apparently the 
remains of an ancient crater that 
has been broken away by water on 
the S.E. side, where the Inari-kawa 
has its source. Prom Akanagi-san 
an almost unbroken crater wall 
extends westward to Akappori. 
This secondary crater appears not 
to have been very deep, as its pre- 
sent floor, out of which descends 
one of the seven cascades that 
supply the Inari-kawa, is high above 
the greater chasm immediately in 
front of us, A projecting spur 
divides the upper from the lower 
crater, and above it on the 1. rises 
a lesser peak named Sliaktijo-ga- 
take. The falls are viewed from 
the edge of the precipice. They 



consist of seven cascades, which 
seem to issue from the side of the 
mountain, and are not remarkable 
for either size or beauty ; but the 
walk to this point is one of the 
most delightful in the neighbour- 
hood and affords entrancing views. 
The excursion as far as Nana-taki 
and back occupies from 5 to 6 hrs. 
Nyoho-zan, which may be seen from 
the moor, is invisible from this 
point. The . path hence winds to 
the 1. not far from the edge of the 
chasm, at first very steeply, and 
then through the wood to the Karar- 
sawa hut in about 1^ hr. We are 
now at the foot of Nyoho-zan, the 
ascent of which will occupy not 
more than J hr. The summit is 
about 8,130 ft. high. To the N. 
it commands an extensive view over 
a sea of lower mountains, among 
which lie the secluded valleys of 
Kuriyama-go ; to the N.E., Nasn- 
no-yama is rendered conspicuous by 
the smoke rising from its crater, 
and further N. is seen Bandai- 
san ; to the E. is Takahara-yama, 
which also has the appearance of 
a volcano. On the immediate W. 
of the spectator is Akakura, merely 
a continuation of Nyoho-zan, then 
Ko-Manago, 0-Manago, and Nantai- 
zan. Between Akakura and Ko> 
^lanago we look across to Taro-zan. 
Akanuma-ga-hara is partly visible, 
and beyond it the bare volcanic 
summit of Shirane. Further to the 
S.W. are seen Asama-yama, Yatsu- 
ga-take, and numerous other peaks 
probably belonging to the Hida- 
Shinshu range. The upper half of 
Fuji rises S. over the long horizon- 
tal line of the Ghichibu mountains. 
Away in the plain to the E. and 
S. are perceived the broad, and 
deep Kinugawa, stretches of the 
Tonegawa, the vill. of Nikko with 
the parallel rows of dark trees 
marking the main roads, and far 
away on the horizon, Tsukuba-san. 

14. Ascent of Nnntai-zan viH 
Urami. Just beyond the tea- 
houses below Urami, the path 
descends to the 1., crosses the 



164 



Eoute 16. — Nikko and Neighbourhood. 



etream and turns at once to the r., 
climbing up through a wood, on 
emerging from which Nantai-zan, 
O-Manago, Nyoho-zan, and Akanagi 
jure seen in front. After ascend- 
ing a grassy valley for about 20 min., 
a sign-post is reached where a path 
to the r. diverges to Nyoho-zan and 
.Akanagi, while the 1. branch ascends 
a hill and gradually winds to the 
T. Entering a wood, it follows 
up a deep thickly wooded gully, 
and at last reaches a torii in 
the middle of the wood occupying 
the depression between Nantai-zan 
and O-Manago. Here the path 
forks, the r. branch passing the spot 
from which O-Manago is ascended, 
and continuing on towards Yumoto, 
vhile the 1. climbs up to the Shizu 
■wo Iwaya (5,600 ft.), where the back 
ascent of Nantai-zan commences. 
Horses may be taken from Nikko to 
this place. The time on foot from 
I^ikko is 3 hrs. From here to Ghii- 
zenji round the base of Nantai- 
zan is also a good 8 hrs. walk. 
The route for some distance follows 
the path to Yumoto, and about 1 
ri after crossing the bed of a 
stream, diverges to the 1., shortly 
afterwards issuing on the open 
plain of Akanuma-ga-hara, from 
•which moment the path cannot be 
jnissed. 



5. — Kegon-no-taki, Chuzenji, and 

Yumoto. 

One of the principal points of 
interest near Nikko is the beautiful 
lake of Chuzenji. The road is prac- 
ticable for jinrikishas, not only to 
the vill. of Chuzenji, 3 ri 12 chd 
from Nikko, but for 2 ri 27 chd 
further on to the hot-springs of 
Yumoto. But owing to the steep- 
ness of the hill which has to be 
passed on the way, ladies and others 
unable to walk are recommended 
to take chairs or horses. The walk 
from Nikko to Chuzenji and back 
in one day is a favourite excursion. 
Indeed sturdy pedestrians are able, 
2>j making an early start, to do the 



whole distance to Yumoto and back 
within the limits of a day ; but this 
is neither advisable nor necessary. 

Leaving Nikko, we follow the 
Ashio road along the course of the 
Daiyagawa as far as Fiitamiya (1^ 
ri), where the road to Chuzenji 
branches off r. through a wood, 
still continuing by the river-side. 
This river, which issues from Lake 
Chuzenji, is for most of the year a 
small and quiet stream; but at times- 
it becomes a dangerous torrent carry- 
ing away embankments and roads. 
The ascent is gradual and easy up 
to the hamlet of XJma-gaeshi, where 
there is a good tea-house. Just 
before reaching this hamlet, the 
old path from Nikko, still much 
traversed by pedestrians, joins the 
new road. Beyond Uma-gaeshi 
three men should be taken for each 
jinrikisha. The road thence for 
some distance is cut out of the side 
of the overhanging cliffs close by 
the brawling stream, and owing te 
landslips is difficult to maintain 
in order. Formerly the path 
climbed along the face of the pre- 
cipitous cliff to the r., and was 
impassable even for horses ; a later 
road can be traced as it ascends, 
the ravine and crosses over the 
rushing waters of the Daiyagawa 
on faggot bridges. The scenery 
between Uma-gaeshi and the small 
cluster of houses at the foot of 
the real ascent, 3 hr. walk, is 
wild and picturesque. Leaving the 
rugged gorge, a winding path leads 
up to a narrow ridge, where a 
resting-hut commands a pretty 
view of two cascades at the head of 
the ravine to the r. From this 
point the ascent to the top, which 
occupies about f hr., is arduous. At 
the charmingly situated tea-house 
called Naka no Chaya half-way up, 
the coolies usually make a short halt. 
On the summit, the road passes 
through a wood of pines and 
oaks, many of which are covered 
with the long trailing moss called 
Sartigase {Lycopodium sieboldi), A 
path to the 1. leads to a plat* 



Kegon-nO'taJd. Chuzenji^ 



165 



form which commands a fine view 
of the cascade of 

Kegoii-no-taki. The height of 
the fall is about 350 ft. In the 
earlier part of the year it i^ 
occasionally almost dry ; but after 
the heavy summer rains it shoots 
out over the edge of the over- 
hanging precipice in considerable 
volume. The best view is obtained 
by descending the side of the preci- 
pice to the look-out which has been 
erected just opposite the fall. The 
road onwards soon reaches the shore 
of the lake, and enters the singu- 
larly deserted vill. of 

Chfizcilji, which is only oc- 
cupied by pilgrims in July 
and August. The -houses stand in 
long rows, containing for the most 
part two rooms, one above and 
one below. Comfortable accom- 
modation can be had at the inns, — 
*Kome-ya and *Izumi-ya, — which 
have pleasant rooms looking out 
on the lake. ' European food can 
generally be obtained during the 
summer months. The temple here 
is said to have been founded by 
Shodo Shonin, in A.D. 816, after 
his ascent of Nantai-zan. The 
space between the bronze t(yrii 
and the temple itself is considered 
holy ground, and persons in jinriki- 
shas or A'^{/oshad better go along 
the lower road if they object to 
being required to alight in order to 
pass through. Close to the temple 
is the gate of Nantai-zan, which is 
closed except during the pilgrim 
season. The ascent, occupying about 
2 hrs., is extremely steep ; but the 



view from the summit (8,150 ft.) 
well repays the exertion ^ On the 
S. E. lies the plain stretching to- 
wards Tokyo ; on the W. rises the 
lofty cone of Shirane-san ; further S. 
is Koshin zan ; below lies the marshy 
basin of Scnjo-ga-hara with the 
stream meandering through it, the 
blue lake of Chuzenji, a glimpse of 
Lake Yumoto, and N. o1 Shirane, 
the peaks of Taro-zan, 0-rManago, 
Ko-Manago, and Nyoho-zan. The 
ascent can also be made from 
Yumoto in about 3^ hrs. (see p. 167). 
Liike Chuzenji lies at the foot of 
Nantai-zan, being surrounded on 
the other sides by comparatively 
low hills covered with trees to their 
very summit. Its greatest length 
from E. to W. is estimated at 3 ri, 
its breadth at 1 ri. The lake 
abounds with excellent salmon- 
trout and other fish.f Its height 
above the sea is 4,375 ft. The 
road to Yumoto lies for about 1 
ri along the N. shore, at the edge 
of the forest covering the base 
of Nantai-zan, to a promontory 
called Senju-ga-saki. Boats may be 
taken to this point from the vill. 
of Chijzenji. Far away on the op- 
posite side of the lake is a tiny islet 
called Kdztike-shitiia, 

[At the far end of the lake stands 
a small shrine close to a brook 
remarkable for the icy coldness 
of its water. This is a pleasant 
spot for a picnic, and is within 
^ hr. walk of the Nishi no umif 
a tarn nestling beneath the 
wooded hills which, at this end, 
recede from the larger lake.] 



tNUMBEB AND BESCRIFTIOIT OF 7IKH Pri' IKTO LaKE ChuZENJI BY THE JaPAKESS 

Government from 1873 to 1890. 



Caught during the ) 
years lbi:U(>-89. i 

Weighing .-. 



Salmon. 



283,000 

149 

lbs. 277 



Salmon 
trout. 



556,000 

8,669 

lbs. 7,334 



Iitana 

(a species 

of white 

trout). 


Carp. 


Akakara^ 


Shrimps. 


137,500 

31,488 

lbs. 49,634 


22,000 

168 

lbs. 454 


800 

40,702 

lbs. 2,645 


16.000 

• 



166 



Route 16, — Xikkoand XeighbourJiood, 



Jnst beyond the promontory the 
road turns away from the lake, 
and soon crosses the Jigoku no 
kaivay a slender stream which 
hurries over smooth rocks. Rest 
and shelter may be had at the 
hut close by. A little further on, a 
path branches off r. through the 
grass to the cave called Jigoku no 
kama (Heirs Cauldron) at the base 
of Nantai-zan. The road ascends 
slightly after leaving the hut, and a 
few steps away to the 1. bring us to 
the foot of the Byuzu ga takiy or 
Dragon's Head Cascade, the most 
curious- of all the cascades in 
this neighbourhood. It consists of 
a series of small falls rushing over 
steep black rocks and forming two 
streams. In order to obtain a full 
view, the first stream must be 
crossed. On the 1., the second 
stream plunges down through deep, 
dark hollows in the rock, and loses , 
itself in hidden windings. The 
maples at this spot, during the 
month of October, display the love- 
liest tints that can be imagined. 
Beyond this, the road is through a 
desolate forest which was ravaged 
by fire some years ago, until it 
emerges on the Akanuma-ga-hara^ 
or Moor of the Red Swamp, pro- 
bably so named from the colour of 
the dying grass in autumn. It is 
also called Senjo-ga-hara, or Moor 
of the Battle-field, on account of 
an engagement that took place here 
in A.D. 1389 between the partisans 
of the Ashikaga Shoguns and those 
of the Southern dynasty of Mikados 
(see p. 87). This wide solitude is 
bounded on all sides by forests, above 
which rise the peaks of Nantai-zan, 
0-Manago, Ko-Manago, and Taro- 
2an. Far away on the 1. is a wooded 
elevation, in the centre of which the 
cascade of Yu-no-taki appears like 
a silver thread. Above this rises 
the volcano of Shirane-san, the 
only bare peak in the vicinity. The 
road crosses the plain to a point not 
far from the Yu-no-taki where it 
begins to rise through a wood of 
oaks. The bottom of the ascent 



is 21 cho from Yumoto. Half-way- 
through the wood, a path diverges 1. 
to the foot of the cascade, whicH 
rushes over a smooth black rock 
between the trees at an angle of 
60^, forming a stream that feeds 
the Ryuzu-ga-taki, and finally falls 
into Lake Chiizenji. Its perpendi- 
cular height must be about 200 ft. 
A narrow steep path by its side 
leads up to the top, some 60 yds. 
from the shore of Lake Yumoto^ 
80 called from the hot springs at its 
further end. This liUce, though 
smaller than Ltake Chnzenji, is 
more beautiful. The road winds 
through the wood along the E. side 
of the lake to the small vill. of 

Tnnioto, 5,000 ft. above the sea. 
Heps the water is partially dis« 
coloured by the sulphur springs. 
The inn kept by Namma Shin- 
jiiro close to the entrance of 
the vill. on the r. is recommended, 
as the temperature of the baths 
is not too high for Europeans. An> 
other good inn is the Yamada-ya ia 
the centre of the village. There are 
altogether ten springs, some under 
cover, others exposed to the open air, 
all open to the public and frequent* 
ed by both sexes promiscuously. 
Shirane-san may be ascended 
from Yumoto, but the ascent from 
Higashi-Ogawa (see p. 170) is to be 
preferred. 

6. — Ascent of 0-Manago and Nak- 
tai-zan from yumoto. 

The ascent of O-Managro is made 
by returning to the Akanuma-ga- 
hara, and turning to the 1. close by 
a well-known cold spring. We skirt 
the moor, passing through a thick 
wood, and after 2i hrs. from Yumo- 
to, arrive at a shrine containing a 
stone image of Shozuka-no-Baba, 
with a strange medley of ex-votos 
hanging outside. Shortly after- 
wards we turn to the 1. over a rustio 
bridge, and in ^ hr. reach the torii 
of O-Manago. The distance to the 
summit is 1 ri 8 choy the real ascent 
beginning at a bronze image of 



Boute 17. — From Xikko to Omama vid Ashio, 



167 



PudO on a large Rtone pedestal. 
Three-quarters of tlie way up, we 
come to another bronze image 
erected in honour of the mountain 
god of Ontake in ShinshiL ; and the 
last bit of the ascent is over preci- 
pitous rocks, where chains are fixed 
to assist the climber. On the top 
stands a wooden shrine, with a 
bronze image behind it, said to be 
Kunitoko-tachi, the Earth-god. The 
view is less extensive than that 
from Nantai-zan. 

Nantiii-zan can be ascended from 
the back with much greater ease 
than from Chuzenji, by starting from 
a hut called th^ Ozaioano shiiku. 
Chains at one point enable a small 
"difficulty to be surmounted. In this 
way the ascent can easily be made 
in about 3^ hrs. from Yumoto. 

Japanese pilgrims make the round 
of the various mountains near 
Nikko by ascending firs^ Nyoho- 
zan, then Ko-Manago, descending 
to a place called Sabusawa, and 
ascending 0- Manage from the back. 
They sleep at a hut called the 
Shizu-no-Iwaya, climb Taro-zan in 
the forenoon, Nantaizan in the 
afternoon, and descend to Chuzenji. 



ROUTE 17. 

From Nikko to Tokyo or Ikao vid 
Ashio and the Valley op the 
Watabase-gawa. [Koshin-zan.] 
Chuzenji to Ashio. 

Itinerary, 

NIKKO to :— Ri. Chb. M. 

Top of pass 3 8 8 

ASHIO 3 2 7i 

Sori 2 21 6| 

Godo 2 12 6} 

Hanawa 1 — 2^' 

OMAMA 3 4 7^ 

Total 15 11 37i 



From Omama toTokjo by train 
in 4^ hrs. Or from Omama by train 
in f hr. to IMaebashi, whence see 
Route 14. _ 

The road from Nikko to Omama 
over the Hoso-o Pass, whose sum- 
mit fs 4,100 ft. above sea level, is 
rough but generally practicable for 
jinrikishas the whole way. The 
Watarase-gawa is reached before 
entering 

Asliio (InnSf *Tsuru-ya, Izmni- 
ya). This place, famed for its 
copper mines which are the most 
productive in Japan, lies in ^ 
deep valley at an altitude of 
about 2,300 ft. The mines, of 
which there are two in the neigh- 
bourhood, bear respectively the 
names of Ashio and Kotaki, the 
latter being about 6 m. from the 
town. The ore is found .in a matrix 
of clay, calcite, and quartz, and 
is almost entirely the pyrite or 
copper sulphide, although a small 
quantity of oxide also occurs. The 
lodes vary from 6 to 20 ft. in 
width. The most approved modern 
processes of treating the ore are in 
use. The electricity for the motors 
in the Ashio mine is generated by 
water-power at a station about 1^ 
m. distant. The average yield is 
19 % of metal, and the total annual 
product of finished metal from the 
two mines reaches the remarkable 
figure of 3,600 tons. A rope^way 
about 3 miles in length has been 
constructed over the Ashio pass for 
convenience of transport. 

Persons desirous of inspecting the 
mines should obtain an introduction 
from the Office in Tokyo. 

[An extra day at Ashio may well 
be devoted to visiting the 
wonderful rocks of Kosliiii-zaii. 

It is a distance of 8 chb from 
Ashio to the cluster of huts at 
the base of the thickly wooded 
mountain, whence a good 
walker will in 3 hrs. reach a 
point callel the Bessho, 4,500 
ft., where the rock scenery 
begins. In order to visit the 
rocks, it is necessary to en* 



168 



JRoute 17. — From Nihko to Oniama via Asiliio, 



gage the services of the guide 
who lives at the hut. The 
whole round will take about 
2 J hrs., and is perfectly safe 
lor all except those who are 
troubled with dizziness. 

Leaving the hut by the path 
on the S. side, we commence 
the round of the rocks, scram- 
bling up and down the steepest 
places imaginable, traversing 
deep ravines on rough foot- 
bridges, and crawling round the 
face of precipices by the aid of 
iron chains and foot-steps cut 
in the solid rock. A point 
called .Mi-harashi commands 
a magnificent prospect of the 
dense forest-covered mountains 
below, and Tsukuba-san in the 
plain beyond. Behind, the eye 
rests upon the gigantic rock- 
work, amidst which conifers 
have perched themselves in 
inaccessible nooks and crannies. 
To the various features of the 
landscape, more or less fanciful 
•names have been given. The 
most striking are the San-ju- 
san-gerij a mass of precipices 
dedicated to Kwannon ; the 
Spring dedicated to Yakushi, 
the waters of which are believed 
to be efficacious in cases of 
eye disease ; the Kinoko-sekiy 
or Mushroom Bock, beyond 
which comes the Yagura-seki, 
supposed to resemble the towers 
on the walls of a fortress; 
next the Uj-ami-ga-taki, or Back 
View Cascade, which falls 
from a ledge above in silvery 
threads. The huge precipice 
close by is called the Go-shiki 
no seki or Rock of the Five 
Colours. The guide points 
out a rock, the Men-sekiy in 
which a remote likeness to a 
human face may be traced. 
Above this is the Go-ju no Toj or 
Five-storied Pagoda, and near 
it, a small natural arch called 
the Ichi no rnon. Creeping 
through this, the path reaches 
the Bonji-seki, or Sanskrit 



Character Rocks, next passing 
the Raikd-daniy a deep gully 
supposed to have some occult 
relation to the occurrence of 
thunder-storms; the Toro-iiva, 
or Stone-lantern Rock ; the 
Fujimi-scki, whence the upper 
half of Fuji is seen; the Shishi' 
seki, or Lion Rock ; the Ogi-iwa- 
ya, or Fan Cavern ; and the 
Zo-seki, or Elephant Rock. 
Next we come to. where a huge- 
natural bridge, called the Atncu 
no Jmshij or Bridge of Hea- 
ven, used to span the ravine- 
until destroyed by an earth- 
quake' in 1824, On the other 
side is a hole about 6 ft. in 
diameter, called Ni no mon, or 
Second Gate, • where th& 
bridge terminated. Ascending, 
from this point a very narrow 
erevice by the aid of chains^ 
the nath reaches the Mi-hara- 
shi Sready mentioned. Then 
passing behind a precipitous de- 
tached rock, called the Bybbii- 
iwa from its resemblance to & 
screen, we ascend a gorge, and 
finally reach the Oku-no-iiv 
(5,450 ft.), where in thre& 
caverns are small shrines de- 
dicated to the three Shinto 
deities Onamuji, Saruta-hiko, 
and Sukuna-bikona. It was 
the second of these whose wor- 
ship was originally established 
on this mountain under the 
title of Koshin. On turning 
the corner just beyond, we see 
the tops of Nantai-zan and 
O-Manago bearing about N., and 
descending the hill-side, reach 
the Bessho again in 25 min. 
from the Oku-no-ii). The des- 
cent to the huts at the base of 
the mountain will take nearly 
2^ hrs.] 

The scenery the whole way along 
the banks of the Watarase-gaiua is 
delightful, and especially between 
Ashio and Godo quite romantic. 
Occasionally the road actually over- 
hangs the river, which now flows 
on in a perfectly placid course^. 



Eoiite IS. — From Nikko to Ikao over Hie Konsei-toge. 169 



while at others it foams and dashes 
Amidst tremendous boulders. After 
passing 

Sori (Inn, Komatsu-ya), a glade 
of fine cryptomerias attests the 
priestly care formerly bestowed on 
the temple of Tenno. The road 
then winds up and down the 
thickly wooded side of the valley, 
high above the rushing waters of 
the river to 
Godo {Inn, Tama-ya), and 
Hannwa {Inny * Nakachi-ya). 
After the latter place it becomes 
less picturesque, leading for most 
-of the way across a cultivated 
plateau. Large quantities of ai are 
taken both with the fly and the net 
in the Watarase-gawa, which is 
rejoined just above 

Oiiiama (Inn Tsuru-ya), see 
p. 161. 

[An alternative way from Nikko 
to Ashio is vi& Chiizenji, whence 
over the mountains in about 5 
hrs. steady walking by a path 
impracticable for conveyances of 
any sort. A boat is taken across 
the lake to a point ^ hr. dis- 
tant, whence a steep path leads 
through a wood to the crest of 
a hill overlooking the lake and 
commanding a beautiful pros- 
pect. This climb also takes } 
hr. Looking round we see, tier 
upon tier, the forest-clad ridges 
"that close in the valley of the 
Watarase-gawa. Ahold, densely' 
wooded^ hill occupies the fore- 
ground, and behind it rise the 
mountains of Kotsuke with the 
Oyama range in the shadowy 
distance on the 1., while the 
whole scene is dominated by the 
graceful slope of Fuji, its grand 
height undiminished by the 
many miles of country that lie 
between it and the spectator. 
Through the woods below on 
the other side of the pass, a 
glimpse may be caught of the 
dark waters of Lake Chuzenji, 
with Nantai-zan beyond. The 
iremaiuder of the way from the 



top of the pass is a descent 
through narrow valleys * be- 
tween steep and scantily wooded 
hills,' and over rough stones 
along the torrent bed. About 
10 m. from Chuzenji the mining 
vill. of Akakura, with its copper 
smelting works, is passed; 
whence to Ashio some 2^ m. 
further on, the road, though 
rough and stony, is practicable 
for jinrikishas.] 



ROUTE 18. 

From Nikko to Ikao over thb 

KONSEI-TOGE. [SHIRANE-SAN.] 

Itinerary. 

NIKKO :— RL Clio. 3f. 

Chuzenji 3 12 Tf 

Yumoto 2 27 ^ 

Top of Konsei Pass 1 18 3} 

Higashi Ogawa .... 4 18 11 

Sukagawa 1 . 18 3^ 

Okkai 2 — 5 

Ohara 18 3 

Takahhra 1 23 4 

NUMATA 2 13 5} 

Iwamoto 1 22 4 

Kami Shiroi 1 10 3 

Shiroi 1 24 4 

Shibukawa 26 If 

IKAO 2 17 6 

Total 28 20 69 J 

This route is much to be recom- 
mended to those desirous of seeing 
something of comparatively un- 
beaten tracks. A glimpse is ob- 
tained of the dense forest that 
covers so large a portion of the 
central mountain-range; and the 
valleys of the Katashina-gawa and 
Tonc-ga\fa, down which most of the 
latter part of the way leads, are 
most picturesque. Travellers wishing 
to return to Tokyo by this route 
without visiting Ikao can joia 
the railway at Maebashi, 3 ri 



170 TiOUte 18. — From Niklv to Ikao ovej' the Komei-toge. 



S7 cho beyond Shibukawa, the 
railway journey occupying 3^ hrs. 
The means of transport for bag- 
gage on this route are : coolies over 
the Kousei-toge to Higashi-Oga- 
wa, horses not being taken across 
the pass; horses to ISumata, and 
thence jinrikisha or carriage. 

To start from Nikko itself makes 
an awkward division of the journey. 
The start should be made from 
Chuzenji, in which case, sleeping 
the first night at Higashi Ogawa, 
and the second at Numata, the 
traveller will reach Ikao on the 
afternoon of the third day. 

The way up the Konsei-toge is a 
continued gentle ascent through a 
forest with an undergrowth of bam- 
boo grass, terminating in a steep 
climb. Half a i*i below the sum- 
mit is a small shrine dedicated to 
the phallic worship of the god 
£onsei. 

Tradition says that tlie original object 
of reverence wag made of gold, but that 
having been stolen, it was afterwards 
replaced by one of stone, Kx-votos, chiefly 
wood and stone emblems, are often pre- 
sented at the shi-ine. Very little is known 
about the origin of phallic worship in 
Japan, although it appears to have been 
at one time nearly universal in the 
country districts, especially those of the 
I^. and £. 

Prom the top of the pass on 
looking round, are seen the thickly 
wooded slopes converging towards 
the dark waters of Lake Yumoto, 
behind which stands up in bold 
relief the massive form of Nantai- 
zan, flanked on the 1. by 0-Manago. 
To the r. a glimpse is carght of a 
portion of Lake Chiizenji, while 
Mount Tsukuba rises in the distant 
plain beyond. On the Joshu side 
the thick foliage intercepts all 
view, and there is an equal absence 
of distant prospect during the whole 
of the long downward walk. There 
is no water for 2 hrs., neither is 
there any sign of humalL habita- 
tion in the forest, except a solitary 
hunter's hut. This likewise is de- 
serted during the summer, at which 
season alone the tourist will think of 
coming this way, since the road is . 



practically impassable from the end 
of October to well on in March. 
The foliage is very fine, and in the 
higher part of the forest a peculiar 
effect is produced by a drapery of 
moss, hanging in gray filaments from 
the branches of the tall conifers. 
On nearing Ogawa-no- Yumoto, a 
few huts with thermal springs 
about 1 ri from the vill. of Higashi 
Ogawa, the path follows a stream 
flowing down from Shirane-san. 

Iliirnshi Oga^fa (Inn by Kurata 
Einzaburo) is 2,300 ft. above the 
sea. The Ogawa, from which this 
vill. takes its name, is a small 
tributary of the Eatashina-gawa». 
itself an affluent of the Tonegawa. 

[Travellers doing this rou£e in the 
inverse direction may ascend 
Shirano-san from Higashi 
Ogawa, descending on the other 
side to Yumoto near Chuzenji ► 
A reason for not attempting the 
ascent from the Nikko side is 
its extreme steepness. Even 
from Higashi Ogawa, parts of 
the climb are by no means> 
easy, nor is there any water on 
the mountain side. Shirane- 
' san is a volcano 8,800 ft. high^ 
and was active as recently as. 
1889.] 

Leaving Higashi Ogawa and con- 
tinuing down the valley of the 
Ogawa, dotted with many hamlets^ 
we cross over a hill before reaching 

Siika^a^va in the valley of the 
Katashina-gawa. From the ridge, 
at the foot of which lie two hamlets 
with curious names — Hikage-Chido- 
ri, or Shady Chidori, and Hinata- 
Chidori, or Sunny Chidori, — there 
is a fine view, on looking back, of 
this valley stretching far away to 
the N. The two hamlets are situated 
on opposite sides of the stream, and 
united by a bridge. 

The terrace -like formation of the 
hills at the back of Hikage-chidori 
is very curious. Three terraces at 
least 2 m. long are distinctly 
marked, each of the lower two being 
a few hundred yards wide^ and the 



Route 19,-~-Hitac}d, Shimosa, Kazusa, ^ BosJiu. 



ITl 



iq)per one, sunnount«d by the 
usual irregular ridge, being from 
J to f m. in width. The course of 
these ridges, which seem to mark 
the successive positions at different 
periods of a river bank, is S.W. by 
N.E. We next reach 

^kkai (passable accommodation), 
near which the river dashes over 
perpendicular walls of granite. 

[Opposite Okkai, on the far side 
of a small affluent of the Kata- 
shina-gawa, lies the vill. of 
Oyu. This point affords an 
opportunity of climbing Akagi- 
san (see p. 151), the descent 
being made to Numata on the 
other side.] 

The path now leaves the valley 
of theKatashina-gawa, and crossing 
a well-cultivated upland, comes to 

Ohara (poor accommodation), 
whence it winds over the hills 
and up the Kazusaka-toge. The 
view from this point is supegrb, 
including Haruna-san, the Koshu 
Koma-ga-take, Yatsu-ga-take, Asa- 
ma-yama, Yahazu-yama, and the 
Shirane of Kusatsu. At 

Takahira) the road becomes level 
and praaticable for jinrikishas. 

Numata (Innj Odake-ya) was 
formerly a castle-town. Soon 
after passing it we enter the 
Talley of the Tonegawa, where trout- 
fishing is largely carried on. A 
portion of the river is enclosed with 
stones and fencing running out 
from each bank to the centre of the 
stream, where a bamboo platform 
inclined at an angle of about 15° 
is fixed upon baskets filled with 
stones. The water rushes up this 
platform and leaves the fish at the 
top. They are then caught, and 
kept alive in perforated boxes 
which are placed on the platform. 
The scenery is very picturesque 
almost the whole way from Numata 
to Shibukawa, the road passing 
high and rugged cliffs that over- 
hang the Tonegawa. At one point, 
-where the cliff rising sheer from the 
xiver allows no room for a pathway, 



a passage about 50 ft. long has 
been cut through the solid rock. 

Shibukawa is a considerable 
town. Heuce to Ikao is, for the 
most part, a gentle ascent over 
grassy mountain slopes. For a 
detailed account of Ikao and Neigh- 
bourhood, see Route 14. 



EOUTE 19. 

Trips in the Provinces op Hita- 
CHI, Shimosa, Kazusa, and 
BosHtJ. 

1. TOKYO TO TSUKUBA-SAN, KASAMA, 
AND MITO. 2. TdKYO TO NARITA, 
KADORI, CHOSHI, AND KASHIMA. 
3. KASHIMA TO MITO. 4. TOKYO 
TO laSARAZU, KANO-ZAN [NOKOGIRI- 
YAMA] , AND TATEYAMA. 5. TATE- 
YAMA TO KOMINATO. 

These four provinces form a natural 
division of the oonntry, all partaking 
more or less of the same characteristics 
/ of flatness and sandiness. The opinion 
of geologists is that a great part of this 
district, whose sands seem to have been 
washed up by the sea, together with tlie 
wide Tokyo plain which is formed by 
alluvium washed down from the central 
mountain-ranges, was submerged in quite 
recent times, and that only the southern 
half of the peninsula of Kazusa-Boshtt 
stood up out of the waves. This process 
of rising and drying is still going on. 
The large lagoons on the lower course 
of the Tonegawa gradually shrink in 
size, and the same is true of Tokyo 
Bay. From these considerations, it will 
be inferred that parts of this district 
are somewhat di-eaiy travelling. Mount 
Tsukuba (2,8S0 ft.) in the N., and the 
S. portion from Kano-zan downwards, 
with tuff ranges which, though not ex- 
ceeding 1,200 ft,, seem higher because 
rising almost directlj' from the sea, will 
best repay the tourist's trouble. In 
the S. more particularly, there ai-e lovely 
views, as well as a mild winter climate 
due to the Kuroghio, or Japanese Gulf- 
Stream. _ j 

The three provinces of Shimosa, Kazu- 
sa, and Bosha ancientlj' formed one, 
under the name Fti9a noKnni, said to have 
been derived from the excellent quality of 
the hemp grown there. The district was 



172 Eoute 19. — HitacIU, Shimdsaf Kazum, dt Boshu, 



subsequently divided into Upper and 
Iiower, or Kami tm Fuhii and. Shimo tm 
Fnm, contracted into Kaznm and Shi- 
indMi, and part of the former was subse- 
quently coastituted into the province of 
Awa, better known by its Chinese name 
of Bosha. * Upper ' and ' Xower * seem 
to lAive ])een applied to denote the relative 
proximity of these two provinces to the 
ancient capital. Kazusa, B "^sliQ, and the 
j?i'eater part of Shimosa now constitute 
the prefecture of Chiba, called after a 
town sitiirtted on the E, shore of Tokyo 
Bay. Tlie rest of Shimosa and Hitachi 
are included in the prefecture of Ibaraki, 
of which Mito is the capital. 



1. — Ascent op Tsukuba. 
AND :Mito. 

Mito Railway. 



Kasama 



stance 

From 

5kyO. 


Names 
of 


Remarks. 




Stations. 






TOKYO (Ueno), 


/'See Northern 


48 m. 


OYAMAJct 


< Railway, 
(.Route 24. 


52t 


Yuki. 




54* 


Kawashima. 




5Si 


Shimodate 


( Alipfht for 
( Tsukuba. 




06^ 


Iwase, 




71 


Fukuhara. 




76 


Kasama. 




78t 


Shishido. 




Sik 


Uchihara. 




89* 


MITO. 





The journey by rail to Shimodate, 
the station for Tsukuba, occupies 
a little over 3 lirs. Jinrikishas 
can thence be taken to the foot of 
the mountain, a distance of about 6 
ri over a level and fairly good road ; 
and although the ascent to the vill. 
of Tsukuba is ^ hr. rough walking, 
the whole journey may be done in 
an afternoon from Tokyo. There is 
fair accommodation at 

Shilii<»date {Inn, Tomo-ya); but it 
is best to push on to Tsukuba, where 
the inns are better. The jinrikisha- 
nien will act as guides as far as 
the cleanly little vill. of 

Tsnkiiha, {In7i, *Edo-ya), which 
lies about half-way up the moun- 
tain^ and contains numerous houses 



much|frequented by the people of 
the province of Hitachi. Most of the 
inns command a fine view of the 
plain of Tokyo, stretching away 
towards Fuji. The ascent of the 
mountain begins immediately after 
leaving the vill., the path passing 
through the grounds of a temple. 
From this point to the summit of 
the W. peak, called Nantai-zan 
('male mountain '), the distance is 
about 50 cho. This is the usual 
ascent, being less steep than the 
path up the E. and lower peak, Nyo- 
tai-zan ('female mountain'). At 
the summit are numerous shrines, 
of which the chief is dedicated to 
Izanagi. Similarly, the temple on 
Nyotai-zan is dedicated to his con- 
sort Izanami. There is a magnifi- 
cent view of the Tokyo plain, Fuji, 
Asama-yama, an^ the Nikko range. 

The name Tfuhnha is said to be com- 
posed of two Chinese words meaninjBT 
* built bank ;* and the legend is that 
Izanafri and Izanami constructed the 
mountain as a bulwark aj?ainst the waves 
of the Pacific Ocean, which they, had 
forced to retire to the other side of Kashi- 
ma, formerly an island in the sea. This 
tradition is in accordance with the fact, 
recently verified by geologists, that the 
E. shores of Japan have been gi'adu- 
ally rising during many centuries past. 
One legend says that Tsukuba U a frag- 
ment of the sacred mountain in Cbtna 
called Godai-san, which broke off and flew 
over to Japan. This is supposed to ac- 
count for the peculiar plants found on it. 
But the fact is that no l)otanical species 
occur here that are not also found oil other 
Japanese mountains, although the inhabi- 
tants of the vicinity, noticing the differ- 
ence l)etween the floras of the mountain 
and the plain, might naturally l)e led to 
suppose that there was something peculiar 
about the f oi-mer, 

^ 

Pines and cryptomerias cover the 
mountain, and the rocks about the 
summits are difficult to scramble 
over, the assistance of an iron chain 
being necessary in parts. From the 
W. to the E. peak is an interval 
of about ^ m. The descent from 
the latter is 70 cho. It passes 
over and between huge rocks, to 
which fanciful names have been 
given, from their supposed resem- 
blance to portions of the human 
body. The descent may be made 



Ascent of Tauhiba, Kasama. Mito, 



178 



either to the vill. of Tsukuba or to 
the hamlet of Sakayori, In the 
latter case it is advisable to have 
the jiurikishas sent round to await 
one, in order to be able to go 
straight on to Shimodate again. 
The ascent and descent take about 
4 hrs. 

Leaving Shimodate, the train 
reaches in 1 hr. the small town of 

Kasaiiia (Inn, *Itsutsu-ya), stand- 
ing at the base of a lofty hill whose 
samniit was formerly crowned by 
the castle of the Daimyo I^Iakino 
Etchu-no-Kami. The site is easily 
reached by a path leading from the 
broad main street of the town. At 
intervals, traces are still visible of 
the old stone-faced embankments, 
of small but deep dry ditches, and 
of narrow bridges and heavy gate- 
ways. At the summit are steep 
flights of stone steps, and above 
all is the limited space originally 
occupied by the Daimyo's palace, 
round which runs a high earthen 
embankment. The place is interest- 
ing, and gives a good idea of the style 
of Japanese fortifications, where 
nature rather than art had raised 
the defences. The stronghold must, 
under any circumstances, have 
been well-nigh impregnable. The 
Temple of Inari, once of high 
repute, is of no great size. It stands 
on the 1. of the main street, the 
approach being up a narrow alley, 
through an almost continuous arch- 
way of tcriif placed within a few 
inches of each other. The wood- 
carvings in the chapel are beauti- 
ful, the human figures being excep- 
tionally well -formed. 

There' is a jinrikisha road irom. 
Kasama to !Mito (4^ ri) ; but it is 
not recommended if the train be 
available. The time by rail is 50 
min. As the train approaches 
Mito, a number of caves are seen 
on the 1. in the high bluff on 
which a portion of the town is 
built. These galleries were hollowed 
out for the sake of the blocks used 
in the manufacture of soft- stone 
furnaces. 



Mito (Inn, Suzuki-ya, with a 
branch establishment near the 
railway station), the principal 
town of the province of Hitachi, 
and capital of the prefecture of 
Ibaraki, lies some 3 ri inland from 
the shore of the Pacific Ocean, and 
is situated on rising ground in the 
midst of a wide plain. The town 
is in three divisions, the Lower 
Town, the Upper Town, and the 
Castle Enclosure lying between the 
other two. The castle, where 
formerly lived the Princes of Mito, 
is picturesquely situated on the 
crest of the lofty ground that rises 
from the plain. The defences con- 
sisted of deep trenches on the upper 
town side, and lofty banks — the edge 
of the hill, in fact — on the other, 
with a small moat below. Three 
large gates and one tower still 
remain. It is worth walking round 
the castle and under the beautiful 
trees within the grounds. The 
Public Garden on the E. of the 
upper town, overlooking the large 
mere of Semba, is also prettily 
situated. 

It was laid out 8om« forty-five years 
ago by Rekko, the old Prince of Mito, as 
a retreat for himself after handing over 
the cares of government to his successor. 

A good view is obtained from the 
summer-house in the garden, where 
men of note formerly assembled to 
write verses and practise penman- 
ship. The staple manufactures of 
Mito are cloth and paper. Tobacco 
is also made into cigarettes in large 
quantities, and a considerable export 
trade is carried on in both salt and 
fresh -water fish. 

The visitor with time to spare 
should ride out to the pleasant sea- 
side hamlet of Oarai, a favourite 
retreat of the Mito folks. The 
journey there by jinrikisha with two 
men takes about 2 hrs. 

For the coast road from Mito 
southwards to Kashima, see p. 177 ; 
for that north to Taira and Kori- 
yama, see p. 187. 



174 Route 19. — Hitachi, Shimdsa, Kozma, <& Boshu. 



2. — TOKYO TO NARITA, KADORI, CHO- 
SHI, AND KASHIMA. 

Itmeranj. 

TOKYO to :— Bi. Clio. M. 

Ichikawa 3 25 9 

Yawata 29 2 

Funabaslii 1 12 3J 

Owada 2 28 6| 

Usui 2 — 5 

Sakura 1 13 3^ 

Shusui 1 3 2^ 

NARITA 2 9 6^ 

Ino 3 15 8| 

Sawara 2 26 6| 

Kadori 28 2 

Tsunomiya 18 IJ 

CHOSHI (boat) . . 10 15 25^ 

Total 83 6 81 



Omnibuses ply between Ryogoku- 
bashi (Tok^o) and Ichikawa, where 
the Treaty Limit is reached at the 
Ichikawa ferry over the Yedogawa. 
The road is nearly level the whole 
way, a remark which applies to this 
route in general. 

Yawata takes its name from a 
temple standing on the 1. side of 
the village street, tebout half-way 
down. The temple buildings are 
poor ; but by the side of the chapel 
is a remarkable ichd tree, the trunk 
of which, about 10 ft. in diameter, 
has the appearance of being formed 
of some 40 or 50 trees of different 
sizes, growing together like a huge 
faggot. 

Funabaslii (Iww, Ebisu-ya) is a 
large town, a little way inland from 
Tokyo Bay. 

This place is celebrated as having been 
the rendezvous of the village chiefs who, 
in 1644, headed by the famous Sakura 
Sogoro, proceeded to Yedo to protest 
against the tyranny of the lord of Sakui-a. 
Sven to protest was in those days a cajntal 
offence, acquiescence in all the mandates 
of his superiors Ijeing an inferior's sole 
and sufficient duty. Not Sogoro only 
was put to death : his wife was crucified 
with him, and their three children de- 
capitated before their eyes. One, a child of 
aeven, was butchered as he was eating 
the sweetmeats thrown to him by the 
compassionate spectators. This pathetic 
Btory is gi-aphically told in "Vol. II of Mit- 
ford's • Tales of Old Japan '. 



[The carriage road, 4^ ri, to 
Chiba (IfinSf Kano-ya, Ume- 
matsu-jia), capital of the pre- 
fecture of the same name,, 
diverges r. at the end of the 
main street of Fun abashi. Three 
miles before reaching the city, 
at the fishing hamlet of Jnagi, 
is a bathing establishment 
called * Keiki-Kwan, where it 
may be better to sleep than at 
Ghiba. A good 2 m. walk from 
Ghiba is to the famous old 
temple of Daiganji^ standing 
in a pine forest where thousands 
of cormorants roost and build 
their nests. There is a direct 
road from Ghiba to Narita 
through pleasant country.] 

To Owada the road traverses an 
upland country, where some of the 
best rice in Japan is grown. Some 
way on, it crosses a narrow canal 
which brings the Imba lagoon into 
communication with Tokyo Bay. It 
then traverses the wide plain of 
Narashino,. where occasional reviews 
are held of the troops forming the 
Tokyo garrison. Th« locality is be- 
lieved to be haunted by the magic 
foxes and badgers that play so im- 
portant a part in Japanese folk-lore. 

Usui (Inn, Ota-ya) is a good-sized 
posting-station on the S. shore of 
the lagoon. 

Sakura (Inn, Kome-ya). At an 
angle of the road 1., just within view 
of the trees on the rising ground 
where the castle formerly stood, is 
the old execution-grbund, where the 
farmer Sogoro and his family suffered 
death in 1645. A large memorial- 
stone now marks the spot. The 
road turns to the 1., descends into 
the town past the castle site, and 
rises again into the upper town. 

The castle was formerly the residence 
of the chief of the Hotta family, which 
furnished many statesmen to the Goroju, 
or Chief Council of the Tokngawa Sh5- 
guns. Its site is now occupied by the 
barracks of the garrison. 

The temple raised to Sogoro's me- 
moraty Shusui, is a poor building ; 
but the number of worshippers is 



Temple of Ftido at Narita, 



17^ 



great, and charms bearing the name 
of the martyred peasant suU in large 
numbers. 

KaritA (Inns^ Ebi-ya, Wakama- 
tsa-ya) is famed for its great Temple 
of Ftiddj to which pilgrimages are 
made from all parts of the country. 
The wood carvings adorning it are 
Gpecially noteworthy. Near the 
great gate is a well where pilgrims 
perform the ceremony of washing 
with cold water. Close by is the 
Danjiki-doj where devotees retire to 
fast during a whole week, the only 
i^efreshment permitted to them being 
the use of the cold bath. Formerly 
the period was three weeks. 

Tradition says that this practice was 
inatitated about the middle of the 16th 
century by the saint D5yo, who passed 
s hundred days in religious exercises. 
At la«t his prayers were answered by a 
▼ision of the god, who offered him the 
choice of a sha^ or a blunt sword to 
fiWBliow. The saint chose the sharp one, 
which the god thrust down his throat, 
CBusing the blood to flow freely. On 
awakening he found his intellectual 
powers immensely increased, and felt no 
traces of the wound. Nevertheless, priests' 
robes dyed with the blood shed on this 
occasion are preserved among the trea- 
Bures of the temple. 

In a chapel close to the Danjiki- 
do, worshippers may often be seen sit- 
ting in a circle, and handing round 
one to another a huge rosary to 
which a bunch of horse-hair is 
attached, and chanting the invoca- 
tion Naviu Amida Butsu, The 
Ifi-o-nwn, is a massive struc- 
ture of keyaki wood, ornamented 
with carvings. Under the archi- 
trave are eight groups representing 
Chinese children at play, and sages 
probably intended for the * Seven 
Sages of the Bamboo Grove,' whose 
attributes are chess, music, drawing, 
and caligraphy. At the r. end are 
groups of young cock-fighters, and 
the child delivered from the tall 
water-jar by his sharp-witted com- 
panion Shiba Onko, who breaks a 
hole in it with a stone to let the 
water escape. In front r. is a sage 
writing an inscription, 1. a sage 
playing on the harp. On the 1. 
aide are children playing, and a 



group, the central figure of which 
dances to the music of flageolet and 
drum. At the back are groups of 
checker-players and of sages in- 
specting a picture. 

On ascending the steps of the 
Honddj or ^lain Temple, the first 
thing that strikes the eye is the huge 
receptacle for money- offerings, pre- 
sented by inhabitants of Tokyo. 
Above it is a large panel with carvings 
of phcBnixes gorgeously coloured, and 
on the r. and 1. of this are coloured 
panels of peacocks, also in reliefs 
This is the only colouring about the 
building, the rest of the exterior 
being of unpainted keyaki. The two 
sides and back are decorated with 
eight splendid panels, each 9 ft. by 
4 ft., representing groups of the 
Gohyaku Rakan in low relief, 
with an immense variety of incident 
and portraiture. On the huge doors 
that close the sliding windows of 
this part of the building, are carvings 
of the Twenty-four Paragons 'of 
Filial Piety. 

In the Naijirif or Holy of Holies, 
is the sacred black image of Fudo, 
hardly visible in the dim light. 
Among the rock-work behind, are 36 
small bronze figures of children ; in 
the centre at the top is Fudo in a 
cave, and higher up bn the r. the 
saint En-no-Shokaku. The gro- 
tesque figures popularly called Dai- 
ra-botchi in the gables, which bear 
the ends of the ridge-pole, are excel- 
lent expressions of the effort to sup- 
port a heavy burden. Round the 
building under the architrave are 
groups of fabulous animals. The 
three-storied pagoda is a very beau- 
tiful example of this architectural 
form, finely 'decorated and paiuted. 
The black groups on the four sides 
represent the Sixteen Rakan. Close 
by on the r. is a handsome library 
(Kyddd)t containing a highly de- 
corated revolving octagonal box 
borne on the shoulders of parti- 
coloured demons. Note the peculiar 
coffered ceiling painted with kalei- 
doscopic patterns. In the ex-voto 
Hall (Eina-do) to the 1. of the 



176 Route 19. — HitacJii, Shimosa, Ixazusa, d Boshu, 



Library, are pictures of Fudo help- 
ing suppliants ; also a huge rosary, 
the string of which is a cahJe made 
of human hair. A flight of steps 
leads up to another platform, where 
stands a large red chapel called the 
Komyd-dd, or Hall of Resplendent 
Light, dedicated to Dainichi. Be- 
hind the Koinyd-do . is a long low 
cave, at the end of which a figure of 
Pudo is dimly visible by the light of 
a lantern. 

A shrine called Daishi-doy dedi- 
cated to Kobo Daishi and contain- 
ing an image of that saint besides 
fine carvings of dragons, has recently 
been added to the temple buildings. 
Below the temple, too, on the 1., a 
small exhibition of relics is being 
Bet up. 

[Nearly 17 ri S. of Narita, stands 
the celebrated temple of Kasa- 
mori dedicated to Kwannon. 

The following is the itinerary. 

NARITA to ;— Ri. Clio. M. 

Shibayama .. 4 — 9J 

Naruto 3 18 sj 

Togane 1 27 4j 

Oami 1 16 sj 

Honno 1 19 3$ 

!Mobara 1 24 4 

Ghonan 2 — 6 

KASAMORI.. 1 — 2^ 

Total .... 16 32 41 J 

The temple is built on a plat- 
form which rests on the point 
of an irregular conii-al rock 
some 60 ft. in height, the 
edges being supported by stout 
wooden scaffolding, and is 
reached by three flights of stairs. 
A country road connects Kasa- 
mori with Kominato on the 
Pacific coast, distance about 
11 ri. For Kominato see p. 
180.] 

From Narita the road lies chiefly 
over moorland to 

Kadori. also called Sawara (Inn, 
Ukishima-ya, besides many others 
crowding the entrance to the splen- 



did grove of trees in which the 
temple stands). 

The temple is dedicated to Fntsn-nnsM 
or Iwai-nushi, a deified warrior of the 
mythical i)eriod, whose symbol is a sword. 
The date of its foundation is unknown, 
but may })e placed a good deal earlier 
than the 5th century A.D. The present 
building was erected at the beginning of 
the 17th centuiy and restored in A.D. 1700, 
It is said that, as late as the beginning of 
the 17th century, the waters of the Tone- 
gawa came right up to the base of the 
hill on which the temple stands, and that 
all the com a,nd rice-fields between it and 
Tsunomiya have been reclaimed giuoe 
that period. 

The temple is in the mediaeval 
style of Shinto architecture, with a 
heavy roof of thick shingling, and 
is painted red. R. and 1. of the 
oratory steps, a mirror and a sword, 
emblematic of the two sexes, are 
suspended in bags of brocade on 
branches of the sacred masdkaki 
tree. Black lacquered doors close 
the entrance of the chapel. Frozn 
the back of the grove is a fine view 
of the plain to the N., intersected 
by the Tonegawa and the lagoons. 
Tsukuba is visible to the 1. on a 
clear day. Kashima lies out of sight 
behind a wooded hill on the r. 

At Tftiiiioniiya boats to Choshi, 
or to Ofunatsu for the famous 
temple of Kashima (see next 
page), can be obtained. Shortly 
before reaching Choshi the river 
attains a breadth of over a mile, bat 
contracts considerably at its mouth, 
where it rolls between sharp rockB 
that rise abruptly from the sea. 
When there is any swell from the 
E., this bar becomes dangerous. 

Choslii {Inns, Daishin, Komai- 
yasu) consists of several villages 
extending for over 2 m. along the 
S. bank of 'the Tonegawa. The 
chief occupation of the inhabi- 
tants is fishing. Immense quantities 
of iwashiy a fish resembling the 
pilchard but smaller, are calught 
here and along the coast. They are 
boiled in huge cauldrons to obtain 
the oil, which is used for lamps ; 
. and the residue, dried in the sun, is 
sent inland for manure. The odour 
from this process is overpowering. 



KasJiivia, 



17T 



and renders Ghoshi and the coast 
villages unbearable. Kashima can 
"be easily reached from the opposite 
shore, but the road is too sandy to 
be agreeable, and the best way is 
to laud at IkisUt from which the 
distance is a little i^der 3 ri. 

[From Ofunatsu it is ^ ri to the 
vill. of Ksisliiii|a, crowded with 
inns and restaurants for the ac- 
commodfiition of pilgrims. The 
name Ka-shinia means ' deer 
island/ but the district is an is- 
land no longer. It consists of a 
sandy spit, 13 ri by 1 ri, separa- 
ting the sea from the Kita-ura 
lagoon, and ending at the 
mouth of the Tonegawa, oppo- 
site the town of Ghoshi. The 
deer used to wander freely 
through the groves round the, 
temple, but they have now 
been almost exterminated. A 
broad avenue leads to the 
temple, which is situated in a 
grove of fine cr3'ptomerias. It 
consists of an oratory and 
chapel connected by a short 
corridor in the usual mediaeval 
style, painted red, and with a 
thick shingled roof. 

The principal deity here wor- 
shipped is Take-mika-zucbi. This god 
was one of those sent down from Hea- 
ven to Japan, to prepare the advent of 
the line of earthly sovereigns known 
Afterwards as Mikados. The temple 
is usually said to have been founded 
in the * age of the gods,* and cer- 
tainly dates from the prehistoric 
epoch. From the most ancient times 
it was the practice here, as at Tse, to 
rebuild not only tlie main temple, but 
also all the inferior ones around it, 
every twenty years ; but alx)ut the 
beginning of tlie 9th century, for 
reasons of economy, the rule l)ecame 
confined to the principal building. 

The temple faces N. But the 
box containing the sword which 
is the embodiment of the god 
laces E., i.e., towards the Paci- 
fic Ocean. A narrow path be- 
hind the temple conducts to a 
small enclosure containing, the 
celebrated Kaname-ishit or Pivot 
Stone, supposed to be a pillar 
whose foundation is at the centre 



of the earth. According to one 
tradition, it was sanctified by 
the local god taking his seat on 
it directly after his descent from 
heaven. Another account is 
that under this place is confined 
the gigantic fish called namaz2iy. 
whose contortions are the cause 
of earthquakes, and that the 
stone acts as some restraint on. 
the creature's movements. Mi- 
tsukuni, the second Prince of 
Mito, is said to have dug for six 
days round it without finding 
the lower end. About 1 m. from 
the temple is a stretch of moor- 
land called Tahaina no hara^ 
literally, the Plain of High 
Heaven, where the gods are 
supposed to have assembled in 
days of old, and where stone ar- 
row-heads are still. often found.]. 

S. — Kashima to Mito. 

Itinei'ary. 

KASHIMA to :— Bi. Clio. M. 

Ofunatsu — 18 IJ 

Hokoda (boat) 8 — 19| 

^lomiyama 1 18 3f 

Konashi 1 — 2\ 

Natsumi 2 — 6 

Onuki — 18 IJ 

MITO 3 — 7| 

Total 16 18 40J 

The above distances are approxi- 
mate. From Kashima to Ofunatsu 
is by jinrikisha. The boat journey 
from the latter place to Hokoda is 
across the Kita-ura lagoon. Small 
hills stretch along the greater part 
of the shore on either side of the 
lagoon, especially towards Hokoda. 
Boats have to wind in and out 
through a channel traversing the 
largo reed-grown marsh in front of 
the tQwn, and then by a wide canal 
penetrate into its very centre. Pas- 
sengers are transferred from the 
steamers to boats, close to the 
entrance of the channel. 

Hokoda (decent accommodation) 
is a poor fishing village. From this 



178 



Route 19. — HitdcJdy Shimosa, Kazusa, d- Boshu, 



place two roads go to Moniiyama. 
On leaving the village, there is a con- 
siderable ascent. Jinrikishas and 
pack-horses are obtainable ; but as 
the road is generally in bad order, it 
is well to be prepared to walk at any 
rate as far as Onuki. 

Moiiiiyaiiia {Inn, Koji-ya) is a poor 
village. There is a direct and shorter 
road to this place from Kashima, 
but it is sandy and heavy travelling. 

KonflSlli (inuj Ebi-ya at Benten, 
just beyond the vill.). The roar of 
the Pacific can be heard all the way 
.from Momiyama to this place, and 
in windy weather clouds of spray 
Are blown over the low rising ground. 
Half-way between Konashi and 
Onuki the road descends from the 
wooded headlands to the beach, 
where the view of the Pacific is 
* very fine. 

Nntsumi is the largest of the 
villages in this part of the country, 
all small and poor, and inhabited 
only by fishermen. At 

Onuki jinrikishas can be ob- 
ta ined ; but they are more nume- 
rous on the other side of the ferry 
beyond this village; or else boats 
m ay be taken up the Nakagawa to 
Mito. 

4. — Tokyo to Kisarazu, Kano-zan, 

Tenjin-yama [Nokogiri-yama] , 

Kachiyama, and Tateyama. 

Small steamers from Tokyo (Rei- 
gan-jima) to Kisarazu in 3 hrs. For 
further details of steamers, see p. 64. 

Itinerary, 

KISARAZU to :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Kano-zan 4 23 llj 

Tenjin-yama (Mina- 

to) 3 — 7i 

Take-ga-oka 34 2| 

Kanaya 1 31 4| 

Motona 1 8 3 

Kachiyama 1 — 2^ 

Hojo 4 14 lOf 

TATEYAMA .... 13 1 

Total 17 16 42| 



Shortly after leaving Kisaraza, 
the road to Kano-zan gradually as- 
cends a valley and crosses a do-w 
range of hills. 

The mountain of Kano-znn falso pro- 
nounced Kano-zan), which rises to Sk 
heierht of 1,2R0 ftipron the ])onler8 of tlie 
provinces of Kazusa and Bosha, is » 
cons]ncuou8 object in the view across 
Tokyo Bay, and itself commands a macmi- 
ficent prospect. It is sufficiently elevate*l 
al)ove the plain to escape the damp ftir 
which renders Tokyo so unhealthy in. 
summer, and though not hiph enon/?h to 
have a temperature markedly below that 
of the suiToundinj? lowlands, is visited by 
fresh sea-breezes that render it an agree- 
able resort during the hot months. 

Knno-zan, {Inns, * Yuyii-kwan in 
foreign style ; Marushichi), a village 
of about 100 houses, stands on 
the top of the mountain. It is 
divided into an upper and lower ^ 
street, the upper street running E. 
and W., and the lower N. and S. Be- 
tween them, surrounded by a mag- 
nificent grove of cryptomerias and 
other conifers, stands a large but 
decaying temple dedicated to Yaku- 
shi, erected in 1708. The Yuyu- 
kwan Hotel is situated in the upper 
street, facing W. The view is 
superb : — below, the blue waters 
of Tokyo Bay, beyond which rises 
Fuji; to the l.,_the Hakone range ; to 
the r., the Oyama and Tanzawa 
ranges ; and further N., the Nikko 
mountains, Akagi-san, and Tsukuba. 

The best walk at Kano-zan (abont 
1 ri) is to the big camphor-tree 
{kiisunoki) one of the five largest 
trees in Japan, and probably 2,000 
years old. It is 72 ft. in circum- 
ference ; the largest branch is 24 ft. 
in circumference. The way to this 
tree — and it is very picturesque — 
leads from a corner in the upper 
street where there is a school-house 
just opposite the great temple of 
Yakushi, and descends in a S. 
direction along the 1. side of a 
thickly wooded valley. Branching 
off r. from the way to the big tree, is 
a path leading by a steep descent to 
a pretty waterfall some '85 ft. high. 
It is about 13 chd, or 1 m., from the 
vill. that the way to the fall diverges. 



Kano-ian. Nokogiri-i/ama, 



179 



The footpath leading to the ^all is 
not the first one reached (over 
which there is a small torii)^ but is 
about ^ m. further on. Japanese 
visitors — at least those of the lower 
class — generally improve the occa- 
sion by taking a shower-bath under 
the cascade. 

Another good walk is as follows : 
Passing through the lower street 
of Kano-zan towards the N., we 
reach 1. a flight of 218 stone steps, 
at the top of which is a small 
Shinto shrine. This is the highest 
point of the mountain ; but as it is 
overgrown with tall trees, the sum- 
mit commands no view. Opposite 
the steps on the r., a short path 
le^i^ds to the brow of the hill, whence 
there is a fine prospect towards the 
E. and N. The side of the moun- 
tain here slopes away very abruptly; 
and below, as far as the eye can 
reach, lie low but sharp ridges 
covered with brushwood, intersecting 
and meeting so as to form -a multi- 
tude of tiny valleys, in most of 
which rice is cultivated. The view 
from this point has received the 
name of Kujuku Tanif or the 
Ninety-nine Valleys. 

The descent from the village of 
Kano-zan is by a good jinrikisha 
road through Sakurai to 

Teiijiii-yama or Minato {Inn 
Fukumoto-ro), a prettily situated 
vill., containing a few sake breweries 
and soy manufactories, the produce 
of which is shipped in junks to 
Tokyo ; but the population consists 
chiefly of fisher-folk. A smooth 
sandy beach with a W. aspect 
stretches for ^ m. along the shore 
to the N., affording excellent bath- 
ing. About a mile away rises Myoken- 
yama, which commands a fine view. 
Ascending from the Minato >gawa 
^nd following along some cliffs, the 
road passes through a lofty tunnel 
hewn in the solid rock, before de- 
scending again to Take-ga-okx and 
Hagyu. Here the local wonder is a 
small cavern containing a well, 
called Kogane-ido, or the Golden 
Welly on account of a golden scum 



that rises on its surface. More tun- 
nelling characterises the coast road 
from Hagyu to 

Kanaya {Inn, Kaji-ya). This 
place possesses an interesting relic 
of antiquity, known by the name of 
Tesson Daigongen, which is kept 
carefully in a small chamber in the 
rock immediately behind a little 
Shinto chapel. It is a disc of iron, 
between 4 and 5 ft. in diameter and 
some 3 in. thick, split into two 
unequal parts. 

Local tradition says that it was dis- 
covered in. the bay about six centuries 
ago by the fishermen of the vill., then 
consisting of eighteen families, but that 
its Veight was so great as to render un- 
availing their united efforts to bring it 
ashore. They therefore implored it to 
divide itself in two, promising that they 
would then land it, and worship it as their 
patron deity. After passing all uight in 
anxious expectation, they found that their 
petition had l>een heard ; and fishing up 
the two pieces, they placed them in the 
rock chamber, where the split disc has 
remained enshrined ever since us the looftl 
god. 

[Instead of continuing along the 
coast from Kanaya to Motona, 
it is pleasant to make the ascent 
of Nokoj^iri-yaniii on the way. 
This mountain takes its name, 
which means ' Saw Mountain,* 
from the serrated ridge of peaks 
that follow each other in regular 
gradation from the highest on 
the E. down to the sea-shore. 
Bound the promontory thus 
formed, passes the ordinary 
road to Motona. A curious 
feature of Nokogiri-yama is a 
set of stone images of the 
Five Hutidred Bakan, scattered 
over the mountain side. Be- 
sides these, there is a shrine 
hewn out of the living rook, 
in the centre of which is a 
stone effigy of the person to 
whose initiative the carving of 
the other five hundred images 
was due. The view from the 
point called Mi-Jiarashi, 850 ft. 
above the sea, is magnificent. 
Westward rises the perfect foim 
of Fuji above the low coast of 
Sagami, while to the S. a sue* 



180 



Route 19. — Hitachi, Shimosa, Kazusa, S Boshu, 



cession of bays and promon- 
tories marks the W. coast of 
Boshu. First comes the vill. of 
Ypshihama, bent at an obtuse 
angle along the sea-shore, and 
beyond it the cape under which 
nestles the little town of Kachi- 
yama. To tlife E. are the higher 
peaks of Nokogiri-yama, and in 
front the mass of lesser hills 
intervening between the ridge 
and the valley of the Tenjin- 
yama-gawa. The lighthouse 
on Kwannon-saki is a promi- 
nent landmark bearing N.W. 
byN.] 

Motona is continuous with Hoda, 
a convenient place from which to 
make the ascent of Nokogiri-yama 
if one is taking this route in the 
reverse direction. At Hoda the 
road leaves the sea-shore. It is a 
pleasant walk to 

Kachiyaiim (Inn, Nakajin), for- 
merly the castle town of a small 
Daimyo named Honda Tsushima- 
no-Kami. From Kachiyama the 
road strikes up into the hills, passes 
through a long tunnel by the quar- 
ries of Nokogiri-yama, and descends 
to Nago, 4^ hrs. from Tenjin-yama 
by jinrikisha. From Nago to Tate- 
yama is about 1 hr. walk, in- 
cluding a glance at the temple of 
Hachiman, situated in a grove 200 
yds. to the 1. of the way. The porch 
has some good modern carvings, 
and a coffered ceiling containing 
seventy two compartments with a 
dragon carved in relief, the design 
in each compartment being different. 
Within is another coffered ceiling, 
decorated with paintings of birds 
and flowers. 

Hojo (/nw, Yoshino-an), though 
given in the itinerary as 13 cho from 
Tateyama, is practically almost 
continuous with the latter. 

Taieyinna [Inn^ Tsuru-ya) com- 
mands an incomparable view of Fuji 
across Tokyo Bay. Nowhere else does 
the mountain seem to rise to so great 
a height, completely dominating the 
Oyama and Amagi ranges which 
extend r. and 1., while on either 



hand the shores of the bay stretch 
round to form a fitting frame for 
this lovely picture. A steamer 
leaves Tateyama daily for Tokyo at- 
about 10 A. M. calling at several 
places along the coast, and reaches 
Tokyo in 7 hrs. under favour- 
able circumstances. Another leaves 
about noon for Uraga. 

6. — Tateyama to Kominato. 

Itinerary. 

TATEYAMA to :— BL Cho. M. 

Hojo 13 1 

Takehara 2 5 5^ 

Matsuda 1 20 3^ 

Wada 1 18 3| 

Emi 1 7 .3 . 

Maebara 2 31 7 

Amatsu 1 26 4 J 

KOMINATO .... 1 8 2^ 

• 

Total 12 15 30^ 

The 4 ri walk separating Tate- 
yama at the entrance of Tokyo Bay 
from Matsuda on the Pacific, is a 
short cut across the tiny province 
of Awa at its narrowest part. From 

Mati^Udai (Inn, Abura-ya), there is 
a jinrikisha road along the coast 
to AniatsUf 1 ri 3 cho from Komi- 
nato. 

Wada (Inn^ Kaneko-ya). 

£iiii (Inn, Hashimoto-ya) is a 
place of some size, standing in what 
for this part of the country appears 
a wide valley, about 1 square mile 
in extent. 

Mtiebarai (Inn, Yoshida-ya) stands 
at the mouth of a small river, 
the Kamogawa, whence the road 
leads through a pine-wood and over 
a sandy shore to Amatsu. A steep 
promontory has to be climbed before 
descending again to the sea at 

Kominato (Inn, Kadokuma). 
This village, though so remote and 
difficult of access — for it is hemmed 
in on all sides between the moun- 
tains and the sea — is known 
throughout Japan as the birthplace 
of the great Buddhist saint, Nichi- 
ren. 



Kominaio. 



181 



According to some, the original site of 
the temple founded by Nichiren himself on 
the very spot which gave him birth, is 
now under a stretch of sea called Taino- 
urof said to be the resort of numbers of tai 
fish, which are held sacred by the fisher- 
men. Another tradition is, that from the 
day of the saint's birth until he was seven 
days old, two of these fish five feet long 
nsed daily to appear in the pond in his 
father's garden, whence the spot, since 
covered by the waves, took the name of 
• Tai Bay.' In any case, there is only just 
snfiicient space between the sea and the 
Bteep hills behind for the row of houses 
forming the double vill. of Kominato and 
Uchi-ura. 

The temple raised to the memory 
of Nichiren is called Tanjdjh or 
« the Temple of the Birth.' On the 
1. after entering the outer gate, is a 
small square building over the well 
which nominally supplied the water 
used to wash the infant saint, — 
nominally only, because the original 
spot was overwhelmed by a tidal 
wave in 1498. We next pass 
through a huge gate, and see before 
us the Main Temple, an unpainted 
wooden building, 72 ft. square inside, 
built in 1846. The porch has some 
excellent carvings of tortoises and 
lions ' heads, and the birds in the 
brackets of the transverse beams 
are good. The interior is very 
simple, its only decoration being 
four large panels carved with 
dragons, and a coffered ceiling 
with the Mikado's- crest painted 
in each compartment. On the 
altar stands a handsome black 
and gold shrine, containiug a 
life-like image of the saint, who is 
represented as reading from a richly 
gilt scroll containing a portion of 
the Hoke-kyd. The doors of the 
shrine are closed except during 
service, when they are thrown open 
in order that the worshippers may 
gaze upon Nichiren's countenance. 

Two and a half ri from Kominato, 
and 1^ ri to the N. of Amatsu, 
stands the vill. of Kiyosumi, cele- 
brated for its temple dedicated to 
Kokuz5 Bosatsu. Kiyosumi lies 
about 1,000 ft. above the sea, and 
being free from mosquitoes owing 
to the dryness of the ta£E of which 



the hills consist, is much frequented 
during the summer months by 
Japanese desiring to escape the 
damp heat of Tokyo. The temple 
contains some good carvings. 

Those not caring to return from 
Kominato the way they came, may 
follow the coast road right round 
the peninsula. This road diverges 
from the route already given at 
Matsuda. The itinerary is as fol- 
lows. 

KOMINATO to :— Bi. Chd. M. 

Matsuda 8 13 20^ 

Shirako 1 6 2^ 

Asaina 33 2^ 

Shirahama 2 27 5| 

Mera 1 34 4^ 

Sunosaki 2 27 6^ 

TATEYAMA .... 3 6 7i 

Total 21 1 51i 

The road is mostly sandy and 
heavy for jinrikishas. The best ac- 
commodation is at Matsuda and 
Shirahama, the latter vill. being at 
the extreme S. point of the penin- 
sula. Here, on the low headland of 
Nojima, stands a fine lighthouse, the 
light of which is visible for 20 m. 
This place enjoys a much warmer 
climate than other parts of the pro- 
vince. Luxuriant beds of jonquils 
and other flowers abound near the 
sea-shore, and fill the air with their 
fragrance at Christmas-time. The 
fishing boats of Mera put out in 
large numbers during the season to 
catch bonitos round Vries Island 
and others of the chain extending 
S. towards Hachijo. The scenery 
from Mera onwards is very pretty. 



182 



Route 20. — Shiobara District. 



EOUTE 20. 

The Shiobaba District. 

nasu. preumachi. ascent op kei- 
cho-zan. na8uno-tama. 

Nasn (Inn, * Nasuno-ya) is 
reached by the Northern Railway 
from Tokyo in 4^ hrs. (see Route 
24). This place is an outcome of 
railway enterprise ; so too is the re- 
demption of a large extent of the 
moorland which here stretches on 
all sides, the soil having been found 
well-adapted to fruit cultivation. 
Nasu is also the nearest station to 
the favourite hot-springs of Shio- 
bara, a place formerly out of the 
beaten track. Railway communi- 
cation has, however, brought it 
within easy reach of Tokyo, and it 
is now much frequented by all 
classes of Japanese. The itinerary 
from the station is as follows. 

NASU to .— Ri. Cho. M. 

Sekiya 3 — 7i 

Owami 1 18 3^ 

Fukuwata 24 If 

Shiogama 13 1 

FURUMACHI... 8 i 

Total 5 37 14 



An excellent road has been con- 
structed all the way, practicable 
for jinrikishas and carriages. As 
far as 

Sekiya, at the foot of the moun- 
tain, it is perfectly level and goes in a 
straight line across the plain, which 
is covered with dwarf chestnut- 
trees,— a part of the journey apt to 
be found very trying in summer, 
from the absence of shade of any 
kind. Pheasants and other game 
are plentiful in the plain, while 
in the Shiobara mountains bears 
are still occasionally shot by the 
peasant hunters. After leaving 
Sekiya, the road follows the course 
of the Hokigawa as it wends 
its way through deeply wooded 



ravines to the plain. At various 
points glorious views are afforded 
of the river below, while a number 
of cascades lend variety to the 
scene. At the place where the 
valley narrows until it seems little 
more than a gorge, the road be- 
comes highly picturesque. Every 
summer it suffers severely from 
the heavy rains; but a staff of 
men is generally in readiness to 
effect repairs, so that jinrikishas 
can always pass. The Owami 
springs, with a hut or two, are 
seen from the roadway, at the 
bottom of an almost precipitous 
descent. They are in the bed of 
the river, and are used only by the 
poorest class of visitors. 

FiikiiwAta (Inns, Matsu-ya and 
others) is, next to Furumachi, the 
most popular place in the Shio- 
bara district. At the entrance to 
the hamlet of Shiogama, a stone 
has been erected to the memory 
of the famous courtesan, Takao, 
who was born near this spot. 

[Here a bridge crosses the river, 
leading to the hot-springs of 
Shionoyu (16 cho), sitciated in 
the bed of an affluent of the 
Hokigawa. The road to these 
springs is practicable for jin- 
rikishas, ajad commodious inns 
have been built on the moun- 
tain side close by.] 

Fnrumachi ( Inns, • Fusen-ro, 
* Kome-ya, Aizu-ya) lies on the r. 
bank of th e river, and i^the principal 
vill. in the district. It is shut in 
by mountains, rising in beautifully 
wooded peaks,' one above another 
around it. Although situated at 
no great height (1,750 ft.), Furu- 
machi is cooler than many places 
at higher altitudes, and is free 
from mosquitoes and .other insect 
pests. Visitors would do well to 
take provisions with them, as the 
native fare here lacks variety. 
Being near the old highway 
to the province of Aizu, a new 
road was built some ten years 



FurumachL Arayu, Ascent of Keicho-zan. 



188 



ago, during the height of the road- 
making fever, to connect this dis- 
trict with Wakamatsu. Solid 
embankments supported it, and 
well-constructed bridges spanned 
the streams. But after a short 
time it became utterly impassable 
for a distance of 8 ri from Furu- 
machi, the traffic over the route 
being so insignificant that the 
-expense of maintaining it, damaged 
as it incessantly was by landslips 
and heavy rains, was found to be 
out of all proportion to local re- 
quirements. It remains to-day 
as a picturesque ruin, and the old 
road leading from Imaichi near 
Nikko is the only one now used. 

The whole Shiobara district is 
dotted with thermal springs. The 
water at Furumachi is moderate 
in temperature and mostly free 
from mineral deposit ; the other 
springs are somewhat saline. A 
favourite midday resort for visitors 
at Furumachi is Sumaki or Taki- 
no-yu (9 cho), in a hollow of the 
hilla with a decent inn. Here the 
water is led in pipes from a spring 
just above the inn, and & hot 
douche can be taken. The temple 
of Myd-onji, a plain thatched 
structure in the vill., is of little 
interest. The paintings of the 
sixteen - petalled chrysanthemum 
on the ceiling have been ruthlessly 
blotted out, that flower being the 
crest of the Imperial family and 
its use by others now strictly 
prohibited. The only relic in the 
possession of the priests — and it 
is an odd relic in a place of 
worship — is a piece of the ward- 
robe of the frail beauty above- 
mentioned. 

A pleasant excursion may be 
made to Arayii, lit. the Violent 
Spring, 2 ri from Furumachi. 
The path leads directly behind the 
Komeya Inn at the head of the 
vill., and over the hills in sharp 
zigzags. The views on the way 
are amongst the finest in the vici- 
nity. 



[Near the top of the pass^n the 
1. is a tarn called Onuma, 
separated from a smaller called 
Konunia, the latter situated in. 
a deeper hollow not visible 
from the road. A path follows 
the 'Upper edge of these tarns 
down to the Shionoyu springs, 
and, with pretty glimpses of 
the valleys, also makes a good 
walk from Furumachi.] 

Arayu, which is simply a cluster 
of mediocre inns, lies on the side of 
a hill rendered sterile by the 
sulphureous water that breaks 
out in several spots. The aspect 
of the place is very desolate. 
Arayu is on a mountain road to 
Nikko, frequently taken by pedes- 
trians. The distances are approx- 
imately as follows. 

Arayu to : — Ri. Cho. M. 

Fujiwara 5 — 12^^ 

Okuwa 3 — 7i 

Imaichi 1 15 3f 

Total 9 15 23 

Thence train to Nikko in ^ hr. 
The accommodation en rcmte is poor, 

Arayu is the best starting- 
point for the ascent of Keicho-zan, 
3.^ ri, one of the peaks of Takahara- 
yama (5,880 ft.), the highest moun- 
tain of the range separating the 
province of Shimotsuke from Iwa- 
shiro. The walk is somewhat 
rough and monotonous for about 
1 hr., all view being shut out by 
woods and low ridges on both sides 
until the bed of the Akagawa is 
reached, where the ascent of the 
Takahara-toge begins. From the 
top of the pass to the small lake of 
Benten-ga-ike is a distance of 1 ri, 
and to the summit a steep climb 
of 20 cho more. The view from the 
summit is very extensive, em- 
bracing Fuji, Nantai-zan, Gwassan, 
lide-san, Bandai-san, and nume- 
rous minor peaks. The shrine on 
Keicho-zan is dedicated to Saruta^ 
hiko, and the chief time of 
pilgrimage is spring. An early 



184 



Fiottte 21,^-Bandai-8an, 



start is necessary if the ascent 
from Furumachi is to be made in 
one day. An alternative is to 
make it on the way to Nikko. 

Nnsiino-yama can be reached in 
one day from the hamlet of Nasu. 
Jinrikishas are taken to the hot- 
springs of Itamura at the foot of 
the mountain, where there are 
several good inns. Nasuno-yama 
has a fortress-like aspect when 
seen from the S. Its side is 
honeycombed with hundreds of sol- 
fataras. 

Near Itamura is the Senthd-i^ki^ or 
Death-Stone, famous in a legend which 
has Ijeen tli-amatised as one of the iVe, or 
Lyric Dramas of mediaeval Japanese 
literature. The story is that a Buddhist 
priest, Genno by name, while journeying 
across the desolate moor of Nasu, pauses 
to rest l)eneath this rock. A spirit forth- 
with appears and warns him that, hy 
remaining in that place, he is risking his 
life, for that not men only, but even birds 
and beasts perish if they do but touch it. 
The spirit and the chorus then recount to 
him in verse how once upon a time there 
lived a maiden, as learned and accom- 
plished RS she was sui^passingly beautiful, 
whom the Emperor Tol)a-no-In took to 
liimself as his favourite concubine, and 
for her sake neglected all the affairs of 
state. At last one evening, on the occa- 
Bion of a banquet at the Palace, the lights 
suddenly went out, and from the girl's 
body there darted forth a supernatural 
coruscation that illumined the whole 
scene, while the Mikado himself was 
struck down by disease. On the repre- 
sentations of the court magician, Abe-no- 
Yasunari, the vile witch— for the pre- 
tended beauty was evidently nothing 
better than a witch— was driven from the 
Imperial presence, and flew away through 
the air to the moor of Nasu, where she 
resumed her original shape, that of a 
fox. In the second act of the play, the 
spirit appearing again, confesses to the 
good priest that itself is none other than 
the wraith of the witch whose story has 
just been told, and relates furthermore 
how, after escaping from the Palace, she 
was hunted by dogs over the moor of 
Nasu, — the origin, as the chorus obliging- 
ly stops to explain, of the Japanese sport 
of inn ou monOf or 'dog-hunting.' The 
priest then exorcises the evil spirit by 
nijeans of Buddhistic incantations. But 
his exorcism seems not to have been 
X>ermanently effectual, if, as is asserted, 
poisonous exhalations still issue from the 
Death-Stone thrice every day. The stone 
itself is of insignificant size, but is still 
regarded by the peasantry with supersti- 
tioos dread. 



ROUTE 21. 

Bandai-san. 

Train by the Northern Eailwray 
from Tokyo (TJeno station) to 
• Motomiya in 8 hrs. Whole time of 
trip, 4 days. 

Motomiya (Inuy Mito-ya), itself 
an unattractive town, is the best 
place from which to reach the 
volcano of Bandai-san, noted for 
its terrific eruption on the morning- 
of the 15th July, 1888. The itiner- 
ary to the town of Inawashiro, 
situated at the foot of the moun- 
tain, is as follows. 

MOTOMIYA to :— Bi. CU. M, 

Atami 4 — 9| 

Yamagata 2 — 5 

INAWASHIEO... 4 — 9f 

Total 10 — 24^ 

Leaving Motomiya by jinrikisha 
in the morning, Inawashiro will be 
reached early in the afternoon. 
The road as far as Atami (decent 
accommodation) is flat and fairly 
good in fine weather. Here we join 
the road from Koriyama station, 
which is 1 ri longer than that from 
Motomiya. From Atami to Yama- 
gata, a vill. on the shores of Lake 
Inawashiro, the road becomes hilly 
afad the scenery more varied. A 
part of the way lies by the side of a 
canal, which has been constructed 
for purposes of irrigation. As one 
approaches the cascade formed by 
the water of the canal falling over 
a cliff, it will be found advisable to 
walk up the narrow path, steep as 
it is, rather than follow the wind- 
ings of the main road in jinrikisha. 
From 

Tamagatn {Inn, Kashima-ya), 
small steamers cross the lake to T(mO' 
kuchi, the landing-place for Waka- 
matsu, the capital of the province 
(see next Boute). Lake Inawcuhiro 
is a large sheet of water measuring- 



Bmidai-san* 



185 



a.boixt 4 ri in every direction ; and 
is almost surrounded by a succes- 
sion of thickly wooded hills, above 
"which, on the N. sbore, towers 
the sharp summit of Bandai-san. 
This lake is not a true crater 
lake, as has been supposed, but is 
probably a depression formed by 
evisceration of the ground, result- 
ing from the copious outpourings of 
volcanic matter in its vicinity. Its 
principal feeder used to be the river 
Nagase, the upper course of which 
was entirely stopped by the debris 
swept down during the eruption of 
1888. The lake is now supplied 
mainly by the Sukawa, flowing 
from. Dake-yama. It is plentifully 
stocked with salmon-trout and 
other fish. The road follows the 
shores of the lake until the N. 
end is reached, whence it leads 
over a wide cultivated area to 

Inawasliiro (Inn, Shio-ya), a 
dull country town lying on the 
S. E. base of Bandai-san. From 
here the ascent of the mountain 
and the circuit of the devastated 
-district may most conveniently be 
made. 

Bandai-san (6,000 ft.) is the 
name usually given to a group of 
' peaks consisting of 0*Bandai, Eo- 
Bandai (destroyed), Kushi-ga-mine, 
and Akahani-yama, surrounding 
an elevated plain called Numa-no- 
taira. This group, standing on 
the N. side of Lake Inawashiro, 
forms a very conspicuous object in 
the landscape. When seen from the 
town of Wakamatsu, on the S.W. 
side, it appears as a single pointed 
peak. 0-Bandai, or Great Bandai, 
is the most prominent of the peaks. 
Koma-no- taira is supposed to be 
the remains of the original crater, 
and the peaks mentioned are pro- 
bably parts of the wall that encir- 
cled it. 'Within it were several 
small lakes or pools, as its name 
imphes. It was also covered with 
dense forests, which were destroyed 
in the last eruption. 



•• On the morning of July 16th, 1688, the 
weather in the Bandai distiict was fine, 
there being scarcely a cloud; and a gentle 
breeze was blowing from the W.N.W, 
Soon after 7 o'clock, curious rumblinf^ 
noises were heard, which the people 
thought to be t)ie sound of distant 
thunder, often heard among the moun<- 
taiu-tops. At about half-past 7, there 
occurred a tolerably severe earthquBke, 
which lasted more than 20 seconds. This 
was followed soon after bv a most violent 
shaking of the ground. At 7.45, while the 
ground was still heaving, the eruption 
of Ko-Bandai-san took place. A oense 
column of steam and dust shot into the 
air, making a tremendous noise. Explo- 
sions followed one after another, in all to 
the number of 16 or 20, the steam on each 
occasion except the last being described 
as having attained a height above the 
peaks about equivalent to that of O-Ban^ 
dai as seen from Inawashiro, that is to 
say, some 1,280 metres, or 4,200 ft. The 
last explosion, however, is said to have 
projected its discharge almost horizoin- 
tally, towards the valley on the N. And« 
considering the topography of the moun- 
tain and the form of the crater, it ie 
probable that previous discharges were 
also more or less inclined to the vevtical, 
in a northerly direction. Tne main 
eruptions lasted for a minute or more, 
and were accompanied by thundering 
sounds which, though rapidly lessening 
in intensity, continued for nearly two 
houi's. Meanwhile the dust and steam 
rapidly ascended, and spread into a great 
cloud like an open umm^Ua in shape, at 
a height equal_to at least three or four 
times that of 0-Baudai. This cloud was 
gradually wafted away by the wind in tb 
south-easterly direction. At the inmie- 
diate foot of the mountain there was a 
rain of hot scalding ashes, accompanied 
by pitchy darkness. A little later, dark- 
ness was still great, and a smart shower of 
rain fell, lasting for about five minutes. 
The rain was quite warm. These pheno- 
mena, as well as the terrcn: and bewilder- 
ment which they caused among the peasan- 
try, were described in thrilling terms by the 
newspapers of the day. While darkness 
as aforesaid still shrouded the region, » 
mighty avalanche of earth and rock 
rushed at terrific speed down the mountain 
slopes, buried the Nagase valley with its 
villages and people, and devastated an 
area of more than 70 square kilometres, 
or 27 square miles."— (Professors Sekiy» 
and Kikuchi.) 

The total number of lives lost in this 
great cataclysm, which blew a massive 
mountains to piece, was 461. Four hamlets 
were completely buried under the dis- 
rupted matter, along with their inhabi- 
tants and cattle, and seven villages were 
partially destroyed. Whole forests were 
levelled by the shock, and rivers were 
blocked up by the ejected mud and 
rocks. No such disaster had happened 



186 



Boute 22. — Frinn Niigata to Wakamatsu, 



in Japan since the famous eruption of 
Asama-yama in 1873. 

The ascent of Bandai-san from 
Inawasliiro is usually made by 
walking for about 2 m. along 
the old highway which leads to 
the West Coast. A path then 
turns sharp r. over the grassy 
moor, and for a considerable dis- 
tance is a gradual climb. When 
the higher and thickly wooded 
part of the mountain is reached, 
the ascent becomes much steeper. 
, Looking backwards, glorious views 
of the extensive plain in which 
Wakamatsu is situated are ob- 
tained at various points. A walk 
of about 3 hrs. should bring one to 
a point on the W. side of the 
mountain and not far from the 
crater wall, where the full force 
of the explosion may be best 
realised. The awful scene of havoc 
bursts upon one with bewildering 
suddenness. The path then de- 
scends, and passes over the sea of 
mud and rocks in the direct line 
of eruption, till the hill shutting 
out the valley of the Nagase-gawa 
18 encountered. Crossing this and 
walking over the site of the annihi- 
lated hamlet of Kawakami, we next 
come 3 m. further down the valley 
to the hamlet of Nagasaka, whose 
inhabitants, in endeavouring to 
escape to the hills opposite, were 
overwhelmed by the sea of mud. 
At th^ vill. of Mine, less than f m. 
from Inawashiro, a deflected por- 
tion of the muddy stream was 
arrested, and may be seen piled up 
several feet thick. Great changes 
have since taken place in the ap- 
pearance of the devastated area, 
through the effects of erosion upon 
the rugged masses of rock and mud 
that had been left by the cata- 
strophe. The dammed-up waters 
of the Nagase-gawa now form a 
large lake, 6 or 6 m. long and about 
1 m. broad. But taken altogether, 
the spectacle is still one of the 
most weird and engrossing to be 
seen in any part of the world. 



The circuit of the mountain 
as here described occupies a day,, 
but leaves little time for investiga- 
tion of any kind. Provisions 
should be obtained at Inawashiro 
before starting. Guides are al- 
ways procurable. 



ROUTE 22. 

From Niioata to Wakamatsit 
(alzu), and to ivjotomita on 

THB NOBTHEBN EaILWAT. 

Itinerary. 

NIIGATA to :— Bl Cho. M. 

Kameda 3 13 8^ 

Yasuda 5 28 14 

Komatsu 3 11 8 

Iwaya (Mikawa) 2 4 5^^ 

Tsugawa 2 18 6 

Torii 3 6 7f 

Nozawa 4 10 10^ 

Banee 4 34 12 

WAKAMATSU... 3 7 7f 

Total 32 23 79^ 



This journey, practicable for jin- 
rikishas, but over rougl^ and moun- 
tainous roads, may be made in 2^ 
days. One ri is saved by taking 
boat on the Shinano-gawa from 
Niigata to Kameda. The first 
night*s halt should be made at 
Kouiatsn {Inrit Komatsu-ya). 

[At Tsiigawa, the Agano-gawa 
is often resorted to by those 
taking this route in the in- 
verse direction. Niigata can 
thus be reached in one day 
from Tsugawa ; but if it is 
slack water, a halt must be 
made somewhere for the night. 
The boats are about 45 ft. long^ 



Eoute 23. — From Koriyama to Taira d Mito, 



187 



by 6 ft. broad, and are pro- 
pelled by one man sculling at 
the stern, and another pulling 
a short-bladed oar, worked in a 
loop of wistaria at the bow. 
For about 12 m. the river^ 
hemmed in by lofty cliffs, 
studded with rocks visible 
and sunken, making several 
abrupt turns, and shallowing 
in many places, hurries the 
boat swiftly along. The rapids 
are on a small scale, and any- 
thing but formidable.] 

The p»rt of the route between 
Iwaya and Nozawa will be found 
the stiffest, but the most pictur- 
esque. The road passes along the 
side of a ridge above the rapid 
Agano-gawa, with fine grey cliffs 
on its further side, and commands 
excellent views of the abrupt pre- 
cipices of lide-san and Myojin- 
tskke on the S.W. There is fair 
accommodation at 

Kozawa (Inn, Hotei-ya). Leaving 

Bange (several inns), the road 
enters the cultivated plain in which 
Wakamatsu lies. 

Wakamatsn {Inns, *Shimizu-ya, 
Mroato-ya), formerly the castle- 
town of the Prince of Aizu, is 
situated nearly in the centre of a 
great oval plain of from 10 to 12 ri 
in its longest diameter, constituting 
what is properly called the Aizu 
country. The plain is fertile, culti- 
vated with rice, and watered by 
many streams that descend from 
the surrounding mountains and 
unite to form Lake Inawashiro. 

The Aizu clan specially distinpuished 
itself fighting on the Shogun's side 
during the civil war of 1868— indeed, their 
enemies termed them 'the root of the 
rebellion/ Though their cause was a 
losing one, their gallantry is none the 
less remembered. Even lads of fourteen 
and fifteen years followed their fathers 
to the field. 

The Daimyo's castle stood on a 
hill, a short distance from the town ; 
but it has been razed to the ground. 
With the exception of some fine 
old trees, dilapidated gateways, 



and remains of moats, nothing re- 
mains to attest the former glory 
of the place. Wakamatsu is a con- 
venient point from which to make 
the ascent of Bandai-san, described 
in Eoute 21. A pleasant walk can 
be taken to Higashi Oyama {Inn, 
Shin-taki), a village of tea-houses 1 
ri to the N. of the town, situated in 
a deep ravine through which flows a 
stream of considerable volume, and 
much frequented on account of its 
hot-springs. The waters, which 
gush out of the rocks on the r. 
bank of the stream, have neither 
taste nor smeU. Their temperature 
varies from 122° to 131° F. 

Leaving Wakamatsu, jinrikishais 
are taken to Tonokuchi, a distance 
of 4 ri, whence small steamers ply 
across Lake Inawashiro to Yama- 
gata (see p. 184). Then by jinri- 
kisha to Motomiya, 6 ri, whence 
rail to Tokyo. 



EOUTE 23. 

From Koriyama thbodgh the 

Province of Iwaki to Taira 

AND Mito. 

Though the province of Iwaki is 
not generally considered attractive 
to tourists, the following itinerary 
is given for the benefit of such as 
may desire to traverse it. 

Starting from Koriyama, 7 hrs. 
from Tokyo on the Northern Eail- 
way, we take the road leading 
through Miharu to Taira on the 
Pacific Coast, and thence diverge 
S. to Mito in the province of Hita- 
chi, 5 hrs. from Tokyo by rail. 
Time, 4 or 5 days. 



J85 Bonte 23,-^Fr(m Eonyama to Taira d Mito. 



Itinerary. 

KORIYAMA to :— RL Cho. M, 

MIHARU 3 11 8 

Kadosawa 3 10 8 

Ono-niimachi ... 3 15 8^ 

Kawamai 4 8 10^ 

TJwadaira 4 3 10 

TAIRA 2 14 5J 

Yumoto 1 30 4>k 

Tanabe 1 33 4| 

Sekida 2 33 7 

Kamioka 1 31 4f 

Takahagi 3 22 8f 

Sukegawa 4 5 10 

Onuma 2 15 

Ishigami-Sotojuku 2 2 5 

Tabiko 2 15 6 

MITO 2 31 7 

Total 46 11 113 



The road is practicable for jin- 
rikishas throughout, but mostly 
heavy travelling. 

Miharu {Inn, Omiya). Between 
this town and Kadosawa, a small 



vill. with poor accommodation, the 
Kazakoshi-toge, the only ascent of 
any note on the way, is encoun- 
tered. Bice and tobacco are exten- 
sively cultivated in the neigh- 
bourhood. Ono-niinmchi (Inn, Kiku- 
ya), which is about half-way to 
Taira, may be made the end of the 
first day's journey. From Kavja- 
mai to Uwadaira the scenery im- 
proves, the road following a nar- 
row vaUey between low hills. 
Beyond 

Tnira (Inn and resit., Sumiyoshi), 
which lies in a beautifully fertile 
plain, the country becomes flat and 
uninteresting. Tumoto (Inn by 
Anataki Tokujiro) possesses hot- 
springs of some local celebrity. Near 
Tanabe is the port of Onahama. 
There are hot-springs at Kamioka 
(Inn, Tokai-ro). Accommodation can 
be had at TahaJmgi (Inn, Kashiwa- 
ya), and at Sukegawa (Inn, Ebi- 
ya). Between Onuma and Owada 
the road leaves the coast, and strikes 
inland to Mito (see p. 173). 



i 

\ 



1 



SECTION II. 



NORTHERN JAPAN 



(Routes 24 — ^1. 



Eoiite 24:. — Northern Railway d Oshu Kaido. 



191 



ROUTE 24. 

Thb Nobthesn Railway and the 
Oshu Kaido. 

vbom tokyo to sendai and mobi- 
oka by bail. fb03i fukushima 

TO YONEZAWA BY THE KUBIKO 
KAIDO. FBOM YONEZAWA vid. 

BANDAI-SAN TO MOTOMIYA. FBOM 
IGHIN08EKI TO SHIOGAMA DOWN 
THE KITAKAMI-GAWA. ASCENT OF 
OANJU-SAN. FBOM MOEIOKA TO 
AOMOBI BY THE OSHU-KAIDO. THE 
TAKEYAMA PENINSULA. 





Names 
of 


Remarks. 


s^ 


Stations. 






TOKYO (Ueno). 




4 m. 


Oji 


See p. 05. 
Change trains 




-wj* •■••••••••••••••••••• 






in eomingi 


6i 


Akabane Jet 


8. for Shim- 






bashi (To- 
1 kyo) and 


12f 


Urawa. 


Yokohama. 


\&i 


Omiya Jet. 




m 


Hasuda. 




«i 


Kuki. 




m 


Knrihashi. 




88 


Koga. 


^Change trains 
( for Mito line 


48 


Qyama 


< and for sta> 






/ tions on the 






^ Ryomo By. 


57 


Ishibashi. 




65} 


utsunomiYa 


( Change trains 
i for Nikko. 


761 


Nagakubo. 




83} 


Yalta. 




sio 


Nasu 


lAlight for 
( Shiobara. 


• 


W 


Kuroiso. 




107i 


Toyohara. 
SHIRAKAWA. 




113} 




183 


Yabuki. 




ISO 


Sukagawa. 




137} 
146 


Kdriyama 


Road to Taira. 
jAlight for 
( Bandai-san. 


Motomiya 




162 


Nitionmatsa. 




157} 


Matsukawa. 





166 
,174} 

nsi} 

1^7} 
195} 
200} 
2(?4i 
208} 

215} 

220} 

230 

242} 

240} 

2504 

264} 

272 

281} 

287} 

208} 

S06 
316} 



328 



FUKUSHIMA.. 

Kori. 

Kosugo. 

ShiralBhi. 

Okawara, 

Tsukinoki. 

Iwanuma. 

Masuda. 

senbai 



Iwaklri. 

Matsushima. 

Kogota. 

8emine. 

Ishikoshi. 

Hanaizuml. 

ICHIN03£KI. 

Maezawa. 

Mizusawa. 



Kui-osawajiri. 

Hanamaki. 
Hizome. 

MORIOKA . 



f Road to Yone- 
C zawa. 



f Branch line to 
\ Shiogama. 



I Road to Akita 
' (see Rte. 



\ 



26). 



/'Present ter- 
\ minus. Road 
1 to Akita (see 
C p. 204). 



The Nortliem Eailway, from 
Tokyo to Aomori is open as far as 
Morioka. The line follows the 
route _of the old highway called 
the Oshu Kaido for a great 
part of the way to Sendai, where 
it makes a deep bend to the E. 
to avoid a hilly portion of the 
country, but agaiii^ joins it near 
Ichinoseki. The Oshu Kaido is 
well-maintained throughout its 
length of 191 ri from Tokyo to 
Aomori, and remains nne of the 
finest roads in the Empire. The 
pines, cryptomerias, and other 
conifers lining it are frequently 
seen from the carriage windows ; 
but not until the train reaches 
Utsunomiya, the junction for 
Nikko, with the glorious range of 
mountains rising in the back-> 
ground, can the railway rout« be 
said to offer much in the way of 
natural beauty. The best places at 
which to break the journey are 
Fukushima and Sendai. The 
Northern line branches off from the 
Tokyo-Takasaki- Yokokawa Railway 
at Omiya (see Route 12). 

A short distance beyond Knri- 



192 



Boute 24> — KortJieiii Railway d Oshu Kaido, 



Iiasliij the Tonegawa is crossed by 
a. fine iron bridge. 

The Toneprawa, which waters the plain 
•of T9kyo, rises on Monju-san in the pro- 
vince of Kotsuke, and after a course of 
170 m., empties itself into the Pacific at 
Choshi, while a second arm falls into 
Tokj'O Bay. Lajyoons line its lower 
course, and from both mouths sandbanks 
stretch out far into the sea. The Daiya- 
^wa, which flows past Nikko, is one of 
its affluents. Owing to the volume of the 
river and the flatness of the surrounding 
country, inundations with disastrous re- 
sults are frequent. The name Tone is a 
relic of the time when the Ainos wandered 
over Eastern Japan, before the occupation 
, of the country by the Japanese. It is a 
corruption of the Aino word fanne, * long,* 
this nver having naturally been called the 
Long River, in contradistinction to the 
ftmailer ones of the same district. 

Kogn {Inn, Ota-ya) was formerly 
the residence of a Daimyo. River 
steamers run from here to Tokyo 
daily, making the journey in about 
14 hrs. (see p. 64). Beyond this 
place the mountains come in view, 
the peaks of Tsukuba on the r. 
And the Ashikaga hills to the 1., 
with the giants of Nikko looming 
in the distance ahead. 

Oyoma (Inn, Eado-ya) is a 
prosperous town, where the Mito 
Railway branches off to the r. and 
the Byomo Railway to Maebashi to 
the 1, 

Utsnnoilliya (Inn, * Shiroki-ya), 
formerly the castle-town of a Dai- 
myo, is now the capital of the pre- 
fecture of Tochigi. The town 
suffered severely during the civil 
war of 1868. It takes its name 
from the large Shinto temple of 
Fvia-ara-yama no Jinja, or Nikko 
Daimyojin, dedicated to the me- 
mory of a son of the Emperor Sujin. 

This prince, who belongs to the legen- 
dary period of Japanese history, is said to 
have been created ruler of Eastern Japan, 
and to have founded several families of 
local chiefs. 

Leaving Utsunomiya, the line 
begins to ascend, and passes 
through a pleasantly wooded 
country until it enters the wide 
plain of Nasu, in the midst of which 
lies the little viU. of 



Nasn (Inn, Nasuno-ya), whidi. 
has grown around the station o£ 
the same name. It is a busy place in. 
summer, on account of the visitors 
to the Shiobara district, described 
in Route 20. The line continues ta 
ascend in more or less steep gra> 
dients until its highest point is 
reached at an elevation of 1,160 ft^ 
at 

Sliirakawa (Inn, Isami-ya), a 
flourishing little town, and for- 
merly the seat of a Daimyo named 
Abe. The train .passes within 
sight of the ramparts of the old 
castle. The town is situated on 
the upper waters of the Abuknma- 
gawa, a fine river which rises on 
Asahi-dake, and flowing N. dis- 
charges into the Bay of Sendai, — 
length 125 m. from its source. One 
of the most stubborn contests in 
the war of the Restoration took 
place around here in 1868. A road 
branches off from Shirakawa to 
Wakamatsu, the capital of Aizn, 
17i ri distant. 

Koriyiima (Inn, Ebi-ya) is a flon- 
rishing town, in the vicinity of 
which silkworm breeding and silk 
manufacture are extensively cap* 
ried on. A road from this place 
leads to Bandai-san, but that 
from 

Motomiya (Inn Mito-ya), the 
station beyond, is to be preferred 
(see Route 21). 

NihonmAt8n (Inn, Yamada-ya) 
is a pictui'esquely situated town, 
built on the sides of an exceedingly 
steep hiU, and extends a ri in length. 
It is one of the principal silk-pro- 
ducing towns in the province. 
The valley of the Abukuma-gawa 
opens out after 

Matsiikawa is passed, and the 
broad sweep of the couatry to the 
1. is very fine. 

Fnkiisliima ( Inn, * Matsuba- 
kwan) is the capital of the prefecture 
of the same name, and was formerly 
the castle-town of the Itakura 
family. It is ^ good place at which 
to break the journey northwards. 



From Fukushima to Yonezatca. 



i9a 



Part of the castle was burnt during 
the civil war of 1868. Fukushima 
is an important centre of the trade 
in raw silk and silkworms' eggs, 
and during the season is the head- 
quarters of the T5kyo silk-buyers. 
The number of weU-constructed 
buildings in European style gives 
the town an unusual air of prospe- 
rity. The pine-clad hill called 
8hin6bu-yama, a prominent feature 
in the landscape from the railway, 
standing alone in the midst of the 
plain with a Shinto temple and 
public garden at the foot, is worth 
a visit. A pleasant walk or ride 
may be taken to a small temple 
and pagoda of the Tendai sect, 
known as the Shinohu Mojizuri 
Kwannon, about 1^ ri from the 
town. Within the pagoda are en- 
shrined the Oo-cM Nyorai, or Five 
Personifications of Wisdom. The 
Mojizuri-ishi or ' letter rubbing- 
stone/ is a huge block of granite 
to which allusion is found in 
Japanese poetry. Neither the 
origin nor the appropriateness of 
the name of the stone can be veri- 
fied. The large stone Jiz5 behind 
is a somewhat curious piece of 
sculpture. 

The extinct volcano of Azuma- 
yama (6,365 ft.), the highest 
mountain in the district, lies to the 
W. of the town, and has a soKatara 
at the top. It may be best as- 
cended from here; but the distance 
is estimated at over 8 ri, and guides 
are difficult to obtain. 

[Fukushima to Yonezawa by 

THE KUBIKO KaIDO. 

Itinerary. 

. F KUSHIM A to :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Sekiba 2 20 6^ 

Odaki 2 7 5i 

Ohira 2 12 5i 

Kariyasu 2 8 5^ 

YONEZAWA ... 3 3 n 

Total 12 14 30i 

^ ■ - ■- 



This road, known as the 
Kuriko Kaido, from a long 
tunnel through the mountain 
of that name, leads over a 
difficult mountainous district, 
and is one of the finest pieces 
of engineering in the North. 
Completed about 1881, after 
very heavy outlay owing to 
unavoidable tunnelling, it at 
once became the main road to 
Yonezawa, — the old road, little 
better than a track, which 
passed over a ridge of Azuma- 
yama at an altitude of about 
2,500 ft., being impracticable 
for vehicles of any kind. The 
traffic over the new road is 
considerable, railway commu- 
nication to Fukushima hav- 
ing brought Yonezawa so much 
nearer to the chief mar- 
kets. Carriages are available ; 
but jinrikishas are much to be 
preferred, the journey then 
taking. from 8 to 10 hrs. A 
good level road runs across 
the plain to the foot of the 
mountains at Sehiha, a poor 
village. Just before entering 
the first tunnel, 1 ri 10 chd 
from Sekiba, the road is cut 
out of the sheer cliff ; and the 
stream, one of the tributaries 
of the Abukuma-gawa, runs in 
a deep gorge some hundreds of 
ft. below. A short distance 
beyond, the stream is crossed 
by a bridge, and the road from 
this point onward for about 
a mile is very picturesque. 
Odaki is a posting-station,^ 
where the accommodation is 
poor, as indeed it is at every 
halting_- place on the way. 
From Odaki to Futatsu-goya^, 
where, as the name implies, 
there are two resting-houses, 
it is a steady ascent, although 
nowhere can the gradient on 
the Fukushima side be said 
to be very great. A second 
tunnel of 3 chd 14 hen in 
length is here encountered. A 



194 



Eoute 24, — Norifiem Eailway S Oshu Kaidd. 



moderate descent is then made 
to Ohira, whence the road 
again ascends for 12 chb until 
it reaches its highest level, 
about 3,000 ft., where Kui-iko- 
yama is pierced by a tunnel 8 
cho 25 hen (over \ mile) in 
len gth . The sides of the moun - 
tains are densely wooded, the 
oak being specially noticeable j 
water also is plentiful. Pine 
torches have to be purchased 
at the entrance of the tunnel, 
the passage through which is 
very wet and rough. At in- 
tervals, the tunnel is widened 
so as to admit of carriages 
crossing each other freely. 
The telegraph line is carried 
through the tunnel by means 
of a cable enclosed in tubing. 
On the Yonezawa side, at the 
entrance, is a large stone 
tablet recording the history of 
the undertaking. It states 
that the tunnel was com- 
menced in December, 1876, and 
finished in October, 1880, at a 
cost of $126,900, of which sum 
the Government made a grant 
of $31,900, the remainder being 
subscribed by the people of the 
province. The first part of the 
descent from the long tunnel 
is steeper than that on the 
Fukushima side; but after pass- 
ing Kariyasu, the fertile plain 
is reached, and this portion 
of the journey to Yonezawa 
can be accomplished in 2^ hrs. 
Yonezawa {Inns, Akane-ya, 
Takahashi; foreign restt.,Kato), 
formerly the castle-town of the 
great Uesugi family, is situated 
near the S.E. extremity of a 
rich and fertile plain, sur- 
rounded by lofty mountains 
and watered by the Matsukawa 
and several tributary streams 
that form the upper waters of 
the Mogami-gawa. The town 
itself, though large, has not 
;a striking appearance. The 
houses are thatched, and the 



streets mostly narrow, rongli^ 
and neglected. 

Unlike their brethren in other 
parts of Japan, the old mmnrai aie 
here the .wealthiest portion of the 
' population, retaining in their hands 
the bulk of the silk produced in the 
neighbourhood. This state of affairs 
is said to arise from the fact that 
when Uesugi was deprived, as » 
punishment, of a large part of his 
fief by the government of the day, his 
retainers had to eke out their liveli- 
hood by their own industry, and the 
habits thus inculcated stood them 
in good stead when the revolution of 
1 8€W swept over the land, and deprived 
them of their class privileges. 

The castle has been razed to 
the ground; but the temple 
dedicated to Uesugi Kenshin, 
an ancestor of the family and 
a mighty warrior of the 16th 
century, still remains, and an 
anniial festival is held there 
on the 13th of the 3rd month, 
old calendar. Close by are 
situated the imposing-looking 
local government of&ces. 

Bandm-san may be reached 
in 1 day from Yonezawa viit 
Hibara, at the head of the lake 
formed after the last eruption 
of that volcano. Boats are 
available across the lake to 
the foot of the mountain, 
whence the traveller may walk 
over the scene of the eruption, 
and down to Tonokuchi on the 
shores of Lake Inawashiro on 
the evening of the second day. 
Thence by steamer to the 
hamlet of Yamagata on the 
lake, by road to Motomiya, and 
by rail to Toky5 on the third 
day, making a most interesting 
excursion.] 

From Knori {Inn, Nishi-ya), the^ 
silver mines at Handa may be 
reached in 1 hr. The hot-springs 
of lixdka are also best reached from 
this station. The railway now 
traverses the most picturesque 
portion of the route, and passing 
by the important town of 

Shiraisni (Inn by Akajima), 



Sendau 



195 



affords a constant change of moun- 
tain scenery until 

Iwannma is reached, whence it 
proceeds to Sendai through level 
country. 

Sendai {Inns, Harikyu, Shimoda, 
Kikuchi; also the clubs Yushu-kwan 
and Mutsu-kwan, the latter near the 
railway station, attached to both of 
which are public restaurants where 
European food can be obtained), 
capitel of the province of Eikuzen 
and of the prefecture of Miyagi, is 
situated on the 1. bank of the Hiro- 
se-gawa, and was formerly the 
castle-town of Date Mutsu-no-Kami, 
the greatest of the northern Dai- 
myos. The castle, a fine natural 
stronghold lying on the r. bank of 
the river, was partially destroyed 
during the civil war of 1868. It 
is now used as barracks for the 
garrison. The town is noted for 
its manufacture of ornamental ar- 
ticles, such as trays, etc., made 
of fossil-wood (jindai-sugi) found 
in a hill near the town ; also for a 
kind of cloth called shifu ori, made 
of silk and paper and suitable for 
summer use. Foreign buildings 
are tolerably numerous, amongst 
the principal being the Grovern- 
ment schools which stand on a 
large open space to the E. of the 
town, and the Post and Telegraph 
Office in the main street. The 
small Public Garden commands a 
good view toward the castle and 
the mountain-ranges beyond. For- 
merly a number of valuable old 
lacquer and other relics belonging 
to the ex-Prince of Sendai, as well 
as the presents given by the Pope 
to the mission headed by Hashi- 
kura Rokuemon, who was sent to 
Borne in 1615 by Date Masamune, 
were preserved in the town ; but 
they have lately been dispersed to 
various parts of the Empire. Some 
of these interesting relics are to 
be seen in the Miiseum at Ueno in 
Tdky6 (p. 82). The convict-prison 
of Sendai is one of the largest in 
Japan. Outside Sendai, at Aramaki 



on the N., are a number of potteries 
where coarse pans and jars are 
made. 

Though ordinarily treated as a 
mere place of rest by the traveller 
en route to Matsushima and the 
North, a few hours may profitably 
be spent at Sendai in visiting 
the temple of Zuihdden, where 
lie the ashes of Date Masamune, 
and afterwards proceeding to 
Atago-san, from which a lovely 
view of the surrounding coun- 
try is obtained. The temple 
stands on Zuiho-san, a part of 
the old castle grounds, and is 
approached by an avenue of lofty 
cedars. Just beyond the first torii 
is a fine large stone tablet, erected 
to the memory of 142 Sendai men 
who fell in the Satsuma Rebellion. 
The temple is then reached by a 
flight of steps. The sixteen-petalled 
chrysanthemum (a crest on the 
outer gate retained by special per- 
mission of the Mikado), and the 
fine bronze cistern close by, are 
worth inspection. The haiden is 
of black lacquer with coloured 
cornices. The kara-nion gate has 
some good carvings of tigers and 
dragons ; but they are inferior to 
those on the Okvrno-in, or inner 
temple, where ,the i^rojecting 
rafters take the shape of carvings 
of mythological monsters. Within. 
is the tomb, having upon it a 
seated statue of Date Masamune. 
On each side of the Okvr-no-in stand 
stone monuments to the memory 
of twenty faithful retainers who, 
when their lord died, sacrificed 
their own lives in order to foUow 
him to the land of shades. The 
pla<5e is surrounded by lofty crypto* 
merias, and resembles, but on a 
much less magnificent scale, the 
site of leyasu's tomb at Nikko. 
The monument close by, erected 
by Date Masamoto, records the loss 
of a thousand men of Sendai in 
the war of the Eestoration. 

A path leads down 1. through, 
the valley, and then up to the 



196 



Boute 24. — Nortliem Bailwmj S Oshit Kaido, 



ridge called Atago-san, facing the 
town. The view from the tea- 
sheds on the top is exceptionally 
beautiful. The river winds round 
the foot of the hill, the town 
spreads out in front embedded in a 
mass of foliage, the mountains lie 
behind, while to the r. is a broken 
country consisting of uplands 
dotted with clumps of trees, and an 
open plain beyond extending to the 
sea. The summit of the sacred 
isle of Kinkwa-zan is also occasion- 
ally visible. Th»- path descends to 
the river, which is crossed on a long 
bridge of planks. There are various 
other minor places of interest in 
Sendai and its immediate vicinity. 
Diverging considerably to the E., 
the railway route passes through 
a fertile stretch of country, with 
little to arrest the traveller's at- 
tention. 

Matsnshima takes its name from 
the well-known vill. on the shores 
of the Bay of Sendai, 1 ri distant. 
For a description of the beauties of 
this celebrated spot, see Boute 30. 

From Kogota, carriages run to 
WaJcuya, 1^ ri, and to Furukawa on 
the Oshu Kaido, 2 ri. 

[Waknya is of some historical intereRt, 
as having been in the possession of 
Date Aki, who lost his life in the 
cause of Tsunamuue, third Prince of 
Sendai under the Tokugawa Sho- 
g^ns, and whose story forms the 
subject of the popular drama entitled 
Sendai Hagi. Tadamnne, the second 
Prince, hail an illegitimate son.known 
as Hyobu Shoytl, who, discontented 
with his lot and envious of the great 
Sendai estates falling to another, 
secured the aid of Harada Kai, chief 
controller of the Prince of Sendai* s 
afiFairs in Yedo, in a plot to ruin 
Tsunamune. The young prince was 
then living in Yedo, and Hyobu's 
object was to leeul him into such a 
career of dissipation as would end in 
his fall. In this the plotters partially 
succeeded. Tsunamune retiqmedto 
Sendai from the capital, taking the 
fomous courtesan Takao with him as 
his mistress, an act in itself , if known 
to the Shogun, sufficient to cause 
bis effacement from the roll of Dai- 
myos. At this stage his faithful 
adherent Date Aki and others inter- 
posea, and on the plea of illnesa 



got the Sh9gun to consent to their 
lord's retirement and to the appoint* 
ment of his son Kamechiyo, a child 
but seven years old. Through the in- 
fluence, however, of Sakai TJta-no- 
Kami, prime minister of the Shogun, 
whose daughter had married Hyobu's- 
son, Hyobu himself was appointed 
guardian of Kamechiyo. Several 
attempts were made by both Hyobu 
and Harada to get rid of the young^ 
prince by poison, all of which failed 
through the devotion ofi Aki's- 
daughter, whom he had left as gov- 
erness for the boy. Eventually, 
armed with ample proof against 
the conspiititorB, Aki laid the case 
before the ShSgun at Yedo. Uta-no- 
Kami undertook to defend his son- 
in-law, while Itakura, another noted 
minister, espoused Aki's cause, and 
after a lengthy trial Hyobu and 
Harada were found guilty. But a 
petition for a new trial was granted, 
and it was in the course of this trial 
at the prime minister's residence, 
that Harada stole upon Aki and 
slew him on the spot. Prevented iu 
a further attempt to murder Itakunv 
also, he killed himself. This occurred 
in 1671.] 

Ichinoseki, also called fwai 
(Inris, Kumagaya Seibei, Tama* 
moto-ya), a town consisting chiefly 
of one long street lying in a fin© 
valley on the banks of the Iwai- 
gawa, was formerly the seat of a 
Daimyo named Tamura. At Ichino- 
seki the railway strikes the valley 
of the Kitakami-gawa, which it 
follows up past Morioka. 

This important river rises at the vill. 
of MidO on the northern frontier of the 
province, and has a course of about 175 
m. dlie S. to Kofunakoshi, where it 
divides into two branches, one flowing 8. 
into the Bay of Sendai at Ishinomaki, the 
other into the Pacific Ocean. It has 
numerous affluents, and affords ready 
means of transport for the produce of 
the largo extent of country drained by 
it. Rice, wheat, beans, and hemp are 
generally cultivated in the district. 
Trout are plentiful in the rivers of this 
part of Japan. 

[From the port of Eozenji (no 
inns), about 2^ m. from Ichino- 
seki by a good jinrikisha road, 
there is a line of river steamers 
running daily to Ishinomaki 
and Shiogama. The steamer 
starts at daylight, reaching 
Ishinomaki about noon. After 
a short stoppage^ it aacenda 



The Kitahami-gaiva. Chusmiji. 



197 



tlie river again to enter the 
Nobiru canal, and then pass- 
ing through the Matsushima 
archipelago; reaches Shiogama 
about 4 P.M. Delays, however, 
are frequent, owing to the 
numerous stoppages made en 
route to take in carsjo. The 
nver scenery is very pretty in 
places, but the steamers are 
small and uncomfortable. Sta- 
tions from which large square 
nets are dropped into the river 
by levers, are seen on the per- 
pendicular bluffs. The slate- 
quarries for which Ishinomaki 
is noted, are passed on the 
1. before reaching the town.] 

At a distance of 2.^ ri from Ichi- 
noseki is situated the far-famed 
monastery of Chusonjiy in which 
many interesting relics of Yoshi- 
tsune and Benkei are preserved. 
Jinrikishas may be taken to the 
tea-house at the foot of the hill on 
which the temples stand. The road 
from Ichinoseki follows an excel- 
lent portion of the old highway ; 
and shortly after the railway line 
has been crossed, the approach to 
Chtisonji — a lengthy avenue of 
grand cryptomerias — is reached. 
No attempt should be made to go 
further except on foot; it was 
incumbent in old days on the 
Mikado's envoy himself to alight 
here, even if he were merely 
passing by the sacred hill. Per- 
mission can readily be obtained 
to inspect the treasures, on applica- 
tion at the Local Government 
(Mice {Gun Yakusho) in Ichinoseki. 
The buildings are closed as places 
of worship, being now simply re- 
tained as store-rooms for the 
temple treasures ; but they are still 
in the care of the Buddhist priests, 
who will conduct visitors around. A 
fee should be offered to onfe of the 
priests on leaving, ostensibly for 
the maintenance of the buildings, 
which indeed sadly need repair. 

The monastery was foanded by Jikaka 
Baishi in the 9th centuiy, and attained 



its greatest prosperity under the patron- 
age of Fujiwara Kiyohira. The buildings 
once numbered forty in all, with residences 
for 300 priests. 

A short distance up the avenue, 
a fine and extensive view of the 
valley of the Kitakami-gawa is 
obtained. The principal buildings 
shown are the Jizo-do, Konjiki-do, 
Issaikyo-do, and Benzaiten-do. All 
are plain wooden structures, de- 
void of colour or ornament except 
some carvings and flower-paintings 
on the Jiz6-d6. This is the first 
building met with on tUe 1. of the 
avenue. It contains figures of 
Yoshitsune and Benkei, said to be 
their own handiwork. In the 
Issaikyo-do are three fine sets 
of the Buddhist scriptures. But 
the most interesting building is 
the Konjiki-do, once covered with 
a coating of gold that gave it tjie 
name of Hikaru-do, or Glittering 
Hall, by which it is most commonly 
known ; but only faint traces of 
the gold are now discernible. The 
main pillars are lacquered, and 
inlaid with shells broiight from 
Rome by the mission sent there in 
1615 by Date Masamime. Here 
as elsewhere, however, time and 
neglect have left their mark. 
Among the treasures carefully pre- 
served, are two paintings of Chii- 
sonji by Kanaoka (A.D. 859-876), 
the first great Japanese painter ; 
also paintings of Yoshitsune and 
Benkei said to be by themselves ; — 
good, bold pieces of colouring. The 
relics here include some fine images 
of the chief deities worshipped by 
the Tendai sect. Benkei's sword and 
other possessions may be seen in 
the Benzaiten-do. Altogether, the 
collection of objects of both artistic 
and historic interest is rich and 
varied, and well merits inspection. 
Instead of returning to Ichino- 
seki, the traveller may resume his 
journey northwards by train at 

Mneznirn (Inn, Sato-ya), 1 ri 24 
eho beyond Chusonji. Just before 
reaching this station, the Ko- 



198 



Boiite 24, — Northern Railway & Oshu Kaido, 



romogawa is crossed, a river cele- 
brated as the scene of the battle 
that ended Yoshitsune's career. 
Near 

Miziisawa is the site of the 
ancient fortress (Chinjufu) of the 
Governors-Greneral of Oshu, a name 
which in early times included all 
N.E. Japan. 

KiirosaiW2ijiri (Inn by Nomura 
Nisuke). Small steamers some- 
times ascend the Kitakami-gawa as 
far as this place. Here, too, the 
most picturesque road to Akita 
diverges 1. over the mountains (see 
p. 203). 

' Haiiamaki (Inn by Takase Toku- 
taro). The railway station is about 
1 m. from the town. For the 
road from this place to Kamaishi 
on the E. coast, see p. 215. 
About 9 m. from Hanamaki up the ^ 
valley of the^^Toyosawa, lie the hot- 
springs of Osawa, where the ac- 
commodation is better than at any 
of the other springs in the pre- 
fecture. The water is strongly 
impregnated with alum. Jinriki- 
shas are available all the way. 
The most prominent mountains 
seen on the E. are Rokka-uchi- 
yama and Sochiho-san, locally 
known as Hayachine-yama ; on the 
W., Nansho-zan and Ganju-san, 
also called Iwate-yama. 

lliziime (Inn by Uchikawa). 
The railway keeps on the r. 
bank of the Kitakami-gawa, and 
crosses the river Shizuku-ishi at 
its junction with the Kitakami 
before entering 

Morioka (Inns, * Mutsu-kwan, 
European food; Seifii-kwan, at the 
station; *Murata-ya, Naruse), the 
capital of the prefecture of Iwate, 
and formerly the castle-town of the 
Daimyo of Nambu. The town is 
celebrated for its kettles, spun-silk 
goods, fruit, and vegetables. _ The 
kettles differ from those of Osaka 
and Kyoto in being a rusty red 
colour, and in the annealing to 
which they are subjected. The ore 
from which they are made comes 



from near the E. coast, and has & 
high reputation. American apples 
are now extensively grown ; also 
quinces, cabbages, and turnips. 
Game is abundant in winter. 
Among the other productions of 
Morioka, are a confection made of 
the root of the dog-tooth violet 
(Erythronium) called kataJcuri, and 
syda-no-yuki (contracted from. 
Sumida-no-yuki), somewhat resem- 
bling Iceland moss paste. 

About 1 H from the town, a grove of 
cryptomerias is seen on a bluff overhang- 
inir the river. Here it was that the rebel 
Alje-no-Sadatd had his castle, which, after 
a stubborn resistance, was overthrown 
by Minamoto Yoshiie, the doughty war- 
rior also known to fame as Hachiman 
Taro, that is, the flrst-bom of the 
God of War. Long afterwards — so the 
story goes— when Nambu wished to 
l)uild his castle on the same spot, the 
Shosrun's Government, remembering the 
difficulty formerly experienced in over- 
coming the rebel Abe, refused to grant 
permission, so that the fortress was erected 
on the hill which ^ftei'ward3 became the 
centre of Morioka. 

Under the hiUs to the E. of the 
town stand a number of temples. 
In the garden of one of these, called 
Ryukokuji, is seen a peculiar rush 
called the kataha no yoshi, the 
leaves of which grow on only one 
side of the stem. Tradition avers 
that this is owing to Toshitsune 
having stripped off half the leaves 
with a stroke of his sword. 

[Ganju-san, also called Iwate-san 
(6,800 ft.), can be ascended 
from Morioka by starting early 
in a jinrikisha with two men, 
and going to DaishaJcu, a 
hamlet on the lower slopes of 
the mountain, where are good 
sulphur baths, the water for 
which is brought down in 
pipes from Amihari, higher up 
the valley. The jinrikisha 
should be left at the hamlet 
for the return joiumey. Dai- 
shaku, which is about 7 ri from 
Morioka, can be reached in 
time for lunch, and the after- 
noon pleasantly employed in a 
dimb to the source of the 



Ascent of Ganjxt-san, 



199 



hot-springs at Amihari, up a 
^ood path of less than 2 m. 
The baths ai*e mere open 
tanks, though there are huts 
where some of the country 
people put up when they come 
for the cure. From here a 
short but steep climb takes 
one to the dividing ridge be- 
tween the i)refectures of Iwate 
and Akita, whence a good 
view may be obtained of the 
mountains towards Akita. 

It is a hard day's climb from 
Daishaku to the top and back, 
but the traveller has two 
nights'rest, and the hot sulphur 
baths to refresh his weary limbs. 

The ascent of the mountain 
is easy for the first few miles 
•over the lower part ; but grad- 
ually it begins to zigzag up 
through and over the roots of 
trees. Sometimes it follows the 
ridge of a spur, and then de- 
scends to cross a valley, in one 
place coming out on a solfatara, 
where the hot water boils up 
and mingles with a cold stream 
running down from the moun- 
tain. The structure of the 
mountain may be compared to 
three joints of a telescope, 
there being a lower thick cone, 
then a rim or crater, then a 
«econ4 cone followed by a 
second rim OV crater, and 
finally a third cone. On ren<ih- 
ing the outside of the first 
•crater, a slight detour brings 
one to a ridge separating two 
httle lakes which can be seen 
from the top. From this spot 
there is another steep climb to 
the rim of the second crater, 
on the floor of which stands 
a hut intended to ticcommo- 
<late pilgrims. The last part 
of the ascent from here is up a 
slope of fine lapilli, inclined 
at an angle of 27°. The top 
«of the mountain is really the 
knife-like edge of another 
•crater, half a mile in diame- 



ter, in whose centre rises a 
small cone which is breached on 
its S.E. side. Strewn along the 
edge, lie numerous offerings to 
the mountain god, which have 
been brought up by pilgrims — 
principally pieces of sheet-iron, 
shaped like spear-heads, vary- 
ing in length from 2 or 3 in. 
to 2 or 3 ft. The interior of 
the cone may be entered by 
climbing over the breach. 
Ganju-san, from its regular 
logarithmic curves, is a beauti- 
ful object to all those travel- 
ling up or down the valley of 
the Kitakami-gawa. 

On returning, it is better 
to take the direct road towards 
the vill. of Shizuku-ishi, cross- 
ing the ridge of the outside 
crater just behind the pilgrims* 
hut, and descending a long^ 
rocky spur. This is an easier 
way, as there is no under- 
growth to force one's way 
through ; but on reaching the 
foot of the mountain, it is a 
long trudge across the grassy 
l)lain before one begins to as- 
cend the zigzag path to the 
inn at Daishaku. 

The return from Daishaku 
can be varied by crossings 
the Shizuku-ishi river at the 
ferry, and going to the hot- 
springs of Tsunagi, where 
the baths are pleasant though 
of no particular medicinal 
value. By following a short 
way further up the valley, 
the baths of Oshuku (Uguisu- 
no-yado) are reached. From 
here the road to Morioka, 13 
m., is along the r. bank of the 
Shizuku-ishi river, and enters 
the city by the Meiji-bashi. 
Those pressed for time can 
make the ascent most quickly 
from Yanagizawa-mura about 
4 ri from Morioka, starting on 
horses in the afternoon. The 
accommodation at the little 
inn is miserable ; but by enga- 



200 



Boute 24, — Northern ruiilivay cd Oshii Kaiild. 



ging guides and using torches, 
the ascent can be begun about 
midnight and the top reached 
at daylight, distance only 2 ri 
23 cho. To make up for the 
comparative shortness of the 
distance, the climb is so steep 
in some places that chains are 
fastened in the rocks to help 
the pilgrims.] 

The Northern Eailway is about 
to be completed to Aomori. At 
present, from Morioka onwards, 
travellers jnust follow the old high 
TOtid the Oshu Kaido, which partly 
adjoins the railway track, and is 
practicable for jinrikishas. Omni- 
buses also ply over a portion of 
it, — on wheels during the summer, 
and on runners during the long 
season of snow. They ply regularly 
between Morioka and Numakanai, 
irregularly between Niimakunai 
and San-no-he, fairly regularly be- 
tween San-no-he and Noheji, and 
regularly from the latter place to 
Aomori. Each cho in the distances 
along the road in the prefectures 
of Iwate and Miyagi is regularly 
marked, — a great convenience to 
those acquainted with the Japanese 
numerals. The following is the 

Itinerai'y, 

MOEIOKA to :— Bi. Cho. M, 

Shibutami 4 27 111 

Numakunai 3 32 9^ 

Kotsunagi 4 34 12 

Ichi-no-he 3 4 7-1 

Pukuoka 1 31 4^ 

Kindaichi 13 2^ 

San-no-he 3 — 7i 

Asamizu 3 18 8a 

Oo-no-he 1 20 3| 

Dempoji 1 28 U 

Pujishima.'. 33 2^ 

Sambongi 17 3 

Shichi-no-he 2 28 6| 

Noheji 5 8 12| 

Kominato 4 9 IO2 

Nonai 4 20 Hi 

AOMOEI 2 3 5 

Total 50 17 1231^ 



Leaving the suburbs of Morioka^ 
the road crosses the Kitakami-gawa 
and follows up the r. bank of the 
river. About 1 m. out of the town,, 
it enters a grove which extends 
for over 2 m. In the autumn^ 
the Morioka people picnic here, to- 
gather a delicious species of mush- 
room called hatsu-take. 

After passing the junction of tlie^ 
road to Hirosaki at a distance of 3 
ri 6 cho from Morioka, the main 
road to Aomori turns to the r., 
still ascending, but within a mil© 
crosses the crest and gradually 
descends towards Shibutami, con- 
tinuing around the base of Ganju- 
san. The best view of the mount-ain 
is obtained from near_ 

Shibutami ( Inn, Omura-ya ), 
where the shape appears perfectly 
symmetrical. The picturesque cone 
of Hiine-ga-take at the end of the 
range of hills enclosing Morioka- 
on the r., which has been con- 
spicuous for so many miles, rise& 
from behind Shibutami. The val- 
ley of the Kitakami-gawa becomes 
more confined; and the stream, 
which up to Morioka was navigable- 
for boats of 50 kuJcu burthen, is 
now obstructed by rocks and. 
boulders. Its principal soiu'ce is 
crossed just before reaching 

Niimnkiiiini (Inn by Kojima To- 
mi). This is the last viU. in tlie 
valley. The terraces marking the 
ancient position of the river-bed 
deserve notice. After passing the 
turning on the r. which leads 
to Hachi-no-he, the road lies be- 
tween wooded hills, and beyond th& 
temple of Kwannon ascends the 
water-shed, about 2,000 ft. above 
the sea. At the foot of a large 
cryptomeria near this temple, is a 
clear crystal spring which is ac- 
cepted as the source of the iTita- 
kami-gawa. At the top is the 
boundary between the provinces of 
Eikuchii and Bikuoku. The road 
now lies over a grassy tract, and 
soon after passing the hamlet of 
Nakayama, strikes the head of 



North Section of the Oshu Kaido. 



201 



a deep valley and descends to 
Ketsunagi (Inn by Sakuyama). 
Throuf^h this valley flows the 
Itfabechi-gawa, which after a course 
of tes m. discharges itself into the 
sea at Hachi-no-he. This river will 
be crossed twelve times by the 
railway on its way to Hachi-no-he. 
Lacquer-trees line the roadside, 
and everywhere dot the fields. 

I<*lli-no-lie (Inn by Nishimura) 
lie* between steep woodedhills. The 
road now crosses to the r. bank of 
the river, and rises to a consider- 
able height to avoid a bend in the 
valley. The scenery all the way 
to Kindaichi is very picturesque. 
At Fuhuoka (Inn by Murai), the 
valley widens out. The road partly 
follows it, but in two places ascends 
the mountains on the 1. bank to a 
<ionsiderable elevation, descending 
at the back of 

San-llO-lie (Juris by Tago, Asai) 
to a tributary stream flowing down 
■a long valley from the W. A high 
hill covered with cryptomerias 
lies between this and the main 
river. On the r. bank of the latter 
rises the peak of Nakui-dake, visi- 
ble from a long distance N. The 
•ascent of this conspicuous hill is 
recommended. It can be very 
easily climbed, and it offers a 
remarkable view of the sui'round- 
ing country and of the main chain, 
with Herai-dake, Akakura, etc. 
Shortly after leaving San-no-he, the 
road to Hachi-no-he branches off to 
the r., and the main road, ascend- 
ing the mountains by a steep 
Jicchvity, runs along an elevated 
wooded ridge. This commands 
«n extensive view, embracing the 
mountains near Aomori, the whole 
E. pai-t of Aomori Bay, Osore-zan 
on its N. side, and the narrow 
isthmus between the Bay and the 
Pacific Ocean. Asamizu (Inn by 
Tanaka) lies in a deep valley. More 
ridges are crossed before reaching 
Uo-iio-he (Inns by Xamioka, 
Yuwatari), a considerable place for 
this part of the country. From 



Fujishima, a gradjially rising plain 
extends to 

S«aiiiborigi {Inns by Yasuno, Wa- 
jima), and between the latter place 
and Noheji on Aomori Bay the 
road traverses large stretches of 
moorland and open rolling country, 
extending to the 1. for 6 or 7 miles, 
and on the r. as far as the eye can. 
reach. In bad weather the track 
is deep in mire, the soil consisting" 
of black mould, under which are 
hiyers of clay and volcanic pumice, 
which in some places come to the 
surface. At 

Shichi-no-he (Lms, Minatobe, 
Urushi-do), on a stream of the 
same name, the plain is again 
reached, and after 3 m. the road 
crosses the Nakagawa and the 
Tsubo-kawa. 

Nolioji, often written Nobeehi 
(Inns, lida-ya, Yasuda), is a port 
conveniently situated at the S.E. 
corner of Aomori Bay. 

[A coast road runs due N. from 
Noheji to the hatchet-shaped 
peninsula of Yakeyama, where 
the summit of Eamafuse-zan 
affords a delightful view, and 
the solfatara at the little lake 
on Osore-zan offers much in- 
terest. The accommodation is 
everywhere poor, except at 
Kawa-uchi, Sai, and Obeta.] 

Tliough the distance from Noheji 
to Aomori is but 15 m. as the 
crow flies, the road is forced by a 
mass of mountains to make a con- 
siderable detour, which increases 
the distance to 11 ri, or nearly 27 
miles. Leaving Noheji, it foMows 
the coast through insignificant 
fishing villages for a few miles to a 
cove called Shiranai, then strikes 
inland through Koniinato (Inn by 
Terajima), crosses over to the 
shore of Aomori Bay proper, and 
continuing past the hot springs of 
Asamv^hi (Inn by Sugawawa), and 
along the rocky and picturesque 
coast to Nonai, enters the plain in 
which lies Aomori. 



202 



Iloiite 25, — Sendai to Yamayata d' Yonezaiia, 



Aomori {Inns by *Nakajima 
Masakichi, Wajima Heizo), capital 
-of the prefecture of the same name, 
is situated at the head of Aomori 
Bay and at the mouth of the small 
river Arakawa, which drains an 
extensive plain shut in by high 
liills. Its straight, wide streets 
give it an aspect unusual in Japan, 
and the shops are large and well- 
supplied. Quantities of salmon are 
caught in the bay ; and besides 
dried salmon and sharks' fins, furs 
from Yezo and lacquer are seen in 
abundance in the shops. The lac- 
quer is of a peculiar variegated kind, 
called Kavd-nuri, Tsugai'u nuri, or 
Baka-nuH. A considerable trade 
passes through Aomori, as it is the 
link connecting Hakodate with 
the province of Mutsu and the 
district of Nambu in Eikuchu. It 
is also the chief outlet of the large 
migration of country people who 
annually cross over to Yezo in the 
spring for the fisheries on the 
coast of that island, returning in 
the autumn to their homes on the 
mainland. 

There is constant steam com- 
munication between Aomori and 
Hakodate, 70 m. distant, the 
stealhers always sailing at night. 



KOUTE 25. 

From Sendai to Yamagata and 
yonezawa. 

Itineranj. 

SEIJDAI to ;— Ri. Cho. M. 

Ayako 3 — 7i 

Sakunami 4 — 9f 

Sekiyama 5 34 14^ 

Tendo 3 26 9 

YAMAGATA 3 8 7 J 

Kaminoyama 3 JL8 Sh 

Nakayama 1 33 4f 

Akayu 2 24 6^ 

YONEZAWA 4 4 10 

Total 32 3~7Hi 



This route is two easy days" 
journey by jinrikisha, staying the 
first night at Yamagata. Sendai 
and Yamagata are also connected 
by a more direct but rougher road 
over the Futakuchi-toge. 

Saknnaiui {Inn by Iwamatsu)^ 
situated in a deep valley with pre- 
cipitous sides, is noted for its hot- 
springs. The main road from Akita^ 
to Yamagata is joined at the town of 

Tendd,* where it emerges on to a 
plain which narrows towards Yama- 
gata. The views hereabouts are very 
pleasing. The most striking ob- 
ject in the landscape is the summit 
of Gwassan, which rises behind 
picturesque lesser ranges, and 
whose slopes continue, even during 
the hottest part of the year, to be= 
covered witli large patches of 
snow. 

Yainagata {Inn, Goto; foreign 
restt.] Shizan-ro), capital of the pre- 
fecture of the same name, and 
foiTuerly the castle-town of Mi- 
zuno Iziuni-no-Kami, is well-situ- 
ated on a slight eminence, and 
possesses broad and clean streets 
with good shops. Leaving the 
highly cultivated plain of Yama- 
gata, we enter some low hills, on 
the slope of one of which stands 

Kaiiiinoyniiia {Inn, Kame-ya). 
This town contains several good 
inns, many of which are built high 
up the slope of the hill. It alsa 
possesses hot mineral baths, which,, 
on account of their efficacy in rliou^ 
matism, attract visitors from con- 
siderable distances. Kaminoyama 
is noted as being one of the driest 
places in Japan, and may be re- 
conunended as a health resorts 
There are plenty of walks in the- 
neighbourhood, and picturesque ex- 
cursions can be made in many 
directions. 

Akayu (I>i7i by Ishioka Yozo) is 
another place noted for its hot sul- 
phur springs ; but the inns are apt 
to be filled with patients, and to be 
too noisj* for the taste of foreign 



Boute 26. — From Tokyo to Akita. 



203 



travellers. After crossing the 
Matsukawa, and passing the vill. 
of Nukanome, we reach 
Yonezawa (see p. 194). 



ROUTE 26. 

Ebom Tokyo to Akita on the 
Nobth-West Coast. 

The traveller bound for Akita 
has a choice between several routes, 
viz. 

1. By the regular tri- weekly 
steamers of the Nippon Yuseu 
Ewaisha from Yokohama to Hako- 
date, in 2^ days, and thence to 
Tsuchizaki, the port of Akita, by 
smaller steamers, which run at 
intervals of from 4 to 10 days, and 
occupy 18 hrs. in making the pass- 
age. The distance from Tsuchi- 
KsJd to Akita is 1^ ri. 

2. Kailway from Tokyo (Ueno) 
to Kurosawa jiri on the Northern 
hne in 17 hrs.; thence by the 
following itinerary, which is the 
most picturesque land route. 

Itinerary. 

KUROSAWAJIEI to :— 

Bi, ChO. M. 

Shitamura 3 18 8.i 

Snginahata 8 31 9^ 

Kawajiri 2 10 51 

Nonojuku 1 30 4^ 

Yokote 5 30 14^ 

AKITA (by itine- 
rary given in No. 

3 in next column) 18 34 46^ 

Total 36 9 88^ 



For Kurosawajiri see p. 198. 
The first part of the journey as 
far as Nonojuku is rough and 
mountainous. 

3. Railway from Tokyo (Ueno) 
to Sendai, in 12 hrs. Thence 
by road, the following being the 

Itineii'ary. 

SENDAI to — Ri. Chd M. ' 

Ayako 3 — 7i 

Sakunami 4 — 9| 

Sekiyama 5 34 14a 

Tateoka 3 18 8^ 

Obanazawa 3 20 8$ 

Funagata 3 19 Si 

Shinjo 2 12 5:^ 

Kanayama 3 32 9i 

Nozoki 4 11 lOA 

Innai 3 — 71 

Yuzawa 4 9 10^ 

Yokote 4 30 llf 

Kakumagawa ... 3 18 84 

Omagari 1 25 4^ 

Hanatate 22 l<i 

Jinguji 1 '2 2a 

Kita Maruoka . . . 27 If 

Kariwano 1 25 4} 

Yodogawa 2 11 5| 

Wada 3 12 Sk 

AKITA 4 — 9t 

Total 65 3 158^ 



The road is practicable for jin- 
rikishas throughout. As far as 
Sekiyama, this route coincides with 
the first part of Route 25. 

At Tatookn (Inn, Ise-ya), the 
main road from Yamagata to Akita 
is joined. Not far fl*om Tateoka is 
Yamadera, with its old temples and 
fine landscapes. 

Shiujo (Inn by Ito Yunosuke), a 
quiet place, has a large trade in 
rice, silk, and hemp, but shows 
little outward evidence of prospe- 
rity. The style of buildings in this 
district and in those further N. 
differs entirely from that met with 
in central and southern Japan. 



204 



Route 27 » — Sendai to Tstim-ga-oha d Aldta, 



Nearly all the houses are great 
oblong barns turned end- wise to 
the- road, and are built with heavy 
beams and walls of lath and 
brown mud mixed with chopped 
straw. Rain-doors {ania-do), with 
a few paper windows at the top, 
replace the ordinary sliding 
screens ; and as there are no ceil- 
ings to the rooms, the interior pre- 
sents a very uninviting appearance. 
Beyond Shinjo the road crosses 
a steap ridge into a singular basin, 
partly surrounded loy thickly 
wooded pyramidal hills, at* the foot 
of which lies the vill. of Kaiia- 
yania. The next stage of the 
journey is through wild and pic- 
turesque scenery. Leaving the 
hamlet of Nozok<, the road descends 
along the head- waters of the Omo- 
no-gawa. The approach to 

Iiinai, as well as the road on to 
Tuzawa, is* through an avenue of 
cryptonlerias. The silver mines 
at Innai were once the most pro- 
ductive in Japan. 

Yokote (Inn, Kosaka), is a dirty 
town with a large trade in cottons. 

Oinagr>iri> (Inn, Takenouchi). At 

Jinguji (Inn, Hoso-ya), boats 
may be taken down the Omono- 
gawa to Akita. The current is 
swift, though there are no rapids ; 
and the journey of 42 m. may be 
comfortably accomplished in 9 hrs. 

Akita (Inn, Kobayashi) is the 
capital of the prefecture of the 
same name. This town, also called 
Kubota., was formerly the seat ot a 
Daimyo named Satake. A con- 
siderable commerce is carried on 
here^ and rice is exported in large 
quantities to the northern parts of 
the Main Island and to Hakodate. 
The manufactures are striped 
tsumugi, or spun-silk cloth, and 
white chijimi. 

4. A road from Morioka (19 hrs. 
by rail from Tokyo) to Akita, joins 
that given in No. 3 near Omagari. 
The whole distance from Morioka 
to Akita is 35 ri 8 cho, the itinerary 



as far as Omagari being as fol- 
lows :— 

MORIOKA to :— Ri. Cho. M. 

Shizuku-ishi 4 10 lOi 

Hashiba 2 21 6^ 

To the border of 

the Prefecture... 2 12 5| 

Obonai 2 23 6^ 

Kakunotate... 5 11 13 

OMAGARI ......... 4 35 12i 

Total 22 4 54 



EOUTE 27. 

From Sendai to Tsubu-ga-otca, 
Sakata, Hon jo, and Akita. 
Ascent op Hagubo-ban, Gtvas- 

8AN, AND ChOKAI-ZAN. 

Itinerary. 

SENDAI to:— Ri, Cho. M. 

Shinjo 25 31 63 

Moto-Aikai 2 10 6l 

Furukuchi 2 8 6i 

Kiyokawa .-... 3 12 S^ 

Karigawa 1 12 3^ 

Fujishima 1 34 4f 

TSURU-GA-OKA 2 8 6i 

Back to Fujishima 2 8 5^^ 

Niibori 2 26 6f 

SAKATA 1 33 4^ 

Fukura 5 6 12^ 

Shiokoshi 5 14 13^ 

Hirazawa 2 33 7 

HONJO 3 7 7f 

Nakamura 6 — 14j 

Araya 4 25 Hi 

AKITA 1 10 3 

Total 74 25 180|^ 

This route has been compiled for 
those travellers whose chief object 
is mountain climbing, and who, 
after completing their tour, will be 
able to take steamer for Hakodate 
either at Sakata or at Akita. 

The road is the same as Section 
3 of Route 26 as far as Shinjo, where 



Ascent of Haguro^ Gucassan d Chokai—zan, 



205 



it diverges to the 1. to reach 

Moto-Aikai. Soon after passing . 
this vill., it arrives at a ferry 
over the Mogami-gawa, one of the 
most important rivers of N. Japan, 
and the scenery becomes highly 
picturesque. The river, tliough" 
flowing between high hills, covered 
partly with grass, partly with 
splendid yews and cryptomerias, is 
•quite placid, and- is studded with 
primitive boats having brown mats 
for sails. Descending the pleasant- 
ly cultivated valley, we rea<;h KaH- 
gawa, where the main road to 
Sakata joins in to the r. 

Tsiirii-gii-okai or Shonai (Inn by 

Tabayashi Gorobei) was formerly 

the castle-town of a Daimyo called 

Sakai Saemon-no-jo. The retainers 

of this personage are remembered 

for the sturdy resistance which 

they offered in 1868 to the Mikado's 

troops, and for their rough, un- 

eultivated manners. There are 

several remarkable waterfalls in 

the neighbourhood of Tsuru-ga-oka, 

viz. Shiraiio no taki near Kiyokawa, 

whose height is estimated by the 

Japanese at 74 ft. and its breadth 

at 24 ft.; "No-no-tahiy near the foot 

of Maya-san, about 100 ft. high ; 

and Hitoguhuri in the same vicinity. 

These last two waterfalls, tumbling 

over different sides of the lame 

steep ridge, are visible at the same 

time, and with some smaller falls 

about 20 ft. in height, make a 

charming picture. 

[Hagnro-san and Gwassan may 

be conveniently vibited from 
Tsuru-ga-oka.' Gwassan, the 
higher of the two, is only 6,200 
ft. above the level of the sea ; 
and it is therefore not so mueh 
on account of their height 
as of their reputation for 
sanctity, that they are known 
throughout the length and 
breadth of the land, and yearly 
attract crowds of pilgi'ims. 

One of the most curious ihin^ 
connected with these mountains is 
the mythical existence of a third, 



called Ttufotio-tan, the three together 
being collectively known as San^ 
art/ «, that is, 'the three mountains.* 
Yudono-san is marked on almost all 
Japanese maps, posts point the way 
to it, pious ])ilgrims plan the ascent 
of it, mention of it Las even crept in 
to some of the European guide-books 
to Japan, and, — Mrs. Harris-like, no 
ttuck inot<ufuiu exitit! This, on the 
authority of Dr. K. Naumann, long 
attached to the Imperial Japanese 
Survey Department, and probably 
Ijetter acquainted with the byways 
of Japan than any other man living. 

It is necessary, in order to 
avoid the discomfort of spend- 
ing two nights on the moun- 
tains, to start at a very early- 
hour. Haguro-san is visited 
first, 4 ri. 'I'hence to the sum- 
mit of Gwassan is 9 ri ; but ac- 
commodation for the night can 
be obtained at any of the three 
hamlets situated on its slope. 
The traveller is advised to 
choose the highest of the three, 
and next day, to return to 
Tsuru-ga-oka via Tamugi and 
Oami, in the neighbourhood of 
which latter vilL may be seen 
the primitive method of cross- 
ing an otherwise impassable ra- 
vine by Kago-watashi, that is, a 
basket slung to ropes. Instead 
of returning to Tsuru-ga-oka, 
it is also possible to reach Yama- 
gata by descending from the 
top of Gwassan to the hamlet 
of Iwanezawa, a walk of 6 rt, 
where, at a distance of li ri, 
the road from Tsuru-ga-oka to 
Yamagata viA the Roku-ju-ri- 
goe is met.] 

Leaving Tsuru-ga-oka, the road 
crosses the Mogami-gawa close to 
its mouth before reaching 

Siikata {Inn, Miura-ya), a port 
of call for steamers. The principal 
street presents a peculiar appear- 
ance, with its houses standing in 
separate enclosures. 

[From Fukura (fair accommo- 
dation), the ascent of Chokai- 
zan, sometimes also called 
Tori-no-umi-yama, may best be 






ao6 



Emite 27. — Sendai to Tmni-ga-oJca d' Akita. 



made. A trip to this magni- 
ficent mountain is strongly 
recommended. Scarcely any 
other peak in Japan, Yari-ga- 
take perhaps excepted, affords 
80 extensive a view. Sunrise 
la the best time for the view, 
for which reason the traveller 
should arrange so as to spend 
the night on the top. It is, 
however, possible to make the 
ascent and to descend again to 
Fukura in one long day. The 
distance to the summit, which 
is considered to be 9 W, is 
divided into three equal stages, 
of which the first 3 ri may be 
performed on horseback. The 
second takes one to the shed 
at Kawara-ishi, 4,800 ft. above 
the sea, where water and poor 
native food can be obtained, 
and where even in summer 
patches of snow may be seen. 
The third stage leads past the 
rim of an old crater, and over 
snow and volcanic scroriae to 
the present peak. Near the 
top are some sheds for pilgrims, 
and a small temple little 
better than a hut. ITie actual 
summit is 800 ft. above this 
point, and is reached by 
clambering over a wilderness 
of broken rocks and stones, 
the result of some ancient 
eruption. 

The first recorded eniption took 
place in A.D. 801, and the last about 
30 years apro. Traces of its action 
may still l)c seen in the solfatara on 
the W. side of the mountain, but the 
upheaval was an insi^iificant one, 
and the volcanic force of Chokai-zan 
is evidently becoming extinct. 

From the summit the eye 
wanders over the entire range 
of mountains dividing Ugo 
from Rikuchu, and over those 
of Nambu beyond. Looking 
•W. is the sea, with to the 
r. the long headland of Oji- 
ka. Opposite lies Hishima, 
and to the 1. Awajima and 
Sado. To the S. is the plain 



of the lower Mogami-gawa, 
bounded by the mountains of 
Uzen and Echigo, with the 
long slope of Gwassan in the 
centre. Most curious of all, 
as the first rays of light break 
through the darkness, is the 
conical shadow of Ohokai-zan 
itself, projected on to the sea, 
and rapidly diminishing in 
size as the sun ascends.] ' 

The road now lies along the 
coast at the foot of Chokai-zan and 
Inamura-dake, as far as Shiohoshi, 
on the top of high cliffs over- 
hanging the sea. The view of Cho- 
kai-zan varies constantly. From 
Shiokoshi to Hirazawa the coast is 
much broken up by small bays, 
whose entrances are guarded by 
rocky cliffs, and where small fishingr- 
villages line the shore. 

Honjo {Inn^ Komatsu-ya), for- 
merly the residence of a DaimyG 
named Eokugo, stands on the banks 
of the Koyoshi-gawa, at whose 
mouth is the small port of Furu- 
yuki. From this point onwards, 
as far as Akita, the coast extends 
in one long unbroken dreary line 
of sandy shore. The manufacture 
of salt from sea- water by a rough 
method is carried on here to a con- 
siderable extent, and in the month 
of May large quantities of hata- 
hata, a fish resembling the sardine, 
are caught with the seine. An 
inferior kind of lamp-oil is extracted 
from these fish, and the refuse 
is used as manure. At 

A rayn , the Omono-gawa is crossed 
to the prefectural town of 

Akitai (see p. 204). 



Eoute 28. — From yiujaUi to Tsuni-r/a-Qha. 



207 



EOUTE 28. 

TPvxyH. NlIGATA TO TSUBTJ-QA-OKA. 

[Valley of the Miomote-gawa.J 

Itinerarij. 

in:iGATA to :— Bi. Cho. M. 

Nuttari 26 If 

UchiShimami.... 3 21 8| 

SHIBATA 3 8 7| 

Mikkaichi 1 6 2| 

Ifakajo 3 6 7$ 

Kurokawa 1 4 2if 

Hirabayashi 2 15 6 

MURAKAMI 2 34 7i 

8arusawa 2 13 6| 

Shionomachi 1 20 31 

Budo 1 32 4k 

Nakamura 2 12 5$ 

Arakawa 18 1^ 

Ogiini 4 22 lU 

Tagawa-yu 5 30 14| 

TSJRU-GA-OKA 1 18 3| 

Total 38 33 95 



This route is mostly impracti- 
c».ble for jinrikishas. The road is 
doll as far as Kurokawa, where 
the scenery becomes more interest- 
ing, and a good view of the moan- 
tain ranges ahead begins to dis- 
close itself. The most conspicuous 
emmnits are : in front, Budo-yama, 
so called from the wild grapes to be 
found growing on its sides ; and to 
the r. in the distance, the highest 
of the three peaks of Washi-ga su, 
or the 'Eagle's Eyrie.' The road 
enters the lower hills on nearing 
the former castle-town of 

* Marakdinl (fair accommodation), 
a clean and good-sized place. After 
crossing the Miomote-gawa, the 
most delightful scenery on this 
route is reached. Two new sum- 
mits to the r., — Eboshi-yama and 
the Echigo Fuji, a double-crested 
mountain one of whose peaks as- 
sumes in miniature the exact form 
of its great namesake, and others 
most various in size and contour, 
come in sight. Clusters of pines 
and cryptomerias, and the never- 
ending green of a rich cidtivation 



along the lower level, an(J of the 
grassy and leafy heights, contri- 
bute to the charm of the landscape. 
[Dr. Navunann highly recom- 
mends the picturesque upper 
course of the Mi(yinote-gaiva, 
especially the gorge between 
the villages of Miomote and 
Iwakuzure, Miomote itself 
lying at the foot of the moun- 
tains like a little paradise. He 
includes in his praise the 
whole of the wild district 
extending northward to the 
Mogami-gawa, and recom- 
mends the following tour to 
mountaineers : — From Sendai 
to Ito-ga-take, Gwassan, Cho- 
kai-zan, Tazawa, Odori, Mio- 
mote, Iwakuziu'e, Washi-ga-su 
(4,140 ft.), Arasawa, Gomizawa, 
Asahi-dake (6,530 ft.), Oguni, 
Tamagawa, lide-san (7,130 ft.), 
Ichinoto, Niigata. Portions of 
this tour are described in 
Eoute 27.] 

From Nakaiiiiirn, it is a per- 
petual succession of steep ascents. 
The i^rincipal sight on the way is 
Urushi-yania no Iwaya, a striking 
mass ot grey rock, which towers 
romantically above a purling brook 
from amidst a glade of giant cryp- 
tomerias, and is half-shrouded in 
live oaks and creepers that take 
root in almost inaccessible nooks 
and crannies. 

The tradition is that Yoshiie, commonly 
known as Hachiman Taro, or the ' tirst- 
boni of the God of War,' built him in this 
spot a r(X)f of arrows as a shelter from the 
weather, when he had defeated his foes in 
this mountain fastness. Hence the name 
(or nither perhaps the name may have 
g^iven rise to the story) of Yabuki Dai- 
myojin, lit. the ' God of the Arrow-i-oofinjf,' 
under which this wan*ior is worshii)ped 
as the local JShinto deity. 

Tiigawa-yn, a village so called 
I from its hot-sj^rings, is situated at 
the base of the Dainichi-toge. It 
contains several good tea-houses 
witli pleasant bathing accommoda- 
tion. Jinrikishas can be taken 
from this place across the plain to 
Tsiirii-ga-oka (see p. 205). 



208 



llotite 29* — From Akita to Aomon, 



EOUTE 29. 

From Akita to Aomori. 
funakawa. ascent of iwaki-san. 

Itinerary, 

AKITA to:— Ri. Cho. M. 

Tsuchizaki 1 18 3| 

Okubo 3 30 H 

Hitoichi 2 18 6 

Kado 3 — 7i 

Movioka 1 IS 3f 

Noshiro 4 3 10 

Tsurugata 3 — 7i: 

Niageba 3 29 9^- 

Kotsunagi ...» 21 1^ 

Tfiiizureko 3 6 7| 

ODATE 4 21 Hi 

Shirazawa 2 21 6i 

Ikari-ga-seki 4 28 llf 

Ishikawa 3 19 s] 

HIROSAKI 2 14 5f 

Namioka 4 26 Hi 

Shinjo 4 14 10| 

AOMORI 1 25 4i 

Total 55 23 135f 



Descending the r. bank of the 
river to Minato, the road follows 
the coast, and at Okubo crosses to 
the shore of a large lagoon, called 
Hachird-gata, whose greatest length 
from N. to S. is 17 ni., its breadth 
being about 7i ni. The entrance 
on the S.W., by which it communi- 
cates with the sea, is only about 
150 yds. wide. 

[On the W. of the bay formed by 
the headland on tjie opposite 
side of the lagoon, lies the port 
of Funakawa (Inn by Moroi), 
near which are some remark- 
able rocks rising to 60 ft. in 
height. In one place they form 
a natural bridge in the sea. 
Funakawa is 10 ri 28 chb distant 
by road from Akita, passing 
through Futiakoshif at the 
mouth of the lagoon, 6 ri 21 
cho from Akita. Jinrikish'as 
are available.] 



After iQavipg the lagoon ofc 
Kado, the road strikes across a 
rich plain extending from the 
mountains to the sea-shore on the 
1. and northwards to 

Noshiro {Inn by Kanazawa Kai- 
mon); thence "to Tsurugata on the 
Nqshiro-gawa. From Tsurugata. to 

0<lat<', the road ascends the val- 
ley of the Noahiro-gawa, keeping 
always on the r. bank. At Odate 
quantities of coarse lacquered ware 
are manufactured. Travellers com- 
ing from the opposite direction can. 
descend by boat from Odate to 
Tsurugata. From Odate the road. 
turns again to the N., and crosses 
a range of hills. The slopes on the 
r. are grassy and bare of trees, 
while those to the 1. are covered 
with a dense forest. Numbers of 
horses are bred in this neighbour- 
hood. 

Hirosaki (Inns by Ishiba, Nagai) 
was formerly the castle-town of a 
Daimyo surnamed Tsugaru, after 
the district which formed his ter- 
ritory. The castle was destroyed 
some years ago, and its site is now 
occupied by bai'racks. 

[On the W. of the town rises 
l^akl-san, or the Tsugaru Fuji^ 
so called on account of its simi- 
larity in form to the famous 
mountain of that name. One 
of the best views of this peak 
is enjoyed by the traveller as 
he approaches Hirosaki from 
the S., when the mountain 
makes its appearance in a 
N.W. direction. Its solitary 
grandeur equals, if it does not 
surpass, that of the loftier 
cone after which it is named. 
The ascent is made from 
Hyaku-sawa, about 3 ri from 
Hirosaki, at the S. foot of 
the mountain, where there is a 
temple, whose incumbent will 
furnish guides for the ascent. 
The season at which pilgrims 
make the ascent is strictly Umit- 
td i but travellers will find no 



Eoute 30, — Matsmlilma and Kinhim-zan, 



20^ 



difficolty in obtaining the ne- 
cessary permission at any time, 
by malang a small present of 
money. At a height of 4, 1 00 
ft. lies an oval crater, about 
100 yds. wide, at the bottom 
of which is a small pond. 
To reach the highest peak 
of all, about 4,650 ft. high, 
two steep ascents have to be 
made over boulders and loose 
gravel. Scattered over the 
summit lie numerous huge 
andesite boulders. The top 
is extremely steep, a fact ap- 
parently due in large measure 
to the washing away of ejecta- 
menta, leaving only the solid 
rock. Notwithstanding the 
great amount of degradation 
that has taken place upon the 
upper part of this mountain, 
its general form and the exis- 
tence of beds of pumice indicate 
that it has been in a state of 
eruption during periods which, 
from a geological point of view, 
are quite recent. 

The ascent and descent can 
be easily accomplished in 5 a 
hours.] 

From Hirosaki the road lies 
across a plain cultivated with rice, 
beyond which it ascends the range 
of hills known as Tsugaru-zAkci. The 
top of this range commands a mag- 
nificent view of the surrounding 
country. To the N. and N.E. lies 
the bay of Aomori looking like a 
a huge lake ; on the E. rise the 
mountains of the central chain that 
forms tha backbone of the Main 
Island ; to the N. W. are the penin- 
sula of Mimmaya and the valley of 
the Iwaki-gawa; on the S.W., Iwa- 
ki-san and the town of Hirosaki ; 
and on the S., the mountains that 
divide Tsugaru from Akita. De- 
scending a narrow valley, the road 
shortly issues on to the coast, and 
reaches 

Aomori (see p. 202). 



Shiogama 
coast 



KOUTE 80. 

Matsushima and Kinkwa-zan. 

the matsushima . archipelago, 
nobiru. i8hin0maki. 

By train from Sendai on the^ 
Northern Eailway to Shiogama 
in i hr. 

The archipelago of pine-clad 
islets collectively bearing the name 
of Matsushima, has been famed for 
its beauty ever since northern 
Japan was conquered from the 
Aino aborigines in the 8th cen- 
tury, and is one of the San-kei, 
or * Three Most Beautiful Scenes' 
of Japan, the other two being 
Miyajima and Ama-no-hashidate. 
A lengthened form of the name,. 
Shiogama-no-Matsushima, i.e. * The 
Pine Islands of Shiogama,' is 
often made use of 
being the town on the 
where the curious landscape be- 
gins. The favourite way of viewing- 
the scene is to row or sail across 
to the hamlet which has borrowed 
the name of Matsushima, un- 
less it be desired also to visit 
Ishinomaki and Kinkwa-zan, in 
which case a very good view is- 
afforded from the steamer's deck. 
These steamers ply daily between 
Shiogama and Ishinomaki, starting- 
after the arrival of the first train 
from Sendai. The passage to Ishino- 
maki occupies about 3 hrs., or not so- 
long when weather permits of the 
small river steamers going outside- 
the4:)ar at Nobiru, instead of taking 
the lengthier canal route. The 
larger boats which connect withthe- 
Nippon Yusen Kwaisha's steamers 
set Oginohama on their voyages to 
and from Yokohama and Hakodate,, 
also pass through the little archipe- 
lago, and take but 2 hrs. to cover 
the distance between Shiogama and 
Oginohama. 

ShiogJima (Inns, Asano-ya, Saito^ 

Ebi-ya, all near the railway station 

I and the pier J the old and noted inn 



-210 



lioute 30» — Matsiishijna and Kinhm-zan, 



•on the liill called Shogaro, a for- 
mer pleasure-house of the Prince of 
Sendai, is still in existence, but 
being now-a-days inconveniently 
situated for train and steamer, is 
little patronised by travellers). 

The Temple, which once belonged 
to the Shingon sect of Buddhists 
And was known under the name of 
Hbrenji, should be visited. It has 
been transferred to the worship of 
the Shinto god Shiogama Dainiyo- 
jin, a son of the creator Izanagi, 
and the reputed discoverer of the 
way to obtain salt by evaporating 
sea- water. The word ahio-gania 
means Salt-Boiler. In the temple 
court will be noticed a sundial in- 
scribed with Roman figures. It bears 
date 1783, and was presented by 
Rin Shihei, a writer noted for his 
zealous advocacy of the defence 
of the country against foreign 
inroads which he prophetically 
foresaw. There is like\yise a hand- 
some though weather-beaten iron 
lantern, presented by thQ warrior 
Izumi Saburo Tadahira in A.D. 
1 1 87. But in the temple's present 
state, the magnificent cryptomerias 
and other trees, in the midst of 
whose deep shade it stands, are un- 
doubtedly the greatest attraction 
-of the place. Shiogama is noted 
for its ink-stones. From Shiogama 
to the hamlet of 

Matsiishiina (Inn, Kwangetsu- 
ro) is a deliji^htful sail amidst the 
promontories, bays, and ' islets, 
which stretch along the coast for 18 
ri as far as Kinkwa-zan, the most 
celebrated of the group. There are 
said to be 88 islands between Shio- 
gama and Matsushima, and 808 in 
rail between Shiogama and Kinkwa- 
«an, of which but very few are 
inhabited. But 8 and its com- 
pounds are favourite round numbers 
with the Japanese, and moreover 
the smallest rocks are included in 
the enumeration. Each of them, 
down to the least, has received a 
separate name, many of them fan- 
tastic, as * Buddha's Entry into 



Nirvana,' 'Question and Answer 
Island,' *the Twelve Imperial Con- 
sorts,' and so on. All the islands are 
formed of volcanic tuff, into whicli 
the sea makes rapid inroads.- Doubt- 
less many of the smaller isles dis- 
appear in this manner, while their 
number is maintained by th© 
gradual breaking up of penin- 
sulas. In almost every available 
nook stands one of those thousan<l 
pine-trees, that have given name 
and fame to the locality. At the 
hamlet of Matsushima, the temple 
of Zuganji, in which are the ances- 
tral tablets of the Date family, will 
repay a visit, though its exterior is 
not promising. In the outer court, 
in front of a small cave called the 
Hoshin ga Iwaya, are two large 
figures of Kwannon cut in slate* 
stone. There is also a well-carved 
wooden figure of Date Masamune 
in a shrine behind the chief altar. 
The various apartments of the tem- 
ple are handsomely decorated; 
and when the gold fpil which is 
lavishly strewn about was fresh, 
the effect must have been very fine. 
Specimens of non-hoUow bamboo 
are brought for sale at the viU. of 
Matsushima, but being rare, ar^ 
somewhat expensive. Two ri dis- 
tant is 

To mi jam a, a hill from which 
by far the best general view 
of the archipelago is obtained, 
and where any traveller who, 
during the boat journey from 
Shiogama, may have been disap- 
pointed with his trip, will allow 
that the locality possesses great 
beauty, even should he think that 
this has been somewhat exaggerateci 
by Japanese popular report. The 
whole distance may be accom- 
plished in jinrikishas, excepting 
the last 3 chd leading np 
to the temple of Taikdji, which 
stands near the top of the ascent. 
This temple is said to have been. 
founded by Tamura Maro, a cele- 
brated general, who was sent 
against the Ainos during the reign 



Xobiru. IshmomakL Kinkwa-zan, 



211 



of the Emperor Kwammu (circa 
A.D. 800). From this spot the 
«ye wanders oV^er 'a maze of 
islets and promontories, land and 
sea being mixed in inextricable but 
lovely confusion. In the direc- 
tion of Shiogama, the double peak 
of Shiraishi-no-take may be de- 
scried in the blue distance, while 
to the r. rises the range dividing 
the province of Kikuzen from those 
of Uzen and Ugo. The highest hill 
to the 1. is on the island of Funairi- 
shima, above the port of Ishi- 
bama, a place of call for merchant 
steamers. Tomiyama is but a 
short distance off the main-road to 
Ishinomaki, and may be taken on 
the way there either by jinrikisha 
or carriage, — altogether about 9 ri 
from Matsushima. 

In going by steamer from Shio- 
gama, • the islets ai'e left behind 
after an hour's sail, and the canal 
which connects the shallow waters 
of the bay with Nobiru is entered. 

Nobirii (poor accommodation). 
The port of this place is little 
more than a creek with 5 or 6 ft. 
draught of water, and has a bar 
across its mouth. Some time ago, 
the course of the river was altered 
by making a cutting to a point 
about 2 m. inland, where there is a 
wide bend. It was expected that 
the flow of the river in its new bed 
would suffice to keep the channel 
clear, that the old bed of the 
Naruse-gawa would be available to 
take off any superfluous amount of 
water in times of flood, and that 
the bar at the mouth could be kept 
down by dredging. But all at- 
tempts to effect this have been 
unsuccessful, and the failure has 
put a stop to various other schemes 
which had the attention of the Go- 
vernment for increasing the facili- 
ties of trade in this region. The 
canal, 10 m. in length, con- 
necting Nobiru with the Kitakami- 
gawa 2 m. above Ishinomaki, is 
part of the original scheme for 
making Nobiru the chief port in 



the Bay of Sendai, the mouth of 
the Kitakami-gawa being also ex- 
posed to the full sweep of the 
Pacific Ocean and to the violent 
S.W. gales that drive through 
the Matsusbima group. A con- 
sequence of this is that the bar at 
the mouth of ttie river has like- 
wise defied all efforts at removal. 
The eanal is 100 ft. wide, and just 
deep enough to admit of large 
cargo boats being towed through. 
The level is maintained by means 
of a lock at the river end. The 
river steamers make use of thia 
canal, except when the sea is very 
smooth outside. 

Ishiiioiiniki (Inns,* Asano-ya,Ho- 
shi-ya), noted for its slate-quarries 
and salmon fisheries, stands at the 
mouth of tlie river Eitakami, the 
natural outlet for the . trade of 
the Nambu district and the N. It 
is a bustling little sea-port, pos- 
sessing two banks and a bazaar. 
A fair amount of ship-building 
in European style is carried on. 

Hyorlyama, a hill at the en- 
trance of the harbour, commands 
an extensive sea view, including 
the Matsushima archipelago, the 
windings of the river, a range of 
high mountains inland, and a 
bird's-eye view of the town. 

Steamers ascend the river daily 
to Kozevji^ which is about 2^ m. 
from Ichinoseki, a station on the 
Northern Railway. The journey 
dovm the river is recommended in- 
stead, as the boats run through to 
Shiogama in one day, generally in. 
from 9 to 10 hrs., but frequently 
taking much longer, owing to 
stoppages on the way for cargo 
(see p. 196). 

2. — Kink WA- zan. 

The most direct means of reach- 
ing this noted island is by one of 
the Nippon Yiisen Kwaisha's tri- 
weekly steamers to Oginohama (Inns, 
Kagi-ya,OmoriJ, in the Bay of Sen.- 
dai, whence small sailing boats can 
be obtained for Kinkwa^zan, a dis- 



212 



Eoute 30. — Matsushima and Kinkwa-zan. 



tance of nbout 10 ri. But it is more 
generally approached from the port 
of Ishinomaki, where boats are 
also procurable ; or if it is desired 
to shorten the sea passage, jin- 
rikishas may taken from Ishi- 
nomalii to the vill. of Wada-no- 
ha (Inn by Ishikawa Jubei), which 
lies 1^ ri further along the coast 
between Ishinomaki and Ogino- 
hama. The cost of boats irom 
Wada-no-ha to Kinkwa-zan was 
^1.43 per boatman in 1890. The 
distance by water is estimated at 
1 1 ri, from which again 2 ri may be 
saved by landing at the hamlet 
of Aikawa-hama (Inn, Izumi-ya), 
situated in a small bay to the 
"W. of the channel separating 
Kinkwa-zan from the mainland. 
The latter plan is recommended. 
There is a road from Wada- 
no-ha to Oginohama, 4 3 ri; but it 
is not practicable for jinrikishas, 
neither is the hilly path of 4 ri 
more which leads directly to the 
ferry at Kinkwa-zan. Nothing is 
gained by starting from Ogino- 
hama, owing to its situation at the 
liead of a deeply indented bay, unless 
the traveller has come by steamer 
from Yokohama, in which case 
there is no alternative. The time 
taken from Wada-no-ha depends 
upon the state of the wind. An 
unfavourable wind affords an ad- 
ditional reason for landing at Ai- 
kawa-hama. From this hamlet to 
the ferry called Yamadori, is a walk 
of a little more than 1 m. over a 
low pass, the top of which affords an 
entrancing view of Kinkwa-zan and 
the entire Matsushima archipelago. 
A short descent then leads to the 
ferry-house, where the sonorous 
notes of a fine bronze bell announce 
to the boatmen on the sacred 
island that passengers are waiting 
to be conveyed across. Boats can- 
not be kept on this pai*t of the 
mainland, owing to its exposure to 
the great seas which roll in from 
the Pacific, whilst the W. side 
of Kinkwa-zan opposite to it is 



comparatively sheltered. Spacious 
boats well-manned soon perform 
the 2 m. passage, and land the 
visitor at a small breakwater on 

Kiiikwai-znii, a short distance 
below the temples. The tame deer 
with which the island abounds form 
pictui*esque objects as they stand on 
projecting ledges of rock, or graze- 
quietly by the side of the road that 
leads up through a wood composed 
of pine, beech, and chestnut trees. 
The only buildings on the island 
are those attached to the temples 
at which every one*must stay ; but 
there is ample accommodation for 
all under the massive roof of the 
main edifice. Passports should be 
shown by the foreign visitor to 
the priests. A liberal contribution,, 
if he desires to stay overnight, will 
generally ensure the use of the jo- 
dan, two large handsome rooms. If 
it is intended to return the same 
day a lesser offering will suffice. No- 
other payments are necessary. Ex- 
cellent vegetarian food is provided,, 
and served up by the acolytes. 
Guides are also furnished to con- 
duct the visitor around the island^ 
if a request to that effect is made. 

Kinkwa-zan is one of tlie most renowned 
spots in the north, and has l»een, in spite of 
its inaccessiljility, the resort of pril^ims- 
from all parts of .lapan for centuries past. 
Such was its sanctity in old daj's, and 
such the inferior position assijijiied tc> 
woman, that they were not permitted .to 
^aze on the island, much less put their feet 
iipon it. It need scarcely )>o said that 
tho.se days are past; but some of the old 
cnstoms connected with the place still 
linjrer around it. For instance, every pil- 
gi-iin is conveyed grafh to and from the 
island, and receives food and shelter from 
tlie priests until his devotions are over. 
What contribution he may chotjse to niake^ 
rests entirely with himself. 

The oriffin of the name Kinkita-zaw 
('golden-flower mountain') is obscure. 
Tradition asserts that j?old was found oit 
the island then known as Michinoku-yama; 
and the following lines in the MaujfOtthu, 
an anthologj^ of the Hth centur5', are 8Ui>~ 
l)o&ed to refer to the discovery : 

Sumerogi no 
Mi yo mkaeu to 
Aziona nam 
Michinokn-yamo ni 
Koga ne hana taku 



Kviikwa-zan, 



218 



which means, " To add lustre to the sov- 
ereign's augusli reign, golden flowers 
t>looin in tlie mountains of Michinoku in 
tbo East." It is more probable, however, 
tbat it derived its name from the glitter 
of the quantity of mica found in the soil. 

Almost everything required by 
the temple inmates is raised on the 
Bpot. Their sake, of which 130 koJcvb 
WLre produced yearly, is specially 
noted for the soothing peculiarity 
that no headache follows even un- 
limited libations. Every pilgrim 
is therefore allowed to drink to his 
heart's content. The chief festi- 
vals take place in February, March, 
August, and September. Regard- 
ing the history of the temples very 
little can be learnt, all the records 
and relics connected with them 
having been lost by fire. Before 
the transfer of the buildings to the 
Shinto cult, they were attached 
to the Shingon sect of Bud- 
dhists, and dedicated to the service 
of the goddess Benten. Some of the 
original smaJler shrines are- still 
standing; but the Ge-Honzo, or chief 
temple, was built only some ten years 
ago, and is dedicated to the god and 
goddess Elanayama-Hiko-no-Mikoto 
and Kanayama-Hime-no-Mikoto. 
Though it otherwise exhibits pure 
Shinto style, the eaves are adorned 
with fine carvings. The contribu- 
tion box in front, made of a block 
of slate-stone and measuring 9 
ft. in length and 3 ft. in breadth, 
with carvings of deer in relief, as 
well as the gaku in the oratory, a 
splendid piece of carving in keyaki 
wood, which took three years to 
finish^ are well- worth inspection. 

The walk to the summit of Kin- 
kwan-zan takes about i hr. from 
the temple, being but some 16 cho. 
The path leads behind the main 
buildings, mostly through broken 
houlders and over the interlaced 
roots of beech-trees. The objects 
pointed out on the way are de- 
tached pieces of rock with fanciful 
designations. Only one of these 
reeks to judge from the immense 
cairn rais^ upon it, seems to have 



attracted the attention of pilgrims ; 
and this is where Kobo Daishi is 
said to have sat in meditation 
when he visited the island. . The 
glorious view from the summit 
repays the traveller for any diffi- 
culty he may have had in reaching 
Kinkwa-zan. Nothing obstructs 
the vista of the broad and blue Paci- 
fic ; for the mountain, although 
densely wooded on all sides, slopes 
gradually down to the sea. On 
the W. side, the whole Matsu- 
shima archipelago is embraced, — 
even the outermost isles to the 
N., fringed with a thousand pines 
and encii'cled by white breakers. 
Takahashi-yama, a higher peak to 
the N. W. on the mainland, shuts 
out the prospect in that direction 
only. 

The small shrine on the top of 
Kinkwa-zan is dedicated to Wata- 
zumi-no-Mikoto, the Shinto God of 
the Sea. Close by it is the site of the 
lighthouse which stood there until 
the erection of the present fine 
granite structure on the E. side of 
the island. A path from the Sum- 
mit descends to the lighthouse, and 
joins what is called the Pilgrim's 
Circuit, a road round the island 
which no visitor should fail to 
follow, as it affords glimpses of 
wild coast scenery unsurpassed on 
the N.E. coast, noted though this l)e 
for its picturesque beauty. The 
circuit of the island by road is 
estimated at from 5 to 6 ri, and 
takes about the same number of 
hours to accomplish. 

The return from Kinkwa-zan is 
usually made direct by water to 
Oginohama, Ishinomaki, or — should 
the wind be favourable — ^to Sliio- 
gama. 



214 



Route 31. — Tlie North-East Coast. 



ROUTE 31. 

The Nobth-East Coast. 

from mobioka on the nobthebn 
bailwat to mitako. down the 
coast fbom mitako thbough 
yamada, ozuchi, and kamaishi 
to mobioka ob hanamaki on 

THE NOBTHEBN BAILWAT. FBOM 
KAMAISHI TO KESEN-NUMA AND 
ICHINOSEKI. 

The North -East Coast, hitherto 
comparatively inaccessible, can now 
be approached from several points 
on the Northern line of Railway. 
Small steamers also ply at irregn- 
lar intervals along the coast, which 
deserves to be better known. Spe- 
cially to be recommended is the 
portion embracing the sea-board of 
the provinces of Eikuchu and Riku- 
zen, extending southwards from 
Miyako to Kesen-numa. The road 
leads over the necks of hilly penin- 
snlas, disclosing marvellous views 
of the fiord-like coast and of the 
mountain ridges that extend 
down to it. The harbours are the 
finest in Japan, though unfortunate- 
ly but little use can be made of 
them, as a mountain-range shuts 
out the fertile valley of the Eitaka- 
mi-gawa which attracts to itself aU 
the produce of the surrounding 
c mntry, the scanty coast jpopula- 
tlon having to subsist on fishing 
and on the cultivation of small 
isolated patches of land around the 
bays. The nature of the country 
sufficiently indicates the rough- 
ness of the roads and of the ac- 
commodation to be expected. North 
of Miyako^ the mountains recede 
from the sea and the landscape 
becomes monotonous. 

From Morioka, a road practicable 
for jinrikishas leads to Miyako on 
the E. coast. The trip takes 2 
days' hard travelling, the only 
available resting-place being Kavoa- 
wihi, almost exactly half-way. 



Itinerary, 

MORIOKA to :— Ri. Chb. M. 

Yanagawa 6 10 13 

Tashiro 2 14 6f 

Kadoma 2 9 5i 

Eawa-uchi 4 3 10 

Kawai 4 7 lOJr 

Haratai 3 6 7f 

Hikime 2 26 6i 

MIYAKO 3 6 7f 

Total 27 8 66i 



Soon after leaving Morioka, the 
road begins a steady ascent for 7 
ri, reaching the water-shed after a 
senes of la-rge elbow-bends. The 
summit (2,600 ft.) is called Kahuto- 
kamUsan, since here it was that 
the helmet of the rebel Sadato was 
found after his defeat near Ichino- 
seki by Hachiman Taroin A.D. 1100. 
From this point down to the sea, 
the road f oUows the course of the 
Hegawa-kawa,the grandest scenery 
coming some 3 ri below the pasa 
on its E. side. Here for 2 ri the 
road is cut out, half tunnel- wise, 
high up along the face of the sheer 
precipice, which looks down upon 
the torrent tossing and foaming in 
its rocky channeL To see this 
to perfection, an early start from 
Morioka is necessary. From Ka- 
wa-uchi to Miyako is an endless 
succession of picturesque land- 
scapes, with granite boulders gilt- 
tering in the broadening river as 
it sweeps round jutting cliffs and 
pillared blocks of: basalt. Near 
Kadoma, a path branches off to the 
S., leading up the valley of the 
Oyama-gawa, whence the ascent of 
Hayoushine^ama (6,660 ft.), the 
highest mountain in the district 
£. of the Eitakami-gawa, can be 
made. 

Miyako (Inn by Kikuchi Seibei) 
has never fully recovered the 
effects of a disastrous fire which 
occurred some years ago. 



MiyaJco to Kamaishi and Morioka, 



215 



Coast Koad to Kamaishi. 

Itinerary. 

MIYAKOto: Ri. did. M. 

Yamada 6 — ]4f 

Ozuchi 5 12 13 

KAMAISHI 3 19 8^ 

Total 14 31 36i 



Horses are procurable at any of 
these places. 

Yamada (Inn by Shirotsuchi 
Sentaro). Two villages lie on the 
shores of the magnificent bay that 
forms the harbour of Yamada. It 
is surrounded by mountains of 
above 1,000 ft. in height. 

Kamaishi (Inn by Niinunla) is 
situated at the head of a rocky 
inlet 2 m. deep. About 10 m. 
inland is a district abounding in 
iron ore of good quality, to work 
which large sums of money were 
spent by the Grovernment a few 
years ag6, but with poor results. 
The ascent of Goyo-san, 3,900 ft. 
<sui easily be made from Kamaishi. 

From Kamaishi, the traveller 
may rejoin the Northern Railway 



at Morioka by the Kamaishi Kaida, 
of which the following is the 

Itinerai'y. 

KAMAISHI to :— RL Chd. M. 

Koshi 4 31 llf 

TONO 6 20 16 

Shimo Miyamori ... 5 24 13f 

Tassobe 1 19 3^ 

Ohasama 2 15 6 

Otobe 4 33 12 

MORIOKA 2 32 7 

Total 28 30 70^^ 



A somewhat more direct road for 
traveUers going southwards diver- 
ges at the old castle-town of Tono 
{Inn by Murakami), and joins the 
railway at Hanamaki station, Ij- 
hr. from Morioka. 

The journey from Kamaishi to 
Kesen-numa will occupy two days 
on foot, with very poor accommoda^ 
tion at the wayside hamlets. Prom 
Kesen-numa {Inn by Kumagae 
Ichibei) a new road via Semmayn, 
suitable for jinrikishas, is being 
xjonstructed to Ichinoseki on the 
Northern "Railway. The distance 
is approximately 13 H, 



\\ 






rr^ 



\ 






SECTION III. 



CENTRAL JAPAN. 



(kotites 32 — 3"]. 



Eaute 32, — Tlie Karuizatca-Naoetsii Railway, 



219 



ROUTE 82. 

Thb Kabuizawa-Naoetsu Rail- 
way AND NlIQATA. 

17BI>A TO MATSUMOTO AND SHIMA- 
SSIMA. TEMPLE OF ZENEOJI. EX- 
CirBSIONS FROM NAGANO: BUEANDO 
XAKUSHI, TOGAKUSHI-SAN AND 
KBN-NO-MINE, IZUNA-SAN. LAKE 
MTOJIBI AND ASCENT OF MYOKO-ZAN. 
GOCHI. LAND AND SEA WAYS FBOM 
KA0BT8U TO NIIQATA. THE ISLAND 
OF 8ADO. 



» i 

III 


Names 

of 
Stations. 


Remarks. 


8 m. 

m 
m 

241 

m 

46 

S2| 

S7t 
64 

6»i 

73| 
8U 
871 
82 


KARUIZAWA.. 

Miyoda. 
Komoro. 
Tanaka. 

1JRT>A 


( T6ky6 to Ka- 
V ruizawa (see 
( Route 13). 

-Branch roads 
to the Naka- 
sendo and 
to Matsu- 

. moto. 

/ Road to Knna- 
X tsu over the 
I Shibu-toge. 

("Alight , for 
(. Lake Nojiri. 
1 Alight for as- 
J cent of Myo- 
( kd-zan. 


Sakaki. 
Yashiro. 
Shinonoe. 
NAQANO. 

Toyono 


Mure. 
Kashiwubara 

Tagachi 


Sekiyama. 
Arai. 

TAKATA. 
NAOETSU. 



This line, starting from an eleva- 
tion of 3,080 ft. at Karuizawa, 
descends to the sea-coast at Nao- 
etsa, and is on the whole the vioait 
^ctnresque railway route in Japan. 
The following description of the 
line, as far as Nagano, is partly 
abridged from an article in the 
'Japan MaiL' The first five or six 



miles are over a fairly level plain. 
But the conditions are changed 
when the southern slope of Asa- 
ma-yama has to be rounded. Here 
lies a water-shed whence flow large 
rivers north and south, towards the 
Sea of Japan and the Pacific re- 
spectively. All the drainage of the 
great mountain pours down through 
deep gullies into the channel of 
one or other of these rivers. The 
soil, a loosely packed volcanic ash 
and gravel of light colour, is easily 
scooped away, and large chasms 
are left whose sides the highway 
descends and ascends in zigzags. 
Throughout most of this section, 
the traveller looks down from a 
giddy height on rice-fields far be- 
low. Prom the point near Oiwake, 
where the Nakasendo is left be- 
hind, to Komoro opportunities are 
afforded of seeing to advantage the 
Iwamurata plain backed by the 
imposing range of Yatsu-ga-take. 
Asama-yama has a less smiling 
aspect on this side ; the fiat top of 
the cone lengthens out, the pinky 
brown colour of the sides assumes 
a blackish hue, and chasms rough 
with indurated lava break the 
regularity of the slopes. Before 
Komoro is reached, a long volcanic 
ridge, dominating the valley of 
the river Ghikuma as far as 
Ueda, reveals the fact that Asama 
is not an isolated cone, but the last 
and highest of a range of moun- 
tains. A former crater which has 
discharged itself into this valley 
and is now extinct, displays a row 
o^ black jagged rocks in the hollow 
between Asama and the next peak 
of the range, a striking feature as 
seen from Komoro. 

Komoro (Inn, Tsuru-ya) is a 
busy commercial centre. For- 
merly the seat of a Daimyo, it has 
turned its picturesque castle- 
grounds overhanging the river, 
into a public garden. Saddlery, 
vehicles, and tools for the 
surrounding district are manufac- 
tured here. From Komoro to Ue- 



220 



EoiUe 32, — Tlie Kai^uizawa-Naoetsu Railway, 



da, the railway runs down the 
valley of the Chikuma-gawa, whose 
S. bank is here formed by a series 
of magnificent bluffs, in many places 
descending sheer into the water. 
A few miles above Ueda, the valley 
opens out into a circular plain of 
which that town is the centre. 

Ueda (Inns, Kame-ya, Shishi-ya) 
possesses few attractions. "White 
and other silks of a dumble nature, 
but wanting in gloss and finish, are 
the principal products of the dis- 
trict. It is specially noted for a 
stout striped silk fabric called 
Ueda-jima. 

[The Ndkasendo may be joined at 
Nagakubo by a jinrikisharoad 
from Ueda, distance about 11^ 
ri, 

A carriage road also turns 
off about the middle of the 
town by the Hofukuji-toge to 
Matsumoto, whence a jinri- 
kisha road leads to Shima- 
shima at the foot of the Hida 
range of mountains. 

Itinerary. 
Ueda to : Ri. Cho. M. 

Matsumoto... 11 25 28i 
Shimashima.. 5 — 12^ 



Total ... 16 25 40| 



The average time taken by 
carriage to Matsumoto is 6 hrs. 
At the top of the hiU just 
before descending into the 
town, one of the finest moun- 
tain views in Japan is obtained. 
The- whole Hida range spreads 
out before the spectator, . Yari- 
ga-take being specially con- 
spicuous. In the foreground 
are well-wooded hills, and in 
the distance the river winds 
like a silver thread. 

MatRnnioto (Inns *Shinano- 
ya, Kome-ya) is one of the most 
impoi*tant towns in Shinshu, 
being the centre of commei'ce 
between the S. part of this 
province and the province of 



Echigo. Some of the best Bilk: 
in Japan is produced here. Its 
other principal manufactures 
are a kind of cotton cloth called 
shibori, candied fruit, and 
baskets and boxes of bamboo 
work. Matsumoto became a, 
castle-town early in the 16tli 
century, and was the seat of & 
a Daimyo called Matsudairsk 
Tamba-no-Kami. The greatep 
part of the castle is still pre- 
served. It is only 5 min. from 
the inns, and should be visited 
if only for the view of the Hid& 
range and the Matsumoto 
plam which is obtaiued from 
the top storey. The chief 
sights of- Matsumoto are the 
Shinto temple of Hdchiman and 
the Buddhist temple of Shogyo- 
ji. Thirty cho from Matsu- 
moto, at the vill. of Asama, are 
some hot-springs much re- 
sorted to by the towns-folk. 

Shimashima (Inn by Oku- 
hara Jinzo). This is the best 
place from which to ascend 
Yari-ga-take (see Koute 34, 
Section 8). Just across the 
stream lies the village of 
Hashiba, where there is a small 
inn called Shimizu-ya perched 
above the torrent.] 

The old castle t)f Ueda, of which 
one watch-tower still remains in- 
t-act, stands on the river bank 
beyond the town, and forms a 
striking feature in the landscape 
as the train leaves the station. The 
exit from the amphitheatre of hills 
enclosing Ueda is narrow and 
hidden from view. Just before 
the line turns into it, a curious 
bluff with a cave in its face is 
noticeable on the other side of the 
river. At 

Yashiro a road branches off to 
the important town of Matsvuhiro 
and down the r. bank of the Chiku- 
ma-gawa to Niigata. Before reach- 
ing Nagano, both the Chikuma- 
gawa and the Saigawa are crossed. 



Nagano, Temple of Zenkoji, 



221 



The head-waters of the latter are 
near Lake Suwa. It flows past 
Matsumoto, joining the Ghikuma- 
^awa a short distance to the S.E. of 
3^agano, and forming with this 
larger stream the great Shinano- 
^wa which enters the sea at Nii- 
>^ata. One of the spans in the 
Sai^wa viaduct is 200 ft. in length. 
Nagano or Zenkoji (Inns, *Ogiya, 
*Fuji-ya, with branches at the 
station ; Puji-yahas rooms fitted up 
in foreign style at its establishment 
near the temples ; the Japanese 
Club called Tosan-kvxin, which has a 
room of 144 mats, commands a fine 
view of the town and plain) is the 
<3apital of the prefecture of Nagano, 
"which comprises the whole pro- 
vince of Shinshu. It is beautifully 
situated at the foot of lofty moun- 
tains, which form an imposing back- 
ground and almost surround it. A 
•considerable trade is done in woven 
goods and agricultural implements. 
Numerous fine buildings in 
foreign style, and the crowds of 
pilgrims thronging the streets, 
give the town an air of exceptional 
prosperity. The Buddhist temple 
of Zenkoji is one of the most cele- 
brated in Japan. It is dedicated 
to Amida and his two followers, 
Kwannon and Daiseishi (the latter 
a, Bosatsu belonging to the retinue 
of Amida), a group of whose images 
is here enshrined. 

This sacred group is said to have been 
made by Shaka Muni himself out of gold 
found on Mount Shumi, the centre of the 
Universe. After various vicissitudes in 
China and Korea, it was brought to Japan 
in A.D. 552, as a present from the King of 
Korea to the Mikado on the first introduc- 
tion of Buddhism into Japan. All the 
efforts of the Japanese enemies of Bud- 
4lhisni to make away with the image were 
in vain. Thrown into rivers, hacked at, 
l)umt, it survived all and finally found a 
resting-place at Zenkoji in A.D. 6U2. 

The building 1. of the entrance 
is the residence of an abbess of 
high rank and a sisterhood of nuns. 
Bows of shops for the sale of 
rosaries and pictures of the triple 
image line the court. Behind the 



shops are the houses of the priests* 
each in its own neatly arranged 
garden. At' the end of this court 
is the chief gateway, with images 
of Monju and the Shi Tenno, which 
are exhibited only on New Year's 
day. The Main Temple, erected 
in 1701, is a two-storied building^ 
198 ft. in depth by 10» ft. in 
width, with a huge three-gabled 
roof, so that the ridge is T-shaped. 
This £oi*m is called shumoku^ 
zukuriy from its resemblance to the 
shumokuy a wooden hammer with 
which the Buddhists strike the 
small bell used by them in 
their religious services. The roof is 
supported by 136 pillars, and there ' 
are said to be 69,384 rafters, the 
same number as that of the written 
characters contained in the Chinese 
version of the Buddhist scriptures. 
At the entrance two beautiful new 
marble lamps, about 6 ft. in height* 
deserve inspection. The sacred 
golden group, standing in a chapel 
on the W. side, is kept in a shrine 
dating from A.D. 1369, shrouded by 
a gorgeous brocade curtain. For 
a small fee, the curtain is raised 
so as to show the outermost of the 
seven boxes in which the image is 
enclosed. A space of 88 mats (about 
1,600 sq. ft.) is set apart for 
the worshippers. On the E. side 
of the main hall is an entrance to 
a dark gallery which runs round 
below the floor of the chancel 
(naijin), issuing again by the 
same door. To complete this 
circuit (kaidan-mawari) thrice is 
considered highly meritorious. 
More than 200 bronze and stone 
lanterns crowd the space in froilt 
of the main hall. 

The principal festivals are the 
Dai Nembvisuy or Great Invocation 
of Buddha, held on the 31st July, 
those held at the vernal and au- 
tumnal equinoxes, and one on the 
14th March, in commemoration of 
the terrible earthquake of 1847. 

This catastrophe occurred about 10 
o'clock at night, and threw down moat of 



Itoute 32, — The Kandzaiva-Naoetsu Bailicay. 



tbe bouses in the town. Fires broke oat 
simnltaueoaslj in many quarters, and in 
the space of two da^^s bomt the whole 
place to the ground, with the exception of 
the main temple, the two-storied gatehouse, 
library, and bell-tower. A more serious 
calamity still followed shortly afterwards; 
for the 8aigHwa, which had ))eeu blocked 
near Shimmachi by the fall of a large 
mass of earth from the hill-sides, burst 
through the obstruction on the 27th, and 
the pent-up waters spread like a deluge 
over the level valley, overwhelming many 
Tillages and drowning by thousands the 
peasants who, regardless of warnings 
from the authorities, had returned to 
tiH the fields. A}x>ut 15,noo acres of 
nce>fields and other arable laud were 
flevastated by the flood, and the number 
of those who perished on these two occa- 
sions was estmiated at nearly 30,U00. 

On the r. of the temple enclosure, 
is the Public Oarden which com- 
mands a good view of the vaUey. 

EXCUBBIONS FROM NaGANO. 

1. Bnrando Yaknshi, 1 ri N.E. 

of the town, a shrine dedicated to 
the Buddhist god of medecine, is 
perched high above the path in a 
large tree growing out of the rock. 
Close by are some petroleum springs. 

2. Togakiishi-san and Ken-no- 
mine. Five ri from Zenkoji is the 
temple of Togahishi-san, whither the 
god Tajikara-o-no-Mikoto is said to 
have hurled the rocky door of the 
cavern in which the Sun-Goddess 
had hidden herseK from her sub- 
jects in heaven and earth. The 
road, which is passable for jinriki- 
shas drawn by two men, leaves the 
town on the 1. side of the temple, 
and ascends a narrow ravine to the 
hamlet of Arayasu in about f hr. 
Then winding over low hills and 
ascending for f hr. more, it issues 
on to a moor which encircles the 
base of Izuna-san. In f hr. more, 
a torii is reached at the highest 
point of the moor. The path 
then descends for over a mile to a 
point where it divides, the r. branch 
proceeding direct to the Chu-in, 
the 1. reaching the Hoko-in after 12 
cho more. The latter temple, 
situated at the top of a long flight of 
flteps lined with old cryptomerias^ 



is a large building decorated with 
wood carvings of considerable merit. 
From this point to the Chu-in is a 
walk of 12 cho through the wood. 
Those who intend to chmb JTen-no- 
mi7^e, the highest point of the moun- 
tain behind Togakushi, will do best 
to pass the night here. The priest 
will provide good accommodation. 
The road to the Oku-no-in (dOchoi 
is pretty level the whole way, ex- 
cept during the last few hundred 
yards. The priest's house com- 
mands a fine view, including 
the summits of Fuji and Asama. 
Half-way between the bridge and 
the red gateway on the road to the 
Oku-no-in, a path branches off r. 
under a wooden torii to Ken-no- 
mine. A walk of about 3 ri leads 
to the summit, below which is a 
hut where pilgrims pass the night, 
in order to rise early and witness 
Himrise from the peak whence 
Amida is supposed to be visible 
riding on a cloud of many colours. 
Snow lies on the mountain until 
late in summer, and the ascent is 
not usually attempted before the 
beginning of July. 

3. Izuna-san, or liznna-san, as 

the name is also pronounced, may be 
ascended either from Arayasu or 
from the Chu-in ; but the latter is 
preferable, as the climb from Ara- 
yasu is steep. From the Chu-in, 
the summit is easily gained in 1^ 
hr. by walking up a long spur. 
The view is very extensive in every 
direction. The traveller may re- 
tiu*n either to Arayasu by descend- 
ing the steep path on the opposite 
side, easily pei-ceived from the 
mountain top, or strike away to 
the 1. by a_path leading across 
the moor to Of urunia on the Hok- 
koku Kaido, and close to Kashiwa- 
bara station, — a 3 hrs. walk. 

The railway from Nagano conti- 
nues along the plain as far as 

Toyono. Here it enters a narrow 
valley, which it follows up until 
Kashiwabara is reached at a height 



Lake Nojm, AkaJciira, 



22a 



of 2,204 ft. At Toyono a road leads 
over the Shibu-toge to Kusatsu 
(see p. 149). A fine view is 
obtained of Izuna on the 1. as 
Kasliiwabara is approached. This 
section of the line traverses a 
le^on where the snow-fall is es- 
pecially heavy, and where it occa- 
sionally accumulates to a depth of 
over 10 ft. In the winter of 1890- 
91 the traffic was entirely stopped 
daring several weeks. 

[The traveller with time to spare 
should alight here to visit the 
beautiful little lake called 
Niijiri-ko, 2i m. distant. As 
the accommodation at the vill. 
of Nojiri is very poor, it will 
be well to arrange one's plans 
so as to catch a train at Tagii- 
chi, the next station, or to 
proceed to the hamlet of Aha- 
hura, situated on the side of 
Myoko-zan and noted for its 
hot-springs. Akakura is also 
the point from which the asc^ent 
of Myoko-zan is most easily 
made. Kashiwabara station 
lies some distance from the 
miserable vill. of the same 
name. The walk from the 
latter is through a pleasant 
oak wood, whence the road 
descends slightly to 

Nojiri {Inn, Katsura-ya), 
pictiiesquely situated on the 
shores of the lake which is 
surrounded by low hills covered 
with thickets." On a densely 
wooded islet, approached by 
a bridge about ^ m. in length, 
is a temple called Uga-no- 
Jinja. In front of the temple 
stand two 'magnificent cedars, 
one of which measures 27 ft. 
in circumference. The view of 
the giant masses of Izuna, 
Kurohime, and Myoko-zan, as 
seen from the island, is ex- 
ceptionally fine. This romantic 
little spot is only prevented 
from becoming a favourite sum- 
mer resort by its remote situa- 



tion and the want of decent 
inns. Good bathing may be 
had in the lake, and the roads 
in the neighbourhood are all 
that one could desire. The 
lake sometimes freezes at the 
end of January, when the ice 
becomes passable for men and 
horses. Its waters find an 
outlet into the Sekigawa, 
which, flowing from sources on 
Togakushi-san and Yakeyama,. 
falls into the sea at Naoetsu in 
Echigo. 

From Nojiri to Akakura is a 
walk of 2 hrs. But jinrikishas. 
may be taken to the vill. of 
TagiH on the main road,, 
whence, turning sharp 1. over 
the lower grassy slopes of 
Myoko-zan, it is a distance of 
23 cho to the baths. Leaving- 
Nojiri, the road descends to the 
small town of Sekigawa, named 
after the river and situated 
at the junction of two pictur- 
esque wooded glens, where the 
tori-ent rushes under the 
branches of trees overhang- 
ing it on either side. This river 
— the Sekigawa — here forms 
the boundary between the 
provinces of Echigo and Shin- 
shxL. A short distance beyond 
the town of Sekigawa, a road 
branches off r. to Tagiiclli 
station, the nearest point on 
the line of railway for Aka- 
kura. 

Akakura is a favourite re- 
sort of the inhabitants of 
Takata and other places on 
the plain during a part of 
August and September. It 
possesses an excellent inn, the 
Kogaku-ro, boasting a gigantic 
bath, which is supplied with hot 
water brought in pipes from 
sources 2 n further up the 
mountain. This inn is closed 
during the winter months. 
The other inns are of an in- 
ferior description. From the 
hamlet nothing obstructs the 



•224 



Eoiite 32. — The Karuizawa-Naoetsu Railway, 



glorious prospect of the rich 
plain extending down to 
Naoetsu on the Sea of Japan, 
and of the island of Sado on 
the dim horizon. About 3 ri 
off, between Kurohime ' and 
Myoko-zan, is a large waterfall 
called Nae iw taki. As ah*eady 
indicated, Akakura is the most 
convenient point from which 
to make the ascent of 

My oku-zaii (8,180 ft.). This 
mountain is not free from snow 
until July, but may be climbed 
with safety in June by any 
one properly equipped for as- 
cending and descending the 
enow-slopes. The necessary 
appliances consist of a stout 
alpenstock and hob-nailed 
boats, or, instead of the latter, 
waraji (straw-sandals), under 
which must be fastened metal 
points called kana-kanjiki. A 
iruide should he engaged, and 
instead of ascending by the 
pilgrim's path, which is ex- 
tremely steep and overgrown 
with tall bamboo grass, the 
path to the solfatara under 
Akakura-yama should be taken. 
This also lies through the same 
sort of canebi*ake, but has the 
advantage of rising very gently 
and of being shorter than 
the other. From the solfatara, 
where two springs of very high 
temperature gush forth, a steep 
gully, filled in early June with 
snow has to be ascended, and 
the main path is entered at a 
point where it is no longer 
difficult or steep. One or two 
snow-slopes are crossed, and a 
rocky precipice scaled, to which 
iron chains have been fixed in 
order to enable the moun- 
taineer to pass along the 
narrow ledges — no more than 
2 inches wide — which here 
serve as a path. It is at 
such places that the super- 
iority of the waraji and kan- 
jiki over nailed boots, which 



afford no sure foothold on. 
rocks, becomes evident. Above 
the last snow-slope very little 
remains to be done, and the 
track which ascends the crum- 
bling rock of the summit by 
natural steps is perfectly safe, 
though somewhat steep. Myo- 
ko-zan is part of an extinct vol- 
cano. The mountains im- 
mediately surrounding it axe 
the long semi-circular ridge 
called Myoko-zan-no-Urayftma, 
or the 'Hind-part of Myoko-zan/ 
on the S. E., and Kanna-yaiiia 
on the N. Other solfataras, 
besides that mentioned, are 
found on the mountain. Hares, 
which turn white during the 
winter, abound ; bears and 
sheep-faced antelope are also 
occasionally caught. Water is 
found at the very summit, on 
which is a small wooden cha}>el 
dedicated to Amida. The view- 
to the S.E. includes Asama 
and Fuji. Directly S. rises 
Kurohime with its two peaks, 
between which is seen the top 
of Izuna-san. Ken-no-mine 
bears about S.S.W., and the 
round-topped mountain bear- 
ing W.N.W. is Yakeyama^ ^ 
reputed to be an extinct vol- 
cano. To the N.E., the view 
lies over the plain of Echiga 
to the Sea of Japan and the 
Island of Sado. Not less than 
7 hrs. should be allowed for the 
ascent and descent, the latter 
being steep and slippery in 
many places. The mountain 
is much frequented by pil- 
grims during the season, 
especially on the 23rd night 
of the 6tli moon, old calendiGur, 
when they ascend in great 
numbers by torchlight from the 
villages on the surrounding' 
plains, but do not pass through 
Akakura. — From Akakuiti a 
path descends through Fnta- 
mata, (26 cho) to Sekiyama, 1^ 
ri. The path to Taguchi station 



Myokd'zan, KaoeUni to Xiigata. 



225 



is shorter, but the difference has 
to be made up by rail.] 

There is a falling gradient of 
Skbout 600 ft. in the 4i m. traversed 
"between Taguchi and^ 

Sekiyaina (Inn, Ogi-ya). The 
ascent of Mydko-zan may also be 
made from here, but it involves a 
longer walk over the moor than 
from Akakura. ' The gradient is 
still heavy until Aral is reached, 
"where the country becomes flatter. 

Aral is a flourishing town noted 
for tobacco, pueraria starch {hixu), 
and petroleum, which last is ob- 
tained from springs in the neigh- 
l>ourhood. Here is first seen the 
custom peculiar to most of the 
towns in Echigo, of covered ways ^ 
Along the house-fronts, for use when 
the snow lies deep in the streets. 

Takata {Inn, Koyo-kwan) is a 
large place, formerly the castle- 
town of a Daimyo named Sakaki- 
liara, one of the four families who 
enjoyed the privilege of provyiing 
a regent during the minority of a 
Shogun. The town is traversed by 
a long street, which bends re- 
peatedly at right angles. Cotton- 
"treaving is extensively carried on. 
The Hokkoku Kaido branches off 1. 
near here to the provinces of Kaga, 
Xchizen, etc. (see Route 33). 

Naoetsil (Innsy Matsuba-kwan, 
Tamazald-ya), situated at the 
mouth of the Sekigawa, is a port 
of call for steamers to Niigata, 
Tnshiki, and other places on the 
"West Coast. It is also at present 
•the terminus of the railway which 
will ultimately reach Niigata, about 
94 m. distant. This line, opening 
up one of the richest provinces of 
Japan^ is no less important for 
strategical reasons. It will practi- 
cally bring Niigata within one day 
of the capital. Tunnels are to be 
cat at several places on the coast 
l)etween Hassaki and Kashiwa- 
saki. Naoetsu produces . a jelly 
called awa-ame, made from millet, 
and appreciated by both Japanese 
and Europeans. 



About 1 ri to the S. of Naoetsu 
lies the vill. of Qochi (Inn, Shimizu- 
ya), a favourite resort during the 
hot weather, where several good 
tea-houses have been built on the 
cliffs overlooking the sea. Ex- 
cellent bathing may be had on the 
long stretch of sandy beach imme- 
diately below. 

The traveller wishing to reach 
Niigata, has a variety of routes to- 
choose from. The easiest way is 
to go direct by steamer which 
leaves Naoetsu daily, from April 
to November, calling at Kashiwa- 
zaki, Izumosaki, and Teradomari. 
The whole distance by sea is 34 
ri, and is accomplished in 9 hrs. 
The distance by land is a trifle 
less, leading for the greater part 
along either the sandy beach or a 
ridge of sand-hills. The whole of 
this coast as far as Teradomari 
{Inn, Oshiki-ya), is inhabited by a 
population of hardy fishermen; and 
the sea yields sea-bream (tai), plaice 
(fcdrei), and a kind of brill (hirame),. 
in large, quantities and of great 
size. The fish caught here are 
considered much superior in flavour 
to those taken off the coast of 
Etchu further Wefat. The women 
are strong and capable of the 
hardest toil. They usually per- 
form the labour of porters, and even 
drag carts. Muslin made of hemp,, 
and called Echigo chijimi, is woven 
in the neighbouring villages, and 
generally dyed indigo colour with 
a faint pattern in white. The 
Japanese esteem it highly as mate- 
rial for summer clothing. 

The journey may also be divided 
between the sea, the road, and the 
river by leaving the steamer at 
Kashiwazaki {Inn, Tenkyo), 10 ri 
from Naoetsu, where a road 
branches off to Nagaoka (Inn, Masu- 
ya), 7 ri, from which place, and 
calling at 8anjb (Inn, Chochin-ya), 
the river steamers take 5 or 6 hrs. 
to Niigata. * 

Or continuing the sea rout^ 



226 



Route 32, — Niigata* Island of Sado, 



to Izumosaki (Inn, Kakinoki-ya), 
£i shorter land journey may be 
made to Toita (Inn, Shiojin), 3 n, 
where also the river is reached, and 
from which Niigata is about 14 
ri distance by steamer. 

The itinerary by road for the 
whole distance is as follows. 

NAOETSU to :— Ri. Cho. M. 

Kuroi — 35 2} 

Katamachi 1 29 4| 

Kakizaki 2 33 7 

Hassaki 1 24 4 

Aomigawa 2 27 6| 

Kashiwazaki 1 34 4f 

Arahama 1 18 3f 

Shiiya 2 — 5 

Izumosaki 2 29 6| 

Yamada 1 23 4 

Teradomari 1 22 4 

Yahiko 3 7 7f 

Takenomachi ....... 2 9 5i^ 

Akatsuka 1 22 4 

Uchino 1 23 4 

NIIGATA 3 19 8.J 

Total 33 30 82^ 



I4ii$rata (Hotel by Miola called 
Restaurant International ; Inns, 
Yoshi-kwan, Kushisei), capital of 
the prefecture of the same name, 
is situated on a narrow, sandy 
strip of land between the Shinano- 
gawa and the sea. 

Niij3:ata was opened to forei^ trade 
in 1869; but the commercial eipecta- 
tions formed with regard to it have 
not been fulfilled, and the only foreign- 
ers jiow residing there are a few mis- 
sionaries. Owing to the bar at the 
mouth of .the river, vessels of foreign 
build cannot enter the port, but are 
"Compelled to anchor in the roadstead, 
outside. A supplementary port in the Is- 
land of Sado,called Ebim-Mimtto, is open to 
foreign vessels to take refuge in when the 
^lirection of the prevailing wind renders 
it dangerous to anchor off Niigata ; but 
trade is not permitted there. The climate 
of Niigata is very trying,— hot in summer 
and tenibly cold in winter, snow falling 
to a depth of 2 or 3 ft., and lying for a 
considerable time. 

The town, which covers an area 
of rather more than 1 sq. mile. 



consists of five parallel streefts 
intersected by other streets and 
canals. A line of low sand-hills 
shuts out all view of the sea. 
The houses are built with their 
gable ends towards tbe street, and 
the. roof 8 are prolonged beyond the 
walls in order to prevent the snow 
from blocking up the windows, 
A great quantity of coarse lac- 
quer ware is manufactured a^ 
Niigata, and articles of a peculiajr 
pattern called mokusa-nuri, or * sea- 
weed lacquer,' are brought for sale 
from the district of Aizu where 
they are produced. In the neigh- 
bourhood of the city, Echigo chijifni 
is manufactured from liemp. From 
the small public garden surround- 
ing the Shinto temple of Haka- 
san, there is a fine prospect of the 
river and of the lofty range of 
mountains some 10 ri distant to 
theE. 

The chief excursion in the neigh- 
bourhood is to the kerosene wells 
of Niitsu, about 5 ri distant. 

Travellers intending to proceed 
north from Niigata, are advised to 
take steamer to Sakata, Funakawa^ 
or Hakodate; or else they may fol- 
low Boute 28 to Tsuru-ga-oks, 
whence across country to Sendai 
on the Northern KaUway. 

Island op Sado. 

The Island of Sado, which lies 32 
miles W. of Niigata, can be reached 
by small steamer from the latter 
place in about 5 hrs. Steamers nm 
daily from May to October ; for the 
rest of the year the sailings are 
irregular. Sado forms part of the 
prefectiu-e of Niigata, has a popula- 
tion of 111,000, and is princi- 
pally noted for its gold and silver 
mines situated close to the town of 
Aikawa. These mines have been 
worked from the earliest times. 
During the middle ages, Sado was 
used as a place of exile for political 
criminals. Among those who were 
relegated to its inhospitable shores 



Route 33, — West Coast from Tswuga to Naoetsu, 227 



was the Buddhist saint^ Nichiren. 
The island is very hilly, consisting 
of two groups of mountains, se- 
parated by a cultivated plain. The 
principal formation is limestone. 

Aikawa (Inn, Takada-ya), though 
it has a population of 13,000, is a 
poor-looking pla<;e. 

Ebisu (Inn by Ito Seiemon), where 
passengers from Niigata generally 
land, is a large but wretched vill., 
situated on a narrow strip of beach 
between the sea and a lagoon. 
The distance from Ebisu to Ai- 
kawa is 6 ri 29 cho (I62 m.). 



ROUTE 83. 

The West Coast from Tsuruga 
TO Naoetsu. 

1. itineraries : MAIBARA-TSURUOA 
BRANCH RAILWAY, TSURUGA TO 
FUSHIKI, PUSHIKI TO NAOETSU. 
2. DESCRIPTION : T8URUGA, PU- 
KUI, KANAZAWA, FUSHIKI, [nANAO 
IN NOTO,] TOTAMA. 

1. Itineraries. 

A four or five days' trip, enabling 
the traveller to see something of 
the coast of the provinces of Echi- 
zen, Kaga, and Etchu on the Sea 
of Japan, is that from Kyoto to 
Tsuruga by the Tokaido and Mai- 
bara-Tsuruga Railways, through 
the historic old city of Kanazawa 
in Kaga to the port of Fushiki in 
£tchti« whence Naoetsu, the present 
terminus of the Karuizawa-Naoetsu 
Bailway« can be reached by steamer 



in a night. The entire distance 
between Tsuruga and Fushiki may 
be accomplished in jinrikishas, bat 
it is rough travelling. 

Maibara-Tsuruoa Branch 
Railway. 



I r 



w _ /^ 


Names 




fl BS 








of 


Remarks. 


3 W 


Stations. 




45m. 
49^- 


MAIBARA 


See Eoute 38. 
See Route 44. 


Naga,hama 


56i 


Takatsuki. 




57i 


Inokiichi. 




59 


Kinomoto. 




6ii 


Nakanogo. 




64f 


Yanagase. 




71 


Hikida. 




75i 


Tsuruga. 




76 


KANA-QA-SAKI. 


(Pier Station). 



Itinerary from Tsuruoa to 
Fushiki. 

TSURUOAto:— Ri. CU. M. 

Daira-ura 6 4 15 

Takefu 4 35 12|: 

FUKUI 5 4 m 

SAKAI 5 — 124^ 

Kanatsu 2 15 6 

Yossaki 2 23 6^ 

Daishoji 2 18 6 

Komatsu 5 — 12|- 

Matto 5 8 12i 

KANAZAWA ... 4 28 Hi 

Imaisurugi 6 32 16f 

Takaoka 4 3 10 

FUSHIKI 2 4 6i 

Total 56 30 139 



The best plan in fine weather, 
however, is to abandon the land 
for the sea during a portion of this 
journey, by taking steamer from 
Tsuruga to Sakai, a run of 4 hrs. 

In the event of the steamer 
between Fushiki and Naoetsu not 
being available, the following is 
the itinerary by road ; but travel- 
lers are warned that the road is 
mostly dull. 



228 Boute 33, — West Coast from Tmmga to Xaoetsu, 



PTTSHIKI to :— RL Oho. M. 

Higashi Iwase ... 3" 5 7f 

Namerikawa 3 6 7f 

XJotsu 2 8 5^ 

Tomari 7 29 19 

Itoigawa 9 6 22J 

Nagahaina 9 8 22J 

NAOETSU 2 18 6 

Total 37 8 90| 



2. — Description. 

The railway journey between 
Kyoto and Maibara is described in 
fioute 38; and the shores of Lake 
Biwa, as far as the next station^ 
Nagahama, in Route 44. 

At Xagahamu {Inn, Masu-ya at 
station), the railway leaves the 
lake and the scenery becomes tame. 
From Tanagase onward to Hikida 
the line runs in narrow valleys 
between wooded hills and through 
several tunnels ; thence through 
cultivated country down to the 
coast of the Sea of Japan. 

TsiiriijBrA has two stations, one 
called Tsuruga, another, 5 min. 
further on, called 

Kana-ga-saki, or the Pier Sta- 
tion. The latter {Inns, Daikoku- 
ya, Sankai-ro) shoiiild be preferred, 
as the steamer-office, bank, and 
other useful institutions are in 
its vicinity. Tsuruga has the 
best harbour on the Sea of 
Japan, and is in constant steam 
communication with the lesser 
ports up and down the coast. The 
town itself is somewhat shut in ; 
but a charming view of land and 
sea is to be obtained by climbing 
a little hill near the railway sta- 
tion called Atago-yama, beyond 
which again is the site of the 
castle of the celebrated warrior 
Yoshisada. The long promontory 
closing in the bay on the W. side, 
and sheltering it from those N. W. 
blasts that render the winter on 
this coast so terrible, is called 
Tateishi-zaki. On its extremity 
stands a lighthouse — ^not, however^ 



visible from the town. The streteli 
of land to the N. E., which looks 
like a promontory as seen from 
Tsuruga, is called Kome-no-ura. 

At Paira-iira the road leaves 
the coast and strikes inland. Xt 
improves somewhat after reaching 

Takefii (Inn, Tatami-ya). This 
place manufactures marbled paper, 
cotton, silk, and hardware. One of 
the most striking objects in the^ 
neighbourhood is the moimtain 
of Hina-ga-take. 

Fiikiii (Inns, Kashi-ya; restt. 
Tsulvimi-ro), formerly the capital 
of the Daimyos of Echizen, still 
possesses the picturesque remains 
of the castle which was their seat, 
and a Hongwanji temple with 
a beautiful view toward the hills. 
To foreigners, Fukui will be fur- 
ther of interest as having been 
the residence from 1871 to 1872 of 
the author of the * Mikado's Em- 
pire,' the Rev. Wm. E. Griffis, to 
whose pages the reader is referred 
for a graphic and touching account 
of the abdication of the Daimyo on 
the 1st October, 1871, when tho 
decree abolishing feudalism had 
been issued. 

Sakai, also called Mikiini (Inn, 
Morota), the port of Fukui, ist 
situated at the confluence of the 
rivers Hino, Asuwa, and Kuzuryu,. 
and has steam communication with 
the other ports on the coast. 

Daishojl (Inns, Daikoku-ya, Ka> 
ruhana) was one of the places to 
which the Christians of the neigh- 
bourhood of Nagasaki were exiled 
during the last i)ersecution of 
1867-1873. 

Komatsil {Inn, Shimotoku) was 
formerly a castle -town belonging- 
to the Daimyo of Kaga. Its chief 
manufacture is silk gauze. Not 
far from Komatsu, is the vill. of 
Tartiashiro having hot-springs, but 
worthy of notice chiefly from the 
fact that it provides most of the 
clay for the potters of Terai and 
Kanazawa. 

Maito produces oil, siUc, dye8» 



Kanazawa, FushiJcL Nanao. 



229 



and cotton goods. The cultivation 
in this district is carried on with 
great industry and economy, even 
the ridges between the rice-fields 
being sown with beans or barley. 

Kiinazawa {Inns, Ayabe, Asada, 
Takabatake; European food at a 
restt, in the public garden) was the 
seat of the lords of the province 
of Kaga, the richest of all the Dai- 
myos. It is now the capital of the 
prefecture of Ishikawa, which in- 
cludes the provinces of Kaga, Noto, 
and Etchu. It is both clean and 
picturesque, and the hills above it 
command a fine prospect. The 
castle is now used as the head- 
quarters of a military division. 
I'o the r. of the castle is the 
Public Garden called by the literati 
the Sixfold Garden, because pos- 
sessing six excellencies, viz. size, 
pleasing appearance, labour be- 
stowed upon it, an air of antiquity, 
running water, and a cliarming 
view. The grounds contain an In^ 
dustrial Museum (kivangyd haJmbw 
tsu'kwan), and a fine monument 
erected to the memory of the sol- 
diers who fell fighting in the Satsu- 
ma^ rebellion. The monument, 
which was erected in 1880, consists 
of a pile of large stones on which 
stands a handsome bronze figure 
of Yamato-take, over 18 ft. high. 
At Kanazawa the celebrated 
Kutani porcelain is to be procured 
in abundance. A visit should be 
Jwiid to the potteries of Gankwa-do 
near the Public Garden, where 
the processes of making and paint- 
ing the porcelain can bo inspected. 
Bronzes inlaid with gold and silver 
(xogan), and fans are also manu- 
factured. 

Iniaisiiriigi (Inn, Tokko-ya) is a 
flourishing place. 

Takaoka (Inns, Akai-ya, Etchii- 
ya) is situated in a cotton-weaving 
and silkworm-breeding district, 
and is noted for its dyeing and 
manufacture of hardware. It is a 
large place, stretching for a mile 
or more along the road. 



Fnslilki {Innshy Okada, Ueda)„ 
on the coast has attained some 
importance of late years as a port 
of call for steamers, but is other- 
wise unattractive. 

[An excursion may be made from 
Fushiki to Naiiao, the capital 
of the province of Noto. 

This pi-ovince, the Jutland of 
Japau, obtains its name from the 
word noffu, which means * peninsula ' 
in the language of the former Aino 
aborigines. 

Itinerary. 

FUSHIKI to :— Ri. Cho. M. 

Himi 2 28 6^ 

Ninomiya 3 33 9.^ 

NANAO 2 17 6 

Total 9 6 22^ 

Though the road is osten- 
sibly meant for jinrikisha 
traffic, the heavy nature of 
the soil and a pass called the 
Arayama-toge, which has to be 
encountered on the way, gene- 
rally necessitate walking as 
far as Ninomiya. There is 
fair accommodation both at 
Himi and at Nanao. 

Nanao (Inn, Ogome-ya) is 
a considerable town situated 
on the shores of a minia- 
ture inland sea, across which 
toy steamers ply. The chief 
attraction in the neighbour- 
hood is the mineral spring 
of Wakura, 6 m. distant, 
which is much resorted to by 
the people of the country- 
side. But it, and indeed the 
province of Noto generally, — 
low, sandy, and poor in historic 
associations — are little calcu- 
lated to interest the foreign 
visitor. Mr. Percival Lowell, 
the well-known traveller and 
author of * Noto : An Unex- 
plored Comer of Japan,' after 
having divided all places into 
two sorts, namely, those worth 
seeing but already seen, and 
those not yet seen but not worth 



230 



rL02U(' 3 J:. — Mountains ttf Ktchu and Hida. 



seeing, says, *Wakura struck 
mo as falling into the latter 
halves of both categories/] 

The best halting-places between 
Fushiki and Naoetsu are Uotsu 
{Inn, Hakata-ya), and Itoi-gawa 
{Inn, Hayakawa). The last day of 
the journey is also the most pic- 
turesque, as the road leads for 
several miles along bold cliffs by 
the shore, commanding a glorious 
view of the Sea of Japan. 

For Naoetsu see p. 225. 

Travellers who may be desirous 
of visiting 

Toyama {Inns, Taisei-kaku, Eu- 
ropean food ; Ki-ya), (tai^ital of the 
prefecture of the same name an<l 
of the province of Etchu, can do so 
by taking a small boat from Fushiki 
to Higashi-Iwase {Inn, Kushi-ya), 
a small port at the mouth of the 
Jinzu-gawa, in about 3 hrs., whence 
to Toyama is 2 ri 2 chd by jinriki- 
sha. Toyama can also be reached 
more directly from Takaoka by 
jinrikisha all the way, a distance 
of 5 ri 29 chd. Toyama was formerly 
the castle-town of Matsudaira Shi- 
gematsu, a cadet of the Maeda 
family, of which the Daimyo of 
Kaga was the head. The castle is 
now utilised as a school. Its prin- 
cipal trade is in medecines and 
leather. The sn6w-capped summit 
of Haku-san is a striking object 
in the landscape. Toyama is a 
good starting point for those who, 
approaching them from this side, 
wijh to penetrate into the wild 
mountainous districts.of Etchu and 
Hida, described in the next Eoute. 



ROUTE 34. 

The Mountains op Etchu ano 
Hida. 

1. introductory remarks. % tate- 
yama. 3. from toyama to taiia- 
yama in hida by the valley of* 
the takahara-bawa. 4. kai«^a- 
zawa in kaga to takayama by 
the valley of the shirakawa. 
5. takayama to matsumoto a^i> 
ueda by the hirayu and abo 
passes ; ascent of norikura. 
[takayama to matsumoto by thk 
nomugi pass.] 6. takayama to 
gifu on the tokaido railway. 
7. takxvyama to fukushima ox 
the nakasendo. 8. yari-ga-take. 
9. nagano to toyama over thk 
harinoki pass. 10. ontake and 
the koma-ga-take of shinshu. 

11. HAKU-SAN. 

1.— Introductory Eemabks. 

The provinces of Etchu and 
Hida may be conveniently taken 
together, because hemmed in be- 
tween the same high mountain 
ranges which render this region 
exceptionally difficult of at cess, 
and have prevented it from being 
much visited even by the natives 
of the surrounding provinces. 
Lying completely beyond the reach 
of railways and modern civilisa- 
tion, no part of Japan has changed 
so little of late years. 

l^ho range bounding these pro- 
vinces on the E. is the most con- 
siderable in the Empire. The 
only one that can compare with it 
is that lying between the Fuji- 
kawa and the Tenryii-gawa in the 
provinces of Koshii, Shinshii, Su- 
ruga, and TotOmi. Many of the 
peaks are streaked with snow 
until the early autumn, while in 
some of the recesses and gorges 
where it is partially screened from 



Introihictory Uemarlcs, Tateycaua, 



231 



tlie sun's rays, the snow never 
entirely disappears. Extending 
almost due N. and S. for a length 
of ^ or 70 miles, with a breadth of 
from 5 to 10 miles, this range 
fonns a well-nigh impenetrable bar- 
rier to communication from the S. 
and E. It consists chie^y of granite, 
overlaid in places with igneous 
rocks. Norikura and Tateyama 
are volcanic peaks. The highest 
and most conspicuous of the nume- 
rous i)eaks, beginning at the N., 
aire as follows : 

FT. 

Tateyama 9,500 

Yari-ga-take 10,000 

Norikura 9,800 

Ontake 9,800 

Haku-san 8,900 

Koma-ga-take 1 0,300 

Among the wild animals of this 
region may be mentioned bears, 
doer, the goat-faced antelope, and 
two kinds of boars. The streams 
abound with trout. The few inha- 
Ijitants are hardy, simple folk, clad 
in hempen garments, often with 
the addition of an antelope skin, 
and earning a scanty living by 
hunting, wood-cutting, and char- 
coal burning. Their food consists of 
buckwheat and millet, while barley, 
hemp, beans, and mulberry-leaves 
form the other chief i^roductions 
of the valleys. 

It will thus be seen that the 
mountaineer has but hard fare to 
expect, and will be wise to provide 
himself with as many tins of meat, 
pr^ssrved milk, etc., as can be packed 
into a small compass. The recom- 
mendation is advisedly framed in 
these terms; for much luggage 
cannot be carried, owing to the 
ji^eneral scarcity of men to carry it. 
Needless to add that the accommo- 
dation is often of the roughest. 
Only at Toyania the capital of 
Etchu, at Takayama the capital 
•of Hida, and at a few other of the 
larger towns, is the ordinary stand- 
ard of Japanese provincial comfort 
attained. Should the varying effi- 



ciency of the carrying companies 
which undertake to forward goods 
from one portion of Japan to an- 
other permit, comparative comfoi-t 
and plenty may be ensured by send- 
ing boxes of food, extra clothing, 
books, and whatever else may lt>e 
required, ahead to the chief towns 
through which one expects to pass. 
It is, however, always advisable to 
leave a good margin of time, as the 
Japanese are not to be relied on for 
punctuality or despatch. 

For practical convenience sake, 
three mountains have been in- 
cluded in this rovite that do not 
topographically belong to it — Ha- 
ku-san, Ontake and the Koma-ga- 
take of Shinshii — because, though 
not actually forming part of the 
same range, they are not far dis- 
tant from it, and are likely to 
interest the same class of travel- 
lers, and to bo visited during the 
same trip. 

The district treated of in this 
route may be best approached 
from one of three sides, viz. from 
Ueda or Nagano on the Kaiaiizawa- 
Naoetsu llailway ; from Fuku- 
shima, fuither south in Shinshii; 
or from the Sea of Japan, on which. 
side Toyama is the most natural 
starting-point. The two former 
approaches are to be j>ref erred by 
travellers from Tokyo, the last by 
those coming from Kyoto. 

2. — Tateyama. 

Tateyama is the collective name 
given to the lofty summits which 
stand on the E. border of the 
province of Etchii, and which, 
together with the jagged peak of 
Tsurugi-dake, form the N. ex- 
tremity of the greatest range of 
mountains in Japan. The highest 
of the peaks (Go-honsha), is abont 
9,500 ft. above the level of the sea. 
The main ascent leads up the W* 
side of the mountain from the ham- 
let of Ashikura, which can be 
easily reached from Toyama. 

The road up the mountain is 



282 



liotite 34, — Mountains of EtcJni and Hida, 



aiduoas in parts, nor is there any 
shelter, except two or three wretched 
huts, to be got during the whole 
distance of 20 m. from Ashikura to 
the Muro-do, 2.V m. from the sum- 
mit. The Muro-do itself is but a 
somewhat better hut, which is 
opened for the accommodation of 
pilgrims from the 20th July to the 
10th September. No bedding is pro- 
curable, nor any food except rice. 

[In a valley situated about 6 did 
to the 1. of the Muro-do are 
the remarkable solfataras of 
Ojigoku (*Big Hell'). The 
whole valley seems alive with 
I)Ool8 of boiling mud and 
sulphur.] 

From the Muro-do hut to the 
highest summit, whose name of Go- 
honsha comes from the picturesque 
temple with which it is crowned, is 
1 hr. climb, partly over snow. At 
the end, a truly superb panorama 
unfolds itself before the spectator's 
gaze. The nimil^er of mountains to 
be distinguished is extraordinarily 
great. To the extreme 1., looking 
eastward, are seen Myoko-zan, 
Myogi-san, and Yoneyama in 
Echigo, Nantai-zan near Nikko, and 
Togakushi-san and Asama-yama 
in Shinshii. Towards the S. rises 
the range of Yatsu-ga-take, with 
the isolated peak of Tateshina- 
yama, beyond which are seen Fuji 
and the high jjeaks of Shirane and 
Koma-ga-take in Koshii. Further 
S. a^ain are Koma-ga-take and On- 
take in Shinshu ; Yari-ga-tako, 
Norikura, Kasa-ga-take, and in 
closer proximity, Yakushi-dake, all 
in Hida. To the S.W. is Hakn-san 
on the borders of Kaga. Below, to 
the W., lie the plains of Kaga and 
Etchu, the latter watered by the 
rivers Jinzu and Jogwanji, while to 
the N. the view is bounded by the 
Sea of Japan. 



3. — From Totama to Takatam-a. 

IN Hida by the Valley of tmis. 

Takahaea-gawa. 

Itinei'ai'y. 

TOYAMA to :— Bi. Cho. 31. 

Kumano 1» IS 3| 

Okubo 1 18 3| 

Machinaga 2 18 6 

Yoshino 2 — 5 

Inotani 1 — 2.i 

Uriishi-yama 4 — 9| 

Funatsu 2 — 5 

Terabayashi 1 — 2.j 

Yamada 1 — 2.} 

Suyama 1 — 2.V 

Yokamachi 2 — 2.^ 

Hirose 1 — 2.j 

TAKAYAMA 2 8 5i 

Total 22 26 55^ 



The above distances are only 
approximate. At the hamlet of 
Kumano the road crosses the 
Kumano-gawa, and, after passing 
through Okulo, ascends to the 
hot springs of Yaki, where, enter- 
ing the mountains, it continues up 
the r. bank of the Jinzii-gawa to- 
Machinaga. So far it is possible^ 
to take horses ; but beyond this 
point all baggage must be carried 
by cattle or on coolies* backs. From 
Machinasra onwards the scenery be-^ 
comes romantic. The road follows 
the side of a deep precipice and in 
some places quite overhangs jthe 
stream, being built out on projecting 
logs of wood. In the ravine l^clow 
is the Jinzii-gawa, at times flowing 
along in silence, a deep, smooth^ 
placid sheet of water, at other tinics 
dashing with impetuous violence. 
On the inner side of the path, a 
swift stream flows along a canal 
constructed in 1807 to convey 
water to Nihonmatsu and other 
villages in the plain to the E. of 
the Jinzu-gawa. Each curve of 
the road discloses new and more 
charming views of the river. Monn- 
tain torrents tumble down the 
gnlUes on the 1., leaping from rock 



1 



allei/8 of the Ta7ia7iara-(/aica and ShiraJcmra. 



233 



i» i-ock to join the rush of waters 
far below. After passing the ham- 
lets of Terazu and Usunami, the 
traveller reaches Yoshino (poor 
-accommodation). Close to this 
vill., the Jinzu-gawa is crossed 
in a kago-watashi. Fine salmon- 
trout weighing from 4 to 8 lbs., 
-ai-e taken in the river. A four- 
pronged spear, which fits into 
A staff having a stout line attached 
to it, is used for catching these 
fisH. Ai and iwana are also taken 
by netting. The seasons for fisliing 
Are the end of spring and the 
beginning of autumn. After Yo- 
shino the road ascends, and 
-comes to a more open part of 
the valley cultivated with tobacco 
-and potatoes. Before reaching 
liwtani, close to the boundary of 
the provinces of Etchii and Hida, 
the Jinzii-gawa curves away to the 
r., while the path to Funatsu 
follows the r. bank of the Taka- 
hai*a-gawa, one of its affluents. 
There is a very picturesque view 
At the forking of the rivers, and 
■almost the whole of the way hence 
to Funatsu is one of continued 
rugged grandeur. The copper- 
smelting works of the Maebira 
mine at Daira, which is one of the 
most productive in Japan, are 
passed shortly before reaching 

Fniiatsii {Inn by Kakeni Gon- 
shichi), a fair-mzed place, where 
horses can again be engaged for 
the transport of baggage to the 
«nd of the journey. On the way 
to Yainada is a small pass called 
Akasaka, 3,850 ft. above the sea, 
and 1,600 ft. above Funatsu. The 
tea-house of Sakakoha, j m. down 
on the other side, may be recom- 
mended for a short halt on account 
of the beautiful view which it 
commands across the Yokamachi 
valley and the low pine-clad hills 
separating this valley from that of 
the Miyagawa and the plain round 
Takayama. At Hirose jinrikishas 
<^an sometimes be obtained. 

Takayamii (Inn, Taniga-ya), the 



capital of Sida, is divided into 
three main parts, called respec- 
tively Ichi-no-machi, Ni-no-machi, 
and San-no-machi. The shops are 
poor. A good panorama of the 
town and neighbouring mountains 
can be had from Shiroyama, a hill 
close by on which a castle formerly 
stood. It is only a ten minutes' 
chmb. 

4.-=^From Kanazawa in Kaga to 
Takayama in Hida by the Val- 
ley OF THE ShIRAKAWA. 

Itinerary, 

KANAZAWA to:— Ri. Chd. M. 

Futamata 2 28 6| 

Fukumitsu 2 26 6f 

Jo-ga-hana 18 3 

Shimo Nashi 4 4 10 

NishiAkao 2 26 6f 

Tsubaki-hara 3 10 8 

lijima 2 18 6 

Herase 2 30 7 

Kurodani 3 27 9|^ 

Mumai 1 33 4f 

Kami Odori 2 18 6 

Maki-ga-hora 2 26 6f 

Mikka-machi 10 f 

TAKAYAMA 1 20 3| 

Total 34 32 85i 



This route is not practicable for 
jinrikishas except between Fuku- 
mitsu and Jogahana, and again 
between Mikka-machi and Taka- 
yama. Jinrikishas are always to 
be found at Fukumitsu, but at 
Mikka-machi they cannot be de> 
pended on. Horses are not pro- 
curable in the valley of the Shira- 
kawa, and baggage is transported 
by cattle or on coolies' backs. 
Fairly good accommodation can be 
had at most of the villages. The 
scenery is delightfully picturesque, 
and there are many magnificent 
distant views. Neai* Jo-ga-hana la 
a pool called Navoa-ike, or the Bto/pB 
Pool, which is regarded with super- 
stitious awe by the people of the 



23 i 



Eoiite 34, ^-Mountains of FAchu and Hula, 



'whole country-side. It is visited 
by pilgrims and the inhabitants of 
the surrounding district after the 
rice harvest is over ; but from the 
time of planting out the young 
rice until the harvest is reaped, no 
one will approach the spot, it being 
supposed that if any one does so, 
storms and destruction of crops will 
follow as a punishment awarded by 
the deity under whose presiding 
care the pool is jjlaced. So firmly 
indeed is this superstition engrained 
in the minds of the peasantry, 
that watchmen from the different 
hamlets are selected to guard the 
T-arious approaches to the pool, 
and the inhabitants have also 
bound themselves, under penalty 
of banishment from their native 
place, not to act as guides to any 
travellers before the harvest is 
over. 



5. — ^Fbom Takayama to Matsumoto, 

AND TO UeDA on THE KaRUIZAWA- 

Naoetsu Railway, by the HiPwA- 
Tu AND Abo Passes. Ascent of 

NOKIKURA. [NOMUGI PaSS.] 

Itinerary. 

TAKAYAMA to :— Ri. Clio. M. 

Matsunoki — 15 1 

Hachi-ga-machi ... 1 ' 3 2^ 

Otani 1 — 2^ 

Hiomo 1 17 3i 

Kate 1 28 4] 

Hirayu 2 8 5.V 

Top of Abotoge ... 2 — 5 
Descent to Azusa- 

gawa 2 — 5 , 

Top of Hinoki-toge. 1 — 2.^ 

Onogawa 1 — 2^ 

Kumanosav/a 3 2^ 9 

MATSUMOTO 

(about) 1 18 18| 

■» . — 

Total 25 6 Ol.^ 



Leaving the E. end of Takayama 

*(see p. 233), the road traverses the 

Till, of Matsunoki, where a rope 



stretched across the valley testifies 
to an ancient superstition. Ac- 
cording to the date at which the 
weather causes this rope to snap^ 
omens are drawn for the crops of 
the ensuing twelve month. It is- 
replaced yearly on the 7th day of 
the 7th moon . This spot is one of 
the ' Eight Views * of the province 
of Hida. At the top of the Tete-zaka, 
before descending to Hachi-o-a- 
machi, the summits of Yari-ga- 
take, Kasadake, Norikura, and On- 
take come in view. At the temple 
of Genraiji in Hachi-ga-iiiachi the 
priests are willing to receive for- 
eigners. There are several other 
temples on the road as far as. 
Hiomo, where accommodation cau 
be had ; but after the latter place 
it is not possible to stay anywhere 
until reaching Hirayu. The first 
part of the walk is extremely pic- 
turesque, and the road is good as. 
far as Hiomo, beyond which it is 
but a pathway. At Kuie com- 
mences the ascent of the Hirayu 
Pass, whicli lies throusrh the forest 
for a little more than 1 ri. The 
descent on the other side, also 1 ri,. 
is extremely steep, down to the 
hollow between high mountains 
where nestles the little hamlet of 

Hirayu (fair accommodation)^ 
This place is frequented by the 
people of the province for tlie sako 
of its strengthening mineral hot 
waters. The only sight in the neigh- 
bourhood is a cascade some 200 ft> 
high, formed by the river Taka- 
hara near its source, and distant 
13 cho. The snowy mountain to 
the N.W. of the vill. is Kasadake. 
Hirayu is abandoned during the 
winter months, when the people 
return to Otani. The road now 
passes over the Aho-toge, called 
also the Shinano-tbge (6,400 ft.),, 
into the province of Shinshiu 
Pedestrians use this pass in prv- 
ference to that of Nomugi, tht» 
distance being 3 ri shorter ; but 
the way is not practicable for 
horses or cattle. Yari-^'a-take and 



Tahayama to Matswnoto, Ascent of Xorikiira, 



235 



Kasadake 1., and Haku-san to the 
S. W., are seen diirinjj the latter 
part of the ascent; but from the 
suxniuit of the pass the view is 
aliuost entirely shut out, nor is 
there any extensive prospect on 
t;h.e way down. There are several 
resting-places suitable for a midday 
Iia.lt. 

Oliog-awa (Inn by Okuta Kiichi) 
is a small viil. picturesquely situ- 
ated on the banks of the Maegawa, 
an affluent of the Azusa-gawa, at a 
lieight of 3,300 ft. 

[From this place it is possible to 
ascend Norikiu*a. But as the 
climb to the suumiit and back 
may prove too much for one 
day, the traveller is advised 
to sleep at the furthest hut, 
about 1^ ri higher up, on 
the way to which are passed 
the remains of old furnaces, 
heaps of slag and ore, etc., 
indicating the site of the 
once extensive smelting works 
of Obi Ginzan. In the side 
of the hill near by, are seen 
the openings of the levels 
of the old mine, which has 
not been worked since 1860. 
The ore consists of galena 
containing a small quantity 
of silver. The sleeping-hut 
(4,800 ft.) stands not far from 
a small stream abounding in 
excellent trout. There is no 
road from the hut to the sum- 
mit, and only occasional traces 
of a path. At the end there is 
a climb up a steep snow-field, 
and then over lava blocks and 
scoriae, which finally lead to the 
small shrine of Asahi Gongen 
on the highest point of the 
mountain, 9,800 ft. above the 
sea. Time from the sleei^ing 
hut, at least 4 hrs. Norikura 
is an old volcano, the peak 
being really one of the sides 
of the crater from which ex- 
tensive lava-flows have j^oured 
out, notably in the direction 



of Onogawa. Near the sum- 
mit is a lake.] 

From Onogawa to Kumanosawa 
is a charming walk down a secludod 
gorge walled in by densely wooded 
moLiutains, while below rush first 
the Maegawa and then the Azusa- 
gawa, spanned at intervals by 
picturesque bridges. After Kuma- 
nosawa, the mountains open out to 
form the plain of Matsiimoto (see p. 
220). From Matsumoto, the station 
of Ueda on the Karuizawa-Naoetsu 
Railway can be reached by carriage 
in 6 hrs. 

[An alternative way from Taka- 
yama to Matsumoto is over the 
Nomugi Pass. The Itinerary 
is as follows. 



TAKAYAMA to :— 

m. 

Kabuto 3 

Kibyu-dani ... 2 

Naka-no-shuku 1 

Nomugi ..'. 3 

Kawaura 3 

Yoriaido 2 

Nyu-yama 2 

Inekoki 

SHIMASHIMA 1 

Niimura 3 

MATSUMOTO 1 



Clw. 

1 
31 
13 
23 



31. 

7i 
7 

3| 
9 
^.k 

18 () 

— 5 

18 l\ 

*}i 

— ^a 

18 8.\ 
18 



• >;» 
"4 



Total 24 32 Gl 



Nomugi and Shiniashima 
are the T)est places to stop at 
on the way.] 

6. — From Takatama in Hi da to 

gifu on the tokaico railway. 

A road called the Hida Kaidoleads 
from Takayama down the valley of 
the Hidiigawa to Gifu on the To- 
kaido Railway. The first part of 
the way — that lying within the 
province of Hida — affords delight- 
ful views. But on crossing the 
frontier into Mine, of which Gilu 
is the capital, one meets with a 
sudden change in the character of 
the scenery, bare sandy hillocks re- 



236 



lioute 3Jf. — Mountains of Etchu and Hida. 



placing the well-wooded valleys and 
rooky I'avines of the earlier portion. 
Oero, also called Yunoshima, pos- 
sesses mineral springs. There is 
fair accommodation on the way, es- 
pecially at Shimohara. The road 
is practicable for jinrikishas. 

Itinerary. 

TAKA YAMA to :— Ri. Cho. M. 

Kukuno 3 4 7h 

Oesaka 3 32 9| 

Hagiwara 3 17^ 

Gero..; 2 4 5^^ 

Uoido 3 18 8^ 

Shimohara 3 — 7i 

Kanayama 14 1 

Kamibuchi 3 13 8i 

Nakanoho 1 33 4f 

Seki 5 1 12i 

Akutami 2 4 si 

GIFU 2 6 5i 

Total 33 22 82 



7. — From Takayama in ^Hida to 

FUKUSHIMA ON THE NaKASENDO. 

Itinerary, 

TAKAYAMA to :— Ri. Cho. M. 

Kabuto 3 1 7i 

Kibyii-dani .., 2 31 7 

Naka-no-shuku ... 1 13 3^ 

Kami-no-liara 1 18 3f 

Adanogo 1 5 2f 

Hiwada 2 20 6^ 

Kami Nishino 3 — 7 J 

Suegawa 2 1 5 

Km-okawa 3 — 7^ 

FUKUSHIMA ... 1 — 2h 



Total... 21 17 62^ 



As far as Nishino, baggage is 
generally carried by women, some- 
times by cattle. Though either 
means of transport is objection- 
able, there is apparently no other 
alternative. Beautiful views oc- 
cur all along the route. The 
best accommodation is at Kami 
Nishino, whence it is possible to 
ascend Ontake, a climb of 7 ri ; but 
the way is a difficult one, and 



either of those given on pp. 238-9 is 
to be preferred. 

8. — Yabi-ga-take. 

Yari-ga-tuke, lit. Spear Peak, is 
most easily reached from the Shin- 
shii side via Ueda on the Karni- 
zawa - Naoet-su Kailway, Matsu- 
moto, and Shimashima (see p. 220). 

The way up the mountain — no^w 
a mere track where formerly there 
existed a proper road — ^leads over a 
pass 7,000 ft. high, before descend- 
ing to the bank of a rivulet where 
stands the sleeping hut (Tokumota 
no koya) at an altitude of 4,960 ft., 
and at a distance of 7 or 8 hrs. from 
Shimashima. Inconvenience arises 
from the fact of this hut being too 
far from the summit of the moun- 
tain for the ascent and descent to 
be easily accomplished on the same 
day. Another hut, called Miya^a- 
wa no koya, 3 ri further on at 
the actual base of the mountain, 
is a better starting-point, bnt 
difficult to reach in one day from 
Shimashima unless the baggage 
be sent on in front. In this 
quandary the traveller must make 
his own choice. We should, how- 
ever, advise go'ng on the first 
day from Shimashima to the Tohu- 
moto no koya, where sleep ; ascend 
the mountain, and return to a rude 
shelter called Ahasa no koya on the 
second day, returning to Shimashi- 
ma on the third. We should also 
propose that, in addition to the 
guide, the traveller take with him 
a strong coolie to carry him across 
the torrent, which has to be forded 
many times, occasionally almost 
waist-deep. The distance from the 
Miyagawa hut to the summit is 
called 6 ri. The ascent can be 
accomplished in 7 hrs., and the 
descent in 4^ hrs. 

The route lies alternately up one 
side or the other of the bed or banks 
of this torrent for about 3 hrs. On 
the 1., steep, craggy granitic moun- 
tains rise to a height of from 7,000 
ft. to 8,000 ft., while on the r. are 



Yan-ga-tuhe, The HannoJci Pass, 



237 



-tamer wooded hills. Noble moun- 
i»;ins are these precipitous masses 
of granite, surpassing in wildness 
^ny to be seen elsewhere in Japan, 
iiheir curiously steep forms being 
not unlike some of the ideal crags 
•depicted in Chinese art. Perhaps 
there is no part of the country in 
so tridy primeval a state — with the 
-exception of some pai-ts of Yamato 
— than this torrent valley in the 
heai-t of the Shinano-Hida range, 
■whose sole frequenters are hunters 
seeking bears or the sheep-faced 
a>ntelope. At an elevation of 
6,400 ft., a rude shed called 
Akasdka no Iwa-goya, a camping- 
place for hunters, is passed ; and 
just above here the forest ceases, 
And the first snow-field is crossed. 
Hence the road lies mostly over 
snow ; but just below the summit, 
between the peaks, the route winds 
up and among huge bare masses of 
rock piled in indescribable confu- 
sion. From the irregular resting 
of some of these crags, so called 
• caves ' are formed, wherein the 
hunters take up their quarters 
whilst watching for bears. Ptar- 
migan are common here. A stiff 
<;linib up snow and over debris, 
and a rather dangerous scramble 
up one side of the peak, land the 
traveller on a table of a few square 
yards of rock, the top of the * spear ' 
■of the mountain. 

^. — From Nagano to Toyama in 
Etchu over the Harinoki 
Pass. 

The gi'eater portion of the follow- 
ing itinerary and of the description 
given below must be regarded as 
approximate only, the difficulty of 
keeping communication jopen acr^css 
so rugged a country being pecu- 
liarly great. There is no possibility 
of crossing the pass before the yama- 
hiraki, or * mountain opening,* on 
the 20th June. Even during the 
summer months communication is 
often entirely interrupted, and 



none but the most experienced 
mountaineers can hope to succeed 
in forcing a path for themselves. 

Itinerary. 

*NAGANO to :— Ri. Cho. M. 

Sasadaira 3 18 &^ 

Shimmachi 2 18 6 

dbara 1 — 2^ 

Hashigi 1 18 3f 

So 1 — 21 

Omachi 2 30 7 

Noguchi 18 IJ 

Shirazawa 2 18 6 

Maruishi-bashi ... 1 2 2^ 
Top of Harinoki 

Pass 1 21 3f 

Futamata 24 If 

Kurobe 2 11 5f 

Top of Zaragoe ... 1 7 3 

Yumoto 2 — 5 

Yanagiwara 31 2 

Seko 1 6 2f 

Hara..: 3 — 7i 

Omi 1 — 2i 

Kamidaki 3 — 7i 

TOYAMA 3 — 7i 

Total 36 6 88i 

Jinrikishas can be taken as far 
as the hamlet of Koichi, where the 
Saigawa is joined and from which 
point the scenery becomes pretty. 
One ri before reaching 

Shimmachi {Inn^ Kome-ya), the 
road passes over the Yanoshiri- 
toge, a steep ascent of 18 cko. 

The descent to the hamlet of Anadaira 
on the other side was the scene of a great 
convulsion in the year 1817, when, owin^^ 
to an earth([uake, the river was dammed 
up by a fall of masses of earth from the 
hills on 1x)th sides. A small cuscade 
marks the spot where the waters after- 
wards Inoke through. Boats formerly 



* Or NAGANO to:— Bi. ChO. M, 

Sasadaira 3 18 B\ 

Kakajo 2 — 6 

Takebu 2 — 6 

Pemmi 2 — 5 

OMACHI 3 18 8i 

Total 13 — 31f 

This is the postal roate, but that givem 
in the text is more picturesque. ' 



238 



lloiite 34, — Mountains of Etchu and tiida. 



-went all the way down from Matsumoto 
to Nagano, but their passage has ever 
since been interrupfcecl at Anadaiia. 

Omachi {Inuy Yama-cho) presents 
an old-world appearance, owing 
to its flat-roofed wooden houses 
like the cottages in the Alps, with 
heavy stones to keep down the 
shingling. At Noguchi, where com- 
fortable quarters can be obtained, 
enquiries should be made as to the 
state of the road, and stout-limbed 
guides engaged for the ascent of 
the Harinoki Pass. Under favour- 
able conditions, the next day ought 
to bring the traveller to Kurobe. 
The summer limit of the snow 
on the Harinoki Pass is reached 
about 1 ?-i from the top, at an eleva- 
tion of 5,300 ft. 

From the summit (7,700 ft.), Fuji 
is seen as in a vignette between 
the ranges of Yatsu-ga-take and 
Koma-ga-take, the other most note- 
worthy feature of the view being 
Tari-ga-take. 

£A peak called GoroJcu-dakey 9.100 
ft., may be ascended from this 
point ; but there is no shelter 
to sleep in.] 

The traveller now leaves the 
province of Shinshii for that of 
Et<ihu, and will notice, both on the 
Bummit and on the way down, the 
alder-trees (hari-no-kiy or han-tio- 
ki) which give their name to the 
pass. The valley on this side is 
known as the Harinoki-sawa. 

Kurobe is a tiny hamlet with a 
fishing stream. The road from 
Kurobe to the baths of Yunioto lies 
over two steep ascents, the Nukui- 
dani-toge and the Zaragoo. The 
Tiew from the toj) of the latter is 
magnificent. All around, enor- 
mous landslips and confused mass- 
es of rock, hurled down from the 
toi>s of the mountains to the gorge 
below, bear witness to the terribly 
destructive forces by which this part 
of the country has been ravaged. 
The rocky mass in front is one of 
^he slopes of Tateyama, while on 
the 1. a view of the soft plains of 



Toyama and of the sea beyond 
contrasts agreeably w^ith the savage 
aspect of the nearer landscape. 
The Jinziigawa is seen in the plain 
wending its way towards the Sea 
of Japan, and the blue outline of 
the provinces of Kaga and Notc^ 
fills up the distant background. 
The descent is through a wilder- 
ness of rocks and stones. Here and 
there sulphur fumes are seen rising- 
from the mountain side. 

Yninoto, or Ry uxaii-jita, situated 
in a desolate waste, possesses liot- 
springa. All around is a chaos 
of large boulders, sand, and stones. 

Mountain sides da shed down by the 
violence of the carthtiunke of 1858 still 
remain a mass of confusion to tell the 
tale of awf i.l destruction which then oc- 
cuiTcd. A large portion of Tombi, the 
precipitous mountain S. of the baths, fell 
right across the valley and dammed up 
the stream. A month later, when the 
sno"\v melted and the vrater burst thronph 
its baiTier, the villaKCS below, ri<?ht away 
dowu the valley of the J6f?wanji-gawH, 
were deluged with liquid mud; and houses^ 
fields, and human beings were over- 
whelmed in one common destruction. 

On leaving Yumoto, the path 
continues down a ihagnificently 
rugged gorge, called Dashiwara- 
dani at its upper end. 

It is often necessary to cross the 
Jogwanji by a kago no ivatashi, or 
basket slung to ropes. Before 
descending to Kamidaki, the best 
general view of Tateyama and of the 
range forming the boundary of the 
province of Etchti is obtained. The 
names of the highest summits, in 
order from the 1., are as follows : — 
Tsurugi-dake, Kodake, Go-honsha, 
Jodo, Tombi, Kuwasaki, and Ari- 
mine-Yakushi. The road onward 
crosses a well-cultivated plain, and 
joins the Hokkoku Kaido a few cho 
before reaching Toyaiua (see p. 
230). 

10. — Ontake and the Koma-ga- 

TAKE OF ShINSHU. 

The best starting point for the 
ascent of Ontflke for those ap- 
proaching it from the Nakasendo 



Ontake, Koma-f/a-take, Ilahi-san. 



2Sd^ 



side is Fukushiinaj whence it may 
Gsusily be climbed in one day, or 
Agematsu, whence the expedition 
is rather too long for one day, 
making it generally advisable to 
spend the night at the Ta-no- 
bora hut. The climb is a some- 
what rou(^h one^ The view from 
the summit embraces Haku-san to 
the N.W., then to the r. the penin- 
sula of Noto, and still further to the 
r. a row of mighty peaks that bear 
traces of snow even during the 
greatest summer hc^ats. Conspi- 
cuous among these peaks are Tate- 
yauia, Yari-ga-take, and Noriktira. 
Par to the N.E. rise tlie volcano of 
Asama and the chain separating 
the provinces of Kotsuke and Shin- 
shii. To the S.E. appeiir Yatsu- 
ga-take and far-oli" I'uji, with the 
Koma-ga-take of Shinshu in the 
nearer distance. 

The Shinshii Komn-^a-talie is 

most conveniently ascended from 
Agematsu. The distance from 
that village to the summit is 
called 4 ri 8 chu, and the ascent, 
part of which is very steep, will 
occupy a good walker over 5 hrs. 
The native pilgrims, who do not 
care to make the round of the 
various peaks forming the top of 
the mountain, but merely wish to 
visit Go-honsha, the liighest point, 
usually ascend and descend in one 
day. But the traveller is recom- 
uionded rather to time his excur- 
sion so as to sleep at a hut called 
Taniakaho, 3 ri 32 cho from Acrema- 
tsu, in order to witness the magni- 
ficent spectacle of sunrise from the 
summit. Looking eastwards, the eye 
sweeps along an almost continuous 
line of mountains rising beyond the 
valleys of the Chikuma-gawa and 
Tcuryu-gawa, the prominent sum- 
mits in order from the 1. being 
Asama-yama N.N.E., Tateshina 
N.E. by N., Yatsu-ga-tako N.E. by 
E., Koma-ga-take E. by N., and, 
directly oj^posite, Shirane-ga-take, 
-including its three summits Kai 



j 



gane-san, Aino-take, and Nodori- 
san. The sharp peak seen between 
Koma-ga-take and Kaigane-san is 
the siunmit of Ho-6-zan. To the 
S.E. rises a lofty, snow- streaked 
range with three conspicuous sum- 
mits, the highest of which is called 
Akai-ishi. Another striking featiu-e 
is the cone of Fuji, which towers 
up beyond a dej^ression to the r. of 
Isodori-san. Looking westward, 
the view embraces a consider- 
able portion of the great chain 
forming the boundary between the 
provinces of Shinshu and Hida, 
the most prominent summit being 
Ontakc, bearing N. of W., to 
whose r., rising in succession to 
the N., are Norikura, Kasadake^ 
Iwasu-<jra-take, and Yari-sra-take. 
In the distance, the peaks of Tate- 
yama are discernible beyond Yari- 
ga-take. Towards the W. the dis- 
tant outline of Haku-san is visible^ 
while in nearer proximity to the S. 
rises Ena-san in the province of 
Mine. There is also an extensive 
view over the province of Mikawa 
and a portion of Enshii, with 
several mountains, including the 
double summit of Horaiji-yama in 
the former province and Akiha-san 
in the latter. 



11. — Haku-san. 

This celebrated mountain, stand- 
ing on the borders of the four 
provinces of Echizen, Kaga, Hida, 
and Mino, is best ascended from 
Kanazawa, the capital of Kaga (see 
p. 229). The itinerary to Yimioto 
at the base is as follows : 

KANAZAWA (Oliashi) to:— 

Ri Cho. M, 

Tsurugi. 3 — 7\ 

Onnawara o 29 14] 

Ushikubi 4 4 10 

YUMOTO 5 — 12] 

Total 17 33 43if 

There is fair accommodation at 
all thejie i)laces. The road is prac- 



2A0 



Route 35, — Ba pills of the Tem't/u-gmva. 



ticable for jinrikishas only as far 
as Tsuiiigi. From Ushikubi on- 
wards the scenery is delightfully 
picturesque. Yumoto is completely 
ahut in by densely wooded hills, 
^nd is deserted in winter by its 
inhabitants, who do not return till 
the beginning of June. The 
ascent and descent of the moun- 
tain make an easy day's expedi- 
tion. The glorious view from 
the summit includes Tateyama 
N.E., Yai-i-ga-take E.N.E., Nori- 
kura a little to the S. of E., Yatsu- 
ga-take and the Koma-ga-take of 
Koshu in the dim distance, Ontake 
E.S.E., and the Koma-ga-take of 
Shinshii. In the immediate neigh- 
bourhood are Bessan on the S., and 
Onanji on the N., which, with the 
central and highest peak called 
Gozen-mine, together constitute the 
three summits of Haku-san. On 
the N.W. rises the lofty top of 
Shaka-ga-take. On the E. side is 
Tsurugi or *the Sword,' so called 
from its pointed rocky peaks, and 
on the W. is the Oku-no-in. Two 
tarns lie at the bottom of what are 
apparently ancient craters. 

Haku-san may also be reached 
from Fukui in Echizen by the fol- 
lowing itinerary, the route being 
practicable — j ust practicable — for 
jinrikishas as xfar as Katsuyama, 
but the accommodation all along 
the road wretched. On the other 
hand there is some fine wild scenery. 

Itinerary. 
FUKUI (Arahashi) to :— 

Ri. Cho. M. 

Matsuoka 2 4 5| 

Komyoji 1 22 3f 

Katsuyama 4 — 9f 

Kogo.^ 2 8 6.} 

Kotaro's Farm- 
house 2 32 7 

Top of Kijikami 

Pass 1 18 3J 

Mizutani 2 — 5 

YUMOTO 18 3 

Total 17 20 42} 



ROUTE 35. 
The Eapids op the Tenbyu-gawa. 

[IlDA TO NaGOYA by THE InA. 

Kaido.] 

These rapids, the finest in 
Japan, are also among the mosrfc 
accessible, for they form a natural 
route connecting the two chief 
highways of the central portion of 
the Main Island. — the Nakasendo 
and the Tokaido. The village 
where one embarks is called Toki- 
llinta (Inn, *Umeno-ya). It is 
reached by travelling along the 
Kakasendo as far as Shimo-no 
Suwa, on Lake Suwa, thence to 
Matsushima {Inns, Mon-ya and 
Tsuta-ya) on another important 
highway called the Ina Kaido, and 
along that highway to lida (/*in, 
Iwaki - Masu-ya), a large and 
flourishing town, formerly the re- 
sidence of a Daimyo named Hori. 
The poition of the Ina Kaido 
which is included in this route is 
by no means lacking in the pic- 
turesque. It also brings the tra- 
veller into the vicinity of the 
Shinshu Koma-ga-take, which may 
he ascended from lijinia (Inn, 
Enoki-ya). 

Itinerary. 

SHIMO-NO-SUWA to :— 

Ri. Cho. If. 

Matsushima 6 ^ 15 

Ina 2 18 6 

Akao 3 6 7f 

lijima 1 31 4i 

lida 5 27 14 

TOKIMATA 2—6 

Total 21 15 52i 

The beSt accommodation on the 
way is at Matsushima, and at 
Saka&hitn (Inn, Yorozu-ya), half- 
way between Matsushima and 
Akao. The whole way from Shimo- 
no-suwa to Tokimata is practicable 
for jinrikishas and can ecisily be 
accomplished in two short days. 
But the occasional roughness of 



The Tenryu-gawa. I'ula to Nagoya, 



241 



"tbe latter part of the route neces- 
sitates the taking of two jiurikisha- 
men. The passage by boat from 
^^okimata down to the Tokaido 
occupies 12 hrs. The total distance 
"travelled by water is estimated at 
36 ri — say 90 m. — but the latter 
portion of this is along a compara- 
tiively sluggish current. The boat 
cloes not take the traveller actually 
to the Tokaido Railway. If bound 
up the line in the direction of 
Tokyo, he alights at Ikeda, for the 
station of Nakaliziimi, 1 ri 8 cho 
distant; if down the line in the 
direction of Kyoto, he alights at 
Kakano-machiy for the station of 
Hamaiiiatsil, 1 ri 28 cho distant. 
Another good halting-place is Unna 
(Inn, Ikeda-ya), a resort of pilgrims 
en route for the shrine of Akiha- 
san (see Route 38). 

The charge for a boat was fixed 
in 1890 at §20, the justification of 
this seemi^gjy high price being 
the fact th^gfit takes from 10 to 12 
days to tow the boat up stream 
again. Boats being not always in 
readiness, it may be advisable to 
write ahead (in Japanese, of course) 
to the innkeeper at Tokimata to 
order one with 4 boatmen. Tra- 
vellers are also recommended to 
time their movements so as to 
arrive at Tokimata on the after- 
noon previous to their descent of 
the rapids. This will enable them 
'to make all arrangements overnight 
and to start early. A spare hour at 
Tokimata can be pleasantly spent 
in visiting the picturesque bridge 
less than 1 H down the river, at the 
spot where the rough-and-tumble 
part of its course begins. 

The scenery of the Tenryti-gawa 
is most striking. After passing 
the bridge mentioned above, the 
river enters a rocky ravine, and 
from this point on to Nishinoto, a 
passage of some 6.^ hrs., is almost 
one continued series of rapids and 
races. Walled in between forest- 
clad mountains that rise abruptly 
to a height of from 1,000 ft. to 2,000 



ft., the river twists and tears along- 
their rocky base, carving for itself a 
channel where there seems no pos- 
sible means of exit. It is in such 
places that the skill of the boat- 
men will be most admired, where 
the boat, which looks as if it must 
be dashed to pieces in another 
moment, is shot round the corner 
only to be whirled on to some new 
danger equally exciting. Fortu- 
nately for the lover of the pictur- 
esque, some blasting which was un-^ 
dertaken a few years ago with a view 
to facilitating the transport of pro- 
duce, has had no very marked effect 
in marring the ruggedness of nature 
in this place. On approaching a 
rapid the man forward beats the 
bow of the boat with his paddle, 
both as a signal to the others and 
in the superstitious belief that it 
will bring good luck. Of the 
rapids i)roperly so-called, there are 
upwards of thirty, the finest of 
whicli_ are : Yagura (The Turret), 
near Oshima ; Shiii-taki (New Cas- 
cade), 3 H below Mitsushima; Taka- 
ze (Hiiih Rapid) ; Chdna (Adze), 
just beyond Otaui ; Konnyaku (Po- 
tato) ; Shiror-nami (White Waves) ;, 
lori ga taki (lori's Cascade) ; and 
Tania-buro (Mountain Bath), the 
grandest of all, notwithstanding its- 
homely name. 

[Nagoya, on the Tokaido RaiU 
way, may be reached from lida 
by following the Ina Kaido to- 
Nebano, from which place to- 
Nagoya is a distance of 22 ri 
32 cho through the Potteries 
(see next Route). The road is- 
heavy and difficvilt for jinriki- 
shas. The itinerary from lida- 
to Nebane is as follows : 



IIDA to :— 
Nakamura . . . 

Komamba 2 

Ono 1 

Namiai 2 10 5i 

Hiraya 2 5 5| 

NEBANE 2 18 6 



Ri. Cho. M. 
1 14 3i 
2 5 
13 3i 



Total 11 26 28^ 



242 



Houtc 36. — From Xafjo}ja to Xvhane 



This altornative way of 
roach iuj? the Tokaido from 
Tida may bo found of use in 
the event of any accident pre- 
ventincf the boat journey down 
the Tenryu-gawa.] 



ROUTE 3G. 

From Nagoya through 

TEEIES TO NeBANE ON 

Kaido. 

Itinerary. 

XAGOYA to :— J?». 

Seto 5 

Shimo Shinano ... 1 
Shimo Hadagawa.. 

Ichinokura 1 

Tajimi 

Oroshi 1 

Sogi 2 

Okawa 1 

Akechi 2 

Kam imura 3 

NEBANE 3 

Total 22 



THE POT- 
THE IXA 



Cho. 
9 



12| 

Ol 

^ 2 

27 n 

— n 

3 



27 
3 

33 
38 
23 



15 
2^ 

4-J 

8f 
71 



32 55f 



This road is practicable for jin- 
rikishas as far as Seto. It leaves 
Na.jroya by Ozone, a suburb on the 
N.E., and traverses in succession 
the insignificant villages of Yada, 
Moriyama, Obata, Omori, Arai, and 
Imamura, crossing the wide bed of 
the Yadagawa just before entering 
Moriyama. From this point it 
l^asses over large tracts of flat 
sandy soil, producing nothing but 
pine scrub. On the r., some 2 m. 
distant, a range of low hills is 
visible. Just before entering Seto, 
a path 1. branches off direct to the 
vill. of Shinano. 

Seto consists of four hamlets 
named Kita Shingai, Minami Shin- 
gai. Go, and Hora, situated on the 
low hills that surround an almost 
Kjircular valley. There are about 



eighty households engaged in tHe 
manufacture of porcelain, and 
seventeen or eighteen where com- 
mon pottery is made. The porce- 
lain clay is found in the immediate 
neighbourhood, the silica bein^ 
brought from Sannagi in the N.W. 
corner of Miliawa, about 3 ri dis- 
tant. A large part of the couiinon 
pottery known as Seto ware comes 
from Akazu, about 1 rl further iip 
the valley E. The best porcelain 
makers for the foreiiifn market are 
Kawamoto Masukichi in Kita Shin- 
gai, and Kawamoto Kansuke in Go. 
Kato Gosuke in Minami Shingai is 
celebrated for his translucent white 
ware, chiefly small pieces. An- 
other superior maker is Yamakyii. 
Specimens of their productions may 
most easily be obtained at the 
warehouse of KatO Kanesuke in 
Kita Shingai. Most of the pot- 
ters work under advances from 
capitalists in Nagoya ; and as soon 
as ?ifourn^e is baked they despatch 
it thither, so that it is of little use 
going direct to them for their 
wares. 

Seto lins been so fnmons for its ceramic 
prcMluctseversiiu'e the l.'ith century, when 
Kato Shirozneinon set up his kilu for th« 
manufacture of faience, that the word 
Sefo-iuoiio, lit. ' .SV/o thing's,* has come t,o he 
used in Japanese as a preneric name for 
all pottery and i>orcelain, much as the 
word China is used in English. 

The road now winds up a sandy 
valley and then along a ridge 
of sand hills to Shimo Shinano, 
where a little porcelain is baked 
and clay is dug for the common 
pottery made at Naka Shinano. 
The porcelain clay used here comes 
from Seto. The path to Ichino- 
kura crosses a small stream on the 
1., and, climbing up to the top of 
another pine-scrub waste, suddenly 
plunges into a deep ravine with. 
densely wooded rocky sides, be- 
tween which flows a noisy stream. 
This spot is called Ja-no-hara, or 
the ' Serpent's Belly.' Desceniting- 
to the mouth of the ravine, the 
path comes to Shimo Hada^wa^ 



throufjh the Potteries, 



24B 



siii'l, crossing the stream to the r., 
jiroceeds ui> the valley to Kami 
Icliinokura, and over the hill to 
Kasawara, where there are some 
I>otterie3. It then descends the r. 
side of the valley to 

Tiljiilli {Inn, Matsu-j^a), a con- 
siderable vlll., where inferior porce- 
lain is made. A short cut may 
"be taken through Shimo Ichino- 
kura, where is i^roduced the finest 
l)orcelain in Mine, with delicfite 
<lecoration8 in light blue de- 
rived from the impure Chinese 
■cobalt. Kato Gosuke is the best 
maker, chiefly of tea-pots, te.a-cups, 
and sake cups. The kilns used for 
producing the state called biscuit 
iXTG also utilised for yakl-tsuke, or 
porcelain with a design over the 
glaze. 

From Tajimi the path turns up a 
hill to the r. about the middle of 
the vill., and traverses undulating 
granite hills. On the way nuiy be 
seen a place where clay is dug for 
baking seggars, and further on is 
a small mill driven by water-power, 
where the silicious stone used for 
glaze and for mixing with the porce- 
lain clay is ground. About 1 hr. 
walk from Tajimi the path divides, 
the r. branch going to Tsumagi, and 
the 1. descending to Oroshi, where 
common porcelain wares, chiefly 
sake bottles and tea-pots, are pro- 
duced. Near the entriince of the 
vill. is a small mill where the 
porc<?lain clfiy is broken up and the 
felspar sifted out. The best potters 
are Yasaburo Hanzaemon and 
Kato Yaheiji. Most of the produc- 
tion goes to Tajimi. Tsumagi lies 
\ ri S., where large articles of com- 
mon porcelain, such as dishes 
sind basins, are made. The native 
cobalt called konjo is found here, 
and is used to produce the pale blue 
so much admired by connoisseurs. 
A darker shade is derived from an 
impure cobalt imported from China, 
and known among the potters as 
kyugosu. Our word cobalt has 
been corrupted by them into ko- 



haru^ and tliis term is employed to 
denote the pure pigment obtained 
from Europe. At the E. end of the 
village the path divides, the 1. 
branch going to Dachi, where finer 
porcelain is produced, and the r. 
climbing a ridge to a considerable 
height, which commands a fine 
view of the country W. A quarter 
of an hr. between the sandy hill- 
tops covered with box, brake, 
junipers, and young pine-trees 
brings us to the top, 1,500 ft. above 
the sea. The descent on the other 
side leads to Sogi, where there are 
one or two potters. Crossing the 
bridge and looking down the stream, 
we see the lofty round top of Ena- 
san. Sogi is chiefly agricultural, 
and extends over two valleys, di- 
vided by a low ridge, at the top of 
which the path falls into the main 
road from Seto to Iwamura by 
Shinano and Kakino. After de- 
scending slightly the road rises 
again through the second part 
of Sogi, and crossing rough, 
granite hills of the same general 
appearance as before, but rather 
steeper, comes down into the tiny 
hamlet of Okawa. During the 
descent Ena-san N.E., and the 
Koma-ga-take of Shinshu N.E. by 
N. are seen well away on the hori- 
zon. Some potters, who limit 
themselves to making porcelain 
rice-bowls, are established at the W. 
end of the hamlet. At Mizukami, 
^ ri further, are a few potters, while 
at Mashizume, a considerable vill. 
^ ri beyond, a large quantity of 
inferior porcelain rice-bowls are 
produced. Here accommodation 
can be had for the night; bnt 
better quarters will be found 2^ ri 
further at 

Akcclii {Inn, Sumiyoshi-ya), a 
small but thriving town. Porce- 
lain, chiefly tea-cups and rice- 
bowls of no artistic value, is baked 
in the town, the materials bein^^ 
obt-ained from Mashizume and 
Hara in its vicinity. The pottery es- 
tablishment dates only from 1875. 



244 



Boute 37.— The Shinto TemjAes of he. 



Akechi Mitsuhide, the traitorous gene- 
ral who murdered his lord, Nobunagra, 
took his sumainc from this place, and the 
foundation walls of his castle are yet to 
be seen on a hill above the town. 

This is the end of the pottery 
district. On leaving it the scenery 
gradually improves, sandy hillocks 
being replaced by thickly wooded 
hills, and two passes of over 2,500 
ft. being crossed before reaching 

Nebane (Inn, Snmiyoshi-ya). 
This is a great centre of traffic 
between the provinces of Shinshii 
and Mikawa, the latter sending 
fish and raw cotton, for which Shin- 
shii returns tobacco, hemp, and 
dried persimmons. 

Instead of returning the way he 
came, the traveller may make an 
agreeable round journey by follow- 
ing the Ina Kaido to lida, 11 ri 30 
chh by jinrikisha, and then descend- 
ing the Rapids of the Tenryu-gawa 
to the Tokaido ; or he may continue 
on from lida along the Ina Kaido, 
and join the Nakasendo at Shio- 
jiri. The itinerary of the latter 
way is as follows. 

IIDA to :— Hi. Cho. M. 

Akao 7 19 18i 

Matsushima 5 27 14 

SHIOJIRI 5 31 14} 

Total 19 5 46i 



Another way, shorter than the 
last, is from Nebane to Toyohashi 
on the Tokaido Railway via the 
noted temple of Horaiji. 

Itinerary. 

l^EBANE to : - Ri. Cho. M. 

Taguchi 4 28 11^ 

• Ebi 2 24 6.^ 

Shinshiro 4 19 11 

TOYOHASHI ... 4 25 11.} 

Total 16 24 40f 



ROUTE 37. 

The Shinto Temples of Ise. 

1. preliminary information. 2*. 
voyage from yokohama to yok- 
kaichi and kami yashieo. 3- 
yamada and neighbourhood- 
the temples of ise. 4. from 
yamada to kyoto by road anix 
kwansei railway. 

1. Preliminary Information. 

Ise is the name, not of a town^ 
but "of a province lying to the E, 
and S.E. of Kyoto on the W. shore 
of Owari Bay. The temples, which 
rank chief among the holy places 
of the Shinto cult, stand on the^ 
outskirts of the town of Yama- 
dii near the S.E. frontier of the 
province. The ways of reaching^ 
Yamada are as follows : 

I. From Tokyo to Atsuta (former- 
ly called Miya) on the Tokaido- 
Railway, 1st day; thence by small 
steamer via Yokkaichi and Tsu 
to Kami Yasliiro, the port of 
Yamada, from which it is 1 H 
16 cho (3.2 miles) by jinrikisha, 
2nd day. Atsuta being the next 
station to Nagoya, some may 
feel disposed to spend the night 
at the European hotel at tho 
latter place rather than at one of 
the Japanese inns at Atsuta. It 
would still generally be possible to 
catch the steamer leaving Atsuta 
next morning. * 

II. Instead of the railway, take 
the steamer direct from Yokohama 
to Yokkaichi, where tranship as 
above for Kami Yashiro. This 
shortens the time by half a day in 
fine weather. 

III. From Kyoto by the Tokaido- 
Railway as far as Kusatsu Junc- 
tion, and thence ]'>y Kwansei Rail- 
way to Seki, 4 lirs., whence jin- 
rikisha to Yamada via Tsu and 
Matsuzaka in 1 day. When the 
line is opened from Seki on to Tsn„ 
the journey will be considerably 



Preliminary Information, Yoyafje to YokJcaichi, 245 



a1>ridged. At present the schedule 
is as •follows: — 

KwANSEi Railway. 





Names 




e a * 


* 




OS S si 


of 


Remarks. 


S M 


Stations. 







KUSATSU Jet. 




5Sm. 


Ishibe. 




10 


Miknmo. 




15 


Fiikawii. 




224 


Tsuge. 




314 


SEKI 


CAlifflit for 
', Ise. 


(36 


Kametfama. 




45 


Kawarufiit. 


* 


4)1 


Yokkuichi.) 





IV. There is a cross-country road 
from Nava to the Temples of Ise, 
practicable for jinrikishas and 
occasionally affordinsj pretty views. 
It is much frequented by pilgrims. 
The trip takes 2\ days, the itine- 
rary being as follows : 

NARA to— jBj. CU. 

Sakurai 2 20 

Hase 1 23 

Haibara 1 J 5 

Sambon-matsu 2 17 

Nabari 2 1 

Ao 3 4 

•Iseji 35 

Kaito 2 18 

Onoki 2 13 

Rokken 3 — 

Matsnzaka 1 27 

YAMADA 5 1 



M. 

^\ 
4 



o 

7^ 



:A 

71 
121 



Total 28 30 70 



The main Ise road is joined at 
Rokken. The best inns at the 
various places mentioned in the 
above ways to Ise are as follows : — 

At Atsuta, Okada-ya, Ise- 

kyu. 
Hase, Idani-ya, Yo- 

shino-ya. 
Iseji, Momiji-ya. 

Kaito, Momiji-ya. 

Kami-Yashiro, Ozaki-ya. 
Matsuzaka, Tai-ya. 
Nabari, Tawara-ya. 



y* 



y* 



y* 



y* 



»» 



n 



At Nagoya, Shina-chii (Ho- 

tel du Pro- 
grea), * Shu- 
kin-ro. 

Onoki, Fuji-ya. 

Rokken, Hotei-ya, 

Sakurai, *Taba-ichi. 

Sambon-matsu, Mushi-ya. 

Seki, Uo-ya. 

Tsu,. *Waka-roku. 

Yamada,. *Abura-ya. 

Yokkaichi, Hamada-ya. 

It should be premised that the 
interest of the trip to Ise is chiefly 
antiquarian. Without going so far 
as to say, with a disappointed tour- 
ist, that " there is nothing to see, 
and they won't let you see it," we^ 
may remind intending travellers of 
the remarkable plainness of all 
Shinto architecture, and add that 
the veneration iu which the shrines 
of Ise are held is such that none 
but the priests and Imperial per- 
sonages are allowed to penetrate 
into the interior. The rest of the 
world may only peep through the 
outer gate. 

2. — The Voyage to Yokkaichi 
AND Kami Yashiro. 

The Tokaido Eailway journey 
being fully described in Route 38, 
we shall suppose that the traveller 
has elected to go by sea, and advise 
him to begin by enquiring whether 
there is any European food to be 
had on board, and if not, then 
to take provisions with him for 
the 18 or 20 hrs. voyage from 
Yokohama to Yokkaichi, as well 
as for the further voyage next day 
on to Kami Yashiro. The voyage 
is the same as that described 
in Route 40 as far as the entrance 
of Owari Bay, where the track 
diverges, the steamer turning to 
the r. up the bay near the head of 
which Yokkaichi is situated. The 
scenery at the entrance is very 
pretty. The ship passes between 
r. Irako-zaki, the hilly promontory 
that forms the S.W. extremity of 



246 



Route 37. — TJie Shinto Temples of Jse, 



the province of Mikawa, and 1. the 
islet of Kamishima, behind whose 
white and red cliffs lie otlior larger 
islands and the mainland of the 
diminutive province of Shima. 
Ahead and to the r., as the 
ship glides into the still waters 
of the landlocked bay, are seen 
portions of the provinces of Mikawa 
and Owari, notably Cape Moro- 
zaki, the tip of the peninsula 
on which stand the commercial 
towns of Handa and Taketoyo, con- 
nected with the Tokaido by a 
branch line of Eailway. 

At Yokkaiclli it is necessary to 
land in a small boat. Indeed the 
extreme shallowness of Owari Bay 
prevents any but quite small craft 
from approaching the shore at any 
point. The Hamada-ya inn is at 
the landing-place. Tall chimneys 
rise above the roofs of the houses, 
giving the town an appearance 
which, at least for Japan, is 
peculiar. The situation is a good 
one, there being fresh breezes from 
the bay in summer, and a fine pro- 
spect of the mountains on the 
borders of Omi and Iga. Among 
the principal products of Yok- 
kaichi may be mentioned oil, rice, 
paper, silk, and Banko faience, 
— a ware, for the most part, 
exceedingly light and having hand- 
modelled decoration in relief. The 
best Banko shop is that kept by 
Kawamura Matasuke in Minami- 
machi ; but as every variety of this 
cheap and fascinating ware is 
easily procurable in Yokohama and 
Kobe, there is no call to stop 
over a steamer on its account. 
At Yokkaichi the excellent Nip- 
pon Yiisen Kwaisha Steamer is 
exchanged for a small coasting one. 
Leaving Yokkaichi, the views are 
delightful as one skirts the W. 
shore of Owari Bay. In the dis- 
tance are the mountains of Omi, 
Iga, and Ise, and in the fore- 
ground a pine-clad beach, forming 
a delicious symphony of yellow, 
green, and greyish blue, especially 



when seen through the opal haze of 
spring or autumn. The steamer 
calls in at Tsu, the capital 
of the prefecture of Mie, at sl 
little more than half-way to Kami 
Yashiro ; total time of voyage, 
about 5 hrs. (If one embarked at 
Atsuta, then from 7 to 8 hrs.) 

[It is possible to travel on in tlie 
same steamer right round the 
coast of the province of Kislio, 
calling in at some twenty small 
ports, and ending up at Kobe 
and Osaka. The coast scenery- 
is charming, but the means of 
transit too uncomfortable to 
be recommended unless fine 
weather were a certainty.] 

The Ozaki-ya inn at Kami 
Ynsliiro is at the landing-place. 
The road on to Yamada is excel- 
lent. Indeed throughout the pro- 
vince of Ise the excellence of the 
roads, of the jinrikishas, and the 
jinrikisha-men adds considerably 
to the traveller's enjoyment. It is 
also possible to travel in carriages 
which resemble small prison- vans. 
.Pilgrims avail themselves largely 
of this method of progression, which 
is cheaper than jinrikishas, but 
also slower. 

, 3. — Yamada and Neighbourhood ; 
The Temples of Ise. 

Yamndn {Inns, *Abura-ya, and no 
less than 269 others, great and 
small) is a large town formed by the 
amalgamation of several smaller 
ones — Y''amada proper, Uji, Furu- 
ichi, etc. It lives by and for the 
Ise pilgrims, as do all the towns on 
the road leading to it from the 
North. So openly is this fact 
acknowledged that the construc- 
tion of the projected Sangu Tetsvdo, 
or Pilgrim Eailway, from Tsu 
to Yamada, has been temporarily 
abandoned in order not to ruin the 
country-side. The inns and tea- 
houses of Yamada are peculiarly 
lively, especially at night. At some 
of them a celebrated dance is per- 



Yamada. 



247 



formed, called tlie lae Ondo. This 
dance possesses much grace, added 
to the interest of a considerable 
antiquity. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, the character of the houses 
at which alone it is generally 
to be witnessed precludes us from 
recommending a visit thither. A 
religious dance called Kagura is 
executed at the temples before 
those pilgrims who choose to pay 
for it. It is divided into three 
grades, called "Small," "Great," 
and " Extra Great " (Shd, Daiy DaU 
dai). The charges for these dances 
were in 1891 as follows : 

Ise Ondo $ 2 

8hd Kagura 5 

Dai Kagura 10 

Dai-dai Kagura 20 

Among the peep-shows and booths 
in which the main street of Ya- 
mada abounds, are some devoted 
to yet another kind of dance which 
may be seen for a cent or two. It 
is called O 8ugi I'ama. The fun 
consists in the spectators flinging 
coppers at the iaces of the girls 
who form the little orchestra, and 
who are trained to -such skill in 
* ducking ' that it is said they are 
never hit. The chief objects for 
sale at Yamada, besides holy pic- 
tures and other articles of Shinto 
devotion, are ornamental tobacco- 
pouches made of a i)eculiar sort of 
oil-paper. 

The best way to see the sights of 
Yamada and neighbourhood is to 
go the following round which takes 
a day by jlnrikisha to do comfort- 
ably : — ^f rom the inn to the Gekii 
Temple, Futami, Asama-yama, the 
Naikd Temple, and baek to the inn. 
The road is flat and good, except- 
ing up Asama-yama, where there is 
an ascent of 22 cho on foot, the jin- 
rikishas being meanwhile sent 
round the base to await the traveller 
on the other side. One may con- 
veniently picnic either at the inn 
at Futami or on the top of Asama- 
yama. It may be mentioned that 



local Japanese parlance indicates 
respect for the great temples by 
suffixing the word San, * Mr./ to 
their names, — thus Naikii San, GekvL 
San, pronounced Naixan, Gexan, 

Thousands of pilj^i-iins resort nnniially 
to the temples of Ise, chietly in spring-, 
wheu the country-folk have more leisure 
than at other seasons. The rationalistic 
educated classes of course take little part 
in such doinirs ; but even at the present 
day the majority of artisans in 'J^okyo, 
and still more in Kyolx) and Osaka, 
believe that they may find difficulty in 
^aininc; a livelihood unless they invoke 
the protection of the tutelary goddesses of 
Ise by performing? the piljri-imaKe at least 
once in their lives, and the peasants are 
even more devout )>elievers. In former 
times it was not uncommcni for the little 
shop-boys of Yedo to abscond for a while 
fi-om their employers, and to wan<ler 
alonj? the Tokaido as far as Ise, subsist- 
in*? on the alms which they bejjr^ed fn>m 
tmvellei-s ; and having obtained the bun- 
dle of charms, consisting of bits of the 
wood of whiph the temples are built, they 
made their way home in the same manner. 
This surreptitious method of performing 
the pilgrimage was called uKkp-mairl, and 
custom forba<le even the sternest ]>arent 
or master from finding any fault witli the 
young devotee who had ])een so far for so 
holy a purpose. Stories are even told of 
dogs having performed the pilgrimage hj 
themselves. Those whose home is Kyoto 
are m**t by their friends at the suburb of 
Keage on their return home. The custom 
is for these friends - mostly females - to 
ride out singing the tune of the Ise Ondo 
dance, three persons being seated on each 
horse, one in the middle, and one on 
either side in a sort of wooden hod or 
basket. High revel is held at the tea- 
houses with which Keage alxiunds. This 
custom is termed naku'innkiii. . The Ise 
pilgrims may l)e distinguished bj'- their 
gala clothes and by the large bundles of 
charms wrapped in oil-paper or placed in 
an oblong varnished ]k)x, which they 
carry suspended from their necks by "a 
string. 

The special characterof sanctity attach- 
ing to the Ise temples arises ]>artly from 
their extreme antiquity, partly from the 
pre-eminence of the godclesses to whom 
they are dedicated. The iW/iA-S, lit. ' Inner 
Temple,' is l^elieved by the Japanese to 
date from the year 4 B.C., and is sacred to 
the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, ancestress 
of the Mikados. Down to the 14th century, 
some virgin Princess of the Imperial 
family was always entrusted with the 
care of the mirror which is the Sun-God- 
dess's emblem, and of which some Japa- 
nese writers speak as if it were itseU a 
deity, while others take it to he merely 
the image of the goddess. It is kept in 
a box of chamaecyparis wood, which rests 



£48 



p.fjute 37.— The Shiiitu Temples of he. 




on a low stand covere<l with a piece of I 
white 8ilk. The min-or itself is wrai)i)etl , 
in a bHjf of brocHcle, which is never opened , 
or renewed ; Init when it l)ej?ins to fall to 
pieces fi-om a«<e» another liag is pnt on, | 
so that the actual coverinj? consists of 
many layers. Over the whole is placed a 
jBort of wcxxlen cage with onraments said i 
to be of pure gold, over which again is 
thrown a cloth of coarse silk, falling to i 
the floor on all si<les. The coverings of 
the box are all that can l)e seen when the | 
doors are ojiened at the various festivals. 
The 6 flu, or 'Outer Temple,' so-called 
hecause of its slightly inferior sanctity, is 
now dedicated to the Go(hless (»f Food, ' 
Toyo-uke-bime-no-Kami, also called Uke- 
mochi-ncvKami, but was in earlier times 
under the patronage of Kuni-toko-tachi- 
no-Mikoto, a g(Ml whose name signifies 
literally * His Augustness the Karthly 
IStemally StandingOne ' In either case 
this temple may l)e considered as sacred 
to the worship of a deification oE the 
earth, wliile the Xaiku is dedicated to a 
deification of the sun, the great ruler of 
heaven. The native authorities do not in- 
form us of tlie cliHrHcter of the emblem by 
which the Karth-(TO<ldess is represented. 
As in the ease of other .'^hinto temples, so 
here also at Ise many secondary <leities 
{ai-dono) are invoked. Those of tlie yuilu 
are Taj ikai-a-o-no- Kami, lit. * tbe .-trong- 
Handed-Male-Deity,' who pulle<l tbe Sun- 
Goddess out of the cave to which she bad 
retired to avoid her brother's ill-usage, 
and a gcKldess who whs one of the ances- 
tresses of the Imperial line. The second- 
ary deities of the (rein arc Ninigi-no- 
Mikoto, gnindsou to the Suu-Gtxldess and 
ancestor of the Imperial liue. and two of 
the gods who attended him on the occa- 
sion of his descent from heaven to earth. 

A very ancient rule i)rescril>es that the 
two gieat Ise temples, as also every minor 
edifice connecte*! with them, shall l)e 
razed tt) the ground and i-econstructed 
every twenty years in exactly the same 
style down to'the mimrtest detail. For 
this purpose there are, lioth at the Nailu 
and at the GAu, two closely adjacent 
sites. The construction of the new tem- 
ples is commenced on the vacant sites 
towards the end of the pericwl of twenty 
years ; and when they are finished, the 
ceremony of Senyyo, or * Tiunsference,' 
takes place, the sacred emblems l)eing 
then st)lemnly and amidst a great con- 
ocmrse of pilgi'ims removed to the new 
buildings from the old. These are forth- 
with pulled down and cut up into myriads 
of channs (o hurui), which are sold to 
pilgrims. The renovation last took place 
in October, 1889. The immemorial anti- 
quity of the Ise temples is therefore only 
the antiqnit.^' of a continuous tradition, 
not that of the actual edifices. It is pro- 
hable, however, that at no time for many 
cjenturies past could Ise have l)een seen to 
such advantage as at present, when the 
lainnte and enthusiastic researches of 



four generations of scholars of the ' PhintQ* 
Revival ' sch{K)l Into the religious archaeci- 
log>- of their nation have at last met 
with official enc(mragement, and the 
priests have l>een endowe<l with the pecw- 
niar:^' meaus to realise their dreana of 
restoring the Japan of to-day to th^ 
religious in-actices, architecture, and 
ritual of pristine ages untouched by the- 
foreign influence of Buddhism. 

Leaving the Aburaya inn and 
wending through the town, wo 
pass r., in Okamoto-cho, the Shim- 
pu Kosha, where are sold small gold 
and silver medals called Shimiju 
inscribed with the name of the- 
Gekri temple, together with other 
cliarms. 

The Gvku Temple. The approach 
is pretty. A Shin-eny lit. 'divine- 
park/ containing a circular lake^ 
has replaced the houses and field* 
that covered the place previous to- 
1889, and beyond rises a hill finely 
timbered with cryptomerias, hugti- 
camphor-trees, maples, keyalcl, and 
the sacred though not imposing 
masakaJci (Cleyem japonica). Thtf 
main entrance is by the Ichi »io 
Toni, or ' First Archway,' to whoso 
r. is the Sanshusho, lit, * Place of 
Assembly,* where members of tht^ 
! Imperial family change their 
garments i)revious to worshippintjj- 
in the temi)le. A broad road leads. 
I hence through the trees to the 
i temple. A short way up it is the 
Ni no Torii, or ' Second Archway/ 
near which is a shop for the sale 
of pieces of the wood used in the 
I construction of the temple, packets 
of rice that have been offei*ed to 
' the gods, and o fuda, or paper 
I charms inscribed with the name of 
, the Goddess of Food. Next door is 
I a buildingwhere the fcagura dances 
are performed at the request of 
pious pilgrims, and where the food 
I offerings are sold for a few sen 
i a meal. Beyond these buildings 
! we soon reach the enclosure con- 
taining the Geku, or actual temple, 
concealed for the most part behind 
a succession of fences. The outer 
fence, called Ita-gaki, is built of 
cryptomeria wood, neatly planed 



The Gehu Temple, 



249 



.and unpainted. It is 339 ft. in 
width at the front, and 835 ft. in 
the real* ; the E. side is 247 ft., the 
"VV. side 235 ft. long, so that the 
jshape is that of an irregular 
olilong, the formation of the ground 
rather than any necessary rela- 
tion of numbers having determined 
the proportions. The temple on 
the alternative site, which was hewn 
-down in 1889, had its long side 
E. and W., and the short N. and S. 
A little to one side of the middle 
of the front face is the principal en- 
trance, formed of a torii similar to 
those already passed, but of small- 
■er dimensions. The screen opposite 
is called a hampei. There are four 
other entrances in the Ita-gaki 
'formed each by a torii, one on each 
Bide and two at the back, one of 
which belongs to the JlfiAre-d^n, where 
the food offerings are set out twice 
daily. The S. toHi gives access to 
a small court, the further side of 
which is formed by a thatched 
^gateway ordinarily closed by a 
white curtain, while the ends are 
formed by the Ita-gaki. On the 1. 
hand is a gate-keeper's lodge. 
Unless the pilgrim be an Imperial 
personage, he is prevented by the 
curtain from seeing much further 
into the interior; but by ascending 
Ji bank on the W. side of the en- 
closure, some idea of the general 
arrangement of the temple build- 
ings can be gained. 

The curtain here mentioned has a 
melancholy historical interest. Viscount 
Mori, Japanese Repi-cscntative first at 
Washin^on and then at the Court of St. 
.Tames, afterwnwls Minister of Education 
3ind one of the foremost leaders of modem 
Japanese projyress, was nssassinated Ijy a 
Shinto fanatic' for havinj?, when (m a 
visit to Ise, lifted this curtain with his 
walkinp:-8tick in order to obtain a lietter 
view of the interior of the temijle court. 
'ITie muKler did not take place at once, 
but some months later, on the 11 th 
February, 1889, as Mori was donning his 
«»la imi'form for the ceremony of the pro- 
mulgation of the Japanese Constitution. 
The assassin, one Nishino Buntaro, was 
immwliately cut down by the Minister's 
-attendants ; but by an obliquity of judg- 
ment not uncommon in Japan, popular 
sympathy ranged itself so markedly on 



his side as against his unfortunate victim, 
that i)ilgrimHges were made to his grave 
in the Yanaka cemetery at Tokj'O, huii- 
flreds of wreaths and sticks of incense 
were place<l upon it, and odes composed 
in the assassin's honour. The populu* 
infatuation even Avent so far that it was, 
and ))erhaps still is, l)elieve(l by many 
that Nishiiio Buntaro' s intercession with 
heaven will ensure the fulfillment of any 
desire offered up to the go..ls through him. 

The thatched gate-way above- 
mentioned is the principal opening 
in a second fence called the Ara- 
gakiy composed of cryptomeria 
trunks alternately long and short, 
placed at intervals of about 2i ft., 
with two horizontal railings, one 
running along the top, the other 
along the centre. The distance of 
this fence from the outer enclosurd 
varies from 10 ft. to 36 ft. on dif- 
ferent sides of the square. Besides 
the torii on the S., there are jbhree 
others, one on each side, correspond- 
ing to the other three main en- 
trances of the boarded enclosure. 
These are unusual in style, being 
closed with solid gates, an aiTange- 
ment rarely seen in Shinto tem- 
ples. In side the thatched gate-way 
is a shed 40 ft. by 20 ft. called 
tlie 8hijd-den, a restoration of one 
of three buildings anciently 
called Naorai-dono, which were 
set apart for the entertainment 
of the envoys sent by the Mikado, 
after the celebration of the Kan- 
name no Matsuri, or 'Festival of 
Divine Tasting.' Just inside a 
small torii are the ishi-tsuho, — spaces 
marked out by larger stones, r. for 
the Mikado's envoy, 1. for the 
priests of the temple. At a dis- 
tance of 33 yds. from the first 
thatched gate-way is a second, 
which gives access to a third court, 
surrounded by a palisade called the 
Tatna-gaki, formed of planks about 
8 ft. high, placed close together. 
Just within this court is a small 
wooden gate-way, immediately be^ 
yond which is a thatched gate-way, 
forming the entrance into the cen- 
tral enclosure. This enclosure is 
surrounded by a wooden pahsado 



250 



Fiottte 37. — The Shinto Temples of Ise» 



called Mieu-gaHy and is almost a 

perfect square, being 134 ft. by IJJl 

ft. At the back of it is the Shoden 

or chapel, on the r. and 1. of the 

entrance to which are the treasuries 

(hoden). 

The chapel is 34 ft. in length by 

19 ft. in width. Its floor, raised 

about 6 ft. from the ground, is 

supported on wooden posts planted 

in the earth. A balcony 3 ft. 

wide, which is approached by a 

flight of nine steps 15 ft. in width, 

runs right round the building, and 

carries a low balustrade, the tops 

of whose posts are cut into the 

shape called hoshu no tama^ which, 

strangely enough, is a Buddhist 

cfmament, the so-called * Precious 

Jewel of Omnipotence.' The steps, 

balustrade, and doors are profvisely 

overl9.id with brass plates; and the 

external ridge-pole, cross-trees, 

and projecting rafters are also 

adorned with the same metal. A 

covered way leads from the inner 

gate up to the steps of the chapel. 

The two treasuries are raised on 

short legs or stands, after the 

fashion. of the store-houses of the 

Ijoochooans. They are said to 

contain precious silken stuffs, raw 

silk presented by the province of 

Mikawa, and trappings for the 

sacred horses. Between the Ita- 

gaki and the Ara-gdki stands the 

Heihahu-den, intended to contain 

the offerings called gohei. Another 

building in the enclosure is the 

Mike-den, where the water and food 

offered up to the gods of both the 

Oeku and Naiku are daily set 

forth, in winter at 9 a.m. and 4 

P.M., in summer at 8 a.m. and 3 p.m. 

Up to A.D. 729, the food offerinjrs for the 
Ifaiktl, hayiog first been prepared at the 
GekQ, were conveyed to the former temple, 
thei'e to be set out. In that year, as this 
ceremony was beinp: performed, the offer- 
ings were unwittingly carried past some 
polluting object which happened to be in 
the road. The consequence was that the 
Mikado fell sick, and the diviners attri- 
Imted his sickness to the anger of the Sun- 
Goddess. Since that time the offerings 
for both temples have been set out only at 
the GektU 



The offerings made to each of the- 
principal deities consist of four 
cups of water, sixteen saucers of 
rice, four of salt, besides fish, birds, 
fruits, seaweed, and vegetables^ 
The offerings to each lesser deity 
are the same, except that only half 
the quantity of fruit is provided. 

The architecture of the temples 
of Ise is believed to represent the 
purest and most ancient native^ 
Japanese style. 

The chief festivals are the * Pray- 
ing for Harvest ' (Kinen-sai), 4th 
February ; * Presentation of Cloth- 
ing' {Onzo-sai), 17th April? 
'Monthly festival' (Tsuki-naini no- 
matsuri), 1 5th June ; * Divine Tast- 
ing* (Kan-name) f 15th and 16th 
September ; * Harvest festival *^ 
(8hinzd-sai), 23rd ' November. Be- 
sides these a * Great Purification ' 
(0-harai), is performed once every 
month, and also before each of the 
above-named grand festivals.. 

On the side of a low hill to the S. 
of the chief temple buildings, stand 
two much'smaller shrines. That to 
the 1. is known as Ara-matsuH, that 
to the r. as Ame-no-miya. Higher up 
the same hill is the Taka-no-miya. 

After thus seeing as much as is 
permitted to be seen of the Geku, we 
re-enter our jinrikishas and speed 
along an excellent level road to Fu- 
tami, a distance of 2 ri 10 cho. Several 
villages are passed, of which Kawa- 
saki and Kurose are the largest, 
and an unusually long bridge called 
the 8hio-ai no hashi, spanning the 
estuary of the Isuzu-gawa. There 
are constant delightful views of a 
mountain range to the r. 

Fiitanii (Inn, Onsen, with sea- 
bathing) is considered by the Japa- 
nese to be one of the finest points 
of view on their coast, and few 
art motives are more popular than 
the Myoto-seki, or ' Wife and Hus- 
band Eocks,' — two rocks close to 
the shore, tied together by a straw 
rope. 

In this case the straw rope (tihime) pro- 
bably symbolises conjugal union. Tuer^ 



Futami, The Naiku Teivple, 



251 



is, bo-wever, a legend to the effect that 
the goA Susa-no-o, in return for ho6i)itality 
received, instructed a poor villager of this 
place how to protect his house fi-om futui'e 
visitations of the Pbigue-God by fastening 
such a rope across the entrance. A tiny 
shrine called Somiii Skdzai no Yaskiro com- 
memorates the legend. 

The view of islets and bays 
stretching away eastwards is in- 
deed very pretty, and the rocks at 
Futami are of a peculiar character, 
being chlorite schist, a metamor- 
phic slate. It may nevertheless be 
doubted whether Europeans would 
single out Futami for special praise 
from among the countless lovely 
scenes in Japan. 

[At a distance of 2 ri 10 cho 
beyond Futami lies the beauti- 
ful harbour of TobA {Inn, 
Osaka-ya) in the province of 
Shima, which may be reached 
by jinrikisha. The private 
dockyard there, called Tekkd- 
sho, will interest some tra- 
Tellers. A road leads hence to 
the celebrated waterfall of Na- 
chi in Kishii, and right round 
the coast of that province to 
Wakayama and on to Osaka. 
As already mentioned, small 
coasting steamers also make 
the round touching at about 
twenty ports. The roads and 
accommodation are rough, but 
the scenery delightful and the 
winter climate mild.] 

If the weather be fine, none 
should miss the view from Asama- 
yama, which is one of the grandest 
in Japan. As explained on p. 247, 
this mountain stands between 
Putami and the Naiku Temple,, and 
all except some 22 cho can be done 
in jinrikisha. The highest point 
where tea-houses are found and 
whence the celebrated view is ob- 
tained, lies 1,300 ft. above the sea. 
Below in the foreground is Owari 
Bay, while on the horizon stretches 
a long series of mountains, — 
Futago-yama on the Hakone pass, 
Fuji, Yatsu-ga-take, Akiha-san, 
the volcano of Asama, Koma-g^- 



take, Tateyama in Etchu, On- 
take, Norikura in Hida, Haku' 
san, Aburazaka in Echizen. Ibuki- 
yama in Omi, Tado-san, Mitsugo- 
yama, Suzuka-yama, andNunobiki- 
yama on the W. frontier of Ise. 
The most conspicuous are Haku-san 
and On take. About 10 cho along the 
path over to the province of Shima 
is the Oku-no-in, or upper temple, 
dedicated to the Buddhist^ sainrt 
Kokuzo Bosatsu (Sanskrit, Akdsha'* 
garhha). It is a very pY*etty little 
shrine. 

Rejoining the jinrikishas, a drive 
among rice-fields brings us to the 
outskirts of Yamada, where behind 
its new 8hin-en, or * Divine Park,' 
and embosomed in an antique 
grove, stands the Naiku Temple 
dedicated to the Sun-Goddess Ama- 
terasu. The arrangement of the 
temple grounds and enclosure is 
similar to that at the Geku; but 
the Naiku, as the more sacred of 
the two, is on a somewhat larger 
scale. The outer enclosure is 195 
ft. in front, 202 ft. at the back, and 
369 ft. at the sides. The inner- 
most enclosure (Mizu-^aki) measures 
149 ft. in front, 150 ft. at the back, 
and 144 ft. on each side. The bare 
open space adjoining the temple is 
the alternative site, which will be 
used to build on in the year 1909, 
when the present buildings are 
pulled down. 

4.— From Yamada to Kyoto bt 
boad and kwansei railway. 

This is the Kyoto-Ise route 
sketched out on pp. 244-5, but tra- 
versed in the opposite direction. 
The road is excellent the whole 
way from Yamada to Seki, where 
the Kwansei Railway is joined, and 
perfectly flat except just at the 
end. Numerous towns and villages 
are passed through, constant bands 
of pilgrims are met, arrayed in 
holiday attire, and an air of 
bustle and prosperity pervades the 
whole country-side. To the 1. are 



252 



Eoiite 37, — The Shinto Temples of Ise. 



pleasant views of the Ise-Iga-Omi 
range. The well-cultivated plain 
to the r. mostly appears boundless, 
as it is too level k) allow of many 
glimpses being caught of Owari 
Bay which lies beyond. The fol- 
lowing are the most important 
places on the way : — 

Matsiiziika (Inn, Tai-ya). The 
name of this town should be fami- 
liar to air Japanese scholars, as the 
birth-place of Motoorii 

Motxx)ri Norinaga, the prince of Japa- 
nese literati, was born in 1730 and died in 
1801. A pupil of the scarcely less distin- 
guished scholar Mabuchi, he continued 
Mabuchi's work of investigating Japanese 
antiquity, bringing back into literary use 
the pure ancient Japanese language, 
restoring the Shinto religion to the supi-e- 
macy ot which Buddhism had robbed it, 
in a word, emphasising and glorifying 
everything native as agaiust that part of 
Japanese civilisation which was new and 
of foreign' origin. The restoration of the 
Mikado to the absolute authority which 
centuries before had been usurped by the 
Shoguns, w^as natui-ally a prime object of 
the endeavours of a man to whoia anti- 
quity and perfection were convertible 
terms, and in whose belief the Mikado 
was really and truly a descendant of the 
Goddess of the Sun. Motoori and his 
school thus became to some extent the 
authors of the revolution which, half a 
century latei*, overturned the Shogunate 
and brought the Mikado forth from seclu- 
aion to govern as well as reign. Motoori's 
works wei-e very numei'ous. The greatest 
is his elaVx>iute commentary on the 
Kojiki, called Kojiki Den^ which is prac- 
tically au encyclopaedia of Japanese 
ancient lore, written in a style as clear 
as it is elegant. The printing of the 44 
volumes of which it consists was not con- 
cluded till 1822, long after the author's 
death. Motoori was tirst buried at Myo- 
rakiiji, some miles from Matsuzaka. 

The town is dominated by a hill 
called Yoio-no-Mori, on which 
stand the remains of the castle 
founded in 158-i by Kamau Hida- 
no-Kami XJjisato. Below, at the 
entrance to the grounds, is the 
little Shinto temple of Yamamuro 
Jhx^a, dedicated to Motoori who has 
been apotheosised during the pre- 
sent reign. 

Tsn (Inn, *Waka-roku). At the 
entrance to the town, on coming 
from the direction of Yamada and 
JUatsuzaka, stands r. a temple dedi- 



cated to Yuki Kotsuke no Suke, » 
celebrated retainer of Kusunoki 
Masashige. It dates from ISS^, 
and offers an elegant example o£ 
modern Shinto architecture. The 
same grounds contain a gaudily 
painted little shrine of HachimaiL. 
In the middle of the town are two 
noted Buddhist temples, known as 
Ktvannonji and Ko no Amida. The 
former is i*ather tawdry, the latter 
exquisite though on a small scale. 

The legend on which the sanctity of tbis 
temple rests, is a good example of the 
fusion that took place between Buddhism 
and iShinto in early times. A Buddhist 
priest named Kakujo made a pilgrimage 
of one hundred days to the shrine of the 
Sun-Go<lde8S at Ise to entreat her to 
reveal to him her original shape,-!- tbe 
idea in those days l)eing, that the Shinto 
deities were fivatars, or temporary mani- 
; testations (Gongt-u), of which Buddhist 
I saints were the originals {Jlonchi ButtHr}. 
On the hundi-edth night the Sun-Goddess 
appeared to Kakujo in a dream, com- 
manding him to go out next morning on. 
the seashore of Futami, where she pro- 
mised to show herself to him as she really 
was. He did so, and there appeared. 
floating on the surface of the wavea & 

SM-coloured serpent over ten feet lon^. 
ut £he priest was not yet satisfied. 
" This," cried he, ** is but a pious frard 
on the part of the divinity, whose real 
shape that monster can never be,"— and. 
so saying, he took off him his priestly- 
scarf and flung it at the serpent, which va- 
nished with it into the sea. Three nights 
later the Goddess api)cared to Kaknjd in 
a second dream, and said : " The serpent 
indeed was but another temporaiy mani- 
festation. My real shape is preserved in 
the temple of Muryojuji at K5 in the dis- 
trict of Suzuka in this same land of Ise. 
Go thither and thou shalt see it." He 
went accordingly, and found that Amida 
was the Buddhist deity there worshipped. 
The image was considered so holy that 
the priests of the temple at fli-st refused 
to show it ; but what was not the aston- 
ishment of all present when, on Kakaj5*s 
request l)eing at last granted, the scarf 
which he had thrown at the sea-serpent 
was found twined round the image's 
neck !— All this happened at a very early 
period. The removal of the temple to 
Tsu took place about A.D. 1680, when the 
origiual shrine at Ko had fallen into 
decay, and the image had been found one 
day thi'own down on the place where the 
temple now holding it has been raised in 
its honour. 

The holy image is enclosed in a 
shrine on the altar, and is only 
exhibited on payment of a te% 



Tsiu lashinden, Zeni-lcake-mnUu, 



253 



^'wlien a short service in its honour 
is performed and the legend re- 
<3ited by the attendant priest. R. 
and 1. are images of the * Kwannon 
of the Thirty-three Places/ with 
"the Shi Tenno in front. 

The * Thirty-three Places' are thiity- 
t;liree shrines sacred to Kwannon in the 
l>rovince8 surrounding Kyoto. Tliey are 
«.ll carefully numliered, the first l^einjuf 
Fudarakuji at Nachi in Kishti, and the 
last TaniRumi-dera in Mino. The ])ilgrim- 
M^e to these places was instituted hy the 
!Eiui>eror Kwazan, in obedience to a vision. 
This monarch, after losing his tenderly 
loved consort, abdicated in the year 98H, 
ftnd becoming a monk, devoted himself 
thenceforward to devout practices. In 
imitation of the original Thirty-three 
Places, thirty-three other places have been 
■established in Eastern Japan, and also in 
the district of Chichibu. 

Behind, and continuing all 
round the walls of the building, 
Are diminutive images of all the 
Bnddhas and Bosatsu, called Sen- 
-oku Buisu, lit., a thousand hun- 
dreds of thousands of Buddhas. 
Among other objects of interest, 
note the very large wooden figure 
representing Buddha dead. It is 
laid on real quilts. Gilt and 
painted carvings of Buddhas and 
angels fill the ramnia of the chapel. 
The green coffered ceiling is cov- 
«red with gilt Sanskrit characters 
in relief. A mirror in front of the 
altar attests that the temple be- 
longs to the Shingon sect. A 
small octagonal stmcture to the 1. 
•contains gilt images of the Thirty- 
three Kwannon. If possible, this 
temple should be visited in the 
evening, when there are almost 
always crowds* of pilgrims, who — 
though Ise is their chief objective 
point — also think it well to pay 
their respects at all' the lesser 
shrines on the way thither. 

Shortly after leaving Tsu, those 
who can appreciate Buddhist ec- 
clesiastical architecture should in- 
struct their jinrikisha-men to turn 
a few yards out of the way to visit 
the immense temple of Senshuji 
more commonly called Takata no 
Ooho, at Isshinden. 



This, the chief monastery of the Takata 
su1)-sect, was founded at . TaVata m 
fcihimotsuke by the celebrated ahljot Shin- 
ran Sh5nin in 1226, and removed herein 
1485 by the priest >Shin-e. 

The building is closely similar in 
style and scale to the vast Hon- 
gwanji temples described under 
Tokyo and Kyoto, which is as 
much as to say that it is majes- 
tically spacious and chastely rich. 
The architectural similarity is ac- 
counted for by the fact that the 
Takata and Hongwanji are sister 
sects, both being subdivisions of 
the great Shin sect. 

At the hamlet of Toyokuno is a 
sacred tree, called Zeni-kake-matmi, 
because the faithful are in the 
habit of tying coppers to it by- 
wisps of paper. 

This custom is founded on the followinir 
leffenrl :— In the yenr 838 a nobleman named 
Ono-nt)-TaVHraufa had been banished to 
the 0><i Inlands for having refused to 
po as Mmbjissador to China. So hin wife, 
disc^onsolHte, resolved to make apilgrrimaffe 
to Ise in order to intercede with the 
Sun-Goddess on Ids bertalf. On reachinRT 
this bamlet, she enquired the wny of some 
srass-euttei"8, who, peroeivinor ) er to be a 
gentle lady unused trt trav»^l and dangler, 
told her ax a soriy jest that the shrine 
she sought was still twenty days distant. 
She was already wearied out, und had bnt 
a few coppers left. So believing that the 
Siin-Goddess would non'lesfend to listen to 
tlie pirnyers of the faithful w^herever of- 
fered up, she flung herself down before the 
pine-tree as the goddess's emblem, and 
then tied to one of its branches all the cop- 
per coins that she still possessed. The 
grass-r^uttei's, avaricious as well as eruel, 
ntf*>fi pted t-o st-eal the money ; but forth- 
with it chaneed into a two-headed serpent 
whirh dartecl out u]K>n them. Thereupon 
they were converted from their evil ways* 
and the story ends by their escortinjr 
the lady on the short journey thence 
to Ise, and by eveiy one living happily 
ever after. 

Ono-no-Takamura is celebrated as the 
aut or of a set of verses intended as a 
memorift terhnica for students of the C3ji- 
nese ideographs, which _ is still in common 
use. The following is an example : — 



Ilrtru tsnhafci 


m» 


Xntsft wa enoki ni 


Sff 


Ak> hisagi 


tkfSt 


Fuyu wa kilragi 


«^ 


Onojlku wa kiri 


mm 



// 

.1 



254 



Boute 37. — The Shinto Temples of Ise, 



The rneaning is that if to the radical for 
•tree' be added the chnraeter for * Kpring,' 
the resulting- compound is * camellia ' ; that 
the same radical and ' summer ' combine to 
form the enoki ti'ee, and so on. 

On climbing the hill that leads 
into the valley where Seki lies, 
the long serrated peak seen 1. is 
Shakujo-ga-take, while Suzuka- 
toge rises straight ahead. At 

Seki (Inn, Uo-ya), we join the 
Kwansei Eailway, built sdongside 
a portion of the old Tokaido road 
which is crossed and recrossed. 
The road climbs the Suzuka-toge, 
but the railway line cuts through 



it by two tunnels. The gral^ 
is nevertheless steep enoug]^ 
make the assistance of an 
engine necessary. The scene] 
very pretty all the way to the 
station, Tsiige. The valley 
opens out on both sides. B< 
reaching Mikiiiiio, the mouni 
about Lake Biwa come in view' 
the r. At 

Kiisatsii Junction, where it 
Kwansei line terminates, the ti^ 
veller changes carriages for Kyoti^ 
the journey of a little over 1 hr. %' .^ij^ 
which place is made by Tokai<||- 
Railway. 








\i 



It 



r 



SECTION IV. 

ROUTES CONNECTING TOKYO 

AND KYOTO. 

Routes jS — 40. 



Bottte 38.— The Tdkaidd. 



25t 



ROUTE 38. 

Thb Tokaido by Bail fbom Tokyo 
TO Kyoto and Kobe. 

IKTATEBFALLS OF SANG. MIO-NO- 
MATSUBABA. FBOM OKITSU TO 
8SIZUOSA via TEMPLES OF KUNO- 
ZAN. FBOM KAKEGAWA TO AKIHA. 



O . lA 


Names 


Stan 
from 
oky( 


of 


5 - 


Statioiii4. 



Remarks, 



H 
lOj 

125 

18 

26 

32i 

43 



49 Kdzu. 



f.5 

61 

71 

80 
86 



96 



101 
110 
114 

lao 

128 
132 
137 
140 
140 



TOKYO (Sliim- 
bnshi) 

ShinagnwR '\ 

, Omoii I ' 

Kawasaki - See Route 2. 

Tsurumi I i 

Kanagawa i ) 

YOKOHAMA. , 
Hocloga.vv . I 

Totsuka. I ! 

I 1 Clianpe for, 

, OFUNA Jet ! J Kamakura & 

' I ( YokoBuka. 

Fujisawa. 

1 CAliorht for as- 1 

Hiratsuka I * cent of Oya-' 

I _ , (. ma (p. 61). I 

. Oiso. 

AUght for Mi- 
yauoshita, 
Hakone, and 
Atami. 



Matsuda, 

Yamakita. 

Oyama. 

Gotemba... 



Sano. 
Numazu. 



Suznkawa 
Iwabuchi 



Kambara. 
Okitsu ..... 



Kiiri. 

SHIZUOKA. 

Yaizu. 

Fujieda. 

Shimada. 

Kanaya. 

Hori-XLo-uchi. 



S Alight for as- 
1 i cent of Fuji, 



^Travellers 
f i-om the west 
alight for 
Fuji. Atlwa- 
bnchi alight 
for Kami-ide 
waterfalls (j>. 
121) and Mi- 
nobu (p. 128.) 

( Excui*sion to 
i Kuno-zau. 



150 
156 



174 

180 
19f) 
196 
2(»1 
210 
22J 



228 
231 
235 
240 
240 
249 
254 
2f« 
2(W 
•i{7l 
278 



2F8 
297 
302 



I 



Kt^kegawa 
FnUuroi. 



) Alight 
I Akiha. 



for 



161 ' NaUaizumi 



168 HAMAMATSU. 



Maizaka. 

Washizu. 

Toyohashi. 

tioyu. 

Kamagovi. 

Okazaki. 

Kariya. 



TTravellers 

down rapids 
1 of Teitrytl 

& l)ounfl K. 

enter train 

here, v 
^Tenryil tra- 
* vellers fori 

the W. enter! 

train here. 



;l 



223 Obu 



j ^Change for 
1* Kamesaki, 
1 ) Handa, and 



Otaka. 

Atsuta. 

NAGOYA. 

Kiyosu. 

Ichinomiyu. 

Kisogawa. 

OIFU. 

Ogaki. 

Tarui . 

Seki-ga-hara. 

Nagauka. 



) Hail 
L Tak 



ketcno. 



284 MAIBARA Jet. 



Hikone. 

Notogawa. 

Hachiman. 






Change for! 
Nagaliama 
& TsnrugH. 



313 EUSATSU Jet. 



.ni9 ' Baba (OTSU). 
321 I Otaui. 
3245 ' Yamashina. 
327 a Inari. 

329 KYOTO. 

383 Mukomachi. 
3375 I Yamazaki, 
H425 I Takatsuki. 
34fi*. Ibaraki. 
351 I Suita. 

359 OSAKA 



{ 



Kwansei Rail- 
way, see p. 
245. , 



361 
365 
870 
375 

376 



KanzaVi. 

Nishinomiya, 

yumiyoshi. 

Saunomiya. 

KOBE. 



Alight for' 
I J Nara and 
. ( bakai. i 



The word TokaUlo signifies '£ast«>m 
sea road** The name was given to this* 
road at an early date on account of itH- 
running along the seM-shore in an easterly 
direction from Kyoto, which, being the o\A 



258 



Boiite 38.— The Tokaidd. 



historic capital, -wns naturally regarded 
as the startinsy-point. From the 17tli 
<!entury onwards, tlie Tokrtido was tra- 
versed twice yearly by Daimj-Ss coming with 
their gorgeous retinues to pay their respects 
to the Shogun at Yedo ; and all the chief 
towns, here as on the other great hiahwnys 
of the Empire, were provided with honjin — 
thut is, specially line tea-houses— for their 
lordships to sleep at. The greater portion 
of the l)eautiful avenue of pine-trees with 
which the road was lined still exi^^ts, and 
can bd seen occasionally from the windows 
of the railway carriage. The road itself is 
now comparatively deserted. " But what a 
scene it used to present ! How crowded with 
pedestrians ; withnorimons (the palanquins 
of the upper crust), and attendants; with 
ciinffoes (the modest bamboo conveyance 
of the humble classes) ; with pack-hors-s, 
conveying merchandise of all kinds to and 
from the capital or to the busy towns and 
-villages along the route ; with the trains of 
dairayos or of lesser gentry entitled to 
travel with aretinue ; and with the coraraon- 
iilty, men, women and children, on foot, 
all with their dresses turned up for facility 
Of movement, and for the most part taking 
the journey pretty easily ; frequently stop- 
ping at the numberless tea-housea or rent- 
ing sheds by the way, and refreshing t\ em- 
«elves with the simple little cup of weak 
green tea, and a cheeiy chat with whom- 
i<oever might stop like themselves to rest. 
It used te seem tliat distance was no 
consideration with them. They could po 
<m all day, and day after day, if only they 
were allowed (which they generally were) 
to take their own time and pace. Tlie 
value of time never entered into their 

thoughts 

The numerous trains of armed men 
passing in both directions were the 
most striking feature of the scene. Never 
could one go out of one's house in any 
direction, but these two-sworded men were 
met with ; but on the Toknido, and in the 
btreets of Yedo, they appeared to be more 
numerous than the common people; and 
it must be undet stood that at this time of 
which I am speakmg, the crowds on por- 
tions of the road and in all the principal 
thoroughfares of the capital, were as great 
as in the most crowded thoroughfares of 
T^>ndon. It took one forcibly back to the 
feudal times in Europe, when no noble or 
lauded proprietor thought of going abroad 
unattended by his armed dependants. 
Added to this, there was a certain air of 
mntiquity that imparted its charm to the 
scene. The old Dutch writers described 
the road long ago, and it was even in tlieir 
-day, precisely as it was in ours. A good, 
well macadamised, causeway, (except that 
the hard stratum was of pebbles, not of 
broken stones^, passing thi-ough numerous 
populous villages, only divided from each 
* >ther by short intervals, where fine old tre^s 
on both sides of the road were the sole divi- 
sion between the road and the paddy fields. 



The etiquette of the road was well »n&. 
rigidly defined. "When the trains of two 
princes met, it was incumbent on the lesser 
of them — (measured by his income as re- 
cognised by the Government, and published, 
in the official list), to dismount from his 
norimon, if he happened to be riding in one* 
and draw with his followers to the side of 
the road whilst the otlier passed. When- 
ever it was possible, therefore, such meet- 
ings were avoided." t 

The railway was begun in. 
1872 and finished in 1889. Tra- 
vellers with time on hand are ad- 
vised to break the journey at Kdzu, 
in order to vi«it Miyanoshita and. 
Hakone ; at OJcitsu, in order to visit 
Kuno-zan on the way between that 
station and Shizuoka ; at ShizuoJca 
itself, and at Nagoya. Of these 
places, three, viz. Miyanoshita, 
Shizuoka, and Nagoya, have hotels 
in foreign style. Those who are 
hurried may console themselves 
for missing these interesting places 
by the knowledge that the scenery 
through which they are to pass 
has many charms, including superb 
views of Fuji from both the land 
and the sea side. The least in- 
teresting portion of the line is 
that between Shizuoka and Nagoya, 
a six hours' run which may with- 
out disadvantage be performed 
after dark. 

The first hour of the journey — 
that between Tokj'^o and Yokohama 
— having been already described 
in Eoute 3, calls for no further 
remark. The train runs into Yoko- 
hama station to pick up passengers 
for the West, and runs out again 
for a few minutes over the same 
ground, but soon diverges to the 1. 

Fiijisnwa {Inns Inage-ya and 
Wakamatsu-ya at station) is famed 
for its Buddhist temple of Tugyo- 
dera^ in the miraculous heaUng 
powers of whose abbots extraordi- 
nary faith is placed by the lower 
orders of the surrounding coxuitry- 
side. Unfortunately a fire de- 
stroyed the greater portion of 
the buildings in December, 1880. 

t This description is quoted from Black's 
" Young Japan," Vol. I. p. 163, et aeq. 



Section of Railway tiear Fuji. 



259 



Should the intention of restoring 
tHem to their original splendour 
be cari'ied out, they will well 
merit a visit. The site lies some 
8 ch6 from the railway station. 
After passing Fujisawa, the Ha- 
kone range, behind which towers 
the cone of Fuji, begins to come in 
sight r. Soon afterwards the line 
crosses the broad stony bed of the 
River Banyii, which rises in Lake 
Yamanaka on the N.E. flank of 
Fuji. 

01 SO is a favourite bathing resoi*t; 
see p. 62. At 

Kozii (Inn, Hayano), the line 
turns inland up the valley of the 
Sakawa-gawa, in order to avoid the 
Hakone mountains which effectu- 
ally bar the way to all but foot-pas- 
sengers. The scenery now becomes i 
mountainous, with to the 1. the chief , 
I)eaks of the Hakone range, — 
Putago-yama (the *Twin Moun- 
tain,' so-called from its double ' 
rounded summit), Myojin-ga-take, | 
Kammuri-ga-take, and Kintoki-zan 
(horn-shaped). An extra engine 
is put on at Yiiiiinkitii to help 
the train up to Gotemba, the high- 
est point on the line — 1,500 ft. 
above sea level. Between Ya- 
makita and OyniiiA (not_to be 
mistaken for the mountain Oyama, 
with a long O), the scenery is 
wildly picturesque, and there is a 
rapid succession of tunnels and 
bridges, testifying to the engineer- 
ing difficulties that had to be over- 
come. At 

OotembA (Inns, Yoshijima-ya at 
station, and Omiya in the vill. 12 cho 
<listant), the passenger finds himself 
in the broad and fertile plain sur- 
rounding Fuji's base, a plain whose 
soil indeed has been formed by 
the volcanic outpourings of the 
great mountain during countless 
ages. The long-ridged wooded 
mountain immediately to the 1. of 
Fuji is Ashitaka. The range to 
the spectator's 1. from the carriage 
window is the Hakone range, the 
lowest point of which visible from 



here is the Otome-toge pass lead- 
ing over to Miyanoshita. 
At Sano, 

[The waterfalls (Sano no taJci) 12 
cho from this station by 
jinrikisha make a charming 
picnic resort, there being a 
tea-house with arbours scat- 
tered about. The water form- 
ing the falls comes from Lake 
Hakone via the tunnel men- 
tioned on p. 107. Keigashima, 
17 cho beyond the Sano water- 
falls, is another picturesque 
spot, remarkable for its curious 
rocks and possessing a deserted 
shrine suitable for a picnic] 

where one still has Fuji and 
Ashitaka to the r., the other 
mountains, from r. to 1., are Amagi- 
san in Izu, Yahazu-yama (a small 
peak), Higane-san on the other side 
of which lies Atami, the Hakone 
range, and in front, isolated as if 
let drop independently into the 
plain, Kanoki-yama. The railway 
turns west, and rejoins the old 
Todaido at 

Niimazil (Inn, Moto - doiya). 
There is much marshy ground in 
this, neighbourhood, whence pro- 
bably the name of the place (numcL 
=* marsh'). 

Siiziiknwa (Inn, Koshu-ya) and 
Iwabliclii (Inn, Tani-ya). 

[Travellers from the Kyoto direc- 
tion intending to ascend Fuji 
can alight at either of these 
stations, it_ being 3 ri from 
either to Omiya. One goes 
from Suzukawa to (3miya by 
tram in 1^ hr., passing through 
the town of JYoshiwara ; from 
Iwabuchi to Omiya by jinriki- 
sha. Most persons prefer the 
tram, as cheaper and more ex- 
peditious. The Wataya inn 
at Omjya is well-spoken of. 
From Omiya it is a 2^ ri walk, 
mostly uphill, to Murayama, 
where the actual ascent of 
Fuji commences; see p. 117. 
Iwabuchi is also the starting- 



260 



PiOiite SS.'-The Tdkaido. 



point for the beautiful water- 
' falls of Kami-ide on the W. 
side ot Fuji (see p_. 121), 5^ riy 
passing through Omiya. Suzu- 
kawa is the starting-point for 
the temples of MinoDu, J3 W, 
and for Kofu, 24 ri, see p. 128.] 

It is about Suzukawa that the 
nearest and most perfect view of 
Fuji is obtained. Nowhere else 
does the * p£»erless mountain ' so 
absolutely dominate its surround- 
ings. The beauty of the stretch of 
shore from here to the mouth of 
the Fujikawa, called Tago-no-ura, 
has been sung by a hundred Japa- 
laese poets. The Fujikawa is 
noted for its rapids (see p. 135). 
From here toOkitsu is very beauti- 
ful, the space between. the sea and 
a range of liills to the r. becoming 
so narrow as barely to leave room 
for the line to skirt the shore. 

Okitsii {Inns, Minakuchi ya, Kai- 
sui-ro; the former is semi-foreign, 
tl^e latter has arrangements for 
sea-bathing) has a lovely view of 
the Bay of Suruga, the large moun- 
tainous peninsula of Izu, an(^ to 
the r. the point of land called 
Mio-no-Matmbai'u, celebrated both 
in poetry and in art. It is covered 
with pine-trees, is low and sandy, 
and hence more pleasant to look 
at than to walk on. Still fur- 
ther to the r. lie the Kuno-zan 
liills, with the w^hite little sea-port 
town of Shimizu nestling at their 
base. 

At Mio-no-MatMi^Hi" is lidil the scene of 
Hn-goiovin^ or The iJobe (»f Fe»itheiB, 
owe of the prettiest mul iiuiKt fnnoiful 
<)t the Jjipunese L>iic DrMiims (A<i no 
tttai). A lL-hei'iiii«ii hiudiii^ on this 
«truud linds a i-obe of fextlierH hnii^- 
ing to a pine-tree. hhiI is nbout to cany 
It off as tieMMue Imve, i»heii a beMiiti- 
ful fairy suddenly ai^pearw Hiid implores 
him to g-'ve it huv.k to her, lor th^itit is hers, 
MTkd with«mt it she cannot fly home to the 
Moon,; where s>ie is one of the attendants 
on the thirty monarchs who rule Unit 
sphere. At first the flshern.Mn retUMes to 
grant her request. Hh only does so when, 
After many tears and afron'ies of despair, 
ahe promises to dance for him o»e of the 
dances known only to the immortals. 
Draped in her featherj' robe, she dances 



beneath the pine-trees on the beach, while- 
celestial musiu and an uneailhly frHgrance- 
1111 the air. At last her wingx are &iUght 
by the breeze, and she soars heavenward,, 
past Mount Ashitaka, pii^t Fuji, tilL 
she is l(»st to view. '1 here is still a sniait 
shrine on Mio-uo-Matsubaru dedicated tO' 
this fairy. 

The temple of Seih nji or Kiyomi'- 
dera at Okitsu, belonging to the 
Zen sect of Buddhists, merits a 
visit, partly for the sake of the 
view, partly for the temple itself 
and the temple grounds, which even 
the railway, though it cuts through 
them, has not entirely Spoilt. The 
very plain altar in the hondo — jv 
large hall paved with tiles — con- 
tains the funeral tablets of all the 
Shoguns of the Tokugawa dynasty. 
In a side temple are forty brilliantly 
coloured figures, three-fourths life- 
size, of Rakan — old, but restored in 
1881. These were formerly kept- 
in a tea-house in the town, 
w^hich, becoming a favourite re- 
sort, In-ought in a considerable 
income to the p|riest&. This, how- 
ever, moved tnc towns-people to 
jealousy and dissatisfaction, for 
which reason the images were 
moved to their pi'esent site whein* 
money can no longer be made out 
of them. In the gi-ounds are 30O 
(formerly 500) stone imayes of 
Rakan. The creeping phun- trees 
(gwaryii-bai) in front of the temple 
are said to have been i>lante<^l by 
leyasu's own hand. Besides the 
temple proper, a suite of robms is 
shown, affording an example of the 
best style of Japanese domestic 
architecture. Built in I860 for 
the use of the Shogun lemochi, 
they have of late been twice oc- 
cupied by His Imperial Highness, 
the Crown Prince. 

[Those who have an extra day 
to spare are strongly recom- 
mended to leave the train at 
Okitsu, sleep there, and go on 
by jinrikisha to Kiilid-zaii, re- 
joining the train at Shizuoka 
late the next afternoon. This 
excursion, which occupies from 



Kuno'Zan. 



261 



7 to 8 hrs., is a real multum 
in parvo, — splendid views, su- 
perb temples, nearer ac- 
quaintance with Japanese town 
and country life off the beaten 
track. — ^The plan is to take 
a jinrikisha for the day with two 
men, and begin by visiting Sei- 
kenji, described above ; tlience 
through Bjm(7nn,Kyo-ya),one 
of those smaller Tokaido towns 
which the railway has para- 
lysed, and Shimizu, a neat 
bustling ^sea-port town ; and 
then strike inland to Tess/iwji, 
a ruined temple on a little hill 
called Fud<u*aku-san, 4 cho in 
height. Yamaoka Tetsutaro, 
writing-master to the present 
Hikado, collected funds for the 
restoration of this place ; but 
the money was squandered 
after his death, and the temnle 
is nothing, but the view sim- 
ply magnificent, reminding one 
of a Claude Lorraine. At 
the beholder's feet stretches a 
green carpet of rice-fields, with 
the town of Shimizu and the 
curious square enclosures in 
the adjacent sea, used as fish 
preserves to supply the tables 
of the inhabitants in stormy 
weather. The two promon- 
tories to the 1. are the Satta- 
toge and the point near Kam- 
bara, beyond which come Fuji, 
Ashitaka, and the Hakone 
range. The large peninsula 
of Izu extends the whole way 
round from 1. to r., like a 
g^igantic scythe forming the 
Gulf of Suruga, while much 
closer and smaller, making a 
bay within a bay, stretches the 
pine-clad promontory of Mio- 
no-Matsubara, which is from 
here seen to divide at the tip 
into three points like claws. 
Close to Tesshuji is another 
temple called Byugeji, noted 
in the vicinity for its sotetau 
( Cycas revoluta) and prickly 
pears — ^the latter a great rarity 



in Japan ; but the view, though 
good, is not comparable to that 
from Tesshiiji. 

The way now leads back to 
the sea and along the sandy 
shore to the hamlet of Nekoya 
{Inn, Fukushima-ya) at the foot 
of Kuno-zan, one of a range of 
hills only some 500 ft. high, but 
fortress-like in steepness. Her© 
was the first burial-place of the 
great Shogun leyasu, and the 
shrines here erected in his 
honour were the originals of 
-^V^hich those at Nikko are but 
a more elaborate development. 
Travellers who are iinable to 
go to Nikko, can therefore ga- 
ther some idea of what the 
Nikko temples are like by visit- 
in cr Kuno-zan. According to 
some, Ieyasu*s body still lies 
here, only a single hair or some 
other minute portion having 
been transported to Nikko. The 
ascent to the temples is by a 
steep zigzag path cut in the 
living rock. A guide must be 
applied for at the shamusho, or 

* temple office' near the top, on 
thel. The view over the sea from 
this temple office is glorious. 
The headlands seen hence are 
Tome-no-saki, Kanaya, and O- 
mae-zaki. The temples, though 

* purified* to some extent by 
the pro- Shinto party 20 years 
ago, retain their Buddhist 
ornamentation. The wooden 
effigy of a sacred horse 1. is 
by Hidari Jingoro. Up a flight 
of steps hence, we come r. to 
the drum-tower, and 1. to the 
side of the five-storied pagoda 
removed by the * purifiers * as 
savouring too much of Bud- 
dhism. Above these again are 
r., the Kagura stage, the trea- 
sure-house or ' godown/ and a 
building formerly dedicated to 
the Buddhist god Yakushi, and 
now to the Shinto god Oyama- 
gui-no-Mikoto ; while 1. is the 
building where the sacred offer* 



262 



EoiUe 38, — The Tokaido, 



ings are prepared. The oratory 
proper is red outside, black 
and gold within. Bound it, 
inside, are hung pictures of the 
Thirty-six Poetical Geniuses, 
and there is an elaborate border- 
ing of phoenixes and chrysan- 
themums. A final flight of 
steps behind the oratory leads 
up to the stone tomb, which 
is an octagonal monolith. The 
annual festival at Kuno-zan is 
lield on the 1 7th April. Services 
are also celebrated on the I7th 
of the other months. The tem- 
ple treasures are exposed to 
view in October, when the an- 
nual airing {mushi-hoshi) takes 
place. On leaving Kuno-zan, 
the road first follows the sea- 
shore and then turns inland, 
reaching Shizuoka in about 
1 hr.] 

Betweien Okitsu and 

Ejlri {Inn, Kyo-ya), there is a 
view of Mio-no-Matsubara. After 
leaving Ejiri, the line turns inland 
to avoid the Kuno-zan hills. 

Shizuoka (HoteU, *Daito-kwan, 

foreign style ; Kiyo-kwan), formerly 

called Sumpu, is the capital of the 

prefecture of the same name and 

of the province of Suruga. It 

is a clean, airy, flourishing city, 

noted for its manufactures of cheap 

lacquer ware, delicate basket-work 

in curious and beautiful shai>es, and 

fine bamboo plaiting used to cover 

egg-shell porcelain cups which are 

brought from the province of Mino. 

The tea produced at Ashikubo, a 

vill. 2 ri distant, ranks second only 

to that of Uji. 

HistoricHlly, Shizuoka is celebrated 
chiefly as the plaoe where leyasu chose to 
«pend the evening of hiR life in learned 
leisure, leaving his son, Hidetada, to carry 
on the government at Yedo. Here for the 
first time many of the treasures of Japa- 
nese literature, which had hitherto existed 
onl^ in manuscript, were put into print, 
ghizuoka is now the plaoe of retiit^ment of 
the ex-8h5gun Keiki, who lives there in 
quiet seclusion as a private gentleman. 

An afternoon is enough for 
the sights of Shizuoka, which con- 



sist of the ruins of the former 
castle, and of two fine temples — 
Binzaiji and Sengen. All that 
remains of the Castle are tlie 
decaying walls and the moats. 
Within its enclosure stands the 
Prefecture, a hideous red brick: 
building. The Coui-t-house and. 
Normal School are outside the 
moat, on the S. side. 

The Buddhist temple of Rinzaiji 
lies 8 cho away from the city to the 
W., at the foot of a range of 
wooded hills. It belongs to the 
Zen sect, and is noted for its 
connection with leyasu and for 
the number of objects of art which 
it contains. The little room of 
only 4fj mats (yo-jo-han), where le- 
yasu learnt how to write, is shown, as 
are several scrolls, screens, pieces of 
lacquer and porcelain, etc., pre- 
sented by him to the temple in his 
old age. There is also a thread- 
bare but still beautiful piece of 
embroidery presented by the Mikado 
Go-Nara (A.D. 1527-1557), and a 
number of kakemono by Kano Masa- 
nobu. Chin Nampin, and other old 
masters. In the Hondo is a painted 
statue of Imagawa Yoshimoto, 
younger brother to Ujiteru, founder 
of the temple. Another painted 
statue represents the 2nd abbot. 
The honzon is Amida, a black image 
with a gold background. In. a 
side chapel is preserved the wooden 
image of Marishi-ten, which le- 
yasu-:-who for all his political and 
military genius, was not devoid of 
the superstitions of his time — ^used 
constantly to carry about with him 
as a charm. The visitor will also 
be shown a small pagoda-shaped 
gilt revolving book-case containin|[^ 
a complete set of the edition of 
the Buddhist scriptures, printed 
for the first time with movable 
types in 1888. The Ist and 2nd 
October are the chief festival days 
at Binzaiji. / 

The Temple of Sengen, which 
stands at the N. limit of the town, 
was built under the snperintendence 



Shizxvoha, 



263 



of Okubo Hikozaemon, a personage 
famous in Japanese history as the 
minister and confidant of the Sho- 
gun leniitsu. Though chiefly dedi- 
cated to the worship of Ko-no-hana- 
jsaku-ya-hime, alias Sengen, the 
heantif ul Shinto goddess of Mount 
Fuji, it is constructed and decorated 
in the most ornate Buddhist style. 
Specially noteworthy are the wood- 
^^.rvings. The grounds are now 
used as a public j^ark. Entering 
by two handsomely carved wooden 
4^ates, the visitor finds himself in a 
large quadrangle, in the centre of 
which is a stage formerly used for 
the performance of kagura dances 
by young girls. The interior of the 
oratory proper ( go haiden no o- 
Uronm) is a hall 63 ft. by 33 ft. 
with large solid pillars of keyaki 
lacquered red, two* of which form 
at the same time the corner pillai's 
of the upper storey. The two 
"Central compartments of the ceiling 
are painted with dragons, one 
billed the Shihd no Ryo, or * Dragon of 
the Four Quarters,' because what- 
ever quarter ,of the compass he 
be viewed from he seems to glare 
down directly at the spectator ; the 
other, Happo no Ryo, or * Dragon of 
the Eight Quarters/ because his 
glance is directed to every point of 
the circle. The former of these 'is 
by Yusen Hogan, the latter by 
Kano Motonobu. Eight other com- 
paitments contain pictures of 
angels playing on musical instru- 
ments, also by painters of the 
Kano school. Two broad flights 
of steps behind the oratory lead 
up to a building containing two 
•chapels, one dedicated to Sengen, 
the other to Onamuji. The 
two chapels are connected by 
a room in which a nightly watch 
was formerly kept by retainers of 
the Tokugawa family. Specially 
noticeable are the carvings on the 
gates leading to these twin cha- 
pels. One set represents a lioness 
with her cub, and on a second 
panel her royal mate, both sur- 



rounded by peonies, the king of 
flowers, as the lion is the king of 
beasts. Another set represents 
hawks with pine-trees. Eound the 
chapel itself are carvings of the 
pine-tree, bamboo, and plum-blos- 
som by Hidari Jingoro. The crest 
of a fan of feathers is that of the 
goblin who was god of Mount 
Oyama and father of the goddess 
of Fuji. 

Near the main quadrangle is a 
smaller building called the Sosha, 
formerly dedicated to Marishi- 
ten and now to the Shinto god 
Yachi-hoko-no-kami. It is the 
newest of all the buildings, and 
the decorations are therefore 
in a better state of preserva- 
tion. In the curved roof of the 
porch a phoenix carved out of a 
single block of wood is very fine ; 
and all round, above the architrave, 
runs a series of delicate little groups 
representing the Twenty-four Para^ 
,gons of Filial Piety. 

The stone lanterns in the grounds 
were presented by various Daimyos 
and Hatamotos.—fBeyond the Mari- 
shi-ten temple, a broad flight of 
105 stone steps leads up to the 
Oku-no-in, or innermost shrine, the 
chief thing to be seen whence-is s 
good view of the town. 

The best excursion from Shi- 
zuoka is that by jihrikisha to 
Kuno-zan (3 ri) ; see pp. 260-2. 

On leaving Shizuoka, we enter 
on the least interesting portion of 
the Tokaido route, there being little 
worth describing the whole way on 
to Nagoya, a distance of 115 mUes. 
The line for the most part ceases 
to skirt the sea, and runs over a 
flat country with low hills on one 
or both sides, or else among rice 
fields which seem intenninable, es- 
pecially after entering the province 
of Owari. Spurs of the central 
range forming the backbone of the 
country are indeed often seen far 
away to the r. At other times the 
way lies through cuttings, or be- 



264 



Bouts 38, — The Tokaidu. 



tween clumps of bamboos and other 
small trees that shut out all distant 
view. The chief points of this 115 
m. run are as follows : — Just outside 
SMzuoka we cross the Abekawa 
close to its mouth, and obtain ai)ret- 
ty glimpse of the sea with the small 
promontory of Kuno-zan and the 
large promontory ot I»u, before pass- 
ing through two long tunnels. The 
Oigawa is crossed before reaching 
Kanayn. Like all the rivers on 
this coast, it has a bed out of pro- 
portion to the small volume of 
water that generally flows down it, 
the bed being nearly a mile broad, 
while the actual stream is not 
more than some 50 yds. except in 
:flood-time. 

_In pre-railway days, the passage of the 
Oigawa was one of the most exciting 
portions of the journey along- the Tokaido. 
No ferrj'-hoats could be used on account of 
the swiftness of the current, and travellers 
"were carried across on small hand-phit- 
^orms called rendni. The naked coolies 
who bore these aloft always chose the 
deepest parts of the stream, in order to 
impress their fares with a sense of the peril 
of the undertaking, and thus obtain the 
largest possible pourholre. 

Kakegawa is not remarkable 
except for being the station where 
those must alight who desire to 
■visit the Temple of Akiha, some 12 
ri inland, of which the first 6 ri as 
far as the vill. of Mikura are prac- 
ticable for jinrikishas. The visi- 
tor may conveniently sleep at 
Sakashita, some 4^ ri further on. 
Sit the base of the mountain on 
which the temple stands. The 
ascent, locally computed at 50 chb, 
is probably less. The last part of 
it commands an extensive and 
beautiful view, including the wide 
plain of T<3t6mi with the sea be- 
yond, towards which the broad 
white bed of the river Tenryu is 
seen winding its way. 

The temple of AViha enjoys a great 
reputation for sanctity, and is visited 
annually by crowds of pilgrims. Unfortu- 
nately for the tourist of artistic and anti- 
quarian tastes, all the beautiful Buddhist 
buildings in which Kwannon and other 
deities had for centuries been invoked, were 
destroyed by fire on the occasion of the 



great yearly festival in 1875, and the- 
present temple was afterwards erected i» 
the bare, uninteresting style of * Pui-e- 
Shinto.' It has been dedicated to Kagu— 
tsuchi-no-Mikoto, who is regarded by soiiie- 
as the God of Fire, but is more correctly 
explained as the Oocl of Summer Heat. 

Before reaching Hamamatsu the- 
train crosses the Tenryii-gawa, 
whose celebrated rapids form the 
subject of Route *35. The Tenryii 
is the first of the three great rivers 
from which the province of Mi- 
kawa, which the line here traverses, 
takes its name, the other two 
being theOgawa (also called Oya- 
gawa or Ohira-gawa) on this side 
of the station of Okazaki, and the^ 
Yahagi-gawa just beynd the same 
station. 

._ Haniamatsil ( Inns, * Hana-ya,, 
Ogome-ya) is the only place be- 
tween Shizuok^ and Nagoj'a where 
the journey can comfortably 
be broken. The town, which is 
clean and bvistling, derives a 
peculiar appearance from the use 
of long projecting eaves which 
cause the houses to look as if about 
to tumble forward into the street. 
A few moments may be devoted to 
inspecting the temples of Gosha 
Myojin- and 8uwa Myojin, which 
even in their present abandonment 
and decay sliow plainly to the dis- 
cerning eye of the artist that they 
were once among the most elaboi*ata 
specimens of decorative art in Japan. 
A whole day could well be spent in 
sailing about the Lagoon (Hamana 
no Mizu-umi) just beyond Hama- 
matsu, of whose beauties the rail-^ 
way affords only a passing glimpse, 
and in watching the fishermen's 
curious device whereby the tinkling 
of a bell indicates the presence of 
fish in their nets. One might lunch 
at the vill. of Shinjo on the fui-ther 
shore. The railway crosses the 
mouth of the lagoon on a long 
series of dykes and bridges, whence 
the roar of the breakers of the 
Pacific can be distinctly heard. 

Though called a lake in Japanese, this 
lagoon has now a narrow entrance aboa4 



Nagoya, 



265 



<00 yds. across, fovmed in the year 149fl, 
"when an earthquake broke down *lie sand- 
spit that had previously separated the 
fresh water from the sea. The province of 
Totoiui derives its name from this lake, 
■which was Ciilled Tdtomi. a corruption of 
7'0-tsu-awa'umi, * the distant f onming sea,' 
in contradistinction to Lake Biwa, named 
<'hika-tifu-awa-uvn^ *the near foaming sea,' 
which gave its name to the province of 
Omi. 

Between Wasliizn and Toyolia- 

slli a fine bronze image of Kvvan- 
non, 10 ft. high and dating from the 
year 1765, is seen perched r. on a 
pinnacle of rock. Between' (joyii, 
where the line again touches the 
shore, and Kaiiingori there is a 
pretty view of the sea, of the islets 
in the Bay of Toyohashi, and of 
the mountains of the provinces of 
Shima, Ise, arid Iga beyond. An 
•endless succession of rice-fields 
leads to 

Nagoya {Inns, Shinachu, also 
called H6tel du Progr^s, foreign : 
*Shiikin-ro). 

This flourishing commercial city, the 
largest on the Tokaido, capital of the 
Province of Owari and of the prefecture 
of Aichi, was formerly the seat of the 
Princes of Owari, whose family was closely 
allied to tliat of the Tokuguwa Bhoguns, 
the founder of the house of Owari havmg 
been a son of leyusu. Their fief was rated 
at 550,000 hokn of rice, and the Owari's 
were one of the ' Tliree Aueust Families * 
[Go San-ke)^ entitled to furnish a suc- 
cessor to the Shogun's tlirone in default 
of an heir. Their castle, which is 
still one of the wonders of Japan, was 
■erected in 161f»by twenty great feudal lords, 
to serve as the residence of leyasn's son. 
la the early years of the present r/fgime it 
■ffaa handed over to the Alilitary Depart- 
ment; and the beautiful decorations of the 
Prince's dwelling apartments suffered, as 
<lid so much else in Japan, from the almost 
incredible vandalii<iii and vulgar stupidity of 
that period, — common soldiers, or ofli<'er8 
as ignorant as the.v, being allowed to deface 
the priceless wall-paintings of a Tan-yti, a 
Motonobu, and a Mat'ihei. This desecra- 
tion is now happily put an end to, though 
much irreparable damage has been done. 
The Castle is indeed still the head-quar- 
ters of the Nagoya Garrison; but the bar- 
racks now only occupy the outer enceinte, 
the actual cit^idel and the apartments 
being kept as national monuments and 
Rhow -places. The two golden dplpliins 
{kin «»» 8fiac?ii-koko), which can be seen 
(flittering all over the city from the top of 
the flve-storeyed donjon [tenshu)^ were 
made in 1610 at the cost of the celebrated 
general, Kato Kiyomasa, who also built 



the keep. One of thera was sent to the 
Vienna Exhibition of lb73, and on its way 
back was wrecked in the Messageries 
Maritimes Steamer *Nil.' Having been 
recovered with great difficulty, it was 
finally restored to its original position, 
much to the satisfaction of the citizens. 
Tlie golden dolphins mea«ure 87 ft- in 
height, and are valued at $180,000. 

Nagoya is noted for its manufac- 
ture of porcelain, cloisonne, and 
fans. The principal dealers are : 

Porcelain. — Matsumura, Hirako- 
ya, Takito. 

Cloiso7in4. — Morimoto, Honda, 
Takcuchi. 

Fans, — Daikoku-ya. 

Silk-mcrcers. — Ito, Daimaru. 

There are many lesser but good 
shops for all the above articles ; 
also several bazaars (ktva7ik6ba) for 
articles of general utility. Five or 
six large cotton-mills have been 
started of late years, and the em- 
broidering of handkerchiefs has 
taken a considerable place among 
the local industries. 

Theatre. — Suehiro-za. 

The Museum contains a coUectioa 
of the various manufactures of the 
prefecture. 

It is worth stopping a day at 
Nagoya for the sake of the Castle, 
which cannot be * done ' merely 
between trains, as the traveller's 
passport and visiting card must be 
sent through the hotel to the Pre- 
fectural Office, and several hours 
may elapse before the necessary 
permit is received. Meantime one 
may visit Nagoya' s second greatest 
sight — the Higashi Hongwanji 
Temple — the Museum,and the minor 
temples described below. The 
evening may be agreeably whiled 
away by going the round of the 
bazaars, and by visiting the enclosure 
of Shimpukuji (commonly known 
as Osu Kwannon), where devout re- 
ligious exercises and penny peep- 
shows may be seen in amusing 
proximity. 

The Castle (O Shiro). — The space 
between the inner and outer inoats, 
now containing extensive barracks 
and parade-grounds, was formerly 



266 



Eotite 38, — The Tokaido, 



occupied by quarters for the 
Prince's samurai or retainers,* of- 
fices civil and military, etc. Pass- 
ing into the inner enclosure over 
a moat now dry and used to 
keep tame deer in, the traveller 
is first shown through the Apart- 
ments, — a beautiful wreck, for mats 
and furniture are gone and the 
walls are considerably defaced, but 
very fine nevertheless. The slidiug 
screens (fusntna) between the 
rooms, the alcoves (tokononia), and 
the wooden doors between the dif- 
ferent sets of Apartments are all 
decorated with paintings of flowers, 
birds, etc., chiefly by artists of the 
Kano school, such as Eishin, Moto- 
nobu, and Tan-yu. One room has 
cherrj'-blossoms and pheasants by 
Tosa-no-Mitsuoki. Another — the 
most attractive of all — has multi- 
tudinous scenes of popular life 
by Ukiyo Matahei. One speciallj' 
gorgeous apartment, decorated by 
Tan-yu with ideal Chinese scenery, 
"was reserved for the use of the Sho- 
gun when he came to visit the 
Prince his kinsman. Observe the 
difierence of height between the 
inner and outer portion of this 
zoom, — the former (jodan) being for 
the Shogun himself, the latter 
(gedan) for those inferior persons 
who were graciously admitted to an 
audience. The raimna (ventilating 
panels) of this room have exquisitely 
faithful carvings of a crane and tor- 
toise and of a -cock perched on a 
drum, by Hidari Jingoro, who also 
carved the flowers and birds in 
certain other rooms. Leaving these 
apartments, one comes to a much 
humbler suite brought from Nobu- 
naga's castle at Kiyosu, and is then 
led into the donjon or keep, a 
gloomy five -storied building, all of 
stone without, but furnished with 
wooden staircases within. The well 
at the bottom, called Ogoii-siiif or 
*the Golden Water,' was dug by 
Kato Kiyomasa. The fifth storey 
commands an extensive view — the 
town of course, the sea, the im- 
juense plain of Owari and Mino laid 



out in rice-fields, and, limiting the- 
horizon, the mountains of Ise, Iga^ 
Omi, Echizen, Hida, ShinshQ, and 
Tutomi. 

No fee is accepted by the custo- 
dian of the Castle. 

Higashi Hongwaiiji. 

Tftis wonderful Buddhist temple, whose- 
exterior and interiur are both equally 
^rand, dates in it8 actual shape froia the- 
beginning of the present century. Iii 
mediaeval times a castle occupied its sit^^ 
whence the castle-like walls that still 
surronnd the enclosure. Oh the occasiotk 
of the combined military and naval manoErn— 
vres at Xagoya in 1890, the apartments 
were occupied by H. M. the Mikado. 

The two storied gatehouse, a- 
magnificent structure in wood, has- 
three portals, decorated with floral 
arabesques in relief on the lintel 
and posts, and the gates have 
scrolls and open-work diapers, with 
solid bronze plates binding the 
framework together, the whole in 
excellent taste and style. On the 
further side of a spacious court 
rises the loft}' main building, which 
looks, two-storied, an effect pro- 
duced by the exterior colonnade 
having a roof lower than that of 
tlie main structure. The interior 
measures 120 ft. in length by 108- 
ft. in depth, and is divided longi- 
tudinally into three parts, that in 
front being for the use of ordinary 
worshippers, the centre for the con- 
gregation on special occasions, and 
the innermost being the naijin, or 
chancel. This latter is divided into- 
three compartments, the central one 
being occupied by the sJutmi-daii^ 
a platform on which stands a hand- 
some gilt shrine containing an 
image of Amida about 4 ft. high. 
Both the shmni-dan and the table 
in front are enriched with small 
painted carvings, producing a glori- 
ous effect. L. of the chief slirine 
is a smaller one, containing a xx)r- 
trait of the founder of the sect, taken 
from the effigy in the metropolitan 
temple at Kyoto. In the ramvia 
along the front of the tiaijiyi are gilt 
open-work carvings of angels, with 
gilt carv'ings of the peacock and 



Nagoya. 



267 



phcenix in the kaeru^mata above. 
The heavy beams of the ceiling are 
supported by excellent carvings of 
lotus-flowers and leaves. In some 
of the kaeni-mata over these beams 
are spirited carvings of conven- 
tional lions. ' The ceiling itself 
is unpainted, and divided into 
coffers about 3 ft. square. The 
compartments r. and 1. of the 
altar have gilt coppered ceilings. 
In the kacrurinata of the external 
<x>lounade are well-conceived groups 
of supernatural beings — Gama Sen- 
nin with his frog, Kinko riding on 
the carp, Koan on the tailed tortoise, 
O-Shiko riding on his crane, Ka- 
Shinjin administering medicine to 
the dragon, the umbrella miraculous- 
ly flying back to Shoiohi through 
the air, and two carrying baskets of 
fish. The series is continued round 
the sides by the crane, the lion, and 
the flying dragon. As usual in 
Hongwanji temples, there is another 
building called the jiki-do, connected 
with the main building by a gal- 
lery resembling a bridge. Though 
much less elaborate than the main 
altar, the altar of the jiki-do is yet 
a fine blaze of gold. K. and 1. of 
the central image of Amida, are 
some charming gold sliding screens 
representing mountain scenery. The 
apartments of the temple contain 
several kakemonos and other works 
of art, which are, however, generally 
stowed away in a godown. In 
front of the main gate is an avenue 
of drooping cherry-trees {shidare- 
zakura), which are very pretty in 
April. 

The remaining temples of Nagoya 
are much inferior. The following 
may be mentioned : — 

Eikokuji (close to the Higashi 
Hongwanji), in the courtyard of 
which is a stone with the imprint of 
Buddha's feet. They seem to have 
been in proportion to his stature, 
which legend Axes at 16 ft. On the 
soles are representations of the wheel 
of the law, fishes, etc. 

Nishi Hongwanjiy not to be com- 
pared with the Higashi Hongwanji 



for size and beauty. In the kaeni- 
matu above the altar are groups 
of the Four-and-Twenty Paragons 
of Filial Piety. 

Nanatmi'dcra^ the interior walls 
of which are gilt and decorated with 
good paintings of angels. The large- 
bronze image on the verandah re- 
presents either Dainichi or Amida 
— which of the two is not quite 
certain. 

Osti, Kiuannmi (properly Shim- 
pukuji), already alluded to as a 
popular resort. In front of the 
altar screen are hung, for the use 
of worshippers, copies of a Buddhist 
scripture — the 26th chapter of the 
Myoho BeiigQ Kyd — which recites 
the praises of the Goddess Kwannon. 
This temple possesses the famous 
manuscript of the Kojiki known to 
students of Japanese antiquity as 
the Shimpiiknji'bon, 

Go Uyaku Rakan (properly Dai- 
t-yuji). It is ■ worth applying to 
the custodian for admittance to 
the gallery behind, where are kept 
five hundred images of Buddha's 
chief disciples, mostly about 2 ft. 
high, all brightly painted, and all 
diflerent. Some are smiling, some 
are solemn, some are fierce, some 
stupid-looking, some have a super- 
cilious air, some an air of smug 
self-satisfaction, some few are lying 
down, others are praying, others 
again have their arms extended in 
the attitude of benediction, one has 
three eyes, one holds a tiger-cub in 
his arms, others ride on horses, 
elephants, phoenixes, and so ou 
almost ad infinitum. No wonder 
the Japanese say that among the 
Five Hundred Rakan, everj^ specta- 
tor can find the likeness of his own 
father by dint of a little searching. 

Nagoya, like most other large 
towns, possesses a number of new, 
uninteresting buildings in the style 
or no style known in the Japan of 
to-day as * foreign.' Such are the 
Prefectural Office, the Post and 
Telegraph Office, the Hospital, the 
Normal School, the Court Houses, 
etc. 



268 



Eoute 38. — The Tokaido. 



The only excursion to be recom- 
mended in the neighbourhood of 
Nagoya is to the potteries of Seto 
between 5 and 6 ri distant. See 
Route 36. 

From Nagoya on to Kusatsu the 
railway line desert^s the old Tokaido, 
and, though called the Tokaido 
Railway, really follows the Naka- 
Kendo. Quitting Nagoya, the train 
wends on through more and ever 
more rice-fields, with blue moun- 
tains far ahead, somewhat to the 1. 
They are the mountains dividing the 
provinces ^rOwari and ^lino from 
those of Omi and Ise. Fourteen 
miles out of Nagoya, the line crosses 
the Kisogawa, the river whose 
upper course forms so beautiful a 
portion of the Nakasendo, and 
which is picturesque even here near 
its mouth. 

Glfn (IniiSf * Tamai-ya, Tsuno- 
kuni-ya) is an important place, and 
capital of the prefecture of the same 
name, which includes the two provin- 
ces of Mino and Hida. On a conical 
hill named Inaba-yama, E. of the 
town, stand the remains of a castle 
built by the great warrior Ota 
Nobunaga. Raw silk and the silk 
of the wild silkwonn are produced 
in large quantities in the neigh- 
bourhood, most of "it being woven 
into crape. In this the glittering 
threads of the wild silk, which takes 
the dye in a less degree than that 
of the ordinary silkworm, are intro- 
duced to form the pattern. The 
mon-chirimen woven in this manner 
is a very handsome fabric. 

In the summer-tmie it may be 
worth staying over a night at (jrifu, 
in order to see an extremely curious 
method of fishing with the help of 
cormorants on the River Nagara. 
The traveller is referred for a des- 
cription of this to the article entitled 
Cormorant Fishing in ' Things 
Japanese.' On nearing 

Ognki (InnSj Kyomaru-ya near 
the station ; Tama-ya), the castle 
of the former Daimyo, with one 
turret in fairly good preservation, is 



seen 1. of the line. An expeditioxi. 
may be made from Ogaki to the 
waterfall of Tord-ga-taki, 70 ft. 
high, distant 3 ri among the hills. 
Close to it fossil ferns are found. 
The cascade can also be approached 
from either of the next two stations, 
Tarni and Seki-ga-liara. Here 
the long, weary journey across the 
plain terminates, and the Tokaido 
Railway again enters diversified 
scenery, as it plunges among the hills 
that enclose beautiful Lake Biwa. 

Seki-^-hara takes its nfline, whicb means 
literally *Moor of the Barrier,* from the 
barrier of Fuwa {Futca no seki) establisbecl 
at thi8 spot in A.D. 673 by the Ii^penr 
Tenimu, it bavin}? been a JHpHne«« custom 
from the earliest period down to the begin- 
niD? of the present reign to bani{)er free 
eoDirnunieation throughout the country by 
means of bHrriers near the Ciipital, wliidi 
none misbt pass without a special permit. 
Seki-ga-bara is celebrated in Japmese 
history as the scene of a det-if^ive battle 
fou!?Iit in the year 1600 between Iey.'.8n aad 
Bideyori, son of the ^eut Tlideyoshi, in 
which leyasu triumphed. His camp at 
Seki-ga'hara was on a level piece of ground 
among the hills on the 1. side of the rotid, 
near a hamlet chilled Nogami-mura. 

Between Seki-ga-hara and 
Na^aoka the gradient is steep, 
the line being led up a narrow valley 
opening out on a small plain devoted 
to the cultivation of the mulberry- 
tree. The tall bare mountain fre- 
quently seen looming up to the r. 
during this portion of the journey 
is Ibuki-yama (about 4,300 ft.), one 
of the ' Seven High Mountains * of 
Central Japan, and noted in the 
early Japanese pharmacopoeia for 
its wealth of medicinal plants. 

The 'Seven Higli_ Mountains* are Hiei- 
zan, Hira-yarna in Ouii, Ibuki-yatna, Kim- 
pu-zan (oi Omine) near Yoshino, Atago- 
san in Yamasliiro, Touomine, and Kazn- 
raki-yama. 

Passing among pretty, pine-clad 
hills we reach 

Maibara {Inny Itsutsu-ya at the 
station), whence all the way on to 
Baba, the^ station for the important 
town of Otsu, the line runs along 
the basin of Lake Biwa, though 
unfortunately not near enough to 
the shore to allow of many glimpses 
of the lake being obtained. The 



Weatrni Section of Raihcai/. 



269 



^hole scenery is, however, pretty — 
a,nd pretty in a way of its own. 
Quite close, to the 1., is the range of 
hills forming the Southern rim of 
the Lake Biwa basin ; far awaj to 
the r., in the dim distance, are the 
blue mountains enclosing the lake 
■on the N., while immediately on 
either side of the line, is a fair 
-cultivated plain. At 

Hikoiie (InnSj Kaku-raku-tei, Ma- 
tsu-ya) the former Daimyo's castle 
is seen r. on a wooded hill. Before 
reaching 

!Notogawa, the rivers Serigawa, 
Inukami-gawa, and Echigawa are 
crossed. The cone of Mikami-yama, 
also called Mukade-yama, shaped 
like Fuji but tliickly wooded, begins 
to peep up from behind a nearer 
range of hills before reaching 

Kasatsil. Between this place and 
Baba, the most striking view on the 
whole Tokaido W. of Shizuoka is 
obtained on crossing the long bridge 
that spans the Setagawa, the lake 
opening out beautifully for a few 
minutes. From 

Baba or Otsu (Inn, Minarai- 
tei, foreign style), the line passes 
through a tunnel under Osaka-yania 
(nothing to do with the city of D- 
saka), before reaching the small 
station of 

Otatil, where it emerges on a 
narrow valley. The hills are covered 
with that thick growth of pine-trees 
which is characteristic of all the 
country round about Kyoto. 

[For further details concerning 
the portion of the Tokaid > 
Route^ lying between ISIaibara 
and Otani, see Route 44, en- 
titled Lake Biica.] 

Passing through thQ„stations of 
Tniiiashina and Inari, the train 
enters the old capital, 

Kyoto, fully described in Route 
43, after which it crosses a wide 
plain and passes through several 
minor stations before reaching the 
great commercial town of 

Osaka* described in Route 42. 
From Osaka onwards, the hills in 



the distance to the r. begin to draw 
in, the broad fruitful plain rapidly 
contracts until it becomes a mere 
strip fringing the seashore, and at 
the station of 

Nisliiiioiiiiya there begins to rise 
r. the screen* of somewhat baxaren 
hills that lielp to give Kobe its good 
climate by protecting that part of 
the coast from wintry blasts. The 
high land seen in tlie distance 
across the water is not, as might be 
supposed, an island, but a portion, 
of the province oE Izumi. The three 
tunnels passed through on this sec- 
tion of the journey are remarkable 
as going under river-beds. Owing 
to the proximity of the neigh- 
bouring mountains to the sea, quan- 
tities of sand and stones are swept 
down whenever tlie streams are 
swollen by rain. As a consequence 
of this, the river-beds tend con- 
stantly to raise themselves more 
and more above the general level 
of the country, which they tra- 
verse like dykes. Occasionally of 
course a dyke breaks down, and 
then there is an inundation with 
attendant loss of life and property. 
Soon after passing through 

Sniniyosli], an insignificant place 
not to be confounded with the well- 
known Sumiyoshi near Sakai, the 
train runs in to 

Saiinoiiiiya, and the long jour- 
ney is at an end, Sannomiya being 
the station for the foreign settle- 
ment of Kobe. To go on one station 
further to what is technically called 

Kobe, would carry the traveller 
past his- destination into the 
native town. It must therefore be 
distinctly borne in mind that if 
bound for Kobe, one must book only 
as far as Sannomiya. 

[For Kobe and Neighbourhood, 
sec Route 41.] 



270 



Route 39, — The Xakasendu. 



ROUTE 39. 

The Nakasexdo. 

Itinerary of the Nakasendo from 

Yokohama to Gifu. 

YOKOKAWA to :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Sakamoto 1 31 4^ 

KARUIZAWA . . . . 2 31 7 

Kutsukake 1 10 3 

Oiwake 1 6 2f 

Otai 1 12 3J 

Iwamurata 1 3 2| 

Shionada 1 16 3^ 

Yawata 23 1^ 

Mochizuki 33 2^ 

Ashida 1 9 3 

Nagakubo 1 13 3J 

Wada 2—5 

SHIMO-NO-SUWA 5 23 13f 

Shiojiri ».... 2 30 7 

Seba 1 28 4^ 

Motoyama 28 2 

Kiekawa 2 — 5 

Narai 1 29 4 J 

Yabuhara 1 12 3J 

Miyanokoshi 1 35 4| 

FUKUSHIMA.... 2 11 5| 

Agematbu 2 11 5| 

Suwara 3 7 7f 

Nojiri 1 29 4^ 

Midono 2 11 5$ 

Tsumago 1 8 3 

Magome 1 34 4| 

Ochiai 1 7 3 

NAKATSU-GAWA 1 — 2^ 

Oi 2 25 6^ 

Okute 3 13 8i 

Hosokute 1 26 4J 

Mitake 2 33 7 

Fushimi 18 3 

Ota 1 32 ^ 

Unuma 2 10 5^ 

Kano 4 7 lOJ 

GIFU 24 1| 

Total 68 30 168 



The Nakasendo, or * Centrnl 'Monntnin 
Bood,' is so named in contradistinction to 
the 'I'dkaido, or ^Eaptem bea Road,' and 
the Hokurokudd, or ' Northern Land Road,' 
"between which it occupies a middle posi- 
tion. It runs from Tokyo to Kyoto, pass- 
inpr through the provinces of Musaslii, 
Kdtsuke, Bhinshtt, Mino, Omi, and Ya- 



mashiro. HRke road seems to hare been 
originMlly ctrnftnicted eiirly in the 8th 
centory. Legendary history 8tMt««, how- 
ever, that in the reign of the £mperor 
Keiko (A.D. 71-130), his 8'>n, Prince 
Tamato-take, crossed over the Usui Pass 
during his conquest of Eastern Japan, 
sn^esting the inference that some Kind of 
track was believed to hare existed there 
from the very earliest times, 'ilie railway 
route closely follows that of the ancient 
highway over the well-cultivated plain of 
Tokyo, and is flat lind uninteresting UII 
Takasaki is left behind. 

Though, properly speaking, the 
Nakasendo nins the whole way from 
Tokyo to Kyoto, the jwrtion be- 
tween Yokokawa and Gifu is the 
only one now usually done by road, 
the Tokyo-Takasaki-Karuizawa Rail- 
way, described in Route 12, having 
replaced the Nakasendo across the 
plain of Tokyo, and the final flat piece 
between Gifu and Kyoto being alsa 
now travelled over by the Tokaido 
Railway (see Route 38) . The distance 
between Yokokawa and Gifu may be 
accomplished in 6 or 7 days. Jin- 
rikishas are practicable as far as the 
Wada-toge, after which point it is 
only possible to use them on the 
flat portions of the road, unless one 
takes three or four coolies to each 
jinrikisha. The distance byroad may 
be shortened by taking train to Ta- 
naka on the Karuizawa-Naoetsu 
Railway, IJ hr. from Karuizawa. 
Travellers coming from the direc- 
tion of Naoetsu and desirous of 
joining the Nakasendo, should alight 
at Ueda (see Route 32). Those 
coming from the Kyoto direction 
are advised lo engage jinrikishas at 
Gifu, and to take them right through 
to Yokokawa. At Yokokawa it is 
more difficult to make such an ar- 
rangement for the journey to Gifu. 

The Nakasendo traverses moun- 
tainous, sparsely cultivated districts, 
remote from populous centres, and 
the peasantiy along the route have 
a pinched and poverty-stricken ap- 
pearance. The accommodation, 
however, is fairly good. Milk, beer, 
potatoes, etc., may be procured at 
several places. The best time for 
travelling along the Nakasendo is 
the summer or autumn. Between 



Fratn Karuizaiva to Shiuw-nO'Siiwa, 



271 



January and April this route is not ^ 
to be recommended, on account of 
the snow — especially on the passes. 

For the portion of the road as far 
as Karuizawa, passing through Sa- 
kamoto (Inn, Kodake-ya), see p. 142. 

After passing through 

Kiitsukake {Inn, Masu-ya), and 
OiiTake^i^m,Nakamura), the latter 
a place once possessing some im- 
portance, but now ruined by the 
railway having diverted the traffic 
from the highway, the Nakasendo 
makes a sharp turn to tlio 1. and 
gradually descends the grassy base 
of Asama-yama. 

[For the ascent of this volcano 
see p. 144.] 

The ample sweep of the moun- 
tain is calculated to impress the 
beholder, and the walk over the 
springy turf is most exliilarating. 
Large blocks of lava that lie scat- 
tered about in all directions attest 
the violence of the eruption which 
occurred in 17B3, when Oiwake and 
other places in the vicinity were 
completely destroyed. The track of 
the Karuizawa-Naoetsu Railway is 
crossed about 1 ri after leaving Oi- 
wake. 

Iwamnrata (Inn, Wakamatsu- 
ya) was formerly the seat of a small 
Daimyo, Naito Wakasa-no-Kami. 

[At this place a road branches 
off 1. to Kofu \'ih the Tsuyutare 
Pass. See p. 138] . 

Beyond Shioiiada the road crosses 
the Chikuma-gawa, also called Shi- 
nano-gawa, which, flowing north- 
ward, becomes one of the great 
rivers of Japan and falls into the 
sea at Niigata. Between Yawata 
and 

Mocliiziiki (Inn, Kawachi-ya), 
a fine view of Yatsu-ga-take aud 
the mountains E. of jMatsumoto is 
obtained from a hill called Uryii- 
zaka. From ^lochizuki the road 
giadually rises over undulating 
country formed by the spurs of 
Tateshina-yama to Ashita, a poor 
Till, at the foot of the Kasatori- 
toge. The ascent of this pass, 3,200 



ft. above the sea, is short and easy, 
and from the tea-house at the top,, 
the traveller can enjoy a magnificent 
prospect. The summit of Asama- 
yama rises grandly above Gimba- 
yama, with lesser heights stretching 
away in a line to the 1., while 
below lies the wide moor that has 
just been traversed. At the foot of 
the pass on the other side (650 ft. 
down), is the village of 
Nagnkiibo {Inn, Yamazaki-ya). 
Wada {Inns, Hagawa-ya, Nagai) 
lies at the N.E. foot of the pass of 
the same name {Wada-tdgv), the 
longest and highest en the Kaka- 
sendd, being 5,300 ft. above the 
level of the sea. Snow lies on it up 
to the end of April, but is seldom 
so deep as to block the road* 
Rather than stay overnight at 
Wada, which is often crowded in 
summer, most travellers prefer 
pushing on to the cluster of tea- 
houses (Kiso-ya and Tsuchi-ya are 
the best) collectively known as 

Higashi Mochiya, 6 cho from 
the top of the pass. The glorious^ 
view from the summit may best 
be enjoyed by climbing one of 
the hills to tlie r. of the road,, 
involving ^ lir. delay. To the 
N.E., rises Asama-yama ; to the 
S.E. Tateshina and Yatsu-ga-take ; 
S.W. the eye rests upon the basin 
of Lake Suwa; further to the W. 
stand Koma-ga-take and Ontake,. 
while to the N.W. a great portion 
of the Hida-Shiushu rauge is visible. 
The descent to Shimo-no-Suwa 
soon leads to a dull valley between 
hills of no great height, every avail- 
able nook of which has been brought 
under cultivation. The stone monu- 
ment passed on the way is to the 
memory of six warriors who, sur- 
prised here by the enemy, com- 
mitted harakiri rather than sur- 
render. This was in December, 1863. 
Shiiiio-no-Sinva {Iniis, *Maru-ya, 
KikyO-ya) lies in a large basin, the 
greater part of which is occupied 
by Lake Suwa. It is celebrated 
for its hot-springs, the principal 
of which, called }yata-no-yu, are 






272 



Route 39. — The Xalcasefido. 



situated at the top of the street 
where the Nakaseodo turns to the 
r. and the Kosliu Kaido branches 
off to the 1. The baths are very 
<;lean ; the temperature, 113°.9 F. 
According to the inhabitants these 
waters contain silver. Of the two 
other principal sources in the vill., 
one called Ko-yUj which contains 
alum, has the high ^ temperature of 
145°.4 ; the other, called Tanga-ytiy 
has a temperature of 114°.8. As 
in the case of many Japanese spas, 
Shimo-no-Suwa is apt to be noisy 
of an evening. In the day time it 
is busy with the silk industr5\ The 
only buildings of any interest at 
Shimo-no-Suwa are two temples 
dedicated to the Shinto goddess 
Yasaka-iri-hime, one of which is 
•called HarU'tw-viiyay or the Spring 
Temple, the other, Aki-iio-vm/a, or 
the Autumn Temple. In the grounds 
of the latter stands a cryptomeria 
remarkable for its gigantic size. A 
quarter of an hour's walk taJces one 
to the lake which is almost circular 
in form, having a diameter of about 
1 ri. Its depth is said to be 35 ft. 

Lake Suva freezes oyer most winters so 
solidly that lienvily laden pack horses can 
cross over to Kami-no-Svwa^ near tlie S. E. 
extremity of the iHke, "with perfect safety. 
U'he inhabitAnts do not, however, venture 
upon the i<'e until it has cracked across, 
believing? this to be a sipn from heaven. 
8ome attribute the ernckingr to the foxes. 
Durinjf the winter the flj<hennen make 
holes in tlie ice, through which tliey insert 
their nets and contrive to take a ctjnsider- 
able quantity of lish, especially caip. From 
the JS. end of Lake Suwa issues the 
TennQ-pawa, wliich flows into the sea on 
the Tokaido. For the descent of the flue 
rapids of this river see p. 240. 

From Shimo-no-Suwa the Naka- 
sendo runs for some distance 
through rich rice-fields extending 
to the edge of the lake. To tlie foot 
of the Shiojiri-toge is a distance of 
21 cho. On looking back, views of 
Fuji are obtained from different 
points. The ascent of the pass is 
at first gentle, and in the steeper 
part there is a well-graded jinriki- 
sha road. But pedestrians will do 
best to take the older and steeper 



path, which saves time and af- 
fords finer views. The finest view^ 
of all is to be obtained from a 
slight eminence to the 1. of the road 
at the top, 3,340 it. above the sea. 
Below lies the lake with villages 
studded over the adjacent plain. Of 
the high mountains that almost com- 
pletely encircle the lake basin, Ya- 
tsu-ga-take is the most prominent. 
To the r. of the dip at the far-end of 
the lake, a portion of Fuji is seen 
behind the nearer range. The sharp 
peak further round to the r. is the 
K5shu Koma-ga-take, and further 
away rises the long summit of 
Shirane-san. A little further back, 
the top of On take is just visible- 
Just behind are the lofty peaks of 
the range separating the plain of 
^Matsumoto from the province of 
Hida. The descent on the other 
side is very easy. Passing through 

Sliiojiri (Inn^ Kawakami), Seba> 
and , 

Moloyama (Inn, Hanamura-ya), 
we come to some charming scenery 
on the banks of the Saigawa, and 
follow that river to 

Nie^awrt, where the inn kept by 
by Okuya Dembei is the most com- 
fortable to be found anywhere 
on this route. Niegawa marks the 
commencement of the Kiso district, 
watered by the Kisogawa, which is 
famous for its beauty. Hence the 
alternative name of the Kiso Kaido, 
by which the Nakasendo is some- 
times mentioned. After Niegawa, 
the road crosses the river to Hira- 
sawa, where cheap and useful 
lacquered articles are made in large 
quantities, and then re-crosses to 

Narai [Inns, Echigo-ya, Tokkuri- 
ya), 3,330 ft. above the sea at 
the foot of the ToiH-toge. This 
pass, though short, is steeper than 
those hitherto crossed on the Naka- 
sendo ; the height of the summit is 
4,200 ft., the distance from Narai to 
that point being 22 chb. f^rom the 
top, the eye wanders over the valley 
through which the upper waters of 
the Kisogawa fiow. The foliage is 
very fine, — beeches, horse-chestnuts^ 



Tlie Kiso Valley, Ftihtshima, . Agematsn, 



27a 



walnut-trees, and maples, which in 
autumn blaze with every tint of 
red and yellow. 

The name of this pass is derived from 
the torii on the top, dedicated to Ontnke, 
the summit of which luountaiu is visible 
hence on a clear day. Strange as it may 
seetn, two battles were foug-lit oa this spot 
in the 16th century, between some of the 
rival chieftains who, during that period of 
Anarchy, shared Eastern Japan amongst 
^em. From the base of Asama-ynma up 
to this point, the prevalent formation is 
stratified rock which breaks up into small 
sharp pieces extremely uncomfortable to 
the feet, while beyond it is chiell/ granite 
'vrhich, when disintegrated, forms au excel- 
lent material for road-making. 

The descent to Vabliliara (Inns, 
Xawakami, Kawashima-ya), 8,150 
ft. above the sea, is by an easy 
gradient. The peasants, both male 
and female, of this neighbourhood 
wear a divided skirt of a peculiar 
cut. They also use an odd kind of 
spade, heavy and two-handled. The 
diggers stand opposite each other, 
one delving, the other using the 
second handle to assist in raising 
the blade for the next blow. Good 
potatoes are grown hereabouts, 
and are largely used, not only for 
food, but for the manufacture of 
spirits (sJidchu). 

[From Yabuhara a road follows 
the r. bank of the Kisogawa 
nearly up to its source, and 
passes over into the province of 
Hida.] 

The road now follows the 1. bank 
of the Kisogawa, crossing to the r. 
bank at a point where tlie valley 
contracts and. begins to wind about. 
After passing 

MiyAiiokoshi (Imi, Tonari-ya), 
there is a fine view near the 
village ' of Ueda of the Shinshii 
£oma-ga-take, which consists of 
several rugged peaks rising to an 
altitude of over 10,000 ft. The 
lower hill in front is called Suisho- 
zan, from the fact that rock-crystals 
are found in it. All the avail- 
able ground near ^liyanokoshi is 
planted with mulberry trees. Most 
of the silk produced finds its way to 
the looms of Nagahama in Omi. 



Fliklishima [Inn, Suimei-ro, pic- 
turesquely situated) is a good-sized 
town extending along both banks of 
the Kisogawa. The portion of the 
route between Fukushima and 
Agematsu surpasses all the rest of 
the Nakasendo both in charm and 
grandeur. Indeed, either Fuku- 
shima or 

Agematsn (Inny Hakuichi-ya) 
would be a delightful place for the 
lover of mountain scenery to stay 
at for a few days. Both Ontake 
and Koma-ga-take • can be conveni- 
ently ascended from these points. 
(See Koute 34.) 

The next object of interest on 
the road is the monastery of Rhi- 
zetiji, from the grounds of which a 
steep path descends to a plat- 
form of rock known as Nemme no 
tokOy or ' the Bed of Awakening.' 

This curions name is derived from a 
local tradition which avers tliat Urashima, 
the Japanese Rip Van Winkle (see Ete. 47),. 
awoke in this spot from his long' dream. 
Others, more matter-of-fact, explain the 
name to mean that tlie view * wakes up,' 
that is, startles those who come upon it. 

Besides the * platform,' there are 
other rocks, precipitous and pic- 
turesque, to which fanciful names 
have been given, such as the Screen 
Rock, th6 Mat Rock, etc. The native 
guide-bbok says, * The wonderful 
scenery at this spot surpasses even 
the most magnificent prospects in 
other parts. Its noble character 
can scarcely be fully appreciated by 
the mind or adequately described 
in language ! ' 

The Namcgawa is next crossed 
by a bridge from which there is a 
fine view of Koma-ga-take up the 
gorge. A little beyond this on the 
1., just before reaching Ogiwara, is 
the Cascade of Ono, Fifteen clio- 
further on is thevill. of Tatsumachi, 
and 1^ ri more journeying brings 
the traveller to 

Siiwara (Inn, Sakura-ya), which 
lies in a more open part of the 
valley, nearer to the level of the 
river. At Hashiwa, a hamlet 
beyond Suwara, skins of the great 
falcon {kimia-taka) and of the 



Uli 



FiOiOe 39. — llie XaJcasendo, 



sheep-faced antelope (iwa'sUika) are 
hung out for sale. From 

Nojiri (Inn, Furu-ya) to 

Midoiio (Inn, Miyagawa) is the 
narrowest part of the valley ; the 
rocks are steep, and the road over- 
hangs the rushing stream. In many 
places it is laid on ledges huilt out 
from the rock, and at one point passes 
over a projecting rock by means of 
two bridges thrown across deep gul- 
lies. Tsumago should be avoided as 
s. halting-place, the inns being un- 
usually poor and malodorous. The 
road now ascends the Magome-iogc 
by a gentle gradient. The summit 
commands an extensive view of the 
province of Mino, with its low-lying, 
somewhat bare and sandy hills. On 
the other side of the pass is the 
vill. of 

MngOiiie (Inn, Kuno-ya), perched 
on the top of a wooded hill cut into 
terraces for the cultivation of rice. 
The descent from Magome is called 
the Jdh-kokn-toge, said to be a cor- 
ruption of Jik-kyokiij or ' ten turn- 
ings.' About 400 ft. below Magome, 
s. post marks the boundary between 
the provinces of Shinshu and Mino. 
Ochiai lies in a hollow by the 
side of an affluent of the Kiso- 
g&wsi, which latter river here again 
comes in sight to the r. The road now 
crosses the spurs of Ena-san until 
' reaching 

^akaitsii-^awa (Inn, Hashiriki), 
which is situated close to the base 
of that mountain. From here the 
way is mostly hilly on to 

Ui (l7in, Ishikawa). 

[Between Oi and Mitake, a dis- 
tance of 8 rl along the Najca- 
sendo, 1 ri may be saved by 
diverging along branch roads 
called the Shita Kaidb and 
Naka , Kaidb, passing through 
the village of Kamado (Inn, 
Suzuki), and avoiding the climb 
over tlie Ju-san-toge. On this 
route lies a gorge lined with 
great black boulders of curious 
shape, known by such names 
as the 'The Devil's Washing 



Basin,* * The Hanging BeU 
Rock,' etc. Ciystals and pebbles 
of various colours are found 
here.] 

The road from Oi to Okute lies 
over a succession of hills called the 
Ju'San-tdge, or * Thirteen Passes,' 
none of which are very high. From 
an elevation above the Shichi-Jion- 
matsti-mka, or Hill of the Seven 
PJne-Trees, there is a grand view of 
both Ontake and Koma-ga-take. The 
general aspect of the surrounding 
hills is bare. 

•Oknte (Inn, Yamashiro-ya) is & 
neat town ou the level. Between 
here and 

Hos kiite (Inn, Matsu-ya), the 
road passes over a series of hills 
called collectively the Biiva-tbge. 
At Hosokute the traveller should 
ask for a tsngiimi, a kind of thrush 
preserved in ye&st (kbji-znke), which 
when slightly roasted is delicious, 
and forms a welcome addition to- 
monotonous travelling fare. Passing 
through 

At i take (Inn, Kawaguchi-ya) and 
Fnshimi, we cross the Kisogawa to 

Ota (inn, Iwaiya), from which 
place the river is navigable. From 
Ota to, Gifu there is little to 
mention, except that this part of the 
route is the most comfortable for 
jinrikisha riding. The well-kept road 
passes through vistas of green 
avenues, with beautiful glimpses of 
the Kisogawa which now becomes 
a broad and deep river. 

Gifii (see p. 268). 



1 



Route 40. — Voyage from Yokohama to Kobe, 



275 



ROUTE 40. 

By steamer from Yokohama to 
KoBE.f 

While steaming down Tokyo Bay, 
there is a good view of Fuji with 
the Hakone range in the foreground 
on the r. ; on the 1. is the flat shore 
of the province of Kazusa. At 1 hr. 
the ship will be near Kwannon-zaki, 
on which there is a fixed white light 
visible 14 miles, showing a red ray 
in a certain direction to guide ves- 
sels clear of Saratoga Spit (Futtsu- 
saki) and Plymouth Bocks to the 
southward. 

One of the first BritiRli men-of-war to 
enter Tokyo Bay, the old * Imp^rieuse,* 
flHg-ship of Adinii-al 8ir James Hope, 
urrounded un Saratov Spit, and had to 
throw her guns overboai'd before she could 
be floated off. 

Powerful forts have been con- 
structed on Kwannon-zaki and on 
Saratoga Spit for the defence of the 
Bay. After passing Kwaunon-zaki, 
the ship steers down the Uraga 
Channel, so called from the town of 
that name on the shores of a small 
harbour a few miles S.W. of Kwan- 
non-zaki, which was formerly the 
port of entry for Tokyo Bay. At 2 
hrs. Tsurugi-saki, the south end of 
the channel, is rounded, where 
there is a light visible 24 m. 
Thence the track lies S.W. to Rock 
Island across the Bay of Sagami, 
which opens on the r., and close past 
the north end of Vries Island, des- 
cribed in Route 8. From 4 to 6 hrs. 
the ship will be running almost paral- 
lel to the coast of the peninsula of 
Izu, within 10 m. of the shore. A 
fine prospect may be enjoyed of its 
rugged mountain chain, with Fuji 
beyond, bearing N.W. At 6 hrs. 
Hock Island (Mikomoto)^ ofi the 
extreme S. of Izu, is reached ; 
on it is a fine light visible 20 m. 
From Rock Island, the direct route 



t The expressions * at 1 hour,' *■ at 2 liours,' 
etc., in the description of this voyage, 
signify * when the steamer has been 1 hour 
out of Yokohama,' *■ 2 hours out of Yoko- 
hama,' etc., taking 12 knots per hour as 
the average speed. 



is W.S.W. to the S.E. extremity 
of the province of Kishu. This 
course, which is followed in the 
summer months, leads the ship so 
far off shore that there is little to 
be distinguished. But in winter 
the N.W. winds generally blow so 
strongly that,^to avoid the heavy 
sea, the ship, after passing Rock 
Island, is kept due W., crossing 
the mouth of Suruga Gulf, and 
at 9 hrs. is off Omae-saki, dis- 
tinguishable at night by a red 
light visible 19 m. Fuji is now 60 
m. distant, and will not be seen, 
much after this point eitcept in clear 
winter weather. From Omae-saki 
the track recedes for some hours 
from the land, which, being low, is 
not particularly interesting ; and if 
the ship left Yokohama just before 
sunset, this part will be passed in 
the night. At 13 hrs. the ship is 
ofi Owari Bay, a deep bay stretch- 
ing some 30 m. to the northward, 
narrow at the entrance, but widening 
out considerably inside. It is from. 
Omae-saki to this point that the 
voyage is generally most trying to 
bad sailors. At 15 hrs. the _ship is 
ofi Cape Shima, whence to Oshima 
is a run of 70 m., gradually ap- 
proaching the land, where fine views 
of the bold and picturesque moun- 
tains of the provinces of Kishu and 
Yamato are to be had. 

This Oiihiraa is of course different from 
the O'ihiuia (Vries Iijland) mentioned above. 
There are uumeix>us Oshima's off the Japa- 
nese coa^t, which is not to be wondeied at, as 
the naiJie means ' big island.' ThiH particiilar 
Oshitiia ha-s been the scene of repeated 
maritime disitsters. The latest and moet 
terrible was tlie foundering of the Tur^ 
kish man-of-war 'Ei1x)Ugroul' in siep- 
tember, 1890, when 502 men perished out of 
a ci'ew of 571. 

From 16 hrs. to 29 hrs. is generally 
considered the most enjoyable part of 
the run from Yokohama to Kobe, and 
the traveller should make a point o£ 
being on deck as much as possible. 
Rounding Oshima, which is marked 
by a red light visible 18 miles, at 
20 hrs., the vessel is close enough, 
to the shore to note the thickly 
studded fishing villages, whose fleets 



276 



EotUe 40. — Voyage from Yokohmna to Kobe, 



of boats cover the water for miles. 
On both sides of the Kii (or Kishu) 
Promontory, whale-fishing with nets 
is carried on. Half an hour's 
steaming from Oshima brings us to 
Shio Misaki, on which is a light 
visible 20 m., intended to guide 
vessels from the eastward.' From 
Shio Misaki the track lies close 
along the shore — sometimes within 
2 m., seldoln more than 4 m. — to 
Hiino Misaki, a run of about 60 
m., which, if made in daylight, 
will be even more enjoyable than 
the 70 miles mentioned above. 
The hills of the bold and rugged 
coast of Kishu to the r. are said to 
abound in pheasants, deer, bears, 
and monkej^s. The land now visi- 
ble on the 1. is the East coast of 
the Island of Shikoku. At 25 hrs. 
the ship is off Hiino Misaki, and 
after steering due North for 26 m., 
will pass through Izumi or Yura 
Strait, which is about 6 m. wide, 
the passage for ships being narrowed 
to 2 m. by two islands called Ji-no- 



shima and Oki-no-shima, on the W^ 
side of which latter is a lighthouse^ 
From Izumi Strait to Kobe is a run 
of 30 m. across a completely land- 
locked bay, with the large Island of 
Awaji on the 1. Kobe is generally- 
reached at from 28 to 30 hrs., wea- 
ther being favourable. 

Passenger steamers usually re- 
main 24 hrs. at Kobe, which gives 
travellers an opportunity to visit 
Osaka and Kyoto. 

The chief distances of the run 
between Yokohama and Kobe, as 
made by the Nippon Ywien Kivai- 
sha's steamers, are as follows : — 

Yokohama to : — Miles, 

Lightship 2 

Kwannon-zaki 14 

Cape Sagami 23 

Rock Island 74 

Oshima 244 

Hiino Misaki 297 

Oki-no-shima , 322 

Hyogo Point ! 346 

Company's Buoy 348 



SECTION V. 

WESTERN JAPAN AND THE 

INLAND SEA. 

(Routes 41 — ^0. 



Eonte 41. — Kobe and Xeighboiirhood, 



279 



= ROUTE 41. 

Kobe and Neighbourhood. 

'— ^jkuta. nunobiki waterfalls. 

^ suwa-yama. maya-san (the moon 

temple). futatabi-san. obu. 

t momiji-dera. taisanji. takara- 

Jl ZUKA. BISMARCK HILL. SUMA, 

maiko, and akashi on the sanyo 

railway. mino. arima. rokko- 

san. hyogo. 

Kobe. 

Hotels. — Oriental, No. 80, near the 
centre of the Settlement ; Hyogo 
Hotel, facing the sea and close to 
the landing-place in the Settlement ; 
Hdtel des Colonies. 

• Japanese Inn. — Tokiwa. 
Consulates. — British (including 

Austro-Hungarian and Spanisli), 

and German (including Italian) on 

the Bund ; American, No. 15, 

Settlement ; French, No. 21. 

. Ba7iks. — Hongkong and Shanghai 

Bank, No. 2, Bund ; New Oriental, 

No. 11, Bund ; Agents for Chartered 

, Mercantile Bank of India, London 

j and China, No. 7 ; Agents for 

I Chartered Bank of India, Australia 

and China, No. 26. 

Churches. — Union Protestant 
Church (Anglican and Congrega- 
tional services), No. 48; Roman 
Catholic, No. 37. 

Curio-dealers. — Museum of Arts 
and Manufactures, No. 30, Settle- 
ment, a foreign store. 
Native Curio-shops. — Echigo-ya 
I and variqus others in Moto-machi ; 
[ Ohashi, for modern art products, at 
j the end of Division Street near the 

railway. 
I PJwtographers. — Ichida, in Moto- 
machi (5lain Street), native town ; 
Kasuga, in Sakae-machi. 
Newspapers. — *' Hyogo News " 

• and " Kobe Herald," daily. 
Steadier Agencies. — Peninsular 

[and Oriental Co., No. 109; Mes- 
«ageries Maritimes, No. 5 ; Nord- 
deutscher Lloyd, No. 10 ; Canadian 
Pacific, No. 26; Nippon YGsen 



r 



Kwaisha, No. 2, Native Bund. 
Kobe is also the centre for the 
numerous small steamers plying on 
the coast of the Inland Sea. 

The Kobe Club and the Recreation 
Ground for cricket, base-ball, lawn- 
tennis, &c., are at the E. end of the 
Settlement. 

r/iea/rc.^— Daikoku-za, at Nanko- 
mae in the Japanese town. There 
is also one at Hyogo called Ben- 
ten-za. 

The Post and Telegraph Office and 
the terminus (Kobe station) of the 
Tokaido Railway from Yokohama to 
Kobe are in the native town at the 

« 

W. end of Sakae-machi. The sta- 
tion nearest to the Settlement for 
travellers to Osaka, Kyoto, and 
Yokohama is Sannomiya, 5 min. 
from the landing-place, following 
Division street. Kobe station is 
also the terminus of the Sanyo 
line running down the shore of the 
Inland Sea, and travellers in that 
direction should, in order to avoid 
delay, start from Kobe station, not 
from Sannomiya. No passports are 
required for Osaka; but persons 
travelling to places beyond that 
town in one direction, and to Hi- 
meji and beyond in the other, are 
compelled to produce passports be- 
fore tickets are issued to them. 
Local passports for Kyoto, Nara» 
and the shores of Lake Biwa are 
procurable at the foreign department 
of the Prefecture; but strangers 
must apply for them through their 
consulates. More extensive pass- 
ports are obtainable within three or 
four days from the Japanese For- 
eign Office in Tokyo, on application 
through the Consulates. 

Kobe was opened to foreign trade in 
1S68. Previous to that time the ntttiTS 
trade whs carried on at Hyogo. a lance 
town adjoiuin;? Kobe on the 6.W., and 
griviug its name to the whole Prefecture. 
The municipal affairs of the Hettlement 
are managed by a Council consisting of the 
Japanese prefect, the foreign consuls, and 
three elected mernbei's of the community. 
Owing to the increase in the trade and 
populatiou of the port. Kobe is rapidly 
extending bevond the Settlement up the 
slope to the foot of the hills, as far as the 



280 



Botite 41, — Kobe and ^eif/JihowJiood, 



[ 



limit within which foreigners are allowed 
to lease land uud houses. 

Kobe is the favourite open port in 
Japan, owing to the purity and dry- 
ness of its air, and its nearness to 
many places of beauty and interest, 
such as Kyoto, Lake Biwa, Nara, 
and the Inland Sea. The neigh- 
bourhood abounds in pretty walks 
and picnic resorts, of wliich the fol- 
lowing are the chief : — 

1. Ikllta. The Shinto temple of 
Ikuta stands in a wood of crjp- 
tomerias and camphor trees, 5 min. 
walk behind the foreign Settlement. 
The deity worshipped is Waka- 
hirume-no-^Iikoto, who may be 
styled the Japanese Minerva, as she 
is supposed to have taught the use 
of the loom and to have introduced 
clothing. 

The t*»mple is said to have been fonnded 
by the Empre»s Jin^o on her return from 
her famous expedition ng'ains»t Korea, in 
honour of ttiis goddcHS w}iom (she had 
adopted as the patr<»ness of lier enterpiise, 
and to whom she owed the victory f?iiined 
by her arm^j. Hideyoslii, wlien despatch- 
ing his expedition to Korea in the 16th 
century, caused prayers to be offered up at 
the shrine of this proddess. I'rayers to 
her in seasons of drousfht or o^ excessive 
rain are said to be invariably answered. 

J Pestivrtl, 3rd Aijril. Annual fuir, 23rd to 

I 27th September. 

A 2. The Niiiiobikl Watcifiills are 

about 20 min. from the Settlement, 
past the Recreation Ground. Tlie 
path first reffches the Me-dakij or 
'Female Fall,' 43 ft. high; then 
j)as.sing through a tea-house and 
over a covered bridge, it reaches 
other tea-houses which command a 
view of the upper, or * Male Fall ' 
{Odakl), 82 ft. high. Troops of 
large monkeys arc sometimes seen 
in this neighbourhood. A good 
view of Kobe and the surrounding 
country may be had from Sunago- 
yama, a detached hill near the fall. 
^here is a tea-house at the top. 

3. SniYa-yaiiin. This spur of the 
range behind Kobe, crowned by tea- 
houses where mineral baths may be 
taken, commands an extensive 
view of the town and sea-shore. It 
fras here that, in 1874, the transit 



of Venus was observed by a party of 
French astronomers. 

4. Mnya-san is the name of one 
of the liighest peaks (2,490 ft.) of 
the range behind Kobe. The sum- 
mit is about 2 hrs. walk from Kobe^ 
return 1^ hr. This place is known 
to foreigners as .the Moo7i Temple — 
a purely fanciful designation, as 
the place has nothing to do with. 
the moon, but is dedicated to Maya. 
Bunin, the mother of Buddha. The 
temple stands on a platform at the 
top of a stone staircase, about* 
400 ft. below the top of the moun- 
tain, which is reached by passing 
through a door to the 1. of the 
chapel in the rear, before ascending.. 
The temple contains a small image 
of Maya Bunin, one of a pair 
made by order of Wu Ti of the Liang 
dynasty (A.D. 502-529), with the 
object of diminishing the mortality 
of women in child-birth, which was. 
very great during his reign. It was. 
obtained by Kobu Daishi during his 
stay in China. 

A, 5. Fiitatnbisati, a temple dedi- 
cated to Kobo Daishi, stands on a^ 
conical hill covered with trees- 
behind the first i*ange of hills to the 
N. of Kobe. It is accessible either 
by a stiff climb of 1 hr. through & 
pass properly called Kuruma-dani, 
but known to tlic foreign residents. 
as ' Hunter's Ciap,' at the foot of 
which is a small spring containing 
sulphur, or by a more roundabout 
but less steep ascent entering a valley 
to the W. of Suwa-yama. The view 
from the top repays the climb, and 
the outlook to the N. is picturesque,, 
giving a bird's-eye view of the lake 
and bare weather-worn hills known 
to foreigners &s Aden jWhich locality 
the prospect somewhat resembles. 
The Japanese name is Shari-yama. 
In the autumn, the colouring of the 
foliage on Futatabi is particularly 
fine. Near the summit, on the 
r. hand going up, is the Kaine- 
ishif a rock the top of which is 
roughly fashioned into the head and 
fore-legs of a tortoise (kamc). 



WalJcs ami Excursions. 



281 



6. An agreeable round of a little 
•over 3 hrs. may be made by 
passing Futatabi-san on the W., 
descending to Aden, and taking a 
path along the W. shore of the lake, 
■which leads into the Arima road 
near Obu, whence the pedestrian 
•can return to Kobe viA Hyogo. 
-Jinrikishas may usually be procured 
:at the Obu-no-chaya, a tea-house a 
little way up the Arima road. 

7. A pleasant walk may be taken 
"by following up the waterfall stream 
above the falls ; but a time should 
"be chosen when the stream is not 
•over-full, as the path crosses it 
some twenty times by means of 
stepping-stones. From points on 
this path the ascent may be made 
-of Futatabi-san on the W., and of 
Iklaya-san on the E. 

8. A track following the summit 
•of the first range at the back of 
Kobe from E. to W. affords, along 
its entire length, a fine view of the 
•sea. One of the ways down near 
Suyama passes tlirough the Crema- 
tion Ground, where cremation is 
•carried on in a way more curious 
than agreeable to the senses of sight 
tind smell. 

9. Zenshoji or Momijl-dera, that 
is, * Maple Temple,' lies some dis- 
tance beyond Hyogo. Though the 
walk there is uninteresting, the 
temple itself is prettily situated. 
Further again to the \V., in the 
hills behind Takatori-yama or, ' Coal 
Hill,' lies Taisanjiy a large collec- 
tion of old temple buildings, situated 
in a valley surrounded by finely 
wooded hills. 

10. A good walk may be taken by 
following the road from Karasu- 
wara on the outskirts of Hj'ogo, 
through the ' Horse-shoe Valley ' to 
Obn. Particular notice should be 
taken of a precipitous rock high 
up the hillside on the 1. hand. On 
its face the Buddhist invocation 
Namit Amida Butsit has been cut 
in gigantic characters, to accom- 
plish which the person who carved 



them must have been suspended 
from the summit by a rope. 

The railway now affords facilities 
for making a number of more dis- 
tant excursions. Such are those to 

11. TaknraziikA (*Takarazuka 
Hotel, foreign style), 1 hr. by jin- 
rikisha from Nishiuomiya station. 
This place has good mineral baths 
and several pretty walks, especially 
those to the temples of Kojin-san* 
and Nagahama. 

12 In the same direction is Ka~ 
hiito-yama, called by the foreign re- 
sidents Bismarck Hill, from the re- 
semblance of the four trees on its 
summit to the four hairs which the 
great Chancellor is said to have on his 
liead. Curious stone images and 
shrines are here to be seen perched 
on apparently inaccessible pinnacles. 
The climb, easy as far as the temple 
of Hachiman, is almost breakneck 
from there to the summit ; but the 
view is magnificent, this hill being 
a landmark for the whole country- 
side and for ships navigating up the 
Kii Channel. From the bridge at 
Nishinomiya the top can be reached 
in 1^ hr. 

13. Siiiiia, Maiko, and Akaslii are 

well-known places on the Sanyo 
Railway, where the Kobe residents 
often hire summer lodgings. The 
following inns may be recommend- 
ed: — Ho3^o-in at Suma; Kame-ya 
at Maiko; and Hashimoto-ya at 
Akashi. At Akashi, which is a 
pleasant spot for picnics, there is 
a fine temple in honour of the 
ancient poet Kaki-no-moto-no-Hito- 
maro. Akashi is also remarkable 
as the place recently selected as the 
time meridian for all Japan. 

From the time of Hitomaro early in the 
8tli century onward, the Japanese poets 
have never tired of sin sing' the beauties of 
this pine-clad coast. Here also is laid the 
scene of some of the most celebrated chap- 
ters of the Genji Monogatariy the greatest 
of the classical romances, composed cArcn 
A.D. 1000. This coast has likewise been 
the scene of stirring historical events, 
more particularly of a great battle fought 
in the year 1184 between the armies of the 
rival clans of Taira and Minamoto, -who 



282 



Boiite 41. — Kobe and Xeighbourhood. 




were then »till strnggrling for ix)1itical 
supremacy, though the final triumph of the 
Mioamoto in tne person of Yoritoino was 
not far off. Tlie battle was fought close 
to the W. end of Suma in a ralley called 
Ichi-no-tani, nnd whs the occasion of au 
incident famous in history and song as the 
'Death of Atsumori.' (See Kumagui Nao- 
zanif, p. 42.) 

14. Hirano. This place, suitable 
for picnics, is situated 10 m. north 
of Kanzaki Station on the Tokai- 
do Bail way. A jinrikisha road 
leads to it, passing about half-way 
a very pretty gorge through which 
dashes a stream called Tsuzumi-ga- 
taki. The mineral spring of Hirano 
is the Apollinaris of Japan. Visi- 
tors will be shown over the establish- 
ment by the manager. 

15. Mino. This pjace is best 
Teached by train to Osaka, whence 
it is a 2 hrs. jinrikisha ride. The 
jinrikishas must be left at the en- 
trance of the vill. Shortly beyond, 
the path enters a beautiful glen 
some 2 m. in length, terminated 
abruptly by a tall cliff over which 
falls a cascade 70 ft. high. The 
best time to visit Mino is in Novem- 
ber, when the maple-trees glow 
vith an almost incredible blaze of 
colours. It is also very pretty in 
April, when the cherry-trees are in 
blossom. Some way up the glen, 
on the r., is a temple with a little 
pavilion overlooking the stream — a 
favourite spot for picnics. 

16. Arinia (Innsj Sugimoto, Masu- 
da, and Kiyomizu, all with Euro- 
pean food and beds), the favourite 
hill station and summer resort of 
the Kobe residents, lies 9 m. from 
Kobe as the crow flies, and is 1,400 ft. 
above sea level. The air is cool, the 
scenery pretty enough though not 
remarkable,, and there are pleasant 
rambles to be made in the vicinity. 
The arrangements at the mineral 
springs are not specially adapted 
for foreign visitors; but all the inns 
have an abundance of beautifully 
clear, cold water. Arima may be 
most easily reached by taking the 
train to Sumiyoshi, 15min., and then 
walking over the Kokko-san Pass, 



I a distance of 8 m. for which ^ 
hrs. must be allowed. Persons in- 
capable of walking so far can hire 
chairs at Sumiyoshi station, and get 
carried up in 4 hrs. The pass, which 
is about two-thirds of the way to- 
Arima, lies 3,000 ft. above the sea. 
From the top of liokko-san itself^ 
200 ft. higher, a fine view may be 
obtained. 

16. It is easy from Kobe to visit 
the large and interesting Island of 
Awaji, which forms the subject- 
matter of Boute 49, and to start 
on the tour down the Inland Sea 
sketched out in Route 50. 

Hyogo. 

Hyogo (Inn^ Tokiwa) adjoins. 
Kobe on the S.W. It begins just 
beyond the Minato-gawa, which is- 
easily distinguished by the tall pine- 
trees lining its banks. The bed of 
this river, like many others along 
this coast, is raised to a consid> 
erable height above the surround- 
ing country, owing to the masses of 
sand and pebbles continually swept 
down from the neighbouring hills^ 
It is generally dry, except im- 
mediately after heavy rain. The 
banks have been neatly laid out so 
as to form a public walk, which 
leads to the Shinto temple erected 
since the Kestoration of 1868 to 
the memory of the loyal warrior 
Kusunoki ^Masashige. — The Bud- 
dhist temple of ShijiJxdji, possesses a 
large bronze Buddha which is worth 
a ^'isit. In the same locality is a 
monument to Kiyomori, consisting; 
of a pagoda-shaped pillar 20 ft. 
high. The temple of Seifukuji will 
be familiar by name to all admirers- 
oi Mitford's * Tales of Old Japan,- 
as the scene of the Jmrakiri which 
he witnessed and so graphically 
describes. More modern, having 
been only completed in 1891, is the 
Daibutsu at the temple of Nd/ukuji. 
This large image of Buddha is 43 ft. 
high, and 85 ft. round the waist ; the 
length of the face is 8.^ ft., the eye 
3 ft., the ear 6 ft., the nose 3} ft.» 



Boute 42, — OsaJsa and Neighbourhood. 



2da 



the mouth 2} ft., the diameter of 
the lap 25 ft., and the circumference 
of the thumb 2 ft. 

Hydgo first rose into prominence in the 
latter part of the 12th ceutoiy, when Kiyo- 
mori removed the capital from KyOto to 
Fukuwara in the immediate vicinity. This 
change of capital only lasted six months — 
from the 26th June, 1180, to the 20th 
December of the same year; but Kiyo- 
mori's partiality for the place left perma- 
nent effects, he having diverted the bed of 
the Minato-gawa to its present coarse so aa 
to prevent it from flooding the town, and 
having constructed the artificial island 
of Tsakijima virhich subsists to this day. 
The stuuy bed of the Minato-gawa was 
the scene, in A.D. 1336, of a bloody battle 
between tiie partisans of thb rightful Km- 
peror Go-Daigo, and Takauji, founder 
of the Aflhikaga line of Shoguus. In this 
battle the famous loyal warriors Nitta 
Toshisada and Kusunoki Masashige suf- 
fered a crushing defeat, after which Masa- 
shige, rather than fly, committed harakiri. 



ROUTE 42. 
Osaka and Neighbourhood. 

1. THE city: the mint, tenjin 
sama, kozu-no-miya, ikudama-no- 
jinja, tennoji, dotombobi, hon- 
gwanji temples. 2. neighbour- 
hood : sumiyoshi and sakai. 

1. — The City of Osaka. 

Osaka, also pronounced Ozaka, 
is reached by the Tokaido Railway 
from Kobe in a little over 1 hr., and 
from Kyoto in 1^ hr. 

Hotel. — Jiutei, in Nakanoshima, 
10 min. from the Tokaido Railway 
station. 

Japanese Inn. — Tokiwa. 

Japanese Restaurant. — Soikwan- 
ro. 

Post and Telegraph Offices. — At 
the Umeda Railway station, at 
Shinsai-bashi, at Korai-bashi, and 
in the Foreign Settlement. 

Theatres. — In the Dotombori. 

Curio Dealers. — Yamanaka, Ogu- 
ni, and others at Korai-bashi. 



Silk Mercers. — Mitsui, at Korai- 
bashi; Daimaru, in the Shinsai- 
bashi-suji ; and Obashi-ya in Mido- 
suji. 

There are many good shops 
of various kinds in the Shinsai- 
bashi-suji. The bazaars (kwankdba) 
deserve a visit. The best are the 
Furitsu Hakiibtitsti-jo between 
Umeda Station and Tennoji, the 
Shohin Mihon Chinretsu-jb in D6- 
jima, and the Shbgyb Club at 
Imamiya. 

For Steam Communication to 
Awaji and Inland Sea ports, see 
Routes 49 and 50. 

Eailway Stations. — There are 
three, viz., one at Umeda for the 
Tokaido, one in Mitiatockb for Nara, 
and one at Namba for Sumiyoshi 
and Sakai. Each of these stations 
is about 20 min. by jinrikisha from 
the others. 

Hintoryand Topography. — This wealthy 
coxmnercial city, situated at the mouth of 
the Yodogawa, covers an area of nearly S 
square miles. The earliest use of the name 
Osaka occurs in a document dating from 
the end of the 15th century, applied to part 
of the township of Ikudama. The ancient 
name of the city, still used in poetry, was 
yaniwa, said to be a corruption of nami 
haya * wave-swift,' or nami kana * wave- 
flowers,' l)ecause the fleet of Jimmu Tenn5 
here encountered a boisterous sea on its 
arrival from Hyaga. In 1583 Hideyoshi 
resolved to make Osaka the seat of his 
power, judging that he could from this 
position most easily dominate the Dai- 
myos of the South and West. He there- 
fore ordered a Castle to be constructed. 
Labourers were drawn from all parts of 
the country (except the domain of leyasu), 
and the work was completed in two years. 
The palace thus raised within the castle 
was probably the grandest building of 
which Japan ever boasted. It survived the 
taking of the castle by leyasu in 1615; 
and in 1867 and 1868 the members of the 
foreign legations were received within its 
walls by the last of the Tokugawa Sho- 
guns. Will Adams, in his quaint style, 
gives a good idea of the splendour of the 
palace and the extent of the city in his 
day. He says : * I was carried in one of 

* the King's gallies to the court at Omca, 

* where the King lay about eightie leagues 

* from the place where the shippe was. 

* The twelfth of May 1600. I came to the 

* great King's citie who caused me to be 

* brought into the court, beeing a wonder- 

* full costly house gfuilded with gold in 

* abundance. . . . We found Ozaea 

* to be a very great towne, as great as 



284 



Route 42, — Osaica and Neighbourhood. 



* London •within the vralls,. with many 
•• faire timl)er bridges of a great height, 

* Beruing to pass ouer a riuer there as 

* wide as the Thamen at London. Some 

* faire houses we found there but not 

* many. It is one of the chiefe sea-ports 

* of all lapan ; hauing a castle in it, mar- 

* ucUous large and strong, with very 

* deepe trenches about it, and many draw 

* bridges, with gates i)lated with yron. 

* The castle is built all of free-stone, with 

* >)ulwarks and battlements, with loope 

* holes for smal shot and an-owes, and 

* diners passages for to cast stones vpon 

* the assaylants. The walls are at the 

* least sixe or seuen yards thicke, all (as I 

* said) of free-fttoue, without any filling in 

* the inward part with trumpery, as they 

* reported vnto me. The stones are great, 

* of an excellent quarry, and are cut so 

* exactly to fit the place where they are 

* laid, that no morter is used, but onely 

* earth cast betweene to fill vp voyd 

* creuises if any ]>e.' Excluding the 
])alace, this remains an excellent descrip- 
tion of the place as it exists to-day. The 
huge stones forming the walls of the 
principal gate of the castle attest the 
magnificent design of its founder. f>ut- 
side the present fortress ran a second line 
of moat and parapet, the destruction of 
which was made a condition of peace by 
leyasu after the first siege of 1614. The 
moat varied in width from 80 yds. to 120 
yds., and in depth from 12 ft. to 2J( ft.; but 
it was completely effaced in about three 
weeks* time. On the 2nd Feb., 1868, the 
bnildings within the castle were set on fire 
by a train laid by the Tokugawa party be- 
fore their final retreat, and were comple- 
tely destroyed in a few hours. The 
fortifications now serve as the head- 
i^uarters of the Osaka Military District, 
and permission to inspect them may 
generally l)e obtained by presenting a 
visiting card at the principal entrance. 
The view from the top of the platform, on 
which stoo<l the donjon {fen»hu)f is very 
fine. There is a remarkaj)le well here 
called the Kimmei'inii, lit. * Famous Golden 
Water,' which furnished a sufiicicnt sup- , 
ply for the garrison in time of siege. 

The city of Osaka lies upon the banks of 
the Yodogawa, the river draining Lake 
Biwa. Nakanoshima, an island in the 
■centre of the stream, divides the river 
into two courses of alx)ut equal width. 
The scene here on summer evenings is of 
the gayest and prettiest description. 
Hundreds of lK)ats float lazily upon the 
water, filled with citizens, who resort 
thither to enjoy the cool river breezes, 
while itinerant musicians, vendors of 
refreshments and fireworks, etc., ply 
amongst the merry throng doing a thri- 
ving business. ,The city is also intersected 
))y numereus canals, which necessitate a 
great number of bridges and give it an 
appearance which may remind the tra- 
veller of Holland. Osaka always suffers 
to a greater degree than other cities in 



the Empire from epidemics, prof)ably due 
to contamination carried by so much water 
communication. jThe three great bridges 
across the Yodogawa are the Temma- 
bashi, the Tenjin-bashi and the Naniwa^- 
Imshi. The principal thoroughfare is th.e 
Shinsai-bashi-suji, which its fine shops, 
theatres, and bustling aspect renaer 
one of the.most interesting streets, nofe 
only in Osaka, but in Japan. In summei* 
this street derives quite an Oriental ap- 
pearance from the curtains stretchetl 
across it to keep out the sun, and fmnai 
the bright hues of many of the aiticles of 
merchandise. 

The Foreign Settlement is situated at 
Kawaguchi, at the junction of two 
streams. Close by are the Custom Houses, 
and the wharves for the steamers that 
ply between Osaka and Kdl)e, Shikokn, 
and the ports of the Inland Sea. Osaka, 
for all its bustle and prosperity, ha« not 
fulfilled the expectations formed of it as a 
centre of foreign trade. The affairs of the 
foreign municipality are managed by a 
committee constituted in the same way as 
at Kobe. 

The following are the chief places 
of interest, beginning with those 
nearest to the Tokaido Railway sta- 
tion, and making the round of the 
city. One day is suflftoient for the 
whole. 

The Mint {Zdhei-7cyoku)t about 
20 min. in jinrikisha from the sta- 
tion, is well-worth a visit. This 
establishment was organised in 1871, 
and placed under Major T. W. 
Kinder, formerly of the Hongkong 
Mint, with a staff of British 
officials. The management has been 
entirely Japanese since 1889. The 
ISIint now produces almost exclu- 
sively silver and copper coins. 
The work was first started with 
machinery purchased from the 
Hongkong Government after the 
Mint in that colony had been closed ; 
but great additions have since been 
made. Besides the Mint proper, 
there are sulphuric acid works and 
a refinery. 

Tei^in Sama, on the N. side of the 
river, not far from the Tenjin-bashi, 
is a popular temple dedicated to Suga- 
wara-no-Michizane, and founded in 
the 10th century. The principal 
festival is held on the 25th June. 
The temple contains some good 
carvings, and the ex-voto sheds 
several pictures of merit. Crossing 



Tennojl and other Temples, 



285 



"tlie river by the Tenjin-bashi and 
proceeding S. for about 1 mile, we . 
recbch 

Kozn-iiO'iiiiya, on the hill to the 

1., -which commands a fine view W. 

over the town towards the Straits of 

Atashi. This temple is dedicated to 

the Emperor Nintoku, b. 278 A.D. 

according to the received chronology. 

In the florist's garden (Hyak-kwa- 

-en) at the foot of the hill, the shows 

of peonies at the latter end of April, 

.and of chrysanthemmns about the 

middle of November, are amongst 

the finest in Japan. 

The Ikiidaina no Jinja, a little 
further S. up a flight of steps, is de- 
•dicated to the patron deities of the 
city, and is fabled to hAve been 
founded by Jimmu Tenno on the 
spot where the castle now stands. 
Hideyoshi removed the temple to 
its present site about the year 1596. 
The view from the back Is the 
same as from Kozu-no-miya. About 
a mile further S. stands the cele- 
brated Buddhist temple of 

Tennoji, which occupies an im- 
mense extent of ground on the S.E. of 
the city. It was founded by the cele- I 
brated Shotoku Taishi about A.D. 
600, but has frequently fallen into 
ruin, and been renovated at the 
expense of either the Mikados or the 
Shoguns. On entering the great south 
gate, we find ourselves in a large 
open space, the centre of which is 
occupied by a square colonnade, 
open on the inner side. On the r. 
is a chapel called Taislii-dd, dedica- 
ted to Shotoku Taishi. It is a build- 
ing of unpainted wood, roofed with 
thick shingles. Opposite to this is 
. the Btdo no kane^ or * Bell of Lead- 
ing,' which is rung in order that 
the Saint-Prince may lead the 
•dead into- Paradise. Dolls, toys, 
and children's clothing are offered 
up before it. Near the tortoise 
pond to the r., is a building 
containing a stone chamber with 
water pourinjg into it from the 
mouth of a stone tortoise. The 
names of those who have recently 
departed this life are written on 



slips of thin bamboo, and held at the 
end of a long stick in the sacred 
stream, which also carries petitions 
to Shotoku Taishi on behalf of the 
souls of the dead. 

From the gallery at the top of the 
Igfty five-storied pagoda, the whole 
city and surrounding country can 
be seen. The Koncloy or Golden 
Hall, is abput 54 ft. by 48 ft., and 
the highly decorated shrine within 
is dedicated to the Nyo-i;rin Kwan- 
non. The image, which is of gilt cop- 
per, is said to have been the first 
Buddhist image ever brought to 
Japan from Korea; but that 
honour is also claimed by the triple 
image of Amida, Kwannon, and 
Daiseishi at Zenkoji in Shinshn. 
Various treasures dating from the 
7th and 8th centuries are preserved 
at Tenno- ji. 

Returning by the same streets to 
the entrance of K6zu-no-Miya, and 
going W., we soon find ourselves by 
the side of the Dobombori canal, in 
a street consisting chiefly of the- • 
atres, variety shows, and restaurants. 
This part of Osaka is cspecisJly 
worth seeing in the evening. Turn- 
ing to the r. at the Ebisu-bashi,.we 
cross into the Shinsai-bashi-suji, 
about half-way down which, a 
little to the 1., stand the two 
temples of the Hongwanji sect 
of Buddhists. The first is the 
Hi^nslii Hongwanji, built about 
the year 1615. It contains some 
fine massive open-work caiTings. 
The Nislii Hongwanji is a few 
hundred yards further north in the 
same street. Its gateway is a 
beautiful example of the application 
of tlie chrysanthemum in tracery 
and open-work carving. In the 
central shrine is a statue of Amida 
3 ft. 6 in. high, ^vith Shinran Sho- 
nin on his 1., in a richly carved and 
gilded shrine. 

2. — Neighbourhood of Dsaka. 

The principal places of interest in 
the immediate neighbourhood of 
Osaka are Sumiyoshi and Sakai, 
both reached by the Hankai Bail- 



286 



Boiite 42, — Osaka and Neif/hboiirhood» 



way. Trains run 'from either end 
at intervals of 40 min. during the 
day. 

Hankai Railway. 



£p « 

2iiii. 

e\ 


Names 
of 

Stations. 


Remarks. 


OSAKA (Namba). 
Tenga-jaya. 
Sumiyoslii 


(Alight for 
I temi)le. 


RAKAI. 



The Jarge embankment seen be- 
tween Osaka and Tenga-jaya is that 
of the Nara Bailway, 

Tenga-jaya is so called because 
Hideyoshi, when lord of the Em- 
pire, had a villa there, which is 
still maintained for the sake of its 
historical associations. It stands in 
a small grove visible to the 1. from 
the carriage windows. The name 
of this place is familiar to all 
Japanese theatre-goers, as the scene 
of a famous vendetta which is often 
represented on the boards.. The en- 
trance to the temple of Sumiyoshi 
is passed just before reaching the 
station of that name. 

The Temple of Sumiyoslii, de- 
dicated to the three gods of the sea 
who, according to the legend in 
the NiJwngi assisted the Empress 
Jingo in her expedition to Korea, is 
held in high veneration by the lower 
classes of 6saka, great crowds flock- 
ing to it on festival days (every 
u-tw-liiy or * day of the hare '). Out- 
side are innumerable stone lanterns 
presented as ex-votos. In the pond 
over which passes a semi-circular 
bridge, live a number of tortoises 
with water-weed growing on their 
hacks. These are popularly known as 
Tnino-gainey from viino the grass-coat 
worn by peasants and boatmen in 
rainy weather, and kamCj a tortoise. 
The Yamato-gawa is crossed near 
its mouth before entering 

Sakni (Inns, Bokai-rO, Satsuma- 



ya), a large manjufacturing centre > 
Its fine beach lined with tea-liouses- 
attracts many visitors from Osaka, 
during the summer months. Tlio 
lofty chimneys are those of bricks 
coke, and silk factories. 

Sakai takes its name from its position 
close to the boundary of the three pro- 
vinces of Iznmi, Settsu, and Kawach i, 
having been originally called Sakui-no- 
tfiu, that is, • Boundary Harbour.* Until 
the end of the 14th century, when a for- 
tress was built here by Yamana Ujikiyo, 
it was a mere village. The manufactur©- 
of hard-ware, carpets, and cosmetic 
powder are the principal industries. 
Konishi Tsu-no-kami, one of Hideyoslii'i* 
most distingviished officers and an early- 
convert to Christianity, was bom in thia- 
town, where his forefathers for several 
generations had carried on the business 
of druggists. Another equally celebrated 
native of Sakai was Sen-no-RikyU, a great 
favourite with Hideyoshi, and often rer 
garded as the father of the tea-drinking- 
ceremonial {cha-no-i/n). In the 16th cen- 
tury Sakai wns one of the most flourishing^ 
of the Roman Catholic mission stations, 
and is frequently mentione<l by the Jesuits 
and other early writers. Will Adams thus- 
describea it : * Right over against Ozactt, 
on the other side of the riuer, lyeth an- 
other great Towne called Saceif, but not so- 
bigge as Ozacuy yet is it a towne of great 
trade for all the Hands thereabout.* 

At the Monastery of Myokokuji, 
belonging to the Nichiren sect, are 
some fine specimens of the sotetsit 
(Cycas revoluta)y often erroneously 
called the sago-palm. They were 
planted here by Miyoshi Jikyu 
about the middle of the 16th 
century. leyasu carried the best 
away to his own residence in 1582, 
but finding that it refused to 
flourish there, restored it to its 
home. It is popularly believed that 
this plant, the name of which 
means * revival by iron,' is much 
benefited by that metal, and the 
earth round its roots is covered 
with iron coins thrown, there by 
visitors. The warm climate of Sakai 
seems particularly favourable to the 
sotetsUf which is not indigenous to 
Japan. 

In the front court of this temple are 
buried eleven warriors of the Tosa claa 
who were condemned to disembowel them- 
selves for having shot down the same 
number of unarmed French sailors in the 
spring of 1868. It must b^ remembered 



llotUe 43. — Kyoto. 



28T 



ibat tLia form of capital punishment, 
barbarous as it may seem to Kurt)peans, 
fras at that time recogniised as a privilege 
of the mmurai class, auil preferred by them 
to simple decapitation. 

The sanctum in the main building 
is handsome. On the S.E . of the town 
is the Burial'inound (misasagi) of 
Nintoku Tennoj a double tumulus. 
The northern summit is 84 ft., the 
southern 100 ft. high, and the cir- 
cuit of the base measures 1,526 
yds. It is surrounded by a double 
moat, and in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood are nine smaller tumuli. 



ROUTE 43. 

Kyoto. 

SlfVIBOXS : IWASHIMIZU, Atago- 

YAMA, Rapids op the Katsura- 
OAWA, Uji. 

Kyoto, 'also called Siiikyo. 

Hotels. — * Kyoto Hotel, also called 
Tokiwa, in Kawara-machi ; * Yaami, 
line view ; Nakamura-3'a, also called 
Kiken-jaya. 

Japanese Inns. — Ikesho, Kashi- 
wa-tei, in Kiyamachi; Chakyii, 
near E. end of SanjO Bridge. 

Japanese Restatirants. — Takemu- 
la, Hachishin. 

Religious Services. — Presbyterian , 
every Sunday morning in the li- 
brary of the Doshisha ; Koman Ca- 
tholic Church, close to the Kyoto 
Hotel. 

Tficatres and other places of 
amusement, in bhiu Kydgoku ; two 
theatres'in Shi jo Kawa-Higashi. 

Telegraph and Post Office, in San- 
jo-dori Higashi-no-Toin. 

Kyoto is noted for its pottery and 
porcelain, its embroideries, cut vel- 
vets, and brocades, its bronzes, and 
its cloisonmfs. The following shops 
may be recommended : — 

Pottery and Porcelain. — Kinko- 
zan, at Awata, where manufacture 
on a large scale for export is carried 



on ; Nishida, at Gojo-zaka. There- 
are many other manufacturers and 
dealers in Kiyomizu and at Gojo- 
zaka, but they work mostly on & 
^all scale. 
m^ Embroidery, Velvets, andMercei^j^ 
z^— Takashima-ya,Orimqno-GwaislMi,''' 
^Nishimura, Dai-maru, Ono (in Karar 
su-maru Shichijo). 

Bronze, Cloisonne, and other Metal- 
Work. — Shojodo (Jomi), in Tera- 
machi Shijo-sagaru ; Kanaj'a Go- 
rosa; ^^iABlika^va, at Shirakawa- 
bashi {cloisonne only). 

Curios (especial bronze, cloisonne,. 
and porcelain) . — Boeki-Gwaisha,. 
Kyiikyodo, Takada, and Hayashi, 
at Furumon-zen ; Ikeda, at Shiin- . 
monzen. The street called Manjuji- 
dori is almost entirely occupied 
by curio-dealers of the more old- 
fashioned sort. 

Lacquer. — Nishimura, in Tera- 
machi. 

Bamboo-Work. — Wada, in Kiya- 
machi. 

Fans and Toys. — Nishida, at Higa- 
shi-no-Toin Shichi-jo ; Misaki iu 
Shichi-jo-dori Yanagi-no-Baba. 

The Mikado's Palaces (Gosho 
and Nijd no Riki/u), together with 
th6 Imperial villas (Katstira no 
Rikyu and" Shugaku-in), are un- 
fortunately no longer open to the 
general public. Permits can be ob- 
tained only by visitors of distinc- 
tion, and ty those bearing personal 
recommendations to the Minister 
representing their countr}-. The 
same permit admits to all four, and 
none who are so favoured should 
omit to make use of the privilege, 
at least to the extent of visiting the 
two Palaces. Kyoto's other greatest 
sights are the San-ju-san-g»in-du, 
Nishi Hongwanji, Kiyomizu, Gion» 
and Chion-in temples, in addition 
to >yliich at least one of the cele- 
brated landscape gardens — say 
Kinkakuji or Ginkakuji — should ba 
visited, as tlicy are among the most 
characteristic products of Japanese 
estheticism. The best general view 
of Kyoto is to be obtained from a 
hill called Shogun-zuka close to 



r288 



Route 43, — Kyoto. 



lilaruyama on tlie E. side of the 
city, 1^ hr. excursion from the 
Kyoto Hotel. IMaruyama itself, 
Kiyomizu-dera, and the Yasaka 
Pagoda also afford good general 
views. 

No one visiting KySto at the 
proper season should fail to see the 
Miyako-odot'iy a kind of ballet given 
every evening from 5 to 11 o'clock 
at Hcmaini-kdjij near the Gion-za 
Theatre, entrance 50 sc?i, 1st class. 
The performances generally begin 
in mid- April, and last till early in 
June. Furthermore, no one having 
money in his purse should fail to 
visit the shops, which are perhaps 
the most attractive in Japan. 

Though a superficial acquaintance 
with Kyoto may be gained in a couple 
•of days, at least a week is necessary 
to form an adequate idea of its mani- 
fold beauties. Owing to the gradual 
shrinking of the city in modern times, 
many of the best sights are some 
distance away in the country and 
much time is spent in going from one 
to another by jinrikisha. The follow- 
ing is offered as a sketch of the 
order in which the various sights of 
Kyoto may best be visited. Care- 
ful sightseers will scarcely be able 
to see all that we have crowded into 
one day for the guidance of such as 
are pressed for time ; but they can 
resume next day at the point where 
they left off, as the order follows re- 
gularly round the points of the 
compass, beginning with the north 
central portion of the city : — 

1st Day. — The Mikado's Palace, 
— even a passing glance at the 
exterior is better than nothing — 
Kitano Tenjin, Hirano Jinja, Dai- 
tokuji, the Shinto shrine of Ota 
Nobunaga, Kinkakuji, Toji-in, Omu- 
ro Goslio (if rebuilt and open to the 
public, which is doubtful, as it now 
ranks among the Imperial Palaces), 
Uzumasa, Seiryuji, Arashi-yama. 

2nd Day.— The NijO Palace (the 
exterior in any case), Katsura-no- 
Rikyii, Toji, the Inari temple at 
Fushimi, Tofukuji, San-ju-san-gen- 
do, Daibutsu. 



3rd Day. — Kenninji, Nishi Otani, 
Kiyomizu-dera, the Yasaka Pagoda, 
Kodaiji, Shdgun-zuka, Maruyama, 
Higashi Otani, Gion, Chion-in, tlie 
Awata Palace. 

4th J)ay. — Xanzenji, Eikwando, 
Kurodani, Shinny odo, the temple 
of Yoshida, Ginkakuji, Shimo- 
Gamo, Kami-Gamo, Shugaku-in (for 
those provided with the necessary 
permit). 

5th Day. — Iwashimizu. 

6th Day. — Atago-yama. 

7th Day. -^ -The Rapids of the 
i Katsura-gawa. 

8th Day. — Uji. 

9th Day. — Hiei-zan. 

Hiittory and Topofjraphy. — From the 
"earliest ages, the seat of the Mikado's 
rule was genei-ally in the province of 
Yamato ; but o\\-inK to the ancient custom, 
of not continuing to inhabit the house of & 
deceased parent, the actual site was 
usually changed at the commencement of 
each reign. At the beginning of the Sth. 
century the capital was established at 
Nara, where it remained until A.D. 78#, 
when the reigning sovereign Kwamma 
moved to Nagaoka, a spot at the foot of 
the hills alxnit half-way l)etween Yama- 
zaki and ArHshi-yama in the province of 
Yamashiro. In 793, he selected a fresh. 
site at the village of Uda in the same 
province, and ti-ansfen-ed his Court thi- 
ther towards the end of the following year. 
In order to conciliate fortune, he is said 
to have be8towe<l on his new capital the 
name of Heian-jo, or the City of Peace ; but 
this never came into use as the common 
designation of the cjty, which was spoken 
of as Miyako or Kyoto, the former being 
the Japanese, the latter the Chinese word 
for ' capital city.' When first laid out, 
the site measured nearly 3 ra. from E. to 
"W*., and about 3f, m. from N. to S. The 
Palace, which occupied about one-fifteenth 
of the area, was' situated in the centre of 
the N. side, and a fine street 280 ft. wide 
led from the gieat gute down to the 8. 
gate of the city. Nine wide streets, called 
Ichi-j6, Ni-jO,\San-jo, and so <m up to Ku- 
jo, intersected the city from E. to W., the 
widest of those measuring itO ft., the 
nari'owest somewhat less than half. 
Similar streets crossing them at right 
angles ran from N. to S., and l)etween 
them at ecpial distances were lanes each 
40 ft. in width. A double ditch, backed 
by a low wall with a gate at the cud of 
each princiiial street, sunxjunded the. 
whole of this huge square. In 1177 
the Palace was destroyed by fire, and 
three years later the seat of govern- 
ment wiis removed l)y the all-powerfnl 
Minister Kiyomori to Fukuwara, the 



Tlie Milcado's Palace, 



289 



modem town of Ilyogo. The Court, how- 
ever, soon returned to Kyoto, where it re- 
mained stationary until 186S, Both the 
city and the Palace have repeatedly fallen 
a prey to the flames, and as often been 
rebnllt, as far as possible in the original 
style. The preseut Palace was built after 
the great fire of 1854. Since the founda- 
tion of Yedo in 1590, Kyoto gradually 
declined in size and im])ortahce. Its 
population is only half of what the city is 
estimated to have hold during the Middle 
Ages; and from Shichi-jo-dori south- 
wards, wh^t once were busy tliorough- 
fares are now laid out in market gai-dens. 
Kyoto stands on the Kamogawa, which, 
for the gieater part of the year, is a mere 
rivulet meandering over a wide pebl^ly 
bed. On the 1. bank of the river are the 
suburbs of Awata and Kiyomizu. The 
town of Fushimi to the S. may also he 
"accounted a suburb. The chief modem 
addition to the topography of Kyoto is, 
besides the line of railway, the Lake 
Biwa Canal which connects the neigh- 
bouring large lake with the Kamogawa, 
as de8cril)ed in Route 44. 

The nomenclature of the Kyoto streets, 
apparently complicated, is in reality 
quite simple, beingjfounded on a reference 
to the points of tlie compass and to the 
Ihj of the land which is slightly higher on 
the N. than on the y. Thus the expres- 
sion SAi/o-rfo/'i Teramachi Jiiganthi iini dig- 
nifies that portion of the Shi Jo or Fourth 
Thorouehfare which lies a little to the E. 
of the East and West intersection of that 
thoroughfare by Teramachi. Teramachi- 
d9ri Shij6 mgarii signifies the portion of 
the North and South Thoroughfare called 
Teramachi lying a little to the South of 
the intersection of that thorouehfare by 
Shijo-dori, the term mgurn, to 'descend,' 
being naturally applied to the South, as 
agaittt * to ascend, is to the North. The 
lanes mentioned higher u]) are called Ko/i, 
whence such addresses as Teramachi-dOri 
Ane-ga-KOfi, which means, ' Ane JJane off 
the Teramachi Thoroughfare.' 

Some curious artificial scars or clearings 
will ]je observed on carefully scanning 
some of the pine-clad hills near the city. 
In these clearings it is that bonfli-es are 
lighted every 18th August at the close of 
the Bon festival (Feast of Lanterns). The 
most conspicuous of these marks is what 
is called the Ifai Moujiy or ' Chinese cha- 
racter for Great,'' which is written thus, 

3^. It is situated to the N.E. of the city. 
To the N»W. is the Ilidari Dai Monji, or 

'Character for Great reversed,' thus 5^» 
the difference between the two, though 
slight to European eyes, being instantly 
perceptible to any Japanese. There are 
several more of these marks which the 
guide will point out. 

The Mikado's Palnoe -(Gfos/io). 
This large mass of buildings covers 
an area of nearly 26 acres. It is 



confined within a roofed wall of 
earth and plaster, commonly called 
the Mi Tsuijiy and has six gates. 
The open space between the wall and 
the Palace was formerly covered 
with other lesser buildings in which 
the Kiigcy or Court Nobles, resided^ 
It is now cleared and open to the 
public, and in the S. E. corner of it 
is a Bazaar (Hahubutsu-kwan) open 
every year in spring. 

Visitors are now admitted inta 
the Palace through the Mi Daido- 
ko7-o Gomon, or Gate of the August 
Kitchen, and are first shown into 
an ante-chamber where they sigu 
their names tn the Palace book. 
From there they are led into the 
Selryodeiiy or Pure and Cool Hall. 

It is so c died from a small brook which 
runs under the steps. The foreign visitor 
to these Japanese palaces will proliably 
think the tenn ' cool '—not to say ' chilly ' 
and • draughty '—most Hppropriate. Splen- 
did as is the art displayed, no attem]>t 
was ever made towards heating or towards 
anything which we should call comfort. 

The Seirybdcn faces E., and mea- 
sures 63 f t.'by 46^ ft. Originally thi». 
suite of apartments was the ordinary 
residence of the sovereign ; but in 
later times it was used only on the 
occasion of levees and important 
Shinto festivals, such as the worship 
of the Four Quarters on the morning 
of New Year's day. In one corner 
the floor is made of cement, on 
which earth was strewn every morn- 
ing, so that the Mikado could worship 
his ancestors on the earth without 
descending to the ground. The 
papered slides are covered with ex- 
tremely formal paintings by Tosa 
Mitsukiyo. Observe the Mikado's 
throne, a sort of catafalque witk 
exquisite silk curtains of white ^ 
red, and black, the actual seat 
being a fine mat. The wood of this, 
as of all the buildings, is chamsecy- 
paris (hiiioki), the same species 
as is used for the construc- 
tion of Shinto temples. The crest 
everywhere displayed is the sixteen-, 
petalled chrysanthemum. The roof- 
ing is of the kind termed hiwada- 
btiki — a kind of thick shingling — 



290 



lioiite 43. — Kyoto, 



tiles appearing only on the very 
ridge. The empty sanded courts, 
tlie white plaster, and the red pillars 
•of the walls give to the Palace a pe- 
culiar aspect of solemnity, almost 
of oppressiveness. Everything, even 
down to minutise, had its name, its 
function, and was never changed. 
For instance, the two clumps of bam- 
boo in front of the Seiryddcn have 
each a name handed down from 
hoary antiquity, one being the Kan- 
-chikUj the other the Go-chikUy appel- 
lations derived from Kan and Go, 
two kingdoms in ancient China. 

From the Seiryoden the visitor is 
conducted to the Shisliindeny which 
faces S. and measures 120 ft. by 63^ 
ft. 

The narae Shi-nhin-deM-ifi explained as 
follows: nhi is purine, the tnie colour of 
the sky or heaveuH; »hiu denotes that 
which is mysterious and hidden from the 
vuljrar paze ; den is simply * hall.' This 
buildiuf? was used for the enthronement 
of the Mikado, for the New Year's Audi- 
ence, and other impoilaut ceremonies. 

The large paintings in the panels 
of this hall represent Chinese sages. 
The originals were painted in A.D. 
888 by the famous Kose-no-Kanao- 
ka ; but they were destroyed long ago, 
and the present pictures are merely 
copies of copies. The throne (Mi 
Chodaijy though quite modem, is 
interesting. The stools on either 
side of it are intended for the Im- 
perial Insignia, — the sword and the 
jewel. The pattern on the silken 
curtains is meant to represent the 
bark of an aged pine-tree. Observe 
tliat the Mikado sat on a chair in 
this instance, as did all those here 
admitted to an audience. A flight 
of 18 steps leads down into the 
court. These correspond in number 
to the original series of grades into 
which the Mikado's officials were 
divided. Those who were not entitled 
to stand on the lowest step were 
c&Wedji-gej or 'down on the earth,' 
to distinguish them ^rom the tcn-jd- 
biiOy or * persons who ascend into the 
•hall.' On the 1. is a cherry-tree 
called Salion no sdkura. When the 
Emperor Kwammu first built the 



palace, he planted a plum-tree In 
this position ; but it withered away, 
and the Emperor Nimmyo (834 to 
850) replaced it by a cherry-tree. 
The present one was transplanted 
hither thirty years ago. On the r. 
side is the Ukon no tachibana, a 
wild orange-tree, also a relic of an- 
cient custom. 

Snl-on and Ukon were the names of 
ancient ranks, and the application of 
them to these trees may be compared 
to the knighting of the Sirloin of Beef by 
Charles II. 

A corridor leads from the Shishin- 
den to the O GakumwijOj or Im- 
perial Study, where the Mikado's 
tutors delivered lectures, and where 
courts were held for the cultivation 
of poetry and music. The decora- 
tion of the sliding screens in this 
suite calls for special notice. Most 
of the rooms, as will be noticed by 
those acquainted with the Japanese 
language, take their names from 
the subjects delineated in them. The 
wild geese in the Gati no Ma are by 
Benzan (Gantoku), d. 1869; the 
screens of the Yamabnhi 7io Ma are 
by Maruyama Oryu; the chrysan- 
themums in the Kiktc no Ma, by 
Okamoto Sukehiko. The three 
rooms which form the audience 
chamber, called respectively Gedan^ 
Cliudatif and Jodan^ are decorated 
with Chinese scenes. The wooden 
doors in the corridor are by Sho- 
mura Ryusho, Yoshida Kokin, Hara 
Nankei, and Murakami Seiju. 

North of the Imperial study, in a 
building measuring 57 ft. by 83 ft., 
and facing S.towards a small separate 
court, is a' suite of rooms called the 
On Mi Ma (August Three Rooms). 
Here were held private audiences, 
and the Kb performances (a kind of 
lyric drama) were witnessed at a 
distance by the Mikado seated on 
the upper floor or jbdan. The No 
stage is under a separate roof, and 
cut off from the suite by a high 
paling, which was removed when a 
performance took place. The de- 
corations of the rooms are in tho 
Tosa style. 



Mikado's Palace. Doshisha. Kitano Tenjin. 



291 



The last suite of apartments to 
which visitors are now generally 
admitted is the Tstine Goteuy or 
Usual Besidence of the Mikados, 
•consisting of 11 rooms, which, from 
the 13th century onward, formed the 
place in which generations of Mika- 
dos lived and died. The centre 
room of the suite facing E. was His 
^Iajesty*s ordinary sitting-room, the 
four on the N. being occupied by his 
female attendants. At the W. end 
of this suite was the Mdshi no kuchif 
literally * Opening for Speech,' where 
men who had business with Hi3 
Majesty stated their errand to the 
women, who then transmitted it to 
the Mikado. The Imperial bedroom 
%vas behind the sitting-room, and 
entirely surrounded by the other 
apartments, so that no one could 
get near His Majesty without the 
knowledge of his immediate at- 
tendants. Beyond the Tsune Goten 
lie the Ndiyoden^ or Palace for 
Enjoj'ing the Cool Air, which was 
reserved for the Iklikado's private 
pleasures, and the Kita Goten, or 
Northern Palace, containing the 
apartments of the Heir Apparent. 
There were formerly also palaces 
for the Empress, Empress Dowager, 
and Princesses, besides various other 
buildings now destroyed or removed. 
For instance, the Kashiko-dohoi'Of 
or Fearful Place, in which is pre- 
served the sacred mirror of the Sun- 
Goddess, has been transferred bodily 
to Jimmu Tenno's mausoleum in 
the province of Yamato. 

The large white building in foreign 
style, noticed on the hill r. on 
quitting the Palace, is the Dosliisha, 
a Christian University founded in 
1876 under the auspices of the Ame- 
rican Board lilission. Intimately 
connected with its success is the 
name of the Rev. Joseph Neeshima, 
one of the most eminent of the early 
Japanese converts to Presbyteri- 
anism. This flourishing institution 
now includes a special Theological 
Department, a Girls' School, a 
Science School, a Hospital, and a 
Nurses' Training School. 



Kitnno Teiyin is a temple dedi- 
cated to Tenjin Rama (see p. 32), 
by which latter name indeed it is 
generally known. Entering through 
the great stone torii on the S., we 
find tea-houses, and stone lanterns 
presented by votaries of the god. A 
small two-storied gate-house, gaudily- 
decorated in colours, forms the 
entrance to the temple enclosure. 
It is called the San-kd no Mon, or 
Gate of the Three Luminaries, i.e. 
the Sun, Moon, and Stars, from re- 
presentations of those heavenly 
bodies which may be distinguished 
with much difficulty among the 
carvings on the beams of the gate- 
way. The oratory, built by Hide- 
yori in 1607, forms the N. side of a 
square, the other three sides being 
colonnades, with the Gate of the 
Sun, Moon, and Stars on the S. 
Its dimensions are 58 ft. by 24 ft. 
The cornice is decorated with colour 
in the style prevalent at that period. 
The chapel behind, 38^ ft. by 32^ ft.> 
.is separated from the oratory by a 
chamber paved with stone, having 
its roof at right angles to the roofs 
of the oratory and chapel. Behind 
is the Jinushino YashirOj or Temple 
of the Lord of the Soil, said to have 
been founded in A. D. 836, and 
numerous other small chapels. The 
treasury is built of wooden beams, 
the section of each beam being a 
right-angled triangle with the right 
angle outside, a form of construction 
much followed in this portion of 
Japan. East of the colonnade are 
the kagura stage and the building 
in which the god's car (mikoshi) is 
kept. The temple was founded ori- 
ginally by adherents of the Byobu 
Shinto sect, and is still an excellent 
specimen of the style of that variety 
of Shinto, which is much mixed 
with Buddhism and miscellaneous 
popular superstitions. The num- 
berless stone lanterns, the stone and 
metal bulls (offered up here because 
Tenjin is said to have ridden on one 
of those animals), the ex-voto shed 
(ema-dd) with its grotesque pictures, 
the elaborately carved and painted 



292 



Route 43, — K I/O to. 



gate-ways, the swaying lanterns — all 
testify to a form of worship of the 
baser popular sort. One of the 
queerest features of the main build- 
ing is a sot of framed pictures of 
^the Thirty-Six Cieniuses of Poetry, 
made of woven stuffs, which have 
been recently presented by the 
manufacturers, and thus servo' as 
an advertisement. 

Pictures of the Thirty-Six Geniuses of 
Poetrj' are amonj? the usutil atlorumonts 
of Shinto temples. 

Hirniio Jinju. This temple de- 
serves passing notice, as a good 
example of a place of worship 
rebuilt according to the architec- 
tural canons of *pure Shinto.' The 
oratory is an open shed hung with 
pictures representing the Thirty- 
Six Genuises of Poetry. Beyond it 
are five chapels — two pairs con- 
nected by a watch-room, and one 
detached. They are dedicated to 
minor Shinto deities. The annual 
festival is held on the 2nd May. 
The cherry-trees in the grounds are 
much visited during the season of 
blossom, especially at night. They 
are of many varieties, and each tree 
has some fanciful, poetical name. 

Dftitokiiji. 

Daitokuji, belonjring to the Zen sect of 
Buddhists, was foimtled by Daito Koku- 
Bbi, an ablxjt of the early part ot the 14th 
century, to whom, as to so many others, 
a miraculous birth and prec(X?ious wisdom 
are ascrilied. The manner of his concep- 
tion is said to have l)een that his mother 
dreamt oie nij^ht that a wild proose came 
flying towards her with an open blossom 
in its beak, and that soon afterwards she 
found herself to be with child. 

This once magnificent temple still 
merits a visit on account of its 
stately proportions. One of its gates 
— the Hignrashi no Mwiy so called 
because a day might be spent in 
examining its carvings — should be 
specially noted; also the fine gilt 
image of Shaka in the Garan-do. 
Daitokuji is celebrated for the 
treasures stored away in its godowns. 
Kg temple in Japan, so it is averred, 
possesses an equally large number 
of valuable kakeinonos. Though 
most of the best pieces are thus 



hidden from view, the Apartments 
richly deserve the careful scrutiny of 
all persons interested in Japanese 
pictorial art. The entire set of sliding 
doors (fnsnvia) dividing room from 
room were painted by Kano Tan-jxi, 
from whose brush also are folding 
screens representing scenery in 
China, the four seasons, children at 
play, etc. A pair of screens with 
spleiididly coloured peacocks is 
by Okyo ; others by Kano Tanshin 
depict popular occupations and 
trades. The sepia drawing by Tan- 
yvi of a man making a monkey 
dance, which occupies one wall of 
the innermost room, is particularly 
famous. An interesting old portrait 
bust in wood represents Ota Nobu- 
naga. 

The Shinto shrine of Ota Nobu- 
liagai, on the slope of Funaoka-yania» 
is prettily situated near Daitokuji. 
The summit of the hill, which can 
be reached in a couple of minutes^ 
commands a beautiful panorama of 
the city and surrounding country. 

This temple was built in 1880 by private- 
admirers of the hero, who is now wor- 
shipped as a Shinto gotl. 

Khiknknji, more properly Boku- 
onjl, a monastery of the Zen sect, 
takes its popular name from the 
Ji'in-kakUy or * golden pavilion,' in the 
grounds attached to it. 

In 1397, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who had 
tliree years previously surrendered the 
title of Shogun to his youthful son Yoshi- 
m(K'hi, obtained this place from its fonner 
owner, and after extending the grounds, 
built himself a palace to sei-ve nominally 
as a retreat from the world. Here he 
shaved his head, and assumed the garb 
of a Buddhist monk, while still continuing 
in reality to direct the affairs of state. 

The garden is beautifully laid out. 
In the middle is a lake with pine- 
clad shores and pine-clad islets, 
whose quiet charm none would 
expect to find so close to a large 
metropolis. The lake is stocked 
with carp, which, when visitors 
appear there, crowd together at the 
stage below the Pavilion, in ex- 
pectation of being fed. All the 
palace buildings have disappeared. 
The Pavilion alone remains, much 



Kinkakiiju Tdji- in . 



29B 



dunined by age. It stands on the 
water's edge, facing S., and is a 
three-storied building, 33 ft. by 
24 ft. In the lower room are a 
seated effigy of Yoshimitsu in shaven 
pate and priestly garb, and gilt 
statuettes of Amida, Kwannon, and 
Selshi, by the carver Unkei. In the' 
second storey is a small Kwannon in 
an. imitation rock-work cave, with 
the Shi-Tenno. 

The paintings on the ceiling by 
Kano Masanobu are now* scarcely 
recognisable. The third storey was 
completely gilt, the gold being laid 
on thickly over varnish composed of 
bone powder and lacquer upon 
hempen cloth. The ceiling, walls, 
and floor were thus treated ; and 
even the frames of the sliding 
screens, the railing of the balcony, 
and the small projecting rafters 
which form the roof of the balcony, 
were, as a careful examination will 
show, covered with the precious 
metal. Nearly all the gold has 
disappeared, but the original wood- 
work is complete, with the excep- 
tion of a few boards that have been 
put in to replace some that had 
decayed. The effect, now so dingy, 
must have been dazzlingly beauti- 
ful. On the top of the roof stands 
a bronze phoenix 3 ft. high, also 
formerly gilt. 

The large hill seeif to the r. fro m 
the third storey of the Pavilion is 
Kinukasa-yama. 

This name means Silk Hat Mountain, 
and was given in allusion to the incident 
of the ex-Mika'lo Uda having ordered it 
to be spread wibh white silk on« hot day 
in July, in order that his eyes at least 
might enjoy a cool wintry, sensation. 

The guide will probably wish to 
lead the traveller round the grounds 
at the back of the Pavilion, where 
Yoshimitsu's footsteps and doings 
are tracked with minute care, — the 
place where His Highness drank 
tea, the place whence the water for 
his tea came, the place where he 
washed his hands, etc.; but these 
can have little interest for any but 
a Japanese. The ApartmentSj on 



the other hand, deserve careful in- 
spection, on account of the sliding 
screens which they contain by Kano 
Tan-yii and Jakuchu, of the folding 
screens by Korin and Soami, of the 
numerous kakemonos by Shubun, 
Eishin, Okyo, Korin, Sesson, and 
other celebrated artists, notably two 
by Cho Densu representing the 
three religious teachers Confucius, 
Ghwang Tzu, add Buddha, besides 
various relics and autographs of 
the Ashigawa Shoguns and other 
illustrious personages. The priest 
who shows all these treasures tjo 
visitors, sometimes ends up by treat- 
ing them to tea in the clia-no-yu 
style. 

Toji-in, founded by Ashikaga 
Takauji in the 14th century, will 
interest the historical student as 
containing effigies of nearly all the 
Shoguns of the Ashikaga dynasty, 
beginning with Takauji in the centre 
chamber, a lacquered wooden seated 
figure in the court-robe called 
kari-ginu, with the courtier's wand 
(shakii) in the r. hand, and wearing 
a tall black court cap (taka-cboshi). 
Opposite to him is leyasu (of the 
Tokugawa dynasty). In the next 
room are, beginning at the 1., t(2) 
Yoshinori, (4) Yoshimochi, (6) Yo- 
shinori II., (8) Yoshimasa, (10) Yo- 
shizumi, and (12) Yoshiteru. The 
other room contains the effigies 
of (3) Yoshimitsu, (7) Yoshikatsu, 
who died at the age of ten, (9) 
Yoshinao, (11) Yoshitane, (13) 
Yoshiharu, a degenerate-looking, 
dwarfish man, and (15) Yoshiaki, 
fat and sensual in appearance. Most, 
if not all, may be looked on as con- 
temporary portraits of the men they 
represent. Observe that in their 
time (14th, 15th, and 16th centuries), 
the Japanese fashion was to wear a 
moustache and small pointed beard. 
The Apartments of this monastery 
also contain various kakemonos by 
Kano Tan-yu and other famous 



tThe numbers in brackets refer to the 
order of each in the dynasty to which 
they all belonged. 



294 



Route 43. — Kyoto, 



artists. The sliding screens in 
' sepia are all by Kano Sanraka. 
Those round one of the rooms de- 
pict the acts of devotion of the 
Four-and-Twenty Paragons of Filial 
Piety. 

During the i)eriod of fermentation which 
preceded the restoration of the Mikado's 
authority, it was the fashion among the 
opponents of the feudal regime to load 
the memory of the Ashikaga Phoguns 
with the insults that could not 
safely be offered in a direct manner to 
those of the Tokugawa line ; and one 
morning in April, 1863, the peojjle of 
Kyoto woke to find the heads of the 
effigies of Takauji, Yoshinori, and Yoshi- 
m^itsu pilloried in the dry bed of the 
Kamogawa at the spot where it was 
then usual to expose the heads of the 
worst criminals. Several of the men con- 
cerned in this affair wei-e thrown into 
prison, whence they where transferred to 
the custody of certain Daimyos, and not 
released for some years afterwards. 

Myosliinji is a large temple of 
the Zen sect, founded by Kwanzan 
Kokushi, an abbot of the 14th 
century. 

Oiuuro Goslio, also called Ninnaji, 
is a monastery founded towards the 
end of his life by the ISIikado Koko. 

In A.D. 899 the ex-Mikado Uda chose it 
as his place of retirement, and occupied the 
palace built for him here from 901 until his 
death in 93 1 . In 890 A decree was issued con- 
stituting Ninnnji a residence for 'descen- 
dants of the M ik»ido,' or 3fomeki, as they are 
culled, a term applied extensively m later 
years to monasteries founded to pro- 
vide the miscellaneous Imperial offspring 
with homes, and also conferred as a title of 
distinetion upon abbots of other than Im- 
perial blood . The Mikado Shu jaku entered 
the priesthood in 952, and took up liis re- 
sidence here, but no other ex-sovereign 
ever occupied it. Up to 1868 there had 
been thirty three successive priest-princes, 
the last of whom was the present Prince 
Higashi Fushimi. 

Burnt to the gi-ound in 1887, this 
monastery, now counted among the 
Imperial summer palaces, is Ijeing 
rebuilt (1891) in a suitably orna- 
mental style, aud will doubtless, 
when finished, be well-worth a visit. 
The grounds, which are spacious, 
show to best advantage during the 
season of the cherry-blossoms. There 
is a fine five-storied pagoda, which, 
with a few other of the lesser build- 
ings, escaped the fire. 



Half a ri beyond Omuro Goslio 
lies l^akao-zail, celebrated for its 
Momiji-yama^ or * maple mountain,' 
on one side of a romantic glen. 
There is a tea-house oh the top wifcti 
a delightful prospect. 

Uziiitiftsa, more properly called 
Koryujij stands far out of the city at 
the end of the Nijo street. ^ 

This verj- ancient Buddhist temple is said 
to have been founded in A.D. 604 by Sho- 
toku Taishi, who consecrated it to certain 
Buddhist gods whose images had been. 
brought from Korea. The principal edi- 
fice, called the ;K6do, was, however, not 
erected before 836, and this having been 
burnt down about 1150, the present stmo- 
ture was built out of timber saved from 
the flames. The other buildings are of 
much later date— 17th and 18th centuries 
—and arc now (1891) undergoing repairs. 

This temple will have special 
attraction for the student of Japa- 
nese statuary, which can nowhere, 
except at Nara, be studied in such a 
multitude of very early specimens.! 
Most of them are about life-size or 
else half . life-size. The most in- 
teresting of these wooden statues is 
one of Shotoku Taishi at the age 
of thirty-three, said to have been 
carved by himself. It is clad in a 
silken robe of imperial yellow, pre- 
sented by the Mikado at ,his ac- 
cession, in accordance with ancient 
custom. In its r. hand the image 
holds the courtier's w^and, in its 1. 
a censer. Besides the yellow robe, 
it wears wide trowsers of white silk 
damask and a black court hat. The 
features have a very natural ex- 
pression, but the paint on the 
face has become discoloured by 
time. In the temporary hondb are 
the Buddhist images from Korea. 
The most important of these is 
a gilt wooden figure of Nio-i-rin 
Kwannon, about 3 ft. high, seated 
upon a stool, the r. foot lifted and 
laid on the 1. knee, the 1. hand 



tHe will of course remember that many 
of these, though called Japanese, are 
either Korean or else carved under the 
instruction of Korean teachers. See the 
very interasting opening pages of Ander- 
son's ' Catalogue of Japanese and Chinese 
Paintings in the British Maseom.' 



Uzwnasa. Araahl-yama, Xijo Paluce, 



295 



Testing on the r. foot. The face is 
supported on two long fiugers of the 
r. hand. Drapery formal. The 
hair is drawn hack from the fore- 
head, and tied in a knoh at the top. 
The features are perfectly natural, 
•and wear a pensive expression. The 
hands are heautifully modelled, the 
arms rather thia, though showing 
a good idea of form ; hut the feet 
have recently been restored in a 
•clums}* manner. The gold has been 
nearly all rubbed off. Round the 
shrine are the * Twelve Divine 
Generals' (Ju-ni-ten), who so fre- 
■quently accompany the god Yakushi, 
•of which latter there is an imago 
dating from the 9th century. A 
curious feature is a box about 1^ ft. 
square, containing no less than 
1,000 microscopic images of Jizo 
{Sen-tai Jizo). 

Saga no Sliaka-do, more popular- 
ly called Seirj/ujiy is a large temple of 
tlie Jodo sect of Buddhists, to which 
lads and girls 13 years old make a 
pilgrimage on the isth day of the 3rd 
month in order to obtain wisdom — 
^ pilgrimage which goes by the 
name of the jii-san-Diairi. The pre- 
sent building is about two centuries 
•old. Behind the altar, is a magnifi- 
cently gilt shrine of Shaka, with 
painted carvings presented by the 
mother of lemitsu, third Shogun of 
the Tokugawa dynasty. On the 
doors being opened, a curtain is 
■drawn up, which discloses another 
set of doors, gilded and painted, and 
then a second curtain splendidly 
-embroidered. R. and 1. are seated 
images of Monju and Fugen. 

r 

The imaffc of Shaka is said to be Indian, 
*tid to have Ijeen executed fnwn life V)y 
tbe scuii)tor Bishukatsuma (Vishvakar- 
man), but it lias more the appearance 
■«if a ("hinese work. Choneu, a monk of 
Toilfliji at Nara, is said to have Ininijjfht 
it over in the year 987. Accoi-ding 
to the legfend, it was carved when 
Shaka Muni w^as absent iu the heaven 
■failed Tosotsu-Ten ( Tmthita ), preach- 
ing to his mother, during? which time 
lug diKciplcs mourned over his absence. 
Kinjf Uten (Udayana) ,gave red saudal- 
wootl fi*om his stores, 'and the saint's 
\K)rtrait having been drawn from memory 
hy Mokuren ( Maudgalyuyana ), the 



sculptor went to w^ork and speedily com- 
pleted the statue, which was placed in the 
monastery of (rion Shoja (the JetavajMw 
Vihiira). On the return of Shaka after 
an absence of 90 days, the image 
descended the steps to meet him, and 
they entered the monastery together. 

Arashi-yaiua is a picturesque 
gorge up the_ River